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**Abstract—In this exercise, flow over a ClarkY airfoil is modeled. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional.
**

The chord length of the airfoil is 0.4036 m. Coarse, medium, and fine mesh types are available. Inviscid or viscous

flow fields can be simulated over the airfoil. The material properties of air are used with ideal gas behavior assumed

for density calculations. Far-field temperature, far-field pressure, Mach number, and angle of attack can be specified

as the boundary conditions. The exercise reports wall shear stress, skin friction factor, lift coefficient, and drag

coefficient. Plots of pressure coefficient, friction coefficient, and shear stress distribution are available. Contours of

pressure, velocity, temperature, Mach number, stream function, turbulent kinetic energy, and dissipation rate can be

displayed. A velocity vector plot is also available.

1 Introduction

**A fundamental and common aerodynamics problem of practical importance is the flow over an airfoil.
**

Airfoils are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional wings. Two-dimensional airfoils can be

considered the building blocks of a wing, meaning the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils are useful for

interpreting the performance of the whole wing. In this exercise, both inviscid and viscous flows over an

airfoil are investigated. The lift and drag characteristics of the ClarkY airfoil and the variation of lift with

the angle of attack can be evaluated. You can also compare pressure distribution for viscous and inviscid

flow fields, so that the effects of viscosity can be interpreted.

2 Modeling Details

The fluid region is represented in two dimensions. The procedure for solving the problem is:

**1. Create the geometry.
**

2. Set the material properties and boundary conditions.

3. Mesh the domain.

FlowLab creates the geometry and mesh, and exports the mesh to FLUENT. The boundary conditions

and flow properties are set through parameterized case files. FLUENT converges the problem until the

convergence limit is met or the number of iterations specified is achieved.

2.1 Geometry

The ClarkY airfoil is created from a set of vertices. These vertices are connected using a smooth curve,

creating the surface of the airfoil. A flow domain is created surrounding the airfoil and this domain is split

for meshing purposes (Figure 2.1). The following dimensions (in SI) are used for the domain:

• W = 10 m

• L = 12.5 m

• C = 0.4036 m (where C is the chord length of the airfoil)

1

875 ) F irst Cell Height = Ref inement F actor (0. [FlowLab 1.1. 2 c Fluent Inc. First Cell Height is calculated with the following formula: Y plus × (Characteristic Length0.125 × V iscosity 0. medium.2].5 Coarse 2. Mesh density varies based upon the assigned Refinement Factor. and fine mesh types are available. Figure 2. 2007 .1: Schematic of the Flow Domain 2. April 12. Yplus values for turbulent flow conditions are summarized in Table 2.199 × V elocity 0.1: Refinement Factor Using the Refinement Factor.2 Mesh Coarse.2.25 Table 2. The Refinement Factor values for the mesh densities are given in Table 2. Mesh Density Refinement Factor Fine 1 Medium 1.875 ) (2-1) Reynolds number based upon chord length is used to determine Yplus.875 × Density 0.

2007 3 . Enhanced Wall Treatment Yplus < 10 Re > 50000 Turbulent.2: Mesh Generated by FlowLab c Fluent Inc.2]. April 12. The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 2. Standard Wall Functions Yplus > 30 Table 2. Figure 2. [FlowLab 1.2: Flow Regime Vs. The entire domain is meshed using a map scheme. Reynolds Number The number of intervals along each edge is determined using geometric progression and the following equa- tion: n o Edge length×(Growth ratio−1) Log F irst Cell Height + 1. Reynolds Number Flow Regime Yplus/First Cell Height Re ≤ 50000 Turbulent.2.0 Intervals = IN T (2-2) Log(Growth ratio) The edges are meshed using the First Cell Height and the calculated number of intervals.

