.O

)

KASY LESSONS
IN

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY STORY NATURAL
II
I

MECHANICS,

CrilEMIBTRi

ELECTRICITY, OPTICS, AND ACOl's'iirs

\\TI1I

NTMKKOrs

ILI.rsTK.VI

LONDO
'

LBTO5 AND
65,

\v

li

I

<,

H

r

\V

PATKKNOSTKK UOW

GRANDFATHER WHITEHEAD'S CATECHISMS,
[.-NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

TO TEACHERS AND PUPILS.

be to convey the knowledge the pupil object of every tutor should and concise a manner as possible. requires in as simple, clear, accurate, The object of every pupil should be to acquire the knowledge imparted the tutor, not in words only, but in ideas ; so that the information

THE

by

.1

should not be of a superficial character

a mere catalogue of

scientific

but an acquaintance with the phenomena of Nature, and net and comprehensive idea of the laws which regulate them.

names

" a tutor should not be continually thundering instruction into the ears of his pupil as if he were pouring it :ter having put the lad, like a young horse, on a through a funi
.jitly

remarked

that

.-fore

him, to observe
to

1

:

i,k-

to perform,
to taste, to

should, according
distinguish, and

the extent ot his eai

luee

him

to find out things for himself ;
it

way, at other times leaving
creasing his

for

him

to

sometimes opening the and by abating or inopen
;

own

pace, accommodate

his precepts to the capacity of his

pupil."

inquiry
will

A\ill

be a

Lrratify that curiosity

and the consequence by acquiring knowledge. The.
follow,
n quite as mm-li as the

ignorant or

m
on the road-side.
step by ste;
-1

unproduet
pupil
is

In the following Catechisms the easy method, to acquire the
.

led

knowledge by numerous diagrams

is still

further elucidated

nts.

iv

PREFACE.
The experiments
are so contrived, that the apparatus required
is

of the

most simple and inexpensive kind in most instances, and due regard lias been paid throughout to simplicity and usefulness, rather than magnificence
;

the object being to render everything as plain and intelligible

as possible,

commensurate with the subject.
are all founded

The introductory narratives
for

biographies of eminent scientific men.

upon facts, or are the actual The lessons have been constructed

weekly tuition, it being desirable that the first five days should be devoted to catechising, and the sixth to recapitulation, examination viva
voce, or essay writing

upon

the subjects contained in the week's course

of study.

Teachers are recommended

to

give

additional illustrations

of the

subjects under consideration, to perform the experiments given in the lessons before the pupil, and to adduce other familiar and simple experi-

ments

to elucidate

them.

Pupils should perform the experiments themselves before studying the
lessons,

and repeat them again when master of the lesson. If possible, should also perform other experiments bearing upon the question, they and explain
their

analogy to those previously exhibited.

Each

lesson has a few important questions appended, to assist the

teacher in the examination of the pupils.

GRANDFATHER

W

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.
LESSON
NEARLY
trict in
I.

a century and a half ago, great distress prevailed in a certain dis-

England, where there were but a few houses, peopled by labourers in the humblest condition of life and, as the
;

was unproductive, and marshes hemmed in by mountains were to be seen far and wide, the earth did not bring forth
land
sufficient to supply the wants of the people, so that many of them were oblip-,1 to leave the home of their childhood, and
settle

elsewhere.

A

poor

lad,

who had

only received sufficient i-diuMtion to enable him to read, wa removed from

t
'

V

6
school
to
assist

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.
his

[Lesson

I.

his employment of stuff-weaving. The love of becoming a scholar had taken possession of the youth, who devoted all his leisure moments, and even a portion of the time which his father The father, instead of encouraging his son's required of him, to reading and writing. fondness for study, forbade him to open a book, behaved with great harshness, and at length drove him from the house, telling him to go and seek his fortune where and how
father
in

knowledge

the ardent desire of

"NVeary, and uncertain where to go, he threw himself upon the heath to upon the course he must take; and, having refreshed himself at an adjoining brook, walked to the neighbouring village, and took up his abode in the house of a tailor's widow, with whose son he had been previously acquainted. He contrived to support himself by industry and frugality, and to add to his stock of knowledge by careful observation and reading. Soon after his arrival, a pedlar, who combined fortuneteller and astrologer with his own trade, came to lodge in the same house and becoming intimate with Hallam for such was the boy's name instructed him in the various branches

he chose.

reflect

;

of knowledge that he was acquainted with, while pursuing his own trade of pedlar and itinerant merchant From the astrologer-pedlar he obtained the knowledge of the first principles of Natural Philosophy and his naturally active and intelligent mind, improved
;

by reading, extracted new and important which he was surrounded.

facts

from the incidents of every-day

life

with

The time for the departure of the pedlar arrived, and previous to setting off on his journey, he lent Hallam Cocker's Arithmetic, which had bound up with it a treatise on Algebra, and a work upon Physics and Somatolosy. These he studied so thoroughly
when the pedlar returned he was astonished to find his quondam pupil had almost eclipsed his tutor, and forthwith proceeded to draw his horoscope, as he termed it, in order to discover the probable career of this wonderful lad.
that

Having concluded his observations, the pedlar predicted that in two years Hallam would surpass his tutor, and ultimately rise to bo a great man and the youth promised that if such came to pass, he would not forget in his prosperity the instruction of the pedlar, and his kindness towards him.
;

Eighteen years have elapsed, and the prediction has been fulfilled his trade of weaver, turned schoolmaster, and married his landlady

:

the lad abandoned
the tailor's widow.

He

has passed through

many phases

in his

journey through

life,

and, notwithstanding

the privations and hardships he encountered, has risen to considerable eminence as a scholar, has been appointed Professor of Mathematics, and elected a Fellow of the Royal
Society. The few houses that were scattered

upon the borders of the wild and

desolate district
;

where Hallam's father formerly lived, have increased in number and size the marshes have been drained, the land tilled, the mountains quarried, and the whole aspect changed from desolation to the busy hum of commercial activity. Jacqunrd-looms have been erected, mills and factories built, and long lines of streets; BO that from being a village
at first, it has grown into a city. He seeks out the aged pedlar, who still instructs the young and labours for his bread; the old man has almost forgotten his pupil, but tears At eve, the two of joy suffuse his eyes, as the remembrance of other days is recalled. stroll towards the brow of the hill, Hallam supporting his aged tutor, and as they

approach a mill on the road-side, they
himself.

halt, for the

pedlar

is

wearied and wishes to rest

I.]

NAT HAL PHILOSOPHY.
I-

where I reclined when my father drove me from his "This house; but how changed the prospect! The mountain's side is now peopled; and where the heath and furze grew amid marshy land, the golden-eared corn bends to the Observe yon waggon as it moves along the road 'tis mine aye, and all the breeze. So you must now leave off toiling, and share them with me; for ta factories beyond!
is
;

" .spot," said Hallam,

your instruction

I owe alL" " To mine ?" replied the pedlar. "Yes! 'twas through the knowledge obtained from you, that I have risen to my Your prediction ever before me, and with the desire of reaching the present position. efforts highest pinnacle of fame and honour, I worked incessantly success crowned my and now, surrounded with wealth and honours, I must not forget the pedlar-astrologer,
; ;

and his gift-book of

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY."

BTIONfl
.vAt-r.

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, AND EXPLANATIONS.
Natural PhiloNatural ences into two great branches History, and Natural Philosophy.
4.

WHAT
is

is

sophy

?

Pupil.

It

that branch of the natural

T.

What

ciences which treats of phenomena that do not depend upon a change of the construction of bodies and makes us acquainted with the nature, causes, properties, and effects of the various objects and events which surround us. It will enable us to
;

does Natural History treat

of?
P. It instructs us in the nature of individual objects, and arranges them in according to their different charae:
5. T. If such be the case, of what does Natural Philosophy treat ? P. It endeavours to teach us the manner in which inorganic substances act upon each other; laying open, in fact, t:

discover

why a room smokes when

there

are two fire? in it Why the handles of cooking vessels are often made of wood. Why persons interpose a piece of woollen material between their hand and the handle of an iron kettle. Why plunging the hands into water produces a sensation nf or why a water in fluid cold.

of the

niiiti ri.il

world.

What do you mean by
substances
/'.

inorganic

f
:-.'

Why

;

Ii:

mi. Mihstances are bodies that

cracked bell makes a discordant

SOUTH!.

[The pupil should be required to give satisfactory answers to all these queries.]
2.

are not endowed with life, such as minerals, being the reverse of organic, or living

bodies.

T.

