TEKS 6 E

Meiosis and Mitosis
TAKS Objective 2 – The student will demonstrate an understanding of
living systems and the environment.

TEKS Science Concepts 6 E
The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to (A) compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis and their significance to sexual and asexual reproduction

TAKS Objective 2

page 1

TEKS 7.9 A

For Teacher’s Eyes Only
Mitosis and Meiosis

Student Prior Knowledge
Students should be familiar with the components associated with body systems TEKS 6.10 (C) identify how structure complements function at different levels of organization including organs, organ systems, organisms, and populations and the functions of these systems.

TAKS Objective 2

page 2

TEKS 7.9 A

see chart on page 2) Optional: string to represent spindle fibers Sockosome supplies: Small or medium children’s socks (no more than half of any one color. University of Pennsylvania.edu/sci_edu/waldron. Scott Poethig. Department of Biology.brynmawr. Meiosis and Fertilization Teacher Prep Notes By Dr. 20071 Equipment and Supplies: Sockosomes (1 per student or 4 per group -. preferably half small and half medium or otherwise all of one size) Fiber fill Small squares or circles of Velcro Needle and thread or fabric glue 1 These teacher preparation notes and the related student handout are available at http://serendip.Meiosis 5 E’s ENGAGE Mitosis/Meiosis Dance GET THIS FROM PAM EXPLORE Explore 1 Mitosis. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty.9 A . TAKS Objective 2 page 3 TEKS 7. even number of pairs of each color sock.

Use the chart on the next page to guide you. Pairs of homologous chromosomes will be represented by two sockosomes of the same color. TAKS Objective 2 page 4 TEKS 7. label the tape on each sockosome with a different allele of the same gene. Stick the socks together at the heels.Masking tape and Sharpies Teacher Preparations: To produce sockosomes 1. 4. You now have a chromosome with two chromatids. the albino allele) and label the other half of the pairs of homologous sockosomes of each color with the alleles for thumb bending (H and h). where each sock represents a chromatid. 2. Sew (or glue) one-half of a piece of Velcro (the fuzzy half) to the heel of one sock. and sew the end of each sock closed (sewing works much better than gluing for this step). Add a ring of tape around each sock in each sockosome to represent a gene that is inherited by simple Mendelian transmission. and sew the other half (the part with hooks) to the heel of the other sock. 3.9 A . For each pair of homologous sockosomes. Fill each sock with fiber fill. and all of the medium socks should be labeled with an H or h. one with a stripe marked along the length of each sock with a permanent marker (representing the different alleles on the two homologous chromosomes). as you label half the pairs of homologous sockosomes of each color with the alleles for skin pigmentation (A for pigmented skin and a. For example: Albinism (a) (Albino) Albinism (A) (Pigmented skin) Obviously the allele labeled on both socks in a single sockosome should be the same. then all of the small socks should be labeled with an A or a. If half of your socks are small and half medium.

there are many genes on each chromosome and the mother’s and father’s chromosomes will have different alleles for many of these genes. The different colors for the mother’s and father's sockosomes represent the fact that.Sockosomes Needed for Two Groups of Four Students Each Mitosis & Meoisis Activities -Group 1 a sockosome in solid color 1 A sockosome in the solid color 1 but with a stripe h sockosome in solid color 2 H sockosome in solid color 2 but with a stripe Mitosis & Meoisis Activities -Group 2 h sockosome in solid color 1 H sockosome in the solid color 1 but with a stripe a sockosome in solid color 2 A sockosome in solid color 2 but with a stripe The same sockosomes can be used for these two groups of students for the final activity which models meiosis followed by fertilization. Additional Possible Activities Sockosomes made with larger socks can be modified so they can be used to model crossing over and recombination. It is available for purchase from http://www. TAKS Objective 2 page 5 TEKS 7. The pair of sockosomes in one color will represent the mother's chromosomes. but for this activity one group should have all the a and A sockosomes. and the pair of sockosomes in the other color will represent the father's chromosomes.9 A . The top portion can then be reattached with Velcro. and the other group should have all the h and H sockosomes.cytographics. Using a larger pair of socks. Meiosis and Fertilization activity as a review of the subject.com/ for AUD$89. although the labeled alleles are the same for the mother’s and father’s chromosomes. We have found the video "Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis" to be an excellent overview of the subject. allowing it to be removed and swapped with the top portion of another sock. cut off a portion of the top of the sock to be stuffed and sewed close separately. This can be particularly useful for lecture demonstrations. We recommend showing it after the mitosis portion of the Mitosis.

