25 Gorgeous Felt Designs

Jill Denton

ELEGANT SCARVES AND WRAPS·

25 Gorgeous Felt Designs

Jill Denton ~

NORTH LIGHT BOOKS

This book is dedicated to my wonderful Mum, who introduced me to the amazing world ot textiles and stitch, and who would have been very happy and proud to know that hef daughter had made it her eereer and had written a book ceJebtating it.

NORTH LIGHT BOOKS

First published in North America by North Light Books

8Jf1 imprint of F + W Publications, Inc. 4700 East Galbraith Road CIncinnati, OH 45236 800-289-0963

Copyright © 20.08 by Bre;sllch & Foss ltd

Photography ahe styling by Lizzie Orme Design by Lisa Tal

Commissioned by danet Ravenscroft

Conceived and produced by Breslich & Foss Ltd.,

Unit 2A, Union Court,

28-22 Union Road,

London SW46JP

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, by Photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication data available upon request.

ISBN-i. 3: 978-1-60061-184-1 ISBN-1 0: 1 -60061-184-2

First published in Great Britain in 2008 by David & Oharles publishers

Printed in China

10987654321

ontents introduction 6
materials 10 inspiration for textile
equipment 12 designs 14
country ga rden 18
summer flowers 20 wildflower meadow 36
pink lattice 26 green daisies 38
pink felt flowers 30 summer shimmer 40

daisy brooch 32 seashore 42
white pebbles 44 pebble stripes 60
spiral shells 50 black pebbles 62
si IIy seaweed 52 "Fa 11 shades 64
sycamore 66 ra ro s 80
raning leaves 72 oobweb 82
moorland 78 mossy green forest green . beech tree owno

86 ~.

94

treebark woodland wrap

tropical 100
ocean wrap 102 aqua wrap with
anemone pin 106 starfish pin 122
underwater 108
carnival time 114 templates 12
starfish 120 index a nd acknowledgments 128 96 98

I can't remember a time when I didn't sew or make things. My mother taught me basic stitches almost

as soon as I could safely hold a needle, and she was always there to help, encourage, and sort me out when something went wrong. My first attempts at school were not particularly impressive: I can remember having to stitch a tiny hemstitch all around a red gingham apron when I was aboul six, which at tile

time seemed like a mammoth task tllat took weeks to complete, and I still have the handkerchief case upon which I clumsily ernbroioered flowers in lazy daisy

sti eh. (Lazy daisy is still one of my favorite sutchesn Tnen there was my first project at boarding school-

a nightdress made out of brusbeo nylon; even that disaster didn't I<ill my entbus.asm for sewing.

I stitched and knitted my way through my twenties and thirties, picking up and discarding many other crafts along the way. But although I enjoyed learning

all these other techniques, my passion has always been for stitching and creating beautiful surfaces, garments, and objects.

I first discovered the fascination ot maki 9 handmade felt many years ago, while studylng on a foundation course in Art and Design at

college. More experimentation with felt continued during a degree course iniashion and textiles, after which I used it more and more in my work, until ultimately I was hooked! Feltmaklng is addictive and can become an obsession, so beware those of you who are still felt virgins. Atter you have tried it or Ice,

introduction

6 [ N TR 0 D U cr t 0 N

Having learnt the basic techniques,each maker will develop his or her preferred, and probably unique, techniques-and the more experienced the maker, the more unusual the techniques and equipment used may seem to the

uninitiated, People who know nothing about feltmaking may wonder why felt makers have washing lines full of towels, sheets of bubble wrap, and

plastic bags, or why they can be seen in a local home-improvement store checking out the best-value swimming-pool liner or electric

san de r. I hope that, by th e end of this book, you will understand some of the idiosyncracies of feltmaking and that some of the mysteries and secrets will

have been revealed .

.: ;:; s often no looking back. Now, years later, ;..I '"'lyself recElgnized as a successful felt -~. and tutor, and-a real honor-

-ad to write a book about it.

=6 t is one of the oldest textiles :. n to man. It is an unusual

- ~ -"ad of fabric construct ion in .=_:_ aJihough all feltmakers do € same thing-laying out the ::::- wetting, soaping, and

-~ pufating the fibers to make '=""-' shrink-no two feltmakers

-.0. e tI in exactly the same way.

rere is no right or wrong way_

So"l8 teltmakers use bubble wrap,

~::O"1e cane blinds, some fabric: some JSe liquid soap, others use a bar of soap.

rNTRODUCTTON 7

8 lNTRODUCTION

My inspiration

My work is all about color and texture. I draw my inspiration from everything around me, and carry

a sketchbook and a camera. with me at all times to record the things that I see. I then use wool fibers in

he.same way that a painter uses paint to translate my Jdeas and thoughts inlo images. I love the slight unpr@dictability of felt and the way the colors stay pure and hold (heir vibrancy throughout the process. Nothing is ever wasted. Occasionally when something goes wrong, J re-work it and change it into something else, so that a mistake becomes a happy ace id e nt. Th at is th e beauty of felt: it's very forg ivi ng and so versatile that even disasters can be transformed into something practical or beautiful.

All the scarves and wraps in this book are inspired by things that I have seen and are, in a way.

a development of my artwork. r:or me, mothing is more beautiful than nature. Wherever possible I have ncluded an image of my inspiration so that you can see where my ideas come from. I hope that this will nspire you not only to try to make some of the projects yourself. but also to create your own desi-gns.

Step-by-step instructions are given for eleven of me scarves and wraps in this book, and briefer nstructlons for the other fourteen, but it's important to .mderstand thatieltmaking is a unique process and :hat a felt design can never be re-created exactly. It's also impossible to guarantee precise results from.any

nstructions as, even when they are following the same 'step-by-step instructions, no two people will oroduce an identical piece. The end result depends on several factors: the fibers you use, how thickly you ay out the fibers, how much you rub the pre-felt, how 'lard you roll, Even the weather conditions can aHect

the process, as felt will form more quickly if the weather is warm and damp than if it is cold and dry. Most of the measurements that are given are approximate as,

due to the nature of the materials, it is not possible to predict the exact size of the finished piece.

MarlY feltmakers always use hot water as part of their process, but I have chosen to make these scarves mostly witM cold water. Hot water is used for some of the scarves, usually toward the end to speed up the shrink1ng process. The projects are graded according to difficulty:

o easy projects for the novice

00 more difficult pieces

0\'Wt the most challenqinq designs

The Summer Flowers scarf on (pages 22-25) will

get you started on basic feltmaking. It is important to master the basic techniques of feltmaking and get a gooEJ feel' for the fiber bleiore you move on to more advanced technieues. If you try to move on too fast, you may well end up with a disaster on your hands

and feel disappointed and frustrated So take it easy, experiment and practice with the simpler scarvesthen move on to the more difficult ones.

INTRODUCTION 9

materials

In this sec ion l m going to explain what I use to make my felt. Feurnaklnc is a very personal process, and you wi!lundoubtedly discover your own favorite materials and techniques-but if you're a complete novice, it helps to know what works for other people.

Choosing wooll and embellishments Most of my scarves and artwork are made from 1 00 percent menno wool tops or fleece Merino is easy 0 felt and is good for making oth very line and tI ick fell. Blue-faced Leicester is another very easy wool to felt and was used for the Woodland Wrap (page 98).

It has an attractive curl to it, W tch dds a little texture. The Sycamore scarf (page 66) is made from Shetland wool and the Treebark scarf (page 96) from Blacl< Welsh. Both these fibers felt well, bul have a coarser feel and look to them, and produce a light and lofty Ielt. Any animal hair can be felled, and it's worth experimenting With ifferenllypes to discover their qualities and the effects they produce.

To add interest and texture, I often include a variety af other fibers to he surface ol he scarves. Wensleydale curls are wonderful and I've used them

in three scarves in this book, the Moorland scarf (page 78), the Forest Green scarf (page 90) and the Woodland wrap (page 98). loften ull orr one or two curls nd mix them in with tile merino. Wensleydale fleece is available In fabulous colors and stays quite shiny throuqhout tile felting process Mohair fibers are a little shorter but lustrous and also work well. Tussah silk, which is available in many colors, white and offwhite, creates a lovely sheen when added to Lhe top layer of fleece, either mixed in with the wool fibers or laid on top. There are many other wonderful fibers available from feltmaking suppliers for the crafts person to experiment lith.

10 MAr RIA

Above: Dyed wool fops ready tor felting. Ready-dyed tops are available in hundreds of gorgeous shades, although you can buy undyed fleece and dye it vourselt.