What
From

is

the

term Philosophy
philosophia " lovo
/'.

-What
All

do you mean by
recognisable
or
solid,
;

th.

P.

the

Greek

objects
!>cd

by the
are
v.

(<PAOTO<$>(),

which

literally signifies

senses,

whether

fluid

ge-

of wisdom or knowledge."

as bodies

thus

have

*t

appear* from what you a wide

solid body,

and M

gaseous body.
the pov.
;n(ilitict

Held for I s so many objects of opposite character. he case f /' Yes. Th vaat realm of Nature,

cite certain sensations in

All these substances exour minds, and
M arc called

or proper tut.
e

me some examples
i

of the

properties of boi has some
:

vl

sci-

.

quality

:

it

is

distin-

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
the property guished from another. It of glass to be transparent and brittle; of of charcoal to be inodorous fire to burn anJ insipid of amber to be brittle, light, hard, and transparent and ofthe loadstone
is
; ;
;

[Lesson

II.

ple, are compared, classified, and generalised by the philosopher, and rendered familiar and useful to mankind.

to attract iron.

[The pupil should be requested to give other examples of the properties of bodies.] 9. T. You said that certain sensations were excited in our minds by bodies give
:

What do you mean by phenomena ? 13. T. P. They are all extraordinary appearances in the works of Nature; the \\oid phenomenon being derived from the Greek
word phaino
literally,

(to

appear), and signifying,

an appearance.

me some

examples.

P. One body excites the sensation of green, another of blue, and a third is devoid of all colour, or may be said to be
white, such as lime.
10.

T.

"Why

is

lime white

?

P.

Because the particles of matter of

which it is composed are piled so densely one upon another, that they are able to
reflect all the coloured rays of light.
1 1.

T.

What do you mean by

the term

mattt-r ?

P. The substance entering into the composition of all bodies has received the general name of matter, which possesses

Give me some illustrations of 14. 7\ natural phenomena. Heat applied to ice drives the parP. ticles entering into its composition further asunder, and changes it from a solid to a liquid form ; and if the temperature is increased, and the process prolonged, the water or liquid is converted into a gaseous fluid or steam, because the component parHeat ticles are driven still further apart. for rarefies air and causes it to expand let a bladder, example, [Experiment 1,] half full of air, be tied tightly at the neck and then laid before a fire, or held over the flame of a spirit-lamp sufficiently high to prevent the flame injuring the bladder, and the air will expand and fill the bladder.
;

certain essential characteristic qualities.
12.

T.

What do you mean by

the ex-

[The pupil should give some further tions of natural phenomena.]

illustra-

pression general name ? P. general name is one that is used to express a large genus or class of things of similar character thus, fiats may include straw hats, gutta-percha hats, cork hats, silk, beaver, or felt hats, and many other kinds and when we say apples, we use an indefinite term, if we allude to any particular kind, such as crab-apples, or

A

GENERAL QUESTIONS UPON LESSON
1.

I.

;

What

is

the derivation and
? ?

meaning

of the term Philosophy
2. 3.

;

How is Philosophy divided Name the senses by which
What What
?

the existus.

ence of bodies are made known to
4. 5.
is

golden russet, and only employ the general

the quality of a body ? constitutes the composition of

name

to express the class. Generalisation of facts can only be accomplished by per-

bodies
6. 7.

sons of experience, well acquainted with science. The vast and heterogeneous mass of phenomena which puzzle ignorant peo-

a natural pnenomenon ? 8. Prove that the same cause may prois

What What

is

matter

?

duce various

effects.

LESSON
WE

II.*

have an excellent example for the youth ofthe present age to follow, in the case of the poor boy Hallam, who, by untiring zeal in study, and perseverance, raised himself from obscurity to affluence, and an honourable position in the scientific world. The
chief points in the story are true, but
* Grandfather

some

little
will

incidents have been introduced for
to

Whitehead requests that the Pupil

commit

memory

and endeavour by experiments of a different character from those given here, Teacher that he has thoroughly mastered the subject.

the ideat of each lesson, to demontlrate to the

Lesson H.]
especial reasons.
It
is

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

founded upon the career of Thomas Simpson, the celebrated mathematician, who was born in the town of Market- Bosworth, in Leicestershire, in the year 1710. By studying the books given to him by the pedlav-astrologer, the boy ibled to comprehend many of the laws of nature; and the Blowledge he thus
i

acquired was applied to the daily purposes of life, for Natural Philosophy explains the principles of the various arts which are practised, elevates and improves the mind, and

extends man's power over nature. It unfolds to us the magnificence, order, and beauty of construction in the material world, and adduces the most powerful evidence of the

wisdom and beneficence of the Creator. It was the knowledge of its laws that enabled Hallam to change the desolate tra|^>f land into a populous and productive district. We can understand the manner ^hich bodies act upon each other, and the reason they do so, by means of its laws for example [Experiment 2,] take a sheet of glass and place some water upon it the glass will be wetted. You know this already from
; : ;

but you require to know Natural Philosophy to explain the reason. If we wipe the glass dry, and place some mercury upon it, [Experiment 3,] the same effect is not produced, the glass remains dry and Natural Philosophy explains why
daily experience
; ;

Suppose we substitute a thin sheet of lead or tin, [Experiment 4,] and use the mercury as we did with the glass, the effect will be the metal plates will be wetted with the mercury, and if there is sufficient different
the glass
is

differently affected.

;

mercury, the plates will be dissolved in a short time.

Again, take a lump of sugar,
;

[Experiment 5,] and place it upon the glass plate we used a short time ago examine it carefully, and you will observe how compact it looks place a teaspoonful of water upon the glass and allow it te flow towards the sugar, you see it falls to pieces, and has now disappeared and when you know more of Natural Philosophy the reason will be
;

;

obvious.

QUESTIONS.
15.

T.

From what you have shown

re-

left

act the

specting the manner in which some bodies upon each other, it would appear that phenomena we have witnessed always

to themselves, descend in straight lines towards the surface.
17. T.

Do you
?

think that

I

can dissolve
it

sand in water
/'.

happen under similar circumstances, and therefore, that there must be a natural law
to govern the action of bodies. think that this is the case?

No;
7\

I

know you
its

is

Do you

contrary to
18.

cannot, because natural law.

How

have these laws been dis-

It is a natural Yen, undoubtedly. law that bodies always act in the same imiiM-r under the same circumstances, and

cover. P.
19.
/'.

T.

By experiments and observ.v What is the use of expei
:

Pure water will always dissolve sugar, but does not affect gold in the same manner, because it is not its nature to do so.
>dy has its
law.

own

verify oliserv.it ions truths, elicit facts, establish

Experiments

and

i

Do you understand what 16. T. meant by a natural law T
P.
It is
<

is

press the principles more strong!. our minds, and exemplify thw .i|>] of gener.il principles to the demonstration of individual facts.
.

tl.
It'

..f

the
to

rdth.it

sail.!.

phrnmnen*
water
it

we apply heat

and other bodies
it is
it

converts the water into steam, cold thm-fnre we .ty it is a natural 1 is a natural law that gov< .: all bodies at the earth's sin
will not
;

insoluble, or uith water, you say that a natural law that p'"-'"" '>
.ire

1

as

to observe

would he impossible fo: and experiment upon
ii

all

(he

.5

10

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
:

[

Lesson

III.

we

bodies by which he is surrounded, how can obtain the knowledge we reqii From the experience of philoP. sophers, who have observed and experimented upon the many and various bodies around them, and left their knowledge to us. Galileo was the first to test theories

properties which we observe, .MS divisibility, extensibility, compressibility, porosity, inertia,

and gravity.
T.

23.

Can you always
?
;

re-cognise these

properties in bodies

by practical experiments, and Lord Bacon showed that this was the only method of acquiring a knowledge of the laws of
nature.

P. Yes some arc essential to the existence of a body, others are not, as I

stated before.
2-t.

T.
all

How
the

do you expect to under-

Where can the recorded ex21. 7*. perience of philosophers be found ? In works upon Natural Philosophy, P. in which the nature and properties of bodies, the laws which govern them, and the phenomena of nature are explained.
22. T. As bodies differ materially one from another, the comprehension of the

phenomena that occur when expcrMting upon bodies ?
stand

studying Natural Philosophy.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON 1. What is the object of Natural

II.

Phi-

nature of their individual properties appears to be almost impossible. So it would be, if there were not P. general properties which we observe to exist in all bodies, whatever other differences

losophy, and to what purposes is it applied ? 2. What is meant by a natural law ? 8. What is the use of experiments ? 1. What is essential to the existence of a body ? 5. Do all bodies possess peculiar characteristic properties
?