solidify the haploid/diploid concepts of the two types of nuclear division. EVALUATE TAKS Objective 2 page 6 TEKS 7. as well as.Explore 2 Mitosis/Meiosis Manipulative GET THIS FROM PAM Students will use a hand-on manipulative to take a cell from the beginning of meiosis to the end of meiosis. They will also do the same for mitosis and compare the two events.9 A . EXPLAIN REWRITE Complete the Meiosis PowerPoint presentation with your student with discussion and the completion of the following questions. Elaboration 2 Students will complete a chromosome number worksheet to compare mitosis and meiosis. ELABORATE Elaboration 1 Student will complete a Flow Chart comparing Mitosis and Meiosis.

7 .

Meiosis. R. and Teacher Preparation Notes are available at http://serendip. Even in a fully grown adult. many repeats of a cycle of cell division in which one cell gives rise to two cells. What are chromosomes? Why does each cell need a complete set of chromosomes? How do you think each daughter cell gets a complete set of chromosomes? In each cycle of cell division. so one important question is: How did that single cell develop into a body with more than a trillion cells? The production of such a large number of body cells is accomplished by many. etc. cells still undergo cell division. © 20072 Mitosis -. each of which in turn gives rise to two cells. and Fertilization by Dr. Scott Poethig.1 Mitosis. University of Pennsylvania. The two cells that come from the division of one cell are called daughter cells. for example. Dr. the cell first makes a copy of all of the DNA in each of the chromosomes. Ingrid Waldron. as shown in the figure below.) Each of the daughter cells needs to have a complete set of chromosomes.Section I. 2 Teachers are encouraged to copy this student handout for classroom use. and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology. (It may seem odd.brynmawr. which can be used to prepare a modified version if desired. Thus.edu/sci_edu/waldron/. but the cells produced by cell division are called daughter cells. even in boys and men. 8 .How Your Body Makes New Cells How many cells do you think your body has? Why does your body need to have lots of cells? Each of us began as a single cell. cell division is needed for growth. A Word file. Why is this useful? Think about your skin.

These chromatids are often called sister chromatids because they are identical. Mitosis -. even in the cells of boys and men. the two copies of the DNA form two chromatids which are attached to each other at the centromere. which carefully separates the two copies of each chromosome to opposite ends of the dividing cell. the cell undergoes a type of cell division called mitosis. so each daughter cell ends up with a complete set of chromosomes.(Adapted from Figure 9. (The two attached chromatids are called sister chromatids. one of these chromosomes goes to each daughter cell.The Basics Once the DNA of a chromosome has been copied.) During mitosis the two chromatids of a chromosome separate and become independent chromosomes. 9 .9 in Biology by Johnson and Raven) After the DNA in each chromosome has been copied.

Chromatids Cell Chromosome Chromosomes Cell Cell 1 Cell 2 10 .

we will begin by discussing mitosis in a cell which has only two chromosomes.To keep things simple. one of your sockosomes has a stripe on both socks and the other sockosome has no stripes. In contrast. These two chromosomes are a pair of homologous chromosomes. You will model mitosis using a pair of sockosomes to represent the pair of homologous chromosomes. For each gene on a pair of homologous chromosomes. to indicate that you have a pair of homologous chromosomes which both have the same genes. Are the alleles in the sister chromatids in a chromosome identical or different? Are the alleles in the two homologous chromosomes identical or different? 2. Each sockosome will have two socks joined at the heel to represent the sister chromatids in a chromosome after the DNA has been replicated. Chromatids Cell Chromosome 11 .g. the two sister chromatids of a chromosome have identical alleles of each gene. What is wrong with the diagram shown below? Explain why sister chromatids could not have different alleles. this indicates that the two homologous chromosomes have different alleles. eye color and skin color). each chromatid consists of a single long molecule of _____________. Both homologous chromosomes contain genes which control the same traits (e. As shown in the figure on page 2. Inside a cell. there may be two different versions or alleles of the gene on the two different homologous chromosomes (e. 1.g. even though they have the same genes. an allele for brown eyes on one chromosome and an allele for blue eyes on the other chromosome). because the process of copying DNA results in exact copies of the original alleles. Both sockosomes are the same color. The pair of sockosomes will look like the chromosomes in the diagram on page 2.