I also have a huge box of knitting yarns that I have collected over the years that I frequently dip into. (Never throw anything away if you' re gOing to make felt; you never know when you may need it!) Fancy yarns, slubbed yarns, mohair, and chenille are particularly useful. As a general rule, the higher the percentage of natural fibers, the etter the yarn will adhere to the felt, but manmade yarns can also be

':..:lOve: A selection of threads and yarns that I often incorporate -0 my feltmaking: fancy knitting yarns in various thicknesses, ,.. Doth manmade and natural fibers, embroidery flosses, rayon ;"'0 silk threads, mohair; and Wens/eydale curls .

... :00 with a little bit of persuasion. Embroidery asses, recycled sari silk, sewing threads, scraps :- :abric, lace, ribbon, buttons, beads: the list of

- gs that can be worked into or used to decorate ~ - s extensive.

=or making nuno felt, where the wool fibers are ~ ·ed onto a loosely woven fabric, I prefer to use

- :-chiffon, georgette, organza, or tulle. However,

you can felt onto any loosely woven fabric and I also use viscose or cotton muslin. Some of my best finds have been in thrift stores, which can be a valuable source of vintage fabrics, buttons, and other useful things. Thrift stores are also a good place to find

old books with beautiful images, photographs and illustrations, which can be wonderful sources of inspiration.

MATeRIALS 11

equipment

One of tile greal things about feltmaking is thaI you don't need any fancy or expensive equipment. You will probably already have most of what you need at home. T le essentials are:

• Old towels

• Bubble wrap

.. Thin plastic sheeting

• Soap (I use olive oil soap, which is kind to the hands and is preferred by most feltmakers as it works well with wool)

• Rubber or surgeon's gloves If you have sensitive skin

• Plastic bags

• An old plastic bottle tor sprinkling water (a milk bottle with holes punched in the lid is perfect)

• Water spray for very fine work (a plant sprayer or an

old kitchen spray bottle will do)

• Washing-up bow!

.. Cane blind and small cane mat

.. Swimming' noodle," length of pipe insulation, broom handle, or similar (I orerer to use a noodle: when il's tied up, rolled ill the middl of a cane blind. it grips well n doesn't slip)

.. Fabric ties (I use old 'l-shuts cut into strips 1 il1'/2.5 em wide, as the fabric has enough "give" to make a nice, firm knot)

.. Scissors

.. Sewing kit

.. Black marker pen

Opposite: Basic feltmaking equipment. Any items thai you do not already have at home. SUC/l as cane blinds or swimming noodles. can be purchased from local stores at verv little cost.

finishing and care of your scarves

Although the instructions for making the scarves vary somewhat, the finishing process is the same for all of them. When you have finished the shrinking/felting process. rinse your scarf in cold water severa1 times until all traces of soap have disappeared. Then give he scarf one final rinse in a bowl of water to which you have added a few drops of vinegar. This is to neutralize any traces of alkali that may remain from the soap. Gently squeeze aut as much water as possible then re-shape the scarf and dry it flat. If you \.,rish to press the scarf, press it on the back, using an iron on the wool setting, while the scarf is sLill slightly damp.

To clean your scarf, gently hand wash it in cool water using a 1 iquid soap designed for handwashing woolens. Rinse the scarf in cold water and dry it as descri bed above. If you care for your scar properly it will last a very long time. (But do watch out for moths-felt's worst enemy!)

textures can you see? What time of day is it and what is the weather ilike? (Both these factors can affect the colors.) What sounds can you hear? Can you smell anything? All these things will help you re-create the image in your mind when you are back at home. Collect pictures, illustrations, and photographs of things that interest you, for whatever reason, and keep them in an image bank; a stationery folder with plastic sleeves will do pertectly.

Look at an object very carefully. Say you're inspired by a leaf, for example. Hold it in your hand and feel it. Smell it. Listen to it. Explore it with all your senses and keep your mind open. Examinethe colors. Concentrate on the shape and the details, such as where the lines on the leaf lead. Look at the texture, the shape of the edges, and the veins.

tf you are looking at a flower, look at the shapes of the petals. How many petals are there? How are they attached to the center of the flower and to the stem?

Inspiration for textile designs

For me, the inspiration and the design process are as important as the finished product. Not having had any formal art training when I was younger, I had trouble for years processing my ideas. I used to look around me and see so many wonderful things, but I just didn't know how to tum my ideas into projects, which was extremely frustrating. Then I went to college. Probably the most valuable thing that I learnt there was how to open my eyes and really "see." Here are a few simple tips on how to translate your ideas and inspirations into designs.

First, always carry a camera and a sketchbook with you. There's nothing worse than seeing something amazing and not having anyth'ing to record it with or on. Many people are scared of drawing and they think they cant do it. If you are one of these people, don't worry: take a photo and stick it in your sketchbook later-but make sure that, at the time, you write down brief notes about what you see. What colors and

Right: Inspiration can be found anywhere: look out for lichens and rock plants, such as these growing on top 01 an old stone waif.

14 INTROOUCTION

- -: s':er-e of a woodland in spring, the intense

- ~ =-=- ..., e- o~ bluebells contrasts with the fresh

-Z'~ a.ge. You could use both the colors and

es ~ a scene such as this for inspiration.

-= srarnens.Althouqh a flower is a complex ::: - - break rt down into simple shapes that

:::. _ ~ S eschbook or on a piece of paper.

- -s . '.mg will allow you to concentrate on ::: :::.~ composition, and will help your brain _ • :;CS:1ape and form of your object. Don't

worry that your sketch isn't perfect: it's for your

referen ce, and no one else's. If yo u really fee I yo u can't draw, then don't worry-just trace the image from a photo or a magazine. If the image is too small, enlarge it on a photocopier. You can also use a photocopier to play with scale: interesting shapes and patterns appear when you enlarge images, Or simply draw around the object. using it as a template.

INSPIRATION FOR TEXTILE DESIGNS 15

Be selective

When you find a subject that appeals to you .there's often a temptation to include too many different elements without focusing on what it is that's really important. Use a viewlinder-ca piece of cardstock with a shape cut out of .il-to help you be more selective. Make your own by cutting' a small square (1.5 in.! 4 cm) in the center of a 4 x 6-in. (10 x 15-cm) piece of cardstock. Find a photo or an illustration that appeals to you, place the viewfinder over it, and move it around until you have found an interesting composition.

I use exactly the same process for developing my ideas, whether they come from seascapes, landscapes, or a simple object.At this stage,

I decide what colors I am going to use for the background and for the design part. Sometimes

I may use as many as 30 or more different shades

in a piece of work, but I would advise a beginner to start with a more modest palette of maybe four to six colors/shades; then, as you become more confident with the technique, you can be more adventurous with color.

The number of colors also depends, of course, on the object you are using .. For example, the Pebble

Stripes scarf on page 60 was inspired by pebbles from a beach in Comwall.l studied these pebbles carefully and extracted just four delicate colorsbuttermilk, grey, soft brown, and sage green-to use in my felt design.

A more complicated example is the Sycamore scarf on page 66. A photograph of fall leaves was my

16 INTHODUCTJON

Above: The pebbles that inspired the Pebble Stripes scarf on page 60 have an amazing variety of colors and shades.

Lett: The delicate hues of bouganvillea petals

are enhanced by the clear blue sky. The strong lines of the wf1ite roof provide a strong contrast.

oiration. and from this I chose a plain warm brown :ne background, with vibrant shades of red, yellow, ...st. and burgundy for the leaves.

I have included templates for the designs in this -:;ok on paqes 124-127, but when you find a subject

- di appeals, you can easily make your own templates

drawing around objects or tracing photos.

Left: These frostencrusted teeves have deep, rich colors and fascinating shapes.

Below left: The twisted, sun-bleached limbs 01 a hurricane-damaged tree and the pure white sand contrast sharply with the deep azure ocean.

Below righl': The interior of a conch shell, weatherbeaten and worn smooth, is a perfect spiral-an intriguing shape to use as the basis for a textile design.

When you have positioned the motifs on your scarf, stand back and make sure that the design is well balanced. Imagine the scarf draped around your neck and work out where the design will fall. Have fun playing around and finding what works for you. The more fun you have designing and mak.lng your scarf, the more successful it will be.

INSPIRATION FOR TEXTILE: DESIGNS 17

design ideas.

country garden

Summer is the time to relax with a book and a lonq, cool drink and to enjoy

the profusion of color that the garden offers. In this chapter, you will find

instructions for making light delicate scarves and throws that are just

perfect for long summer evenings. The designs are inspired by flowers of

every color and shade. Daisies are a particular favorite of mine and often

appear in my work; the magnificent shasta daisies were the inspiration for

the scarf shown opposite and described on page 38; Traditional cottage

gardens and wildflower meadows (so pretty and so delicate) also fuel my

summer flowers

Summer flowers was inspired by the blossoms, scents, and colors of old-fashioned cottage gardens. Plant names such as holly ock, lavender, delphiniurn, aquilegia, foxglove, and lupin all conjure up images of a profusion of color and texture. The delicate pinks and mauves of this scarf were chosen to bring to mind these summer varieties.