Thus, it is essential to the they exhibit. existence of a body that it possess the of extension, occupy a limited space, power and be impenetrable but in addition to these properties, without which we cannot form any idea of matter, there are other
;

[The pupil should be required
:

to state the properties of various bodies in a concise manner Example Lead is solid, heavy, soft, maldeficient in tenacity, and readily leable, fusible. Water is fluid, inodorous, clear, and tasteless. Carbonic acid is gaseous, colourless, pungent, insoluble in water, and acidulous, &c.J

LESSON
HALLAM

III.

learned from the bogk on Natural Philosophy that the pedlar-astrologer lent him, many of the laws of nature and their application, and by reading, reflection, and observation, he was enabled to add much to his store of knowledge, and apply his

experience in such a manner, that he not only enriched himself, but benefit ted his neighbours. The only source from whence we can derive our knowledge of nature is
the facts observed the perception of the senses, practical experience and observation and collected are arranged, and inferences drawn cither from analogy or induction but
; ;

we

derive all the certain and accurate knowledge of the laws of nature from the latter. Having mastered certain points, his next object was to apply his experience, and this

move machinery.

he did so effectually that he drained the marshy lands, and made the mountain streams We trust our pupils will all endeavour to be Hallams.

QUESTIONS.
25. T. You have said that one of the properties of matter was divisibility. Now, do you think that there is any limit to this thn.t is to say, can it be infinitely divided ? As far as we know, all bodies are P.
;

divisible,

|

j

being capable of division into smaller and still smaller portions and, provided the instruments of division are fine enough, there is no limit as far as our senses arc concerned. Yet, as all particles
;

Lesson

III.

]

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
num, when formed
a; ing t

11

of matter
.

when
26.
/'.

must be possessed of a finite ade, we should rather say that it is though too small to be seen even maguilicd by the most powerful
Give

into wire; toap bubble*, of infects, puff-ball fungut, &c.]

microscope.
T.

me some examples

of the

What you have stated seems /'. almost incredible without some further exwill you therefore demonstrate planation to me how matter is capable of division?
;

ILITY of matter? of the best examples of extreme divisibility of matter is musk, which will continue to diffuse its odour year after year without any perceptible loss of weight It is stated* that "a clean cork, which stopped a phial in which there was musk,

One

which

T 9 hi i A* Z vn, st have touched, in Fig. 1. melled of musk more than twenty Draw a line, A, B, and parallel to P. years after;" and Fee says that one part of musk will communicate its odour to 3,000 that another, C, D then draw E F perpendicular to C, D, and between the two. It is very parts of inodorous powder. of the musk Let E F represent the particle of matter to evident that some particles be divided then draw lines from A to g, must have been diffused, otherwise the I, tn, n, D, and the line E F will be odour would not have been discovered by h, i. If the line, C, divided into eight parts. the sense of smelling; touch and vision be lengthened or extended, and the could not assist in the perception of its D, lines drawn from A increased in number, existence. Again the silk, spun by the then the line E F, which represents the silk-worm, is about the 500th part of an particle of matter, will be divided into a line but a
it

seemed never

to

;

;

/.-.

:

inch thick; is, perhaps, spider's six times 6ner, or only the 3,000th part of an inch in diameter ; insomuch that a
single

greater
28.

number

of parts of less magnitude.

pound of
>>c

this attenuated

substance
di-

sufficient to

encompass our globe.

Although you have explained to me in a very satisfactory manner the division of matter by means of a diagram,
T.
I

Another remarkable instance of the
ly of

wish to have a familiar instance.

Can

seen in the dyeing of ilk with cochineal, where a pound of silk, containing eight score threads to the ounce, each thread seventy-two yards long, and the whole reaching about 104 miles, when dyed with scarlet doet^iot receive above a weight ; so that a drachm olouring mattrr of the cocli actually extended through more than 100

matter

is

you furnish one ? P. Yes; when large rocks are divided
from the mass,
for the purposes of building, Her portions are again divided to ids, and then subdivided by :: 'l tnp ds of wagv y forra dust, the particles of which arc frequently we cannot readily so exceeding! distinguish them without the aid of a mag-

minute quanan intense colour h< to the silk with which it is combined. also affords us an exceltliis

to give

20.
th:it

T.

Give

me

an example to prove

I

lent

example of th-

divisibility of in

which are Each animalcule about -nrtao^1 of an inch in diameonly ter ; and therefore a cubic line would con'00 million* of them, or nearly two
the iron -ochre,
irshes.
is

the divisibility of matter passes tho limits of sensual }> /'. Cinnabar, which is composed of sulphur and mercury, may be separated into but we cannot di-tinthese constituents
;

'!<

particles of sulphur from those

under the microscope.

million million t in a cul

/.Do
.ty

you consider
is

that the di-

[Tho pupil ihould b

required to glv* other illuttration* of the divisibility of matter, luch in ftildinr. or wh.n bton out plat, gold

M

;

Alston'* LttlfTt

o*Mal*riaM*tca

t

vol.

li.

p.

S.

wholly unlimited f P. No; to adopt such an assu he to ndmit th.it the ni*c s null while ultimat. it is evident, that if the ultimate particle
of matter
;

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
have no extension, it cannot enter into the composition of a body occupying space.
gather from all the facts and observations you have stated ? P. That all bodies are composed of minute particles, which cannot be further disintegrated, but are undivisible.
31.
T.
/'. What name have these particles received from natural philosophers ? P. Atoms. If, however, we speak of the particles of a mass, without wishing actually to describe them as the ultimate portions, we employ the term molecules.

[Lesson IV.
the

:;i.

7'.

stitution

knowledge of the conof bodies thus formed been ap-

-Has

What do you

plied? Natural philosophers and Yes. P. chemists have universally embraced the hich has received the name of the atomic theory, or theory of atoms.

GKXF.RAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

III.

bodies divisible ? 2. Give some examples of the divisibility of matter from the organized world. 3. C;ui you give a familiar example of the divisibility of matter ?
all

Are

33.
is

Then it appears that a molecule T. not the same as an atom will you ex;

plain the difference ? molecule is supposed to be P. formed of several atoms, arranged according

A

4. Can we always prove the divisibility of matter by our senses ? 5. Is there any limit to the divisibility

of matter
0'.

?

some determinate figure, and generally signifies the component parts of a body too
to

is the difference between an atom, a molecule, and a particle? "What name has the fundamental view 7.

What

small for sensual perception.

of the constitution of bodies received

?

LESSON
THE
to

IV.

RECAPITULATION, &c. study of the laws of Natural Philosophy enabled Hallam to discover that matter was capable of division, and he applied his knowh <!:,(>

many

useful purposes.

The mountain on

the borders of the

marsh where he had
:

taken up his abode, was barren, and he therefore rented a portion of it for a small sum on this he built a hut, and formed lime. The lime he sold to the fanners and by frugality and industry, was enabled to purchase a plot of ground on which to build his
;

house.
side,

united with mortar

The house he now built was formed of stone, procured from the mountain's made from lime he manufactured himself. To procure this

stone, he

means

was obliged to have recourse to Natural Philosophy as his assistant, and by of judiciously conducted experiments and observations, he was enabled to accom-

plish ten times the

amount of work he otherwise could have done,

if

unacquainted

with Natural Philosophy.

QUESTIONS.
.',3.

T.
-

I

remember
IT Y.

of the essential
n.
11.

you said one properties of a body was Pray what do you mean
that

It is the bulk or size of a body, P. being the quantity of space included within
its

external surfaces.
37.

by the term ? P. Every body must occupy a certain amount of space, which space will, of course, Extenbe in proportion to its magnitude.
sibility is the to have their

or

How do you estimate the bulk T. volume of bodies?
;

property observed in bodies volume enlarged without increasing their mass.
36. T.

P. By the quantity of their dimensions or in other words, by their length, breadth,

and depth.
38. T.

You have
its its

What do you mean

by the

may have
Qg

volume of a body?

just said that a body volume enlarged without inmass; how is this possible?

Lesson IV.
/'.

J

PHILOSOPHY.
prove
it

-I

will

to

eriiiK'nto'.]
(a, let

Take

,1

xpcriglass tube

with a bulb at the &,) the bulb (6), and part of the tube be filled with some i of logwood, solution of indigo, or other coloured as far as c. fluid, Plunge the
bull) into hot water, and if you observe, you will see the decoction of logwood, which is in this tube, rapidly rising tow because the fluid has dilated or extended under the influence of the increased temperature,

end

(6);

cannot easily be withdrawn witln. probability of breaking the decanter, if a flannel is dipped into hot water, and applied to the neck of the bottle, it will cause the
glass to expand [Experiment 7], and when the neck is enlarged the stopper can be easily extracted.
40.
T.