Cell 12 .3. use your sockosomes to demonstrate how the two chromosomes line up at the beginning of mitosis. Label the chromosomes and chromatids. one of which goes to each daughter cell. 4. Together with your partner. what has to happen to the chromosomes in each cell? Draw what the chromosomes in each cell will look like when the cell is ready to undergo the next round of mitosis. Then demonstrate how the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate during mitosis and become separate chromosomes. Before the cells produced by mitosis can divide again.

3. like those shown in the diagram on page 2. Draw arrows to indicate the sequence of events during mitosis. which ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes. the DNA is condensed into compact chromosomes. The cell begins to pinch in half. Obviously. DNA is condensed into compact chromosomes (each with two sister chromatids). Therefore. 6. when the cell is carrying out its normal activities. Spindle fibers which will move the chromosomes begin to form. For each of the figures below. give the number of the corresponding stage described above. (For simplicity.) . The basic steps of mitosis. Spindle fibers line the chromosomes up in the middle of the cell. Mechanics of mitosis In a living cell. complete set of chromosomes. 2. it would be difficult to reliably separate the two copies of each of 46 long tangled DNA molecules. the DNA molecule of each chromosome is a long tangled thread. 1. in preparation for mitosis. are as follows. the figures show cells that have only 4 chromosomes (2 pairs of homologous chromosomes). Each human cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs of homologous chromosomes).The next section describes how mitosis is accomplished in a real live human cell and how this process ensures that each daughter cell receives a normal. 4. these are easier to move than the long tangled DNA. Spindle fibers shorten to pull the sister chromatids apart toward opposite ends of the cell. DNA is copied (called replication). Two daughter cells are formed. with one set of chromosomes in each half. 5. but the basic process is the same as in human cells which have 46 chromosomes.

circle and label each pair of homologous chromosomes (HC). label each pair of sister chromatids (SC).separating chromosomes Sister chromatids are shown in two of these drawings. . Pairs of homologous chromosomes are shown in four of these drawings.

Adapted from Concepts of Genetics 8e by Klug. All of your sockosomes have labeled masking tape genes.Chromosomes and Genes in Human Cells The figure on the left shows a karyotype. which results in albinism (the white skin and hair color shown in the figure above). the body's cells do not produce melanin. the complete set of chromosomes is organized in homologous pairs and numbered. Find two sockosomes in your group that have the . Cummings. while the other may have the little a allele. and Spencer In a karyotype. both copies of human chromosome 11 have a gene for the production of the pigment melanin (a molecule that contributes to our skin and hair color). For example. which is a photograph of a magnified view of the chromosomes from a human cell that was ready to begin mitosis. If both chromosomes have the little a allele. but one may have the A allele for normal melanin production and skin color. Use your sockosomes to model mitosis in a cell which has two pairs of homologous chromosomes. contained in a pair of sister chromatids linked by a centromere. Each chromosome has condensed double copies of its DNA. Each numbered pair of homologous chromosomes carries a specific set of genes.