The flower and leaf mo ifs are created by cutting shapes from silk fabric and felling them onto the background. I used silk georgette for the flowers, but any line, loosely woven labric will do, provided it is made from natural fibers. The motifs call be outlined with machine or hand stitches to add extra definition, or decorated with beads.

You can make the scad gossamer thin, by using only % oz (25g) of fleece, or slightly thicker and more substantial by using 2 oz (50g), as 1 did in this ex mple. You can either handcard or mix the colors yours If, or buy them ready carde and mixed. The latter approach saves a lot of time and eHort-especially if you are a novice feltmaker!

degree of difficulty tI

tool sand materi al s towel

2 sheets of bubble wrap. 16 x 65 in. (40 x 165 em)

% or 2 oz (25 or 50g) merino wool tops in mixed pinks, mauve, and purple

flower template on page 124

scraps of loosely woven fabric for ·flower and leaf design

fabric scissors

net, 16 x 65 in. (40 x 165 em) plastic bottle with holes in lid olive oii soap

small pJastic bag

swimming "noodle," or similar, and ties

finished size

8 x 53 in. (20 x 135 em)

20 COUNfRY GAROt:N

variation

Instead of a so 1 i cd shape cut from s il k. such as the: flowers used in the main project. you Gan ac~ieve delicate outlines by 1 ayi ng dOlo,ln lengths of knitti ng ya rn. Over the. yealCs~ r' ve gathered a collection of interesting yarns that 1 frequently use in my feltmaking. If you are using pure wOell yarn (mohair, for example). lay the yarn on top of the laid-out fibers. If you are using- yarn with a manmade content, "veil" the yarn as you would tne silk shapes in Step 5 on page 23.

to make the summer flowers scarf

ti P

If you are a novice feltmaker. you may find it helpful to mark out the area of your scarf on the wrong side of the bubble wrap with

a marker pen and a ruler before you begin. The lines will act as a guide as you layout the

fi bers.

2 Lay a few more fibers on each corner. This will strengthen the corners and give the scarf a neat, square finish.

22 COUNTRY GARDEN

1 Lay a towel on your work surface with a piece of bubble wrap, bubble side up, on top. Pull off and lay down a thin, even layer of merino fibers from the wool tops to cover the area at the scarf, laying all the fibers in one direction. Remember that the fibers will shrink during the

felting process, so layout fibers covering an area 25-30 percent bigger than you want the finished scarf to be.

4 Followinglhe templates and using the fabric scissors, cu: out approximately eight flower and ten leaf shapes from the silk fabric.

3 Layout a second layer of fibers, placing them at right angles to the first layer. Lay extra fibers on each corner, making sure there is an even, slighUy thicker layer along all the edges. This will ensure that all the edges and corners are firm,

5 -~a ge the silk flowers and leaves --9 fbers. "Veil" the flowers and ~ es .vith tiny wisps of neece, which - ~ d them in place while felting.

- ~ 'ne flower and leaf motifs

_- 1 aJong the scarf, but not too s: e edge or they may become _ - e distorted during the rolling

6 Cover the fibers with the net. Starting in the center and working. outward, gradually and gently sprinkle the fibers all over with water. Press down gently on the surface with the flat of your hand to help the water soak into the wool fibers.

7 Working from left to right. spread olive oil soap over the net. Keep your left hand firmlly all the net while soaping, so as not to disturb the position of the wool fibers and silk motifs underneath. Soap he'lps the wool fibers absorb the water and assists the felting process.

8 With your hand inside a plastic bag, genUy rub the surface of the scarf in a circular motion using the flat of your hand. working your way from one end of the scarf to the other. This encourages the wool fibers to knit together. (The bag is to provice a larger. smoother flat surface area for rubbing not to protect your hands.) Keep adding more water until the wool fibers are we! through. Continue rubbing for a couple of minutes, paying particular attention to the areas where you have placed the silk leaves or flowers.

9 Starti ng at one corner, gently peel back the net and check that the fibers are adhering to each other. If they are not holdinq together, replace the net and continue rubbing with a bagged hand until ready. When the fibers have adhered well, carefully remove the net completely.

12 Tie firmly around the swimming noodle using cord, string or strips of fabric cut trom an old T-shirt. The T-shirt fabric has enough "give" to make a nice, firm knot.

24 COUNTRV GARDEN

10 Fold over the bubble wrap along the edges of the scarf, just enough to get a straight edge, and press down to straiqhten and tidy up the edges. Unfold the bubble wrap,

13 Roll the swimming noodle backward and forward 100 times. Unroll the scarf. pulll the scarf to shape, and roll it up again, this time from the other end.

11 Place another sheet of bubble wrap over the scarf, bubble side down. With the scarf safely sandwiched between, firmly roll both layers around a cut-down swimming noodle or similar.

tip

If you have a problem with your back or if your arms get tired. place the roll on the floor and use your feet to roll it backward and forward!

Roll 1 00 times more. Repeat twice more until the scarf has been rolled 600 times.

~ao the bubble wrap

:- and gently pull the scarf

-aoe.

15 Fold the scarf up in 0 a parcel. folding the edges inside, so that they meet In the middle. Drop the folded scarf on to your work surface from a height of 18-24 in. (45-60 em). Repeat 25 times. Open up the scarf and re-fold it, otherwise the fibers will felt along the folds and you will not be

able to un-felt it. Drop it onto your work surface another 25 times. Repeat twice more. By this time the scarf should be reasonably well felted. If you want it to be more tightly felted, rinse it in hand-hot water and repeat this step twice more or until you are happy with the result.

16 Rinse the finished scarf several times in cold water to remove any trace of soap, adding a few drops of vinegar to the final rinse. Pull the scarf into shape and let it dry flat. While the scarf is still slightly damp, iron it on the reverse, with tile iron on a wool setting to smooth au t any Imperfections.

tip

If you are using dark wool fibers for your scarf. use a light-colored towel under the bubble wrap: if you are using light-colored wool fibers, choose a dark towel. This makes it easier to get an even layer of wool, as you can see if there are any thin bits or gaps.

SU~jMER FLOI~ERS 25

pink lattice

This scarf was tnspired by the gorgeous pink flowers with the crazy petals in the photo below. A final touch was added by felting

a couple of flowers separately and slitching them to the completed scarf (see page 30). I added yellow centers to the flowers for contrast and an extra flash of color. This scarf was made with fine strands. so it IS very lightweight, but you can vary the look and feel by making the strands thicker and closer together. Another variation is to lay the fibers out on a piece of loosely woven fabric, so that the ribers adhere 10 tile fabric Wilen the fibers shrink, the fabric puckers a d procluces a uched, textured effect.

26 COUrllRY GARDE I'i

degree of d i ffi cul ty 00

tools and materials

towel

2 sheets of bubble wrap, 16 x 55 in. (40 x 140 em)

2 oz (50g) pink merino wool tops scraps of yellow merino wool tops

and tussah silk for flowers

net, 16 x 55 in. (40 x 140 ern) plastic bottle wiHl holes in lid olive oil soap

small plastic bag

swimming "noodle," or similar, and ties

flower template on page 124 fabric scissors

sewing kit

finished size

8 x 43 in. (20 x 110 ern)

to make the pi nk 1 atti ce scarf

1 Lay a towel on your work surface with a piece of bubble wrap, bubble side down, on top. Break off a length of pink merino wool tops the length you want the scarf to be, plus about 25 percent extra to allow for shrinkage. Split this lengthwise into five even strands.

2 Lay the strands on the bubble wrap, leaving a 2~in. (5-cm) 'gap between each strand

4 Cover the fibers with the net. 5 Spread the olive oil soap over

Starting in the center and working the net, being careful not to move

outward, 9radually and gently sprinkle the fibers underneath.

the fibers all over with cord water.

Press down genUy on the surface witil

thellat of your hand; to help the wa.ter

soak into the woollibers.

28 COUNTRY GARDEN

3 Break off several lengths of pink merino wool top about 12 in. (30 em) long Split each length into five strands, then lay each strand horizontally across the long strands, again with a 2~in. (S·cm gap) between each strand, to form a grid.