Has
i

the volume of a body any

relation to

and
is

is

occupying

a greater space
its

than before, therefore

volume

Bodies Inviiu? very different /'. No. volumes may have the same figure; and bodies with different figures may havj the same volume. Thus, a box may be ten as a die, or another box, ia large but yet have the same figure ; and a square and a sphere may, though of dilferuit
figures, yet

increased. will now allow *V * the fluid to cool, and you will observe that it will return to the level at c, therefore we prove that the mass is the same as before. If you repeat the experiment with the bladder, [Experiment 1], you will

We

have equal volumes.

think that bodies can be diminished in bulk, without diminishing
41.
T.

Do you

their

all bodies possess the property of compressibility as well as extensibility.

P.

mass 1 Yes

;

have another illustration of extensibility. What do you mean by COM42. T. In both these experiments the elevation of PRESSIBILITY ? the temperature produces an incr It is that quality which all bodies P. volume, which will be easily comprehended possess of having their volume diminished by examining these two diagrams. without decreasing their
43. T. Can you furnish me wit:: familiar examples of the compressibility Of bod: The most elastic, and therefore the P.
C.
:

C
*

most

compressible bodies, si ml the most familiar of these
iieric

is

the the

air,

which varies

in bulk, ac-

r,g. 4.

cording as it is near or remote from earth's surface. It may appear v. hulk of the atm tli.it tli
i
,
.

represents a cubic inch of rold we will suppose contains sixteen atoms of nir, but v same space only contains nine atoms, (as
5

should

.

ich

'is the case,
.

and 1 ment.

will

xplain

iagsof
seed or
placc
flour, nn.l
tin
tini
:

the vo!
it

the size of but when the air again will return to the original size. :nch of air contains the same r of atom*, ii* the same
>
'

above

will easily

i

how
those at th. torn of the
as
top.

as before.
39.
T.

pile

You have on

::ie

two

those at tho

illustration*,

the
P.

the one relating to a fluid, other to a gaseous body. Can you
v
\

illus"

a solid bo
s

illustrated by

inrrn^n^
1.
:

thr

i.

bags,

urn!

canter has

become

employing

It

in

firmly fixed,

>

on account

of the

bap

abovo

li

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
not
in

[Lesson IV.
arc-

So it is pressing upon the lower ones. with the particles of nir at the surface of the earth they are pressed upon hy those above them, at a pressure of about 15 Ibs. If you examine the to every square inch. bags, you will perceive that a is very much compressed, b not quite so much, c less, and d almost uncompressed so that as we ascend you observe the pressure is less, the same as it is with atmospheric pressure.
:

therefore very evident that the atoms

immediate contiguity

wi:i,

other.

The spaces between

the

atoms are

capable of being compressed or extended, and therefore the volume of the body may be diminished or increased.
49. T. What do you call the spaces between the particles of bodies ?

;

P.
50.

4K
same

T.

T.

Can you compress gases
;

the

They are called pores. Have all bodies spaces
;

or pores

you do atmospheric air ? Yes all gases can be compressed P. and one of the most familiar illustrations
as
;

between their particles ? P. Yes every body
51.
T.
is

is

porous.

Then
;

the

property of

being
is

of the truth of this, is the compression of carbonic acid gas in the manufacture of soda-water.
45.
sible ?
that, ; in a hydrostatic sense, they are considered

porous
P.
called

It is

a general one ? and the quality of being so

POROSITY.

T.

Are

fluids or liquids

compres-

P.

Yes

but in so slight a degree
;

yet they are not absoincompressible lutely incompressible, but only yield slightly to very intense pressure.
46.
T.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON IV. 1. When bodies have their volume enlarged without increasing their ma
what term do you express this prop. 2. What is the volume of a body ? 3. How is the volume of a body
timated
?

Are you

certain

that

liquids

es-

have been compressed ? Canton proved this by exP. Yes. periment in the year 1761. He placed a tube with a bulb, similar to the one we

employed [Experiment 6], in a condenser, and submitted the surface of the liquid to a very intense pressure of condensed air.

4. Prove by experiments that the volume of a body may be enlarged without increasing the mass. 5. Are all bodies capable of being ex-

tended
6.

?

What

The
fell

result was, that the level of the liquid perceptibly, and rose again to its

body

relation has to its figure ?

the volume of a

original height
47.
T.

upon removing the pressure.

Can solids be compressed? You observe this piece of Yes. is round, in fact, it is what is called a bullet; now immediately that it receives a stroke of this hammer it will be partially
P. lead

7. Can bodies be diminished in bulk without decreasing their mass ? 8. What term has been applied to this property of diminishing the bulk of bodies? 9. Are all bodies capable of being com-

pressed
10.

?

compressed.
that
it
it is

[Experiment 9.] You see somewhat flattened, and now that

Give some familiar examples of the compressibility of bodies, and illustrate
the fact by experiments.
11.

has received six strokes, the size of it is In diminished, but its weight is the same. the same manner, iron, steel, gold, and other solids may be compressed.

How

do you account for the com-

pressibility and extensibility of bodies ? 12. What term has been applied to the

How can you account for this ? 48. T. P. All bodies have interstices between the different particles of matter, and it is

spaces between the particles of bodies? 13. What is the name of the general " that all bodies have spaces between law,
their particles?

"

\\.\L

PHILOSOPHY.

II

SOX
ve learned

V.
how

bodies may be extended, and how bodies are porous. Now these facts are all tery important, especially when they are associated with other matters which we shall consider hereafter. They are intimately connected with the affairs of every-dav life, and

compressed, and hare also ascertained that

all

are therefore of great consequence. Hallam had become conversant with the laws which regulate them, and was led on step by step until he applied the knowledge he thus acquired to useful purposes. He learned that even solid bodies may be made to expand

or contract without diminishing their mass, and he also learned that solid bodies have Hallam had yet to learn more of tho pores or interstices between their particles. so have we. principles of Natural Philosophy
;

QUESTIONS.
52.
T.

You

said

that all

bodies

have
;

56.

T.

How
?

can you prove that bodies

pores or interstices between their particles

have pores

now do you know this ? It has been discovered by experiP. More ment, and I know it by reading. two centuries ago it was proved luthan
cent, at the Academy !)! Cimento, the exFlorence, that gold was porous perience was the result of accident, but it established the fact that water may be made
.11
;

to pass through gold. 53.
T.
all

Then you would imply,

that

because

bodies arc compressible, there

are interstices between tlu-:r j>:irticles. P. Certainly, but the sire of the pores varies in different substance-. substance may contain 10,000 pores in a

/'. By a very simple experiment. [Ex1 have here a piece of wood, with a wire fastened to it, and a tumbler of water. I will plunge the wood into the water, and keep it at the bottom of the tumbler by means of the wire [performing the experiment]. You sec tint bubbles of air are rising to the surface, they have escaped from the pores of the wood. which are bein-j filled with water i: If there were not any int. rst ices it wouM be impossible for the air to be in the substance of the wood, because it is contrary to one of the established general laws of

periment 10.]

Natural Philosophy.

square inch, and another 100,000 pores in In the former case, the the same space. than in the pores are considerably larger
latter.

/'.Is the knowledge of the porosity of bodies applied to any useful or scientific
^es?

P.
i

Yes;
T.

filtration
is

is

based upon, ami
further
f

the effect of the ports 54. 7 of a body being closer together I The substance itself is rendered P. inon- di-r.s.-.
55.
den,.?

electrotyping
58.

under obliga:
jHiroiity of bodies

Can you adduce any
;

proofs of the
P.

Yes
I

many

bodies are capable of

T.

What do you mean by
!.

being

compression merely by merit. mi. M will explain by a simple and this
ill
1
1
|

P. the pr<>

'}

-ponds

upon

I

li.ive

.

of any sub-

basin of water, and a piece of cork floating will take an I
-

The tancc, the less will be the porosity. density of a body ia the relation of its weight to its volume, and therefore indicates its specific gravity, a we
property
hall consider

(n*
filled

it

i*

commonly
..

on another occasion.

with air) and invert it orcr the cork, so that the edge shall just the water; the air is now confined within the tumbler and occupies a given space,

16
but

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
a

[Lesson V.

if I plunge the tumbler below the surand keep it tbere.it will be found that the water rises to a certain height above the level of the brim, and the deeper that it is plunged the more the cork rises in the tumbler but as the pressure is removed and the goblet rises, it will be found that the water descends and the cork with it, because the air expands. Thus you will see that air is capable of being compressed a sufficient of its porosity. proof

face,

a block of wood by mer, and has displaced the wood by comThe substance of the woo;l is pression. dividing, because it cannot be compressed any more.
03. T, If you remove the wedge, does the wood resume its former shape, and the space it did before the wedge occupy was driven in ? P. No; because, unlike the air in the tumbler, it is not elastic, otherwise it would

blow from a ham-

:

59.