you have a hitchhiker’s thumb if you can bend the top part of your thumb backwards more than 45º). Use your arms or string to represent the spindle fibers. In a cell which is ready for mitosis. Why is it important for the chromosomes to line up in the middle of the cell during mitosis? 4. Describe your results by completing the following chart. so the cell is ready to undergo mitosis. What would happen if a cell did not make a copy of its DNA (its chromosomes) before it divided? 3. Model the steps in mitosis. 2.two different alleles for the gene for albinism (A for normal melanin production and skin color and a for albinism). Put these four sockosomes in a pile which will represent the two pairs of homologous chromosomes. find two sockosomes in your group that have the two different alleles for the gene for thumb bending (H for straight thumb and h for the hitchhiker’s thumb. why are the two chromatids of each chromosome genetically identical? 5. Are the two homologous chromosomes genetically identical? HH or Hh or hh? . Are the chromosomes and genes in the daughter cells produced by mitosis the same as or different from the chromosomes and genes in the original cell? Explain why. Next. AA or Aa or aa? Which alleles were present in the original cell? Which alleles are present in each daughter cell produced by mitosis? Questions on Mitosis 1. each with the DNA copied. Begin by arranging the sockosomes in the pattern observed for chromosomes in a real cell at the beginning of mitosis (see diagram on previous page).

how many chromosomes should a zygote have. how many chromosomes should each sperm and egg have? _____ . During fertilization the sperm and egg unite to form a single cell called the zygote which contains chromosomes from both the sperm and egg. A different type of cell division called meiosis gives rise to sperm and eggs. The zygote undergoes mitosis to begin development of the human embryo which eventually becomes a baby. and both the sperm and egg contributed all of their chromosomes to a zygote.Meiosis -. how many chromosomes would the resulting zygote have? _____ In humans. To produce a normal zygote. Why can't your body use mitosis to make sperm or eggs? Suppose human sperm and eggs were produced by mitosis. so the baby's body cells will each have a normal set of chromosomes? _____ Obviously.How Your Body Makes Sperm or Eggs Mitosis gives rise to almost all the cells in the body. if the body used mitosis to make sperm and eggs. the resultant zygote would have too many chromosomes to produce a normal baby. How many chromosomes would each sperm or egg have? ____ If a sperm of this type fertilized an egg of this type.

Therefore.e. Cells that have two copies of each chromosome (i. For example. i. Cell Cell Cell . When the zygote undergoes mitosis to begin to form an embryo. in humans each sperm and each egg produced by meiosis has only 23 chromosomes.To produce the needed number of chromosomes in sperm and eggs. Which types of cells in our bodies are haploid? Before meiosis.e. as shown below. each cell will have the normal number of 46 chromosomes. during meiosis there are two cell divisions. meiosis I and meiosis II. This reduces the chromosome number by half and produces four haploid daughter cells. This means that the alleles in each daughter cell are different. This produces daughter cells with half as many chromosomes as the parent cell. haploid cells. one in each pair from the egg and one from the sperm. including one chromosome from each pair of homologous chromosomes. the cell makes a copy of the DNA in each chromosome. Cells that only have one copy of every chromosome are called haploid cells. Meiosis I Meiosis I is different from mitosis because homologous chromosomes line up next to each of other and then separate. Most of the cells in our bodies are diploid cells. Then. the resulting zygote has 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. after an egg and sperm are united during fertilization. cells that have pairs of homologous chromosomes) are called diploid cells. Notice that each of the daughter cells has a different chromosome from the homologous pair of chromosomes. meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes by half.

find two sockosomes that have the two different alleles for the gene for thumb bending (H for straight thumb and h for the hitchhiker’s thumb). what is the difference in the way the pair of homologous chromosomes is lined up in a cell at the beginning of Meiosis I vs. For example. Next. Find two sockosomes that have the two different alleles for the gene for albinism (A for pigmented skin and a for albinism). use these sockosomes to model the steps in meiosis. Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell In the diagram above. The genetic makeup of this cell is AaHh. use your group’s sockosomes to model meiosis in a cell which has two pairs of homologous chromosomes. each with the DNA copied so the cell is ready to undergo meiosis. so each daughter cell gets one copy of each chromosome in the mother cell. Begin by lining up the sockosomes the way real chromosomes line up at the . go through each step of meiosis until you are confident that you understand the difference between Meiosis I and Mitosis and the difference between Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Using one pair of sockosomes. at the beginning of Mitosis? Now.Meiosis II Meiosis II is like mitosis. The sister chromatids of each chromosome are separated. Put these four sockosomes in a pile to represent the two pairs of homologous chromosomes. Now. label the cells which would be the sperm or eggs produced by meiosis.