6 With your hand inside a plastic bag, gel1ltly rub the fibers with

your fingertips in a circular motion, working from one end of the scarf to the other,

;:r.-Qn '0 the .ere overlep, ::'s adhere well. hold

8 Peel back the net and check that tile fibers are holding together. If they are not, replace the net and continue rubbing. When Ihe fibers have adhered

9 Put another shee of bubble wrap over the scarf, bubble side up.

Roll both layers, with the scarf sanowiched in between, around a

well, remove the net. At Ih1s stage, you cut-down piece of swimming noodle

may need to coax lhe fibers back tidily or similar.

if they have spread out a lillie

10 Tie up the swimming noodle firmly, Roll the swimming noodle backward and forward 50 times. Unroll, gently pull the scad into shape, roll up [rom the other end, lie, and roll another 50 times, Repeat until you have rolled the scarf 400 times. Unwrap again, pull the scarf Into shape, and make sure that all the cross points have felted together. Remove the scarf from the bubble wrap, place it i a bowl of warm water, and gently swish it around, squeezing and gently rubbing it in your hands to shrink. and fell it a little more. Rinse several times in cold water until all traces of soap have been removed. adding a few drops of vinegar to the final rinse. Pull the scarf into shape again and dry flat. Iron If required, using an iron on a wool selling.

tip

If the cross points have not felted sufficiently well together. repeat the ron i ng process until they have,

C>

P1NK LATl i ct 29

to make the pink felt flowers

These pretty flowers are made from a separate piece of felt known as pre-felt which is created when the fibers have been wetted, soaped, and rubbed until they hold together. At this stage, as the felting process has not yet started, fibers can still be added or removed; pre-felt can be cut, stitched into, dried, and re-wetted.

It is at this stage that the template is used to cut out the motifs, which are then rolled to complete the felting process.

30 COUNTRY GARDEN

1 Lay out a layer of fleece on a small piece of bubble wrap to cover an area about 6 in. (15 em) square.

5 Blot with a lowel to remove the excess water, then remove the net.

- ~ 2~ of fleece on _ "":"'S "::. ~he first layer.

=~ "'lEI template over one of the :: .~ es. pin it onto the piece of - and out out the required

_ o~ flowers.

3 On top of this, place some yellow fibers in a circle to form the center of the flower. I also added some tussah silk fibers to give the surface a shine.

7 Place the flower shapes on a small piece of bubble wrap and proceed as in step 10 of the lattice scarf, on page 29. You will probably only have to roll the flowers about 100 times in total, as the felt is very fine.

4 Cover witll a small piece of net Wet and soap the fleece. Rub gently until the fibers hold together.lf you lift the net and rub the fibers with your fingertip, they should stay put. If they move, replace the net and rub again.

B When all the fibers are lightly felted together, rinse the flowers in cold water and dry flat. Trim the edges

if necessary, then stitch the flowers onto the scarf where required.

I stitched them on with a few French knots for decorative effect.

P1NK FELT FLOIHRS 31

daisy brooch

This brooch was inspired by the daisy-so called because

it is the "day's eye", the first flower to open in the- morning sunlightalthouqh you could chanqe the look completely by varying the shape of the flower. It can be used as a colorful accessory to brighten up any outfit. Decorative embroidery, both by hand and machine, adds a lovely finishing touch; you could further embellish the flower center by stitching. on a scattering of seed beads. Pins are readily available from most craft shops and are simple to stitch onto the back of felt brooches.

32 COUNTRY GARDEN

degree of di ffi eul ty

"

tool sand materi al s towel

1 sheet of bubble wrap. 8 x 1,6 i n (20x40 em)

~ oz (1.0g} each of white and yellow

merino wool tops

net, r8 in. (20 em) sqcare plastic bottle wrth holes in lid olive oil soap

small plastic bag

template on page 124 brooch pin

fabric scissors

sewing! kit

finished size 4in. (10 em) in diameter

3 Gently rub and manipulate the piece in your hand until It 4 Rinse the piece in cold wator, wnng out as much water

has shrunk 10 about 4 in. (10 em) square. PuJl it into shape. as possible, reshape, and flatten,

to make the da~i sy brooch

1 P ace he lowel all your work surface, with the bubble wrap on top (either side up), At one end af the piece of bubble wrap. lay down Iwo fairly thick layers of white merino fleece to cover an area about 6 in. (15 cm) square, with the fibers 01 the second layer at right angles to the firsl Lay down a third layer of yellow fleece at fight angles to the middle layer

34 COIHHRY f,AROI N

2 Lay a piece of net over 111e fibers, Wet, soap, a d rub the fibers with your hand until the fibers hold ogelher Remove the net, then fold over the rest of the bubble wrap to cover

he fibers, As this IS a very small piece of felt, you can roll 11 up III the bubble wrap and towel only. Roll 50 times, unroll, reshape, turn the piece 90 degrees, then roll up and roll another 50 limes. Repeal until you have rolled 200 limes, 50 in each orecnon,

I

- ~ me template out of paper or thin plastic, pin it onto _ - and cut it out using the fabric scissors.

6 When the flower is dry, decorate the flower with machine stitching, by topstitching around the edge and stitching a spiral in the center. Hand embroider a few French knots in the center.

7 Hand stitch a brooch pin to the back.

tip

Why not make a bigger piece of felt and cut out several f1owers? You can then stitch the flowers onto an old bag or garment to brighten it up and give it a new lease on life.

DAISY BROOCH 35

wildflower meadow

This wrap is mads from nuno felt-a technique in which felt and tabrtc are combined to produce a strong, but usually fine, fabric that drapes welt. A fine layer of fleece is placed on the surface of the chosen fabric, usually a loosely woven, lightweight fabric of natural fibers, and the wool fibres are then encouraqed to penetrate the fabric, prior to felting. As the felting progresses, the fibers draw up the fabric to create a ruched effect.

This project was inspired by the delicate ftowers that grow wild in meadows in early eumrner=-daisies. cornflowers, poppies, and pretty gr-asses. For the fabric, I used a vintage floral silk scarf, probably from the 19505 or '60s. The decoration is a mixture of Lhreads, yarns, silks, scraps offabric, ribbon and lace, embellished after felting with the odd stitch here and there.

Method of felting

First I placed a towel and bubble wrap on my work surface. As the headscarf that I was using for the back I the wrap was square. I cut it

35 COUNTRY GARDEN

in half and placed it on the bubble wrap, ovorlapplnq Ihe short edges in the middle to make one length.

Using a mix DI different shades of green, I pulled ali the wool llbers and laid them down In random directions on the silk. When the Silk was completely covered in a thick, even layer of fibers, I decorated the wrap by laying down bits of yarn, silk fibers, scraps of fabric, ribbon, embroidery flosses, and sewing threads all over ~he green background, creating an exciting and well balanced design,

The next stage was to make white and yellow pre-felts (see page 30).

I cut small flower shapes from them and placed them on the fibers,

I placed a piece of net over the wrap, and soaped and rubbed it until all the decorative fibers and pre-felt motifs adhered firmly to tbe green background. ~ then removed the milt, flip oed the wrap over on the bubble wrap, and rubbed the back gently alf over La encour ge the fibers to migrate through to Ihe other side of the SIlk fabric, It's vilal that this stage is complete before you move on 1:0 rolling the felt.

The final stage was to rolland nnse the wrap In the same way as the Summer Flowers scarf on page 20.

green

daisies

Of all the summer flowers, one of my favorites is the daisy, I Jove its simplicity and often can't resist sneaking a little one into a piece otworkwhere perhaps it doesn't really belong. This design" set against a beautiful textured green background, was inspired by an amazing bed of shasta daisies.

38 CI1lJlIJT.RY GAI'WF.N _

Method of felting

Firsl, I laid out two layers of green fibers, as ill the Summer Flowers scarf on page 20. Over the top layer, I placed a random selection or green threads, silks, yams, and scraps of fabric.

I placed a piece of net all top, and then weneo. soaped, and rubbed until the fibers just held together to form a pre-felt (see page 30),

I then prepared two smaller pieces of pre-faltone in white measuring 10 in, (25 em) square, and one in yeUow measuring 6 in. (15 em) square. From the white piece, I cut several strips % in (7 -8mm) wide, wh~ch I then cut down further into pieces about zy.; in. (5-6 cm) long

for the dasly petals.

I worked out how many datsles I wanted in the design, and then cut this number of circles

1 ~ in. (3 em) in diameter from the yellow pre-ten, I placed the petals on the green ore-ten background to form a daisy shape, allowing about ten petals per daisy, and added a yellow Circle in the center of each flower to cover he points vl/hel's the petals met.

I covered the whQle scarf with a piece of net, and wetted, soaped, and nibbed me.soart until the petals adhered lightly to the green background_ Then I rermoved the net, and rolled and finished the scarf in the same way as for the Summer Flowers on page 2Q.

GREEN DAISIES 39

summer shimmer

This beautiful wrap was made by felting pink fleece to a scarf that I found in a thrifl store. Made of pure silk, the scarf was loosely woven with stripes of even more loosely woven fabric every 6 in. (15 em) or so apart. I thought it would be lovely to felt iI usl 9 the nuno fell technique. This is a one-off wrap- unique and unrepeatable-but if you were to use a silk or viscose wrap in a similar pattern. you would get a similar result.