T.

Why

did not the water
it

fill

the

resume
64.

its

former dimensions.

tumbler when you plunged

below the

T.

Are not
;

all

bodies elastic

?

surface ? P. Because, as the air was in the bler, the water could not occupy the

tumsame

lead or iron may be pressed or diminished in size, but

P.

No

comthey

space at the same time, and, therefore, the experiment also proves the IMPENETRABILITY of the air.
60.
T.
r

therefore

cannot resume their former volume; and we learn, that elasticity does not

What do you mean by impenethe impenetrability of bodies is

trability

P.

By

meant, that no two particles of matter can

occupy the same identical portion of space at the same moment.

How can you prove this ? experiment. [Experiment 12.] I have here a piece of clay, and a bullet, which 1 will enclose within the clay. Now it is quite impossible to make another bullet occupy the cavity that contains the first bullet as long as it is there. This you will readily understand, because it is like trying to pour a pint of water into
61.
T.

P.

By

always accompany compressibility. 65. T. Then am I to understand that elasticity is the power by which a body resumes its figure or volume, after that figure or volume has been altered by the action of any force ? P. Yes, undoubtedly, after the force that caused the alteration of the figure has not otherwise, and tint ceased to act power is found in solid and fluid bodies.
;

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESFON V. 1. How do you know that all bodies have
pores between their particles
2.
?

a pint measure already full of water. Again, if I drive a nail into a piece of wood,

the result of the greater ? proximity of the pores of bodies 3. What is meant by the density of
is

What

bodies
4. 5.

?

the effect is only to compress the wood, because it is impossible that the wood and nail can be in the same identical space at the same precise time.
62.
T.

the porosity of bodies? possible for two bodies to occupy the same space at the same time ? 6. What do you call this natural law of

Can you prove
Is
it

bodies
7.

?

How
Has

can you prove the impenetra?

Has

this

know-

bility of bodies
8.

lodge of the impenetrability of bodies been usefully em-

ployed
P.
is

?

the knowledge of the impenetra? bility of bodies been practically applied 9. Do all bodies possess the property of

founded upon

you

point

principle of the wedge In the above diagram the will see the explanation of the law of the wedge has been inserted into
;

Yes

the

it.

resuming their former volume compressed ?
10. What named ?
is

after

being

;

this

property

of matter

Lesson VT.]

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

17

LESSON VI
the study of Natural Philosophy, he learned that there were certain laws relating to bodies, called Natural Laws, which have been in force since the creation and having stored his mind with the information
;

VPITI -LATION, &c.

WHEN

Hallam commenced

the gift-book of the pedlar-astrologer, having reflected upon the various applications of the principles he ha.l learned, and experimentally proved the practical use of his knowledge, he was enabled to overcome the many difficulties with which he
iL-d

in

was surrounded. He discovered that the stones in the vicinity of his hut were fit for building, and by means of the application of the wedge, he was enabled to separate Thus, he applied the knowledge of the impenetralarge masses from the parent rock.
bility of bodies to a useful purpose.
left

He

read, that all bodies near the earth's surface,

if

to themselves, descend in straight lines towards that surface, and that the directions in which they fall in different places of the earth, tend nearly to the centre of it.

This

is

a general natural law,

and

is

seen daily.
is

red by observation, that matter

He also learned that philosophers had a fact of incapable of spontaneous change,

great importance.

QUESTIONS.
CG.
/'.

T.

Do
all

bodies possess the power of
?

spontaneous action

No;
;

bodies,

when
force.

at rest,

must
influ-

rfmain passive or inactive, unless
>y

some external

What does this prove? 67. T. That mere matter is void of life P. for spontaneous action is the only test of
;

1 I It cannot be reduced Certainly. from a state of motion without the agency of some force. Tims, the wheel of an engine continues to move after the force which impelled it has been arrested, and would continue to run on for ever if the motion were not constantly impeded by friction.
.

the pretence of the living principle.

body

impossible for any of itielf to commence to move from
it

/'.Then

is

a slate of rest. P. It is. body cannot be in a state of motion and rest at the same instant ; and, as I have explained before, all bod;. remain pasMve unless put in motion

Do you think that merhanicvil 72. T. or friction, are the only whieh moving bodies on the same >!' the earth are 1: P. No. The air <> '.icrnhlc
i

A

resistance;

and no

dot.
;

1

a cloak on, that

running you have fc>
th.it

fast

with

I

speed increased,

the resistance of the

air also increased.

/'.

Can you

tell

me

the

name

of

this quality of /'. It is called
'/'.

mv

INKRTIA, or i'<

Can you give me an example of

Can you give me a good exam73. T. ple to prove tint liodii-s will continue to when not impeded
.'

1.1

?

A stone, if left to itself, cannot posP. sibly move; but if I kick the s will continue to mote with unc!
velocit
.til

vast bodies of the universe, which received motion from the Creator, have continued to move with u:-< velocity since the time they were lai.. into space.
/'.
'

The

its

course
71.

is

arrested by son
\
'

force.

74.
/

T.

Are organised bodies an
n horses are always pass far beyond the

lion to the law nf inertia?

'/'.

a body

is

put
?

in
its

rstand, that when has not the

power to arrest
quiescent

progress, and

become

winning-post befoi and a man standing uptight
1 ;

in

a

IS

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

[Lesson VII.

boat or carriage will fall backwards when the boat is suddenly pushed from the shore, or the carriage starts and when either of them stops suddenly, the man will be thrown
;

forward--.

an unchanging speed, because of themselves they cannot change the An increase of its rate could motion. only be the result of some applied force, and a diminution of it must be caused l>v
i

75.

T.
?

"Why would the man be thrown

some impediment.

backwards
started

when

the

boat

or

carriage

P. Because his body, by obeying the law of inertia, remains where it was but his feet being pulled forwards, his bo.iy falls backwards.
;

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

VI.
'

Can bodies move
"What
?

2.

is

of themselves the only test of the living

If such be the case, how docs it happen that the man falls forward when the carriage or boat stops? Because his body has acquired the P. same velocity as the boat or carriage, and is impelled forward with that speed, while his feet remain passive.
76.
T.

principle
3.

What name has been

applied to pas-

siveness of bodies?
4.
5.
G.

What is inertia ? Give me some examples
Have bodies
?

of inertia. the power to arrest their

speed
7.

How
? ?

are organised bodies affected"

by

77.

T.

Do you

think that bodies can

inertia
8.

increase or diminish their velocity? P. they must move with Certainly not
;

Can

bodies increase or diminish their

velocity

LESSON

VII.

RECAPITULATION, &c. THE fact of matter being inert, and unable to pass from a state of rest into one of motion, is important, and therefore when we see that a body commences to move the instant we deprive it of its support, we know that it is in eonsequence of the force of gravity. But there are other phenomena in connexion with
the air-balloon, the falling rain, the rising smoke, gravity that require our attention but there is also another are all familiar illustrations of the attraction of gravitation
: ;

attraction to which bodies are subject ment 13,] place two balls of cork or

a mutual attraction.

For example, [Experi-

wood

in a basin of water,
If,

tracted and

come

into contact with each other.

be suspended by strings, they cannot approach the vertical line of the earth's attraction and as their mutual attraction cannot o\ Hallam learned all this by studying Natural Philosophy. It this, they remain at rest. was the knowledge that bodies are possessed of inertia, and the law of the attraction of
(

and they will be athowever, two balls of wood or lead each other, without moving out of

;

gravitation, that enabled

machinery

;

him to apply the mountain-streams as a motive power for his but this he could not have done, if he had not also learned other important

laws in Natural Philosophy, which we shall consider hereafter.

QUESTIONS.
78.

TVWhat

is

GRAVITY?

which compels bodies to fall. Thus, a stone or any other body thrown by a person, when left to itself, will fall until it reaches the earth, or any other object that impedes its progress.
P.
It is the force

Is this power limited to this 79. T. action, or not ? P. No; the actions produced by its influence are various; for example the rising of a piece of cork from the bottom

of a tumbler of water to the surface

;

the

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
falling of an apple; and the direction of rivers to find their lowest level, are all the
effects of the force of gravitation.