and fill in the correct number of chromosomes per human cell in each blank.beginning of Meiosis 1. The following diagram provides an overview of the information covered thus far. Review the diagram. Describe the differences between the mother cell that undergoes meiosis and the daughter cells produced by meiosis. 3. you can get different combinations of alleles in individual sperm or eggs. Questions 1. Notice that there is more than one possible way for the sockosomes to line up at the beginning of Meiosis 1. 2. As a result. Mother _____ Meiosis egg _____ Father _____ Meiosis sperm _____ ↓ ↓ Fertilization zygote _____ Mitosis Embryo _____ Mitosis baby _____ ↓ ↓ . List all of the different possible combinations of alleles in the sperm or eggs that can be produced by meiosis. Describe the differences between daughter cells produced by meiosis and daughter cells produced by mitosis.

with sockosomes as shown below. . (Alternatively. the zygote will have a pair of homologous chromosomes including one chromosome from the egg and one chromosome from the sperm. To begin to understand this genetic variability. and the two homologous chromosomes carry different alleles of the same genes. so you can more easily see the multiple different possible combinations. One major reason for these different characteristics is that the processes of meiosis and fertilization result in a different combination of alleles in each child. Thus. you will model meiosis and fertilization for a very simplified case where there is only one pair of homologous chromosomes per cell. how many different types of eggs will be produced by meiosis? _____ How many different types of sperm will be produced by meiosis? _____ The different types of sperm can fertilize the different types of egg to result in zygotes with different combinations of chromosomes from the mother and the father. Try to produce as many different types of zygotes as you can by pairing each type of sperm with each type of egg. One person in your group will be the mother and another will be the father. You already know that sisters or brothers can have different characteristics. Fertilization can be demonstrated by having the mother and father each contribute one chromatid from one of their sockosomes to form a zygote. even when they have the same parents.Analyzing Meiosis and Fertilization to Understand Genetics In this section you will investigate how events during meiosis and fertilization determine the genetic makeup of the zygote. a A a A Mother Father In this simple example. but labeled h and H). which in turn determines the genetic makeup of the baby that develops from the zygote. you may have four sockosomes similar to those shown. To demonstrate fertilization. it works best to lay the chromosomes out on the table.

and the different combinations of eggs from one mother and sperm from one father could produce zygotes with approximately 70 trillion different combinations of chromosomes! You can see why no two people are genetically alike. so many. Questions 1. What are the similarities between mitosis and meiosis? . except for identical twins who are derived from the same zygote. Describe the differences between mitosis and meiosis. For example. many different combinations of chromosomes can be found in the eggs or sperm produced by one person. 3.How many different types of zygotes can be produced by fertilization in this simple case? What different combinations of the labeled alleles can be observed in the zygotes? A pair of human parents could produce a great many more different genetic combinations than observed in this simplified example. How many chromosomes are there in a human skin cell produced by mitosis? ________ How many chromosomes are there in a human sperm cell produced by meiosis? _______ 2. humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes.

resulting in a miscarriage. a broad flat face. For example.Down Syndrome Sometimes. some babies are born with an extra copy of a small chromosome (chromosome 21). . a zygote which has an extra chromosome will die early in embryonic development. so the chromosomes are not divided completely equally between the daughter cells produced by meiosis. since they are very close to each other. Therefore. short height. and this results in the condition known as Down Syndrome. and congenital heart disease. including mental retardation. meiosis does not happen perfectly. how many copies of this chromosome would there be in the resulting in zygote? How many copies of this chromosome would there be in each cell in the resulting embryo? When a cell has three copies of a chromosome. A karyotype of a boy with Down Syndrome is shown below. 3 In this karyotype it is difficult to see the sister chromatids in each chromosome. the extra copies of the genes on this chromosome result in abnormal cell function and abnormal embryonic development. and this egg is fertilized by a normal sperm. in most cases.3 Multiple abnormalities result from the extra copy of chromosome 21 in each cell. If a human egg receives an extra copy of a chromosome. However. a big tongue. an egg or a sperm may receive two copies of the same chromosome.