40 OUiiT!lY GARDEN

Method of felting

First. I placed a towel and bubble wrap on my work surface. with the thrlft-slore scarf on top. Then I taid out pale pink wool fleece on top of the wrap, with afl the fibers going in one cirection To create a slightly more inleresting eHect on the back,

I cut lenqths of a coordinating colton and viscose slub knit ing yarn aboul 3 in. (7.5 em) long and placed them randomly on lop of the pink fleece, III a strip about 8 in. (20 em) wide and

8 in. (20 em) trom IIle end 01 the wrap. I addec a wisp of pink fleece over the center 01 each piece of yarn to "harness" the piece of yarn to the wrap during the fel Ing process.

o ce I was happy witb the layout, I placed a nel over the whole wrap, and welted, soaped, and rubbed the piece un illhe wool fibers held lightly to§ether I removed the net, added

a second layer of bubble wrap Of] lop, and (Oiled both layers around

a swimming noodle. I tied Ihe wrap firmly and rolled it tOO times from each end until he fibers had

migra ed through the silk fabric aoc were visible poking through on he Other SIde 01 fhe silk To felt the fibers, I folded the wrap Into a parcel and dropped Illlghtly onto the work surtaee until it had shrunk to the required Si79. FInally, I rinsed the wrap Ir cold water and dried if fla'

seashore

live been lucky enough to live near the sea for most of my lite and I have spent many, many hours there, walking the dog, playing with the children, or just watching the sea. I love the way no two beaches are the same.

They all have their own character-and whether it's rocky, sandy, or pebbly, each one is guaranteed to fascinate and inspire me. I probably get more

of my ideas from the sea and the coastline than from anywhere else. All the projects in this chapter have been inspired by simple things that you can find on every oeach=- pebbles, seaweed, shells. These five scarves are all medium-weight scarves in soft, natural colors.

white pebbles

In spi red by the creamy white pebbles to be found on III ny beaches, this scar is made from nuno fell, with the wool 'felted onto white silk georgette. I took the colors and texturetrom the pebbles, and added a cllunky whlte woolen yarn to form a spiral pa ern that occurs so 0' en in nature If you try to felt this scarf before the fibers have penetrated rhe silk suHicier tly, the wool fibers will jusl torrn a layer of felt above the silk, so do Cl18Ck before you begin felling. If the yarn aves around when you push it with your fingertips. it has not adhered sufficiently and needs to be rubbed a little more. This project also introduces the technique of making (intentional!) holes in a piece of nunc felt.

44 S[A$IIOf,[

degree of difficulty tltltl

tools and materials

towel

1 lenglh of bubble wrap, 14 x 80 in. (35 x 204 cm)

11 x 78 in. (28 x 198 ern) white silk

georgette or chiffon

fabric scissors

3 oz (75g) white merino wool tops small amounts of merino wool tops in

several soft colors-light pink. grey, buttermilk, sage

net, 14 X 80 in. (35 x 204 ern) plastic bottle Wi!'!l holes in lid olive oill soap

small plastic bag

3 yd (3m) 100 percent wool white slub yam

sheet of thin plastic, 14 x 80 in. (35 x 204 em)

cane blind

swimming "noodle," or similar, and ties

finished size

8 x 59 in. (20 x 150 em)

to make the whi te pebbl es scarf

1 Plaoe the bubble wrap on the towel, with the silk georgette on top. (The silk needs to be about 30 percent bigger than you want the finlsl1ed scarf to be, to allow for shrinkaqe.) Cut a wavy edge a.long both short ends of the sill<. Lay down a fine layer of white merino fibers at random angles, slightly overlappiing the edges of the silk.

3 Add the colored fibers to this layer by placing and mixing them as desired.

2 Lay down a. second fine layer of fibers in the same way as the first layer.

4 Cover the fibers with the net. Starting in the center and working outward. gently sprinkle the fibers aU over with walter. Flatten the surface gently with your Ihands to help the water soak into the wool fibers.

!j Gently soap the entire surface, takingl care not to dislodge the wool fibers underthe net.

'Our hand inside a plastic enrly rub the surface ,in a "lotion until the fibers hold -r enough to form a pre-felt ege 30).

7 Uft the net and lay on the wool yarn to form a coil.ing pattern along the length 01 the scarf and at both end's.

a Ughtly "veil" the yarn with tiny wisps of white merino at regular points. This will help the yarn to adhere more firmly to the merino fibers. during the felting process.

9 Cover the scarf with net again. then sprinkle water and apply soap along the yarn. Using your fingertips, rub the soap in gently but firmly along the yarn design until it has adhered firm1y to the fleece It is very important to make sure that this has happened before you move onto the next slage, so keep checking by lifting the net and testing with your fingertip. If the yarn moves around freely when you nudge it, you need rub it a litlle more.

l'IHITE PEBBLES 47

C>

11 Unroll and look at the silk georgett-e side of the scarf, If the fibers have worked through the weave evenly along the whole length of the scarf, and if you can pinch and pull them, you can move on to the next step. If not, rof up the scarf again and repeat step 10 until ready. Trim the wavy edges if necessary.

10 When you are happy that the wool des~gn is firmly in position, place a sheet of thin plastic over the entire scarf and smooth it down so that it clings to the fibers. Lift all three layers-bubble wrap, scarf, and plastic-and place them on a cane blind, Roll up around a swimming noodle and tlie firmly. Roll 1 00 times, unroll, straighten, roll up trom the other end, and roll another 100times. Repeat until you have rolled the scarf 400 times in total.

12 Cut tiny holes where desired for your design. Tile holes will get bigger dluring the shrinking precess, so don't make them too big. I made them between Y. and ~ in.

(0.75< and 1.25 em) in diameter,

--e surface lightly with soap again, and sprinkle a

-= over it.

- erIDve the scarf from the cane bl ind, fold it into a ;::00 with the yarn design on the inside and drop it "C..Jf work surface 25 times. Unwrap the package, _"'-en the scarf, refold it with yarn still on the inside, :-:Xl it another 25 times. Repeat twice more (several

14 Remove the bubble wrap and plastic. Place the scarf on the cane blind, roll it up around the noodle, tie firmly, and roll 50 times. Unroll, straighten the scarf, roll it up from the other end, tie, and roll a further 50 times

tip

If you find that the scarf is shrinking very slowlY,squeeze out as much water as possible, t~en place it in a bowl of hot water. Manipulate the scarf gently in the water. then fold it up again quickly and drop it a further 25 times. The heat wjll speed ~p the shrinking process; this stage can be repeated until sufficient shrinkage is achieved.

times, if necessary). When the scarf has shrunk enough, rinse it several times in cold water, adding 1 teaspoon of vinegar 10 the last rinse. Smooth the scarf out, pull it into shape, dry flat, and press the back of the scarf with an iron on the wool setting while it is still slightly damp.

~!HJTE PEBBLES 49

spira shells

While on vacation, I picked up serne gorg@©u3eOraJ- 9ncrusteo.$h~ll$ on the beach. The delicate e:OIOfS and the intricate spiral shape otthe shells inspired me tornakethis pretty scarf.

I chose a soft, natural whit€ background to.echo the color of th1~ sand and a set&c:ttan of pinks tor the shell motifs.

50 SEASHORE

Method of felting

L began by laying a fine layer of white merino fleece on a piece of sill~ chiffon measuring roughry 11 x 78 in. (38 X 1,98 ern).

I formed the spirals out (llf a flflgerful of ptnk fibersfrom a lengtli 8~ w©'01 tGIDS. a few !Uarker pink fibers, ana <it tE1JW lighter fitJe-rS. YOIlJ could make each siSiral slightly different by using other coml5inations of iiibers.

I twisteGj the fibers together and wrapped them around one of my fingers to form a spiral, then placed them en top of the fleece.

The scarf was completed In the same way as the White Pebbles scarf on page 44.

1

silly seaweed

Seaweed comes in ma.ny shapes and colorsyellow, green, red, purple. I took the rather unattractively named bladderwrack as my inspiration for this fun scarf and decided to use four different shades of green with an accent of mauve. This project introduces the plastic resist technique of feltmaking., which is used to prevent fleece from felting to itself during rolling when making three-dimensional objects such as bags and hats. Here, it is used to create seaweed "fronds" that hang free of the main scarf.