How can you ascertain the di80. T. rection of the force of gravity ? Fasten a string at one extremity (). P. and attach a small heavy Jit (w) to the other end of the string. The direction of the string,

If the ball c was let fill at the lines do. that part of the globe, it would descend in a straight line (c c) so as to form a right ith the line a A. /'. Is gravity a general property of

allbodies

?
;

PS Yes
86.

fluids,

solids,
its

and gaseous
laws.

bodies are alike subject to
T.

when

it is

r^
9 7'
'

v

:oned and at rest, will give the direction of gravity The weight with accuracy.

Suppose that the body is interrupted in its descent by some other supporting body, what is the result ?
does not cease
action of the force of gravity but expends itself by pressure upon the object intervening. What is the weight of a body ? 87. T. It is the amount of pressure exerP. cised by one body upon another body on which it rests the pressure increasing with the number of the material particles of the body.

P.

The

;

(a)

is

called a

plummet and
;

the line which the string (t>) forms in a state of equilibrium, the vertical line.

Can you always 81. T. determine the direction of
gravitation
?

;

P.

may

by means of the plummet, it easily be ascertained at all times and
;

Yes

in all places. 82.
T.

Where

is

the force of gravity

always directed ? P. Towards the centre of the earth.
83. T. If this is the case, the direction of the plummet must be different in various

is the mass of a body' quantity of matter of which it is composed and therefore the larger the quantity of matter, the greater the resistance it will offer.

88.

T.

What
;

P.

It is the

parts of the earth. P. So it is ; the directions of the plummet. at two different parts of the earth, are not ike a certain angle lie point of which coincides with the central point of the earth.
r. is

Can you explain

to

me how

it

that bodies do not descend in parallel .is tbcy appear to do ? 1 have a diagram here that will exLet A u c plain it very easily.
i
,

89. T. You have stated that gravity is the force which compels bodies to fall. K\plain to me how it is that smoke, clouds of vapour, and air-balloons ascend, if the theory of the attraction of gravitation is cor P. These are only additional proofs of the effect of gravit .tponr, and balloon are upwards solely by the force of the spheric air through which they pass; as they are lighter than the air, they ascend, ami displace or thrust down portions of air
i

10 their

volume.

90.

T.

This does not prove to
in!'

me

that
f

they are

a9

CJ5

apart

ofil

,cc
'ih,

of

and

gravitation: expl P. All substan the atmospln
earth,
v,

,iore fully

irface of the
ich that part
;

a

&

6 two balls

of lead. these balls are
left

to

of the air that is not so dense and as two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the sail! ke, vapour, or bal!

air equal to

1

in

the

ilk.

The
'I

s:no',.
till

its

particles unite

\

and b

and

form

flakes

of
air,

soot,

which dcicrnd; n

**

was
<

POK.V

the balls to descend to the earth they would meet at o, the

same

as

20
/'.

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
wards,
>f

[lesson VIII.

Suppose that I could remove ".osphere from the surface of the ^1 i; e, while the smoke, vapour, and balloons were suspended, what would be the result? P. They would fall to the ground, hecause their support would be withdrawn.
!'J.
/'.
:

which may be easily proved by the air-pump [Kxperimei
1

You observe that place a small piece of candle with a long ignited wick, upon -e of the air-pump, and cover it with the bell-glass we used in our last
The smoke from the wick experiment. ascends because the air in the glnss descends and pushes it up, but when the air is exhausted the effect will be very di.
and, to illustrate it better, I will place the candle upon an inverted wine-gl'iss. [PerNow you see that forms the experiment] the smoke falls to the bottom of the glass.
93. T.
?
;

T.

-By

How can you prove this ? an experiment. [Experiment
a,
-J

Ik]

:.ere a tall

f,

-,

bell-glass (a), open at the bottom, which shall he placed on the plate

A"ii~T7\

of an air-pump (/),

K -L

!i

and the

air

it

con-

tains exhausted. You observe that the top is closed by a brass

Are

there
is

other
the

kinds of atattraction

traction
P.

cap (4). which has two small stages (cc)
passing through the cenbut lilted so that tre, will turn without y admitting the air. The ends of the
to

Yes

there

of

cohesion,

capillary

attraction, attraction,

chemical

attached to and a wire

its sides,

()

attraction, magnetic trical attraction.

and elec

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

VII.

^
fry- 9-

/it being made stages
rest

WHAT

is

meant by gravity

?

upon the lower

part of the wire, a piece of lead (d) is placed upon one, and a feather (e) upon the other, or any two bodies differing in denI will now exhaust the air, [performs sity. the experiment,] and as soon as the handle of the wire (a) is turned, the stages will Obfall, and the lead and feather also. serve, you see the lead and feather have loth reached the stage of the air-pump at the same instant. I will now replace them and admit the air, and you will see that the lead reaches the stage long before the feather. So it is with the air; being heavier than the smoke, it descends, and pushes the smoke, vapour, or balloon up-

2. Can you discover the direction of the force of gravity by any means ? ;>. What is the direction of the force of

gravitation, and how can you determine 4. Does the direction of the force

it

?

of

gravity diiFer
5.

?

How
?

is

it

that falling bodies do not
?

descend
6.

in parallel lines
all

Are

bodies subject to the laws of

gravity
7.

do you mean by the weight and a body ? 8. How can you account for smoke rising? 9. What would be the result if the globe was not surrounded by the atmosphere 10. How many kinds of attraction are
the

What

mass of

''.

there

?

LESSON
RECAPITULATION, &c.
around
its

VIII.

The

attraction

of the earth's mass binds the atmosphere
','

to about fifteen

producing what is termed atmospheric pressure, a force equivalent level of the sea, but less as we ascend pounds on the square inch at a fact we have considered before. If this pressure, or force, were not exercised, we should not be able to remain upon the surface of the earth, but would be thrown off the same as the dirt from the wheel of a carriage, or the water from a mop, when the
surface,
;

servant causes

it

to revolve rapidly.

We

have

now

to consider other forms of attraction,

of equal importance in their

way with the

attraction of gravitation.

Lftson VIII.

]

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
QUESTIO

21

/."What
TION ov CO

is

meant by the ATTRAC-

It is that power which causes particles of matter to stick together, or cohere ?

T.

Are
;

all

bodies kept together by
it

this

power ? P. Yes

it comes into contact with another body of a similar nature ? P. Yes it is a law of nature, that the particles of matter are attracted towards a common centre, and therefore they arrange themselves thus.
;

but

is

much

stronger in

103.

T.

Can you give me

a familiar

(tome bodies than in others. It is stronger, or more powerful, in solid bodies, than in fluids, and weakest in gaseous bodies.
96.
T.

illustration of the attraction of cohesion ? P. You see that I have two pieces of lend with flat and smooth surfaces.

[Ex-

What

is
?

the effect of the influ-

periment 16.]

ence of this power
P.

That some bodies are hard, others tough, soft, brittle, elastic, and so on.
attraction of cohesion limited to the particles of the bodies ? It may exist between the P. No.
/'.

Press the surfaces firmly together with a twist, and you will find tint it will require a considerable force to separate them.
1

Is

the

molecules of bodies, and between bodies themselves and in the former case is
;

K T. If a sponge is placed in a plate of water, what is the effect ? P. The greater part of the water is drawn into the pores of the sponge by
capillary attraction.

d molecular, or atomic attraction.

98.

T.

Give

me

an example of mole-

cular attraction ? A piece of lump-sugar is kept toP. gether by molecular attraction, because the atoms mutually attract each other; and other bodies are operated upon in the tame manner, in a greater or less degree.
/'. Suppose that this force was not exercised, what would be the result ?

105. T. What do you mean by capillary attraction ? /'.It is the force by which fluids nrc r.UM-d above their levels, the attraction that causes hair-like tubes to raise liquids.

106. T. How can you illustrate this ? P. I have here a ^. which contains some infusion of logwood, and there is a piece of wood fitting to the
'

a a

s

P.

The bodies would be without form

or figure, and the molecules would be a

confused mass.
100. T. Is actual contact necessary for the exercise of this pro; P. No it acts at insensible distances,
;

the particles appear to us to touch one another; but we learn, by means of the microscope, that they do not
101. 1
'

tint

I

break a stone
/If. It.

by a

bl
ilcs

ninner, will the various
unite
a;-

/'.No.

The

attraction of cohesion has
;

been overcome by the force of the blow ;clcs have not sufficient mutual attraction to unite again, indcj of other causes.
/'.

put. which has

fis

:

^hs*

in

it.

ment
i

17.]