.

four haploid cells. two cell divisions. same. Mitosis begins with a Meiosis begins with a occurs in occurs in consists of consists of forming forming having the having number of the number of as the original cell as the . gameteproducing cells. chromosomes. Use these words or phrases one or more times: diploid cell. half. original cell. two diploid cells. cell division. body cells.Mitosis/Meiosis Directions: Complete the concept map comparing mitosis and meiosis.

original cell. two diploid cells. two cell divisions. cell division. Use these words or phrases one or more times: diploid cell. gameteproducing cells. Mitosis begins with a Diploid Meiosis begins with a Diploid occurs in Body Cell (Somatic Cell) occurs in Gamete Producing Cells consists of One Cell Division consists of Two Cell Diviosns forming 2 diploid cells forming 4 haploid cells having the SAME having HALF number of Chromosomes the number of Chromosomes as the Original Cell as the Original cell . body cells. four haploid cells. chromosomes. same.Mitosis/Meiosis Directions: Complete the concept map comparing mitosis and meiosis. half.

How many chromosomes does the body cells have during interphase? _________ 6. How many chromosomes did each of the sex cells have that formed this individual organism?____________ 4. An organism has 22 chromosomes in its body cells. how many chromosomes does the egg cell of this organism have?__________ 5. Use this information to answer #1-7 1.Chromosome Number Worksheet An organism has body cells with 42 chromosomes. How many chromosomes does it have in its body cells? 10. A body cell prepares for cell division. How many chromosomes does it have at the beginning of prophase?__________ 12. How many chromosomes does the body cells have during interphase?_______ 16. A body cell prepares for cell division. How many chromosomes does it have in its body cells? 9. An organism has 12 chromosomes in its sperm cells. How many chromosomes does it have at the beginning of prophase?__________ 2. What is the diploid number of this organism?__________ 7. Use this information to answer #11-17 11. What is the haploid number of for this organism?___________ 8. How many chromosomes did each of the sex cells have that formed this individual organism?__________ 14. how many chromosomes does each daughter cell have?__________ 13. An organism has 29 chromosomes in its egg cells. What is the haploid number for this organism?__________ . how many chromosomes does each daughter cell have?___________ 3. After the membrane pinches in half. How many chromosomes does the egg cell of this organism have?_______ 15. How many chromosomes does it have in its sperm cells? An organism has body cells with 22 chromosomes. After the membrane pinches in half. What is the diploid number of this organism?_________ 17.

Use this information to answer #25-31 25.An organism has body cells with 78 chromosomes. Use this information to answer #32-38 32. A body cell prepares for cell division. After the membrane pinches in half. What is the diploid number of this organism?________ 24. how many chromosomes does each daughter cell have?________ 20. After the membrane pinches in half. How many chromosomes does the body cells have during interphase? _________ 37. A body cell prepares for cell division. What is the haploid number for this organism?_______ . What is the haploid number for this organism?_______ An organism has body cells with 8 chromosomes. How many chromosomes did each of the sex cells have that formed this individual organisms?___________________ 21. Use this information to answer questions #18-24 18. How many chromosomes does the body cells have during interphase? _________ 30. How many chromosomes did each of the sex cells have that formed this individual organism?_________ 28. What is the haploid number for this organism?_______ An organism has body cells with 46 chromosomes. After the membrane pinches in half. How many chromosomes does the body cells have during interphase? _________ 23. how many chromosomes does each daughter cell have?___________ 34. How many chromosomes does the egg cell or this organism have?_________ 22. A body cell prepares for cell division. How many chromosomes does the egg cell or this organism have?_________ 36. How many chromosomes does it have at the beginning of prophase?________ 26. What is the diploid number of this organism?________ 31. how many chromosomes does each daughter cell have?___________ 27. How many chromosomes does it have at the beginning of prophase?____________ 19. How many chromosomes did each of the sex cells have that formed this individual organism?_________ 35. How many chromosomes does the egg cell or this organism have?_________ 29. How many chromosomes does it have at the beginning of prophase?________ 33. What is the diploid number of this organism?________ 38.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.