52 SEASHORE

degree of di ffi cul ty \')Ot:

tool s and material s

towel

2 sheets of bubble wrap, 12 x 68 in, (30 x 175 em)

1 sheet 01" bubble wrap, 18 in. (45 em) square

black marker pen

1 oz (25gl) of merino wool tops in each of four shades of blue/green

small amount of mauve merino top

and tussah silk fibers

net, 12x 68 in. (30 x 175 ern) plastic bottle with holes in lid olive oil soap

small plastic bag

templates on pages 126-1127 sheets of plastic approximately

8 x 12 in. (30 x 2.1 em)

swimming "noodle," or similar, and ties

cane blind

f i n l shed size

7.5 x 49 in. (i9 x 124 em)

1 Lay a sheet of bubble wrap. bubble side down, on the towel. Pull oftand lay down a layer of same-color merino fleece fibers on the bubble wrap, with all the fibers going in the same direction. Cover the bubble wrap, allowing 8! malrgin of 1 to 2 in .. (2,5 to 5 em) along an sides,

to make the si lly seaweed scarf

2 Lay down a second layer of fibers, using several shades of green this time, with each pull of fibers sllig.htly overlapping. but going in random directions.

:3 Place a few tussah silk fibers randomly on top for extra detail and to add a sheen to the surface. You now need to prepare and decorate a second piece in the same colors, approximately 16 in. (40, em) square, out of which you will cut the "strands" that will be attached to the, main scarf,

~3 a piece of net over both pieces of work.

- ~ ply olive oil soap over the net.

5 Starting in the center and working outward, sprinkle the Wibers all over with water. Flatten the surface gently with your hands to help the water soak into the wool fibers,

7 With your hand in a plastic bag, gently rub both pieces until the t'ibers hold tog.ether and have pre-felted.

8, Blollhe smaller piece 01 pre-fell with a towel to remove the excess a ter

1 0 Cut out as many seaweed strands as you wish to add to your scarf.

9 Copy the em lates or 111,0 stran s and pin tile to Ihe smaller piece of pre-rell.

11 Tidy up the edges of the seari by pushing back any stray fibers w!th your fingertips

- - ::'on the strands toward the end of the scart. Place .:;- co plastic (I use plastic stationery folders with the cut off) underneath each strand, leaving the top :3 em) of each strand clear of the plastic.

- :-e the net over the top 1 in. (2.5 cm) of the strands,

-e~ wet, apply soap, and rub gently with your

13 Add a little more fle·eee above the top 1 in. (2.5 em) of the strands to anchor them securely when felting,

L>

SILLY SEAWEED 57

15 Remove the net and lay the second sheet of bubble wrap over the entire scarf. Roll up both layers around a swimming noodle. tie firmly. and mil 100 times.

.. _ ...

16 Unroll the scarf, remove the top layer of bubble wrap, and reshape the scarf. Re-apply the bubble wrap, rolll the scarf up again from the other end, and roll1DQ times.

17 Unroll the scarf, remove it from the bubble wrap, and' place it on a cane blind. Roll the blind up around

a swimming noodl'e. tie it up, and roll 50 times. Unrol~, straighten the scarf. roll it up hom the other end, and roll it another 50 limes. Rolling the scarf directly in the cane blind hardens the felt

-2-""1DVe the sheets of oiasuc eensath the seaweed strands.

-:. shrink the fibers further and to

- :he scarf. rub the scarf gently

.s' the cane mat, working from .... 0 to the other.

19 Place the scarf: in a bowl of hot water ard very gently squeeze and rub it with your fingertips to shrink the fibers together.

21 Work at the sides and the seaweed-strand ends of the scarf by squeezing and rubbing them with your fingers to form a wavy edge and a bumpy, seaweed-like surface. R~nse the scarf several times in cold water, adding a few drops of vinegar to the final rinse. Gently squeeze out as much water as possible, reshape the edges and bumps as necessary, and dry the scarf flat.

pebble stripes

1 Fitst lay dowm a layer ot creamcolored fibers horizontally over an area o~9,5 xr6 in.(24 x 190 crn~.

60 SEASHORE

A warm, cozy, unisex scarf, this project is easy to make and wear. It was inspired by delicately colored pebbles whose tones complement each other perfectly: see how the soft shades of grey, beige, sage green, buttermilk, and cream occur naturally in the stones.

3Trirfl the ends, then wet, soap, roll, and complete the scarf in the usual way.

2 Break off a 76-in.(190-cm) length from each of the colors, split each one into four; then place each long strand of fibers on tQP of the cream fibers.

PEBBLE STRIPES 61

black pebbles

My favorite beach is at Crow Point in North Devon-a wonderful place for beachcombing and a great place to find driftwood and pebbles of every shape, size, and color. This is where I found some little smooth black pebbles with thin lines that looked as if they had been drawn with a fine white pen. I'd never seen such beautiful pebbles anywhere else and thought the design would make a simple but very sophisticated scarf.

62 SEASHORE

Method of felting

I made this scarf by laying out two even layers of black merino fIIeece. On top of this I added several lengths of a thin, very pale gray knitting yarn diagonally across the scarf, with some of the pieces crossing. The scarf was then wetted, soaped, rubbed, rolled, and completed in

the usual way.

f all shades

In fall, the colors on the trees richen to deep browns, russets, and greens

and, as the days shorten and the air becomes cooler, the yellows, reds,

and oranges of fruits and berries appear. Take time to have a close look

at fall leaves. Compare the many beautiful shapes, textures, and colors;

pick them up and trace around them to make templates and use them

in your work. Sometimes the simplest shapes can be the most effective.

The scarves in this section are made in rich, warm colors to brighten up

even the dullest day and to keep out the chill of those cold, damp morninqs

sycamore

This lovely, .Iight scarf is made from Shetland' wool, which is coarser and has a duller finish than merino. Some of the leaves are applied pre-felts and some are machine appllqued to the finished scarf. I used dupiani silk far the appliqued leaves, as the shine of the fabric contrasts with and complements the soft wad background of the scarf. Make them as rich and as vibrant as possible for a really dramatic effect The recycledl sari silk used for decoration is perfect for incorporating into felt and is available in several different colorways and provides accents of color and texture,

66 FALL SHADES

degree of difficulty 00

tool sand materi el s

towel

2 sheets of bubble wrap, 18 x 74 in. (45x 190cm)

4 oz {1 ~Og) natural Shetland wool

tops

net, 18 x 74 in. (45 X 190 em) plastic bottle with holes in lid olive oil soap

small plastic bag

scraps of merino wool tops and tussah silk in fall colors

templates on page 125 fabric scissors

3-4 yards (3.5 m) of recycled sari silk swimming "noodle," or slrniiar,

and ties

small piece of silk dupioni small piece of fusible webbing

finished size

10 x58 in. (.26 x 150 em)

to make the sycamore scarf

'11 Lay a owel on your work surface, with a piece of bubble wrap on top bubble side down Pull oul and lay down a'l even layer of natural Shetland wool ribers in the center 01 the bubble wrap, covering an area 13.5 x 74 in. (35 x 190 em), with all the fibers lying horizontally. layout a second layer With the fibers at riglll angles to Ihe firsl layer.

:3 Apply soap evenly over theentire scarf working your way from one end to the other,

2 Cover the fibers with the net. Starting in the center and work ng outwarel. sprinkle Ihe fibers aH over with water Flatten the SUI face genlly with your hands to help the water soak into the wool frbers.

4 With your hand in a plastic bag gently rub the fibers ir ::circular motion, working your way Irom one end of the sea to the other, until the fibers ho~d logether 10 [arm a pre-fet(see page 30).

=-ree or four small pre-felts ~ 15 em) square from

001 tops in contrasting

ade four pre-felts-one in .a n burqundy and rich reds, _ owns and greens, and one

crowns

6 Cut out the templates and pin them to the pre-felts. Cut out a selection of leaves in varying colors.

tip

Templates can be cut from dry or from damp pre-felts.

I>

7 Take a couple of lengths 01 spun recycled sarl silk and 8 When you are happy with the design, put the net over

lay them along the length of the pre-felted scarf. Place the the scarf, sprinkle on some water, and gently apply soap

cut-out leaves in position, Lay several leaves, just touching to the leaves and along the entire i:ength of the yarn,

each other, along the short ends of the scarf.

9 Very gently rub the leaves and the area just around them, and all along the yarn, with your fingertips. This will help the leaves and the yarn adhere to the scarlfibers before felting. Pee! back the net and check that all the leaves are holding in place, and that the yarn is ~ightly holding to the fibers. This is very important: if they are not holding, they may move around during the rolling process. When all the leaves and the yarn are holding fast, tidy the edges by pushing any stray fibers back with your fingertips. Place another sheet of bubble wrap over the scarf, roll it up firmly around a swimming noodle, tie and ron it backwards and forwards 50 times. Unroll, pul'l the scarf to shape, roll it Lip agaill from tile other end, and mil another 50 times. Repeat this twice more. By checking every 50 rolls, you have more control over what is happening during the felting process.

Vl'JiIe the scarf IS drying, prepare eaves for machine applique. ')~jng the manufacturer's

~ -uetions. apply fusible webbing to _ back of the dupioni silk, then cut - -he required number 0'1 leaves.