Im;
rise

in

each

t:;ln-.

the
it

in the li.juid. it will but will vary in tin- I). liquid is raised
;

Can you explain
r

to

me how
>

will

dew, or a of mercury, unites and forms a sphere when

bccau*!

not have any great hei> tube is in<tanl from the circumference than
;

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
,md so on until No.
being
ti.e

[Lesson IX.

5, in

which the
;

it fluid is raised to a considerable height an established rule, that tlu- smaller

the water will be extracted from tli by the force of capillary attraction, and into the tumbler I now place beneath.

fall

lube, the gre tier will be the height of the surface of the fluid.

Give me a familiar example 107. T. of capillary attraction P. [Experiment 18.] I have a basin of Yon water here, and a skein of cotton. observe that one end of the cotton is immersed in the water, and if this basin is left of sufficiently long in its place, the whole
.'

CLNKKAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

VIII.

the attraction of cohesion? '1. What are its effects I 3. How can you prove the property ? 4. "What is capillary attraction? 5. How does it act ?
is

What

6.

Prove that

it exists.

LESSON

IX.
;

RECAPITULATION, &c. When a plate falls it breaks into several pieces the attracand when a piece of wood tion of cohesion being overcome by the force of the fall
;

with a chisel, the power of cohesion is overcome by the force employed. These are examples we may witness every day. We have
is split

also

learned

that the

force

of gravitation

may

be overcome by the force of capillary attraction, (from capilla, the Latin for a hair),
fluids
;

and that

may be
this

raised above their levels

we proved by tubes of different diameters being immersed in a coloured fluid, but we can demonstrate it also
by
its

power

by another simple experiment, [Experiment Take two sheets of glass of the same 19.] size, and place them in the contact at a, b, but separate them by means of a piece of cork (c) at d, e. Immerse them in a solution of logwood, or ink and water, contained in the trough/. It will then be found that the fluid will ascend higher between the glasses at a, b, than at e, where it is scarcely above
Fig. 11.

the level, because the attraction is greater at a, b, than at e. You observe that the fluid is curved from a to c ; this curve has received the name of the hyperbola. Wlu-n we consider the other branches of science, we will enter into the phenomena attending

chemical,

magnetic, Natural Philosophy.

and

electrical attraction,

which do not

essentially

pertain

to

QUESTIONS.
108.
7
J
.

r. It
is

What

meant by REPULSION. that power by which the paris

110. 71
rapulti

What

is

the

great

agent of
all

ticles of bodies, or the bodies themselves, are made to recede from one another.

P.
things.
111.

Caloric or heat, which pervades
T.

109.T.
/-*.

Does the power of repulsion
?

What

is

caloric?

exist in all bodies
all

Yes ; the particles of material substances possess the power of attraction
and repulsion.

been called an imponderable body, because it does not cause any perdifference in the weight of any ceptible
P.
body.

It has

HAL PHILOSOPHY.
1 1

I)
;

2.
.:'

T.
it ?

Can you give me a more definite
and

metals are the best conductors and last of all, u

then

fluids,

/'.

Ills a very subtile, elastic fluid, which
its

US.

7'.

effects,

th

What do you mean by
th:tt

the
is

It penetrates all bodies, produces. more or less, and exists in all bodies, but cannot be wholly separated from them. It in zfree, and in a latent or concealed
it

tions

radiation of heat? P. It simply means, given ofF in rays or lines.
11!'.

the heat

T.

state.

supposed mutually to repel each other, and its rays are c ipable of reflexion and polarization, and
irangiblc.

Its particles are

peculiarities
/'.

Can you give me some other and properties relating to

Yes

to the

but they will be more suited subjects of Chemistry and Pneu;

113.

T.

How

do you know that heat

matics.
120.
T.

Although you have explained
is

P. Because I can detect its presence in various ways for example, it' I rub a button upon my coat, it will soon become so hot that it will ignite a lucifer-match and if I hammer the end of a piece of iron wireit will become hot enough to ignite phosphorus or gunpou
;

to

me

that heat
to

sion, yet

you have nol given
prove that.

the great agent of repulme a single

example

;

114.
is

7*. What is the reason that heat developed by friction, and hammering ?

ily done: [Experiment 20] Take two feathers, rub a glass tube about 1J inch in diameter pretty briskly with a silk handkerchief, and then touch both feathers, one after the other; the lir^t

the iron

Because the atoms of which the materials are composed are compressed, and the heat which was latent or concealed i* forced out, and made sensible, or
7*.

will be attraction. Now near to each other, and the result will be repulsion they will separate themselves.

effect

produced
i

em

:

What
?

1.

effect

does heat produce

i'.AL QUESTIONS ON LESSON IX. What name ha* been given to the

upon bodies

iifies

attraction,

and regulates
)iunicated?

their solidity or density.

property which causes the atom* of bodies to separate, or recede from each other 1 !> all bodies? <>*thispri .use of its acting Vhat is cal><:
.'

'y

conduction and radiation.

>ve that it exists,

117.

7*.-

What do you mean by conto

hat are the sources of heat?
.it

illict

docs

it

produce upon

Vhrn the heat passes from atom

atom slowly along a body, it is con end of a small thus,
i:
!

hr.it

cominunic
i

.<

action

i

die,

the

heat will
'

a cansoon be conducted or

ami

r.ulia'.ion
t

of heat?

xamples of the repulsion of

bodies.
[Tli* pupil

should gire other example! than

i'

ba

--hut

Mill

the heat
is,

is

m

ihe

o

reason of this

lmiUr bodies,
is

that

prove that heat

like latent, *c. ftc.J

wood, to

LESSON
rm
and although
LATIOX, &c.
it is

X.
;

have learned that heat possesses remarkable properties t has a conunequally distributed over the sui
,
.-,>

WE

y to preserve

in

all

fixations.

When we know mote

24
respecting heat, we constructed, and in what
ll:ill:un observed, that
it

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
shall be able to

[Lesson X-

manner it when all the forces acting upon
it

understand how the heat-measurer or thermometer is acts, and many other phenomena connected with it.
a body counteracted each other, was balanced; and having gained a knowledge to the study of the laws of motion and forces.

remained

in a state of equilibrium, or

of the properties of matter, he applied

QUESTIONS.
What is MOTION ? 121. T. P. It is the very reverse of rest, and means the change of place, which may be uniform or variable, according to its rate or relative velocity.
122.
T.
it

siderable force,

its

velocity will be aug-

mented.
127.
T.

What do you mean by velocity?

P.

It is the degree of speed that bodies

What do you mean by
?

rest;

possess, which is increased by the space or distance passed over.

because
P.
rest,
is

appears a direct contradiction
is

to the laws ot nature

no such thing as absolute because the earth upon which we stand
There

always in a state of motion, therefore the term is only relative, and not positive. What do you mean, by saying 123. T.

that rest is only relative ? P. If I let a stone fall from my hand, the same place and in it will remain in the same position where it fell, until removed by some applied force and, there;

128. T. But does not this speed vary ? P. Unless any impediment is presented bodies their velocity is uniform, moving and their speed is calculated by the time they take to pass over a given distance or Thus, any body that takes thirty space. seconds to pass over sixty feet, is said to possess a velocity of two feet per second.
to

129.

T.

Is
;

motion always uniform

?

P.
rated.

No
T.

it

may

be retarded or accele-

fore,

we say

it is

to say that

it

at rest, but we mean is at rest only as regards the

now

130.

Explain these terms.
;

because we know that there is no such thing as absolute rest in creation. The earth, the planets, and the sun move in fact, all creation moves.
earth,
;

If it decreases gradually, it is said P. if it increases, it is acceleto be retarded
rated,

and the force that governs or regu-

lates this, is called the retarding or accele-

rating force.
131.
T.

124. T.

Which

is

more
;

natural, for a

How

body
P.

to

must

be in a state of rest or motion ? because bodies Rest, of course be arrested in their progress by
friction, the attrac-

P.

They
T.

are forces distinguished ? are called instantaneous or coa-

tinued forces.

132.

What
is

is

the difference

?

atmospheric pressure,
1

tion of the earth, or their
25.

own

gravity.

What causes motion ? causes are various, but it is certain that all bodies must continue at rest unless acted upon by some force or forces In the animal -ed upon them. economy it is produced by a principle of life, which we do not quite understand; inanimate bodies are put in motion or
T.

P.

Its

instantaneous force is an imsudden, like a blow, but a pulse continued force has always the same degree of power, and is called a constant force when it has no intermission.
P.
;

An
it

133.
T.

T.