3: Turbulence Models Based on Reynolds Number If turbulence is selected in the Physics form of the Operation menu.2]. Boundary Assigned As Airfoil Wall External domain Pressure far-field Table 2. 2007 .xy plot files. Instructions for the solver are provided through a journal file.3 Physical Models for FLUENT Either inviscid flow or viscous flow models can be applied.5 Boundary Conditions You can specify the following boundary conditions: • Far field pressure • Far field temperature • Mach number • Angle of attack The following boundary conditions are assigned in FLUENT.4: Boundary Conditions Assigned in FLUENT 2. The material properties and the initial conditions are read through the case file. the appropriate turbulence model and wall treatment is applied based upon the Reynolds number. [FlowLab 1.2. the following physical models are applied: Re ≤ 50000 k − model Re > 50000 k − model Table 2. When the solution is converged or the specified number of iterations is met. April 12. 4 c Fluent Inc. FLUENT exports data to a neutral file and to .6 Solution The mesh is exported to FLUENT along with the physical properties and the initial conditions specified. 2. Based on the Reynolds number. GAMBIT reads the neutral file for postprocessing.4 Material Properties The following material properties of the fluid can be specified: • Density (ideal gas law) • Thermal conductivity (only for viscous flow) • Viscosity (only for viscous flow) • Specific heat • Molecular weight 2.

2. x-velocity. the flow predictions for higher angles of attack will not be accurate. a large separation region in the downstream of the airfoil is observed.3 Contour Plots Contour plots of pressure. 4 Exercise Results 4. It is not possible to solve the flow system with laminar conditions. total pressure. April 12. 4.2]. temperature. Turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate are available for viscous flows.1 Reports The following reports are available: • Wall shear stress * • Skin friction factor * • Coefficient of lift • Coefficient of drag * Available only for viscous flow. 2007 5 . stream function. Figure 4. This separation region makes the flow unsteady. Difficulty in obtaining convergence or poor accuracy may result if input values are used outside the upper and lower limits suggested in the problem overview. Because the time dependent features of the flow field are neglected in this simulation.1 represents the plot of pressure coefficient along the airfoil.3 Scope and Limitations At higher angles of attack. 4. This exercise is aimed for resolving high-speed flows only. Contours of static pressure are presented in Figure 4. Mach number. [FlowLab 1. c Fluent Inc. and y-velocity are available for both viscous and inviscid flows.2 XY Plots The plots reported by FlowLab include: • Residuals • Pressure coefficient along airfoil • Friction coefficient along the airfoil * • Shear stress distribution along the airfoil * • Wall Yplus distribution along the airfoil * * Available only for viscous flow. velocity magnitude.

2]. April 12. Figure 4. [FlowLab 1.1: Plot of Pressure Coefficient along the Airfoil Figure 4.2: Contours of Static Pressure for the Default Case 6 c Fluent Inc. 2007 .

025 using the fine mesh option. which simulates a free stream Mach number of 0. and Mach number. Comparing lift coefficient with the angle of attack indicates a stalling angle of about 13 degree at a Reynolds number of 1. Data provided by University of Iowa as per [2]. vary the angle of attack in the range of −5. It is not a standard plot available in this exercise. For the same far-field pressure.03 at 00 angle of attack.1). 2. These results were obtained for a Mach number of about 0. A similar plot may be created using any spreadsheet by recording lift coefficient from the Reports form for different runs. temperature. Figure 5. [FlowLab 1. 3. 2.00 to +200 . Run the default case.5 Verification of Results This exercise allows you to calculate lift coefficient at various angles of attack. the stalling angle for this airfoil as reported by experiment is approximately 12 degree [2]. Notes: 1. Re = 1.1 was created using the XY plot routine within FlowLab.1: Variation of Lift Coefficient versus Angle of Attack. with varying angle of attack. Investigate the effect of changing far field pressure and temperature values while observing their impact on cl and cd . c Fluent Inc. Observe the effect of angle of attack on cl and cd and plot these coefficients as a function of angle of attack (Figure 5.2].0e+5 6 Sample Problems 1. April 12. For this same Reynolds number. 2007 7 . 4. Repeat the same procedure as described in Problem 2 for a range of Mach numbers. Figure 5.0e+5.

F.7 Reference [1] John. McGraw Hill. ”Fundamentals of Aerodynamics”. April 12.. Virginia Polytechnic Institute. AIAA-84-0052 8 c Fluent Inc.2]. D Anderson Jr. 2007 . ”Clark-Y airfoil performance at low Reynolds numbers”. [FlowLab 1. 1991 [2] Marcman J.

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