12 Peel off the backing from the fusible webbing, then position the leaves all the scart where required. Carefully iron the leaves in place, lIsing an iron on the wool setting,

10 After you have rolled 200 times in total, cut around the leaf shapes at each end of the scarf to give a shaped edge, then roll the scan up, and roll it again. When you have roJled another 200 times, voursoart may be ready, If it is not, roH it up again and repeat the rolling step. Rinse the scarf ill warm water, gently manipulating it to felt the fibers a httle more. Rinse the scarf several times in cold water, adding a few drops of vinegar to the last rinse, PuB the' scarf ~nto shape and dry flat. Iron on the back while still damp, with the iron on the wool setting. if required.

113 Machine stitch around the leaf shapes to applique fhern to the scarf. Stitch around all the other leaves to give them more definition.

falling leaves

This scarf is a fun accessory, guaranteed to add a splash of color to any outfit. Made using very thick knitting yarn that comes in a fabulous range of colors, it reminds me of leaves as tlley fall from the- trees, I make this scarf in ail sorts of colors: here I've used a tiqor-stripe combination (see opposite) and mix of coral

and sea plant colors (page 77), as well as the pinks and purples

in the scarf below.

degree of difficulty t:

tools and mater; al s

towel

2 sheets of bubble wrap, 12 x 52 in. (30 x 132 em)

1 ~ 02 (3,09) purple merlno wool tops 4-oz (1 aD-g) hank of chunky slub WOI

yarn in tall shades

plastic bottle with holes in lid olive oil soap

small plastic bag

swimming "noodle," or similar, and ties

cane, blind

fi ni shed 1 ength 47 in. (120 em)

to make the falling leaves scarf

1 Lay a piece of bubble wrap, ubbie side up, on a towel. Break off a lenglh o' fibers the size that you want the scan to be, plus about 30 percent to allow for shrinkage (I usod a length 67 in./170 em long.) Split the length evenly into three strands. (You Will only usc twa of these strands.)

2 Cut the hank of wool yarn into 35-40 pieces 7-8 in. p 8-20 em) long.

4 Place the second long strand of fibers that YOLI made in Step 1 directly on top of the first. sandwiching the shorter yarn lengths In be ween.

5 Lay a piece of net over the entire scart, sprinkle with cold water, and flatten With your hands to 11elp the water soak Into the wool nbers.

:3 Lay one strand of merino wool fiber down Ihe center of the bubble wrap, opening the fibers up so that it forms a stn aoout % In. (2 ern) wide. Lay the shari lengths of yarn evenly across the strip al2-in. (5-cm) intervals.

'''e long strand offibers

ze another piece of bubble s-nooth side UP. on top of the - "laking sure that none of the ::rands of yarn are touching other or they will felt together.

7 Using your fingertips, rub along tile length ot the strand, paying particular attention to places where the yarn crosses the strand. 00 not start rolling until all these areas hold firm.

8· Lift the net occasionally to check that the fibers are not sticking to the net. If the fibers on the long strand have spread, push them back into position.

10 Roll up the scart around a swimming noodle, tie firmly, and roll 100 times. Unrolll, stretch out the scarf (again making sure that the short strands of yarn are not touching), roll up from the other end, tie, and roll another 100 times. Repeat this step until the long central strand of wool fibers is completely felted.

11 Remove the scarf from the bubble wrap, place it on a cane blind, and gently rub the whole scarf against the panels of the blind,

thus working the fibers together a little more.

12 Gently roll the scarf between your hands to encourage the fibers to telt more, making sure that the short strands of yarn do not touch each other and felt together.

76 FALL SHADES

13 Place the scarf in a bowl of hot water and gently rub the long strand of fibers so that it shrinks a little more. Rinse several times in cold water, adding a few drops of vinegar to the final rinse, Squeeze out as much water as possible, stretch the scarf lengthwise, and dry flat

14 You may find that despite all your efforts same of the short strands of yarn are still a little loose. To rectify this, and to add a final touch, when the scarf is dry, place a length of the wool yarn down the center of the scarf, pin it in place, and machine stitch over it using a zigzag stitch.

variation

YQU could create several of these simple-to-make little scarves in different colors to jazz up your wardrobe. This version reflects the eolot of the ocean, and the delicate shades of the corals and plants fownd beneath the sea. Wear it during the cold, wet winter ~onths to remind you that summer is n0t far away!

FALLING LEAVEs.- 7:

moorland

Method of felting

First, I laid out two layers Gf burgundy fibers, with a strip ot purple flbers about 0/. in. (2 em] wide along the edges and the ends of the top layer. After teasing the Wensleydale curls apart, I placed them on the scarf SQ that about 4~ in (1,2 em) of the scarf was covered at each short end, caretuHy separating the curls to form a fringte.

Then I placed a net over the scart. and wetted, soaped, and genUy rubbed the scarf allover, payi ng particular attention to the areas where the Wensleydale fibers cover the scarf. It's important not to start rolling until these fibers have adhered to [he fibers beneath. This may take a little time, as the Wensleydale fibers are quite shiny and slippery. When the Wensleyda.le fringe fibers had adhered firmly to the merino fibers. 'I rolled and completed the scarf in the same way as the Sycamor8" scarf on page 66.

The natural curls of the Wensleydale sheep g~ve this gorgeous warm scarf loads of interest and texture and add a tactile quality. The deep, rich colors can be found in the flowering heather on moor and heathland and in the bracken and gorse as they turn to a deeper brown as fall progresses. Ii you look carefully at the leaves you wil'l see a range of shades of brown, purple, and reds that you would not necessarily think of putting together, but which complement each other perfectly.

MOORLAND 79

raindrops

This: is a softrcozy scarf with silk "raindrops" to 'lighten the fall co I ors, The scarf is made In excicctly the sam e way as th e Sum mer Flowers scarf on page 2iO, but instead of the white silk flowers I cut rairrdrep motifs from. an @!d paHerneti vtSCDS@ seartthat I foundln a thrift store, The !O\{@ly'm.ix of colored fleece and wnite silkwas purchased ,already carded:

90 FALL SfiADES

Method of felting

To create this. scarf, I made a raindrop template and cut out several raindrops from a viscose scarf, I placed five or six gf these motifs ev?nly at each filnd ef the scarf, then wet. soaped, and completed the scarf using tl1€f same merhnd as the Bummer. Flowers SGBrf 'On page 213 ..

RAINDROPS 81

cobweb

Fan is the time for vibrant oolorsahd cold, frosty mQrnings, with.intricet~ly 5PWrl, dewy cobwebs adorninqftre plants and hedgerQws. ThT$ delicate scart c0mbines tnef@el of @obwe!j:s with the co.ors 01 the turrtirlg leaves.

To felt the fibers, I placed a net over lhsrn, then wetter;:), soaped, and rwbbed gently until the fiber$; 11eld togethelf and the knittfng yam a€lhered IIlJhtly tID 5he merine fibers.

I relied the scart first in blJ,bbl@ vi~f8~~r and then 111 a cane pili no 4tflW aU The. ~ibers ilad felteGI rirmIYf6i&Jet[il,er. TO complete thE? scarf. ~ pulled t baGk into shape h,mgthwise. rrnse('! It and drt€d i1 flat.

Method of felting

I began by placing twIJ'W'gVY lines bi thick knitltl"lg yarn along the 19n9th of the bubble wrap. 011 top. I added as linea layer as'possible of mar,ilTe fulu8 fibers. with a very fine laYEr of burg'undy fibers on teprof that, at right :an'glas to the blue layer. Theil I

placed lengths of knitting yarn en top of the wool fibers to echo the design on the underside ofthe-wrap

83

woodlands

Stroll through any woodland at any time of year and you'll find inspiration.

In winter! without the foliage! lt's easier to focus on the colors and textures c the trees themselves. In spring! there are the fresh greens of the new leaves and often a carpet of wild flowers on the ground. In summer! the greens soften and the wild flowers present a different colorway; and in fall we're treated to a whole new palette of colors-yellows, browns! rust, burgundy, and red. The scarves and wraps in this chapter reflect that variety: scarves in fresh I natural colors; lightweight scarves in fresh spring greens; and warmer ones in richer colors that remind me of the woods later in the year.

mossy green

degree of di ffi cul ty 00

tools and materi al 5

towel cane blind

bubble wrap, 15 x 65 in. (38 x 165 em) 2 oz (50g) fresh green merino wool

tops

scraps of green silk tussah net, 15 x 65 in. (40 x 165 em) plastic bottle with holes in lid olive oil soap

small plastic bag

sheet of very thin plastic, at least 65 in. (165 em) long

swimming "noodle." or similar, and ties

finished size

8 x 48 in. (20 122 em)

861100[1 i;t,DS

This scarf brings to mind the fresh green of the sofl mass that carpets and cushions the ground and grows up the walls and trees in the woods. It is a very lightweight cobweb scarf, with a lauch 01 texture added by stitching on rows of fancy knitting yarn after the felting is finished.

to rna ke t he mossy green sea rf

1 Lay a cane blind or the lowel with a sheet of bubble wrap on top, bubble Side down Break off green menno wool fibers the length ollhe finished scarf plus about 30 percent extra to allow for shrinkage. (I used a length about 62 In ,160 em long.) Place the wool on tile bubble wrap and spread oullhe fibers.

