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Need Assessment (a) (b) (c) (d) Organisation support Organisational analysis Task and KSA analysis Person analysis
Development of Criteria
Selection and design of instructional programmes
Interorganizational validity Training
Use of evaluation models
Steps in training programme: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques are used? What should be the level of training? What principles are learninf? Where to conduct the prgramme?
Practice opportunities: There should be opportunity to practice what has be taught in the training program. 9. Hence training programs need to be designed carefully. Recognition of individual differences: As mentioned above every employee will have a varied ability to learn and the training needs for every employee may be different. 4. Otherwise the employees may consider it a waste of time and would be demotivated to attend training programs in the future. Reinforcement: Training cant be a one time activity. 2. Orientation training Job Instruction training Aprrentice training Internship and Assistant ship training Job rotation Coaching Off the Job Methods: 1. 8. 11. 3. 5. 4. 2. 10. Reinforcement of training is essential in order to get a continuous outcome of the training.Methods/ Techniques of training: On the job methods: 1. 6. 4. 2. Vestibule Lectures Specia study Films Television Conference and discussion Case study Role playing Simulation Programmed instruction Laboratory training Principles of training: Training and development are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: 1. 3. But motivation alone is not enough. Employee motivation: Employees feel enthusiastic if they are given to understand that the training program offered to them has the ability to fetch them some rise in status and pay. 7. 3. . This difference needs to be recognized and accordingly training should be planned. 6. The employee should have ability to learn too. 5.
Transfer of learning: What is learnt on the training must be transferred to the job. Learning can accelerate particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. If the training does not have the capacity of being transferred onto the job it would amount to the waste of time and resources of the organization and the employee. All three must be carefully planned and executed.5. Schedules of learning: This involves duration of practice sessions. 8. This is help the employee learn to the best of his ability 9. duration of rest sessions and positioning of rest pause. Goals: Training should be goal oriented 7. Knowledge of results (Feedback): Giving a feed back to the employees will help the employee understand where he/she stands and what corrective actions are necessary. . 6. Meaning of material: the material provided during the training program should be meaningful and relevant.