2 Starting at one end and working downward, spread the fibers out as finely and as evenly as possible trying not to leave any gaps.

3 Pull off several lengths of merino tops the width of the Hbers laid down in step 2 Spread msm hori70ntally across lhe first layer 01 fibers. This layer call be even finer than tile first.

6 Starting in tile center and workrng outward, sprinkle the fibers allover with water. Flatten the surface gently witll your hands to help Ihe water soak into the wool fibers. Spread olive oil soap over the net

""-1'10 'Innn I J. Illlr\e"

4. Place some WISPS of tussah silk randomly on the woot fibers,

5 Cover the fibers with net, tal<.ing care not to dislodge [he [)bers.

7 With your hand Inside a plastic bag, 8 Place a sWimming noodle an top

rub Ihe surface allover. Do not let the of the fibers, then roll all the ~ayers

fibers work their way through the net. up tightly together.

because they are so fine thai il will be

very difficu!tto remove them from the

net wuhout damage Remove the net,

tidy the edges ot the scarf. and place

a sheet of plastic over the entire scarf.

-e up firmly and roll 100 times.

~ '8 carefully straighten the scarf, :=: repeat, this time rolling from the er end. Repeat until the scarf has ee'" rolled 400 times in total.

-.=;""""'Ove the scarf from the bubble ao and plastic and place it oirectly -_,e cane blind. Roll it up, tie, roll

_ 'TIes, unroll, pull it into shape, roli ~ .... 'rom the other end, and roll 50 es Repeat so that the scarf has en rolled a total of 200 times in the -a e blind.

11 When the scarf is airy, decorate

by pinning three lengths of fancy . "litt; ng yarn along the length, then sutch over the yarn, using a zigzag ~ . ch on the sewing machine.

10 Roll one end of the scarf in one end of the blind, and the other end into the opposite end of the blind. Holding both rolled-up ends firmly, pull evenly to stretch the scarf. (If your scarf is very long, get someone to help you.) Wet and soap the scarf agaitl and continue to roll it until the fibers hold together very firmly. Hinse the scarf several times in cold water: addinQi a few drops of vinegar to the final rinse, stretch, and dry flat

forest green

This is a double-sided scarf in glorious green. It was insp.iJed by the color of some dyed Wensleydale curls that I came across in a store, which reminded me of the greens found in woodlands. Sometimes, just looking at fibers and colors is enough to inspire a project. The materials for this scarf were gathered in just this way: I found merino fleece in a beautiful deep green to match the Wensleydale curls, and added a touch of green tussah silk for extra sparkle and interest

90 ~IOODLANDS

degree of di ffi cul ty \')

tools and materials

towel

2 sheets of bubble wrap, 18 x 74 in. (45 x 188 em)

4 oz (1 OOg) deep green merino wool

tops

dyed tussah silk fibers

1 oz (25g) dyed Wensleydale curls net, 18 x 74 in. (45 x 188 cm) plastic bottle with holes in lid

olive oil soap

small plastic bag

swimming "noodle," or similar, and ties

finished size

11 x51 in. (28x130cm)

to make the forest green scarf

1 Lay a towel on your work surface, with bubble wrap on top, bubble side down. Lay down two layers of wool fibers at right angles to each other.

4 In order to decorate the other side of the scarf and make it doublesided, you need to turn the work over, To do this, place the second piece of bubble wrap on the scarf, smooth side down,

2 Pull off wisps of silk fibers and lay them down on the scarf, positioning them randomly.

5 Smooth your hands along the scarf to compress the fibers a little and to keep every tiling m place. Take hold of one side and Hip the scarf over, Remove the top layer of bubble wrap and repeat steps 2 and 3.

3 Place Wensleydale curls at regular iotervals alorng both short ends of the scarf, spacing them about 2M in. (6 em) apart to form a fringe.

6 Along the short ends" place Wensleydale curls in the spaces left between the curls on the first side, to form an even fringe.

~ • .... e "ibers with the net,

_ So_'€! that the fringe pieces do -~ eaeh other. Starting in the and working outward, sprinkle

-':-:'$ Nith cold water Flatten the :~ gently with your hands to

-s • ater soak into the fibers.

S Gently apply soap to the entire scarf.

9 With your hand inside a plastic bag, gently rub the whole scarf. Take particular care to rub the edges so thai the merino and Wensleydale fibers hold together. Do not rub the fringes themselves too much, as you want them to remain soft and curly.

1 0 Place Ihe second piece of bubble wrap over the scarf, roll it up around a swimming noodle, lie firmly, and roll 100 limes. Unroll, reshape the scarf, and check that the strands of the fringes aren't touching each other:

Roll up again from the olher end, and roll another 100 limes. Repeat until you have rolled 600 times in total.

The fibers should now be holding together firmly. If they are not, repeat the rolling stage. Remove the scarf from the bubble wrap and pull it into shape. Rinse the scarf several times in cold water, adding a few drops of vinegar to the last rinse. Dry flat and iron on the back wrth a medium iron.

FOREST GREEN 93

beech, tree

nuno

The idea for this design came from my obse-vanens of a beech leaf-a simple shape, yet very ettectlve. This is a nunc felt scarf, in which a very fine layer of wool fibers is felted onto a backing of silk chiffon to produce a very [ightw€li'ght but strong fabric.

Method of felting

I began by pJacing avery fine layer of w.QQI and silk fibers on a piece of white silk chiffon cut to size. Then I made a pre-felt (see page 30) €Ibout 10 in. (25 em) square, using greens with a little pink, @old, and blue f:m intere~t. I cut out 15-20 leaves from tifl@ pre-felt, using the beech leaf templaTe on page: 124-, and laid them en the scarf where required, At each short end of the scarf. I added a row of leaves just touching each other. In the spaces left. I included little scraps of thread, silk, and yarn for oecoratlon. Once tRe desiQJ:1 had be~rh' laid €lut. I GQ~ereQ.l it with !de:ilyester voile ai1Gl wetted, $oaped. and rubbed it (mtil the fibers were firm and be~innin© to migrate througM to the other slde.ot the chiffon. The scarf was cQmpletoo in the usual way.

BEECH TREE NUNO 95

treebark

Made from wool from the BlackWelsh sheep carded with silk, this. scarf is very light. A contrast to the fresh fJreens of the woodlands, it reminds me of the texture and color of bark. The deooration was provided by a fancy knitting yarn that I've had. for years, which is ideal for bringing a touch of color and texture to a woodland or moorland scene. The seart is, very slmple to make, but very effeG:tive.

Method of felti ng

First, I marked out the size of the scarf on a piece of bubble wr-ap, adding 25~30 percent extra to allow fOJ si'lrinkage. Then I cut-a few lel:rgths of fan(',yyarn and arranged them In 8©:ii patterns on the bubble:

Wrap. Two layers- of fibers were placed '(;'in to~ ef the y.arm:lesigJil'Si at right angles to each other, then three 0rfGur lengths of yarn wen!) adGle® along the' length ottbs top layer 01 'fil1'Jers, spacing. therneveniy, The scarf was then eosered with net and wetteQ,$@aped, and Gormpietedtnl the same way ssthe Sycamore s\>,;ari on page 66.

woodland wrap

This is a very pretty wrap made from Blue-faced Leicester wool and the colors remind me of the sunlight as it filters through the trees. This wool is very easy to felt and, as the fibers have a natural curl, it produces a very soft and slightly textured felt. I used a fancy knitting yarn and dyed Wensleydale curls to decorate the wrap.

Method of felting

On bubble wrap I marked out an area rtyugilly 30 x. 80 in. (7€l x :!05 em) and !aidd:own two layers of Bluef&lceo leicr;ester wool fiber'S at ri\';Jht g't'l§lles to) each Glther. I then placed feur !engtlls of fafl~y yarn atony the len@th of the scarf, spacing them everilyc. For the decorative lring-@,

I car'8fwlly pulled off some

Wensleydale curls, teased them apart, and Qlaced them ever the short ends of the wrap, leaving about 3 in. (1.5 em) between each €lna. I alse pOHitionBd a rew: cu~l~ rahctor.nlyalOh(9_ the wr-a13.

Finally, I covered the piece with net, wetted, soaped. rubbed, and completed the wrap in the same way as the gycamore scarf on page 66.

9& HOOO:!tA:~(jS

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