Yes
is

power
134.

Can forces vary of course they vary when the not constant, or when there is
;

intermission.
T.
?

arrested by certain forces or powers.
Is motion variable or constant ? 126. T. It is variable, and must ever be so, P. although its degree of velocity is in accord-

What

is

meant by absolute

motion

ance with the force applied. Thus, if I push a cart with one hand, it will move slowly with two hands faster, but if six or seven men all push at once, and with con;

P. When any body moves towards another body at rest, or passes it, or moves from one point of space to another, it is influenced by absolute motion.
135.
T.
?

What do you mean by

relative

motion

Lesson XI.]

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
momentum.
ball,
;

It is the motion of one body conP. sidered in relation to that of another body thin suppose I roll two balls, one of wood and the other of lead, along a table, and >th move in the same direction, the ice between their motions is the
:

weighing 30
its

second,

momentum

If the velocity of a cannon be 1,800 Ibs., will be 54,000.

relative motion.

moment
of
tlv
/'.

If I let a bullet fall at the same as cork, but of the same s there be any great difference in the descent

136.

T.

139. T. Suppose that I let a bullet, weighing an ounce, fall at the same momentwiih a thin sheet of lead, weighing an ounce, which will reach the ground sooner ? P. The bullet because the resistance
;

of the atmosphere impedes the descent of
the sheet

Yes

;

because

it

will

depend upon

the

momentum. T. What do you mean
?

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON
by the
1.

LESSON* X.
rest
?

momentum
P.
It is
.

What

is

meant by motion and

the raotal force of a body. All whether light or heavy, may move with the same speed, but the momentum

and

of a body being proportionate to its in iss velocity, it is very evident that the difference will be relative.
138.
T.

How
of a
b<

can

you

estimate

the

momentum

/'. If you multiply the weight of a body by the number of feet it passes through or over in a second, the produce will be the

accordance with the established laws of Nature f 3. What is meant by the terms absolute and relative rest? 4. Is it more natural for bodies to be in a state of rest or motion ? 5. What are the causes of motion? 6. Is motion constant or not ? 7. What is the difference between the velocity and momentum of a body 8. How can you estimate the momentum
2.

Is rest in

.'

of a body

.'

LESSON XL
found that the velocity of every filling body is uniformly increased as it approaches the earth, no matter from what height it falls; th.it i<, without taking into account atmospheric resistance. Experiment determined his
observations, for he found that the motion of falling bodies is increased in regular arithmetical progression, and, by computation, he was enabled to ascertain the s;>nce follrn
in a given time. Thus he found that a dense or compact body passed through a space inch during the first second of time that it was descending towards the earth; and, in order to ascertain the time a body occupied in falling, he multiplied the

rnt LATION, &c.

HALLAW

through

1

square of that number by 16, and the result was, the number of feet the body hid fallen* For example, he observed that a stone occupied 6 seconds in falling from a certain height,

and he took the square (the number multiplied by itself) of 6, which IB multiplying 36 by 16, the result was 576, or the number of feet fallen. In making these calculations, he omitted the odd inch, because it is near enough for all practical purposes and he knew that even the best calculation would only be an approximation of the actual
.

:

distance, in consequence of the gravity of bodies,

a fact he had learned by experi-

ment [Sec Experiment

14].

QUI
ll'>.

.

&c.
in,

T

'-''

'

do you mean by the
all

the influence of gravitation

as

it

were,

con
P.
It is that

point in

bodies at which

rest if

it

and upon which a bod. it is be freely suspended
;

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
quently the central point of parallel and equal forces. If a body is not suspended with 141. T. clue regard to the centre of gravity, what will be the result? It will move until it settles in a poP. sition in which the centre of gravity cannot
fall

[Lesson XI.

necessary to the equilibrium of any body the centre of gravity should be is, that
suppn:
146.
T.

How will

lower.

What is the use of finding out 142. T, the centre of gravity ? When we know the weight of bodies P. and their centre of gravity, we can substitute the weight for all the forces acting upon the body, and a single point (the centre of gravity), for the collective points forming the body.
Have all solid bodies a centre 143. T. of gravity ? Yes the centre of gravity is sure P. to be in the centre of all round, square, and and regular bodies of the same density no mattr what form a body has, it is sure In irregular to have a centre of gravity. bodies it is situated at that point which will place the body in a state of equilibrium when fixed or suspended from it.
; ;

you find the centre of gravity of an irregular tigure ? or P. Very easily If that of any body. you suspend the body at a point a, (Fig. 13,) the direction of the string
;

supporting it will pass through the lower part
of the body at l>, and therefore it is very evident the centre of gravity is in the direction of the line a b. Again,

suppose we suspend the same body at the point d (Fig. 14), the centre
Fig. 13.

of gravity is still in the direction of the sus-

pending string de, and therefore the ci litre of gravity lies where the two lines a b and d e cross one another at c. Although it
easy to determine the centre of gravity some bodies of regular form and uniform density by geometric principles, yet there
is

it

Can I stand an egg, or place 144. T. in a state of equilibrium, upon its narrow

of

end?

Not without following the example P. of Columbus. Because, if there is not anything to support the egg, it will assume such
tion,

that

a posia line

the centre of gravity to the point below, where the body Fig. 12. comes in contact with the surface, will be the shortest that can be drawn from the centre to any other If you observe this part of its superficies. diagram carefully, you will see that the egg could not remain in the position it is in the figure; it would roll over, and instead of the line a c being perpendicular to the
line

drawn

from

Fig, 14.

are certain bodies in which it is difficult to ascertain the line of direction exactly.

d

t, it

would be the

line c

b.

145.

T.

If the centre of gravity of a
itself will

body be a fixed point, the body

no always be in a state of equilibrium, matter how we turn or place it. Is this so? P._Yes; the only thing that is actually

What do you mean by the line 147. T. of direction? It is the imaginary line drawn from P. the centre of gravity of a body toward the centre of the earth therefore it is evident that, if the line of direction fall within the base of any body, it will stand if not, the
;

;

body

will

fall

over, or,

what

is

generally

termed, over-balance

itself.

Imim

XII.
T.

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
Where
is

27
;

the centre of gravity

P,
is in
it is

No

;

because in a circle or

light line? In the centre of the line, so that it will be maintained in a state of equilibrium ?
I'.

in the axis

the centre of the circle, and in a of the drum.
tion* of the situation of the centre of ^

drum

[The pupil should give some other

illustra-

T.

How would

you
a

find the centre

of

gravity

of

homogeneous

triangle ? P. By draw-

such as coaches heavily laden upsetting: attitudes of men and women dancing upon the tight-rope, tendency of trees to grow in a direction perpendicular to their base, &c.]
l~>\.

ing
lines

straight

T. If I attempt to stand upon one d fall down, is it because I cannot

from two
angles to the op-

of

its

bisect

keep the centre of gravity ? P. Yes; the equilibrium is not preserved, and therefore you fall over.

posite sides, and

the point of intersection, d, of

these two lines, is the centre of gravity. Thus, the point e is the centre of gravity of the line b, c, and any line drawn parallel to 6 c in the triangle must be bisected or divided by the line a e, which proves that the centre of gravity lies upon the line a, e, as regards all lines parallel to be, and, by the tame reasoning it would lie in the line a b.

1.

HAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON What is the centre of gravity
?

XI.

...

4.

hy do bodies fall down when inone side ? Have all bodies a centre of gravity ? How can you find the centre of
o

5.

of a body ? Give some examples of the direction

T.ls
body always

the centre of grav:'

of the centre of gravity > 6. Are the animal and vegetable kingdoms subject to its 1.. ive some examples of other bodies

in its substance ?

being affected by

it.

LESSON

XII.

IK Hallam had not known anything about the centre of gravity, "RECAPITULATION, &c. it is possible that he might have built his house in such a position tint it would have fallen down, or he might have overloaded his waggons, and then there would have been

a probability of 'their upsetting when they ran over any urn-ven Around. The only requirement for the equilibrium of any solid body is, that its centre of gravity should be supported, which may be done in various ways. body attached to an axis may

A

cither

be

in a

state of stable,
is

whether the centre of gravity

lihrium, below, above, or within the axis.

unstable, or

iiuiii!

according

to

QUESTION&
152. T. stable
<

What do you mean by
*i.

the term,
d from

its

position by
its

very

,uid re-

covers

former
.

state, the

equilibrium

is

the line of direction falls outside its base, it is said to be in a state of unst<il>i> When a man brium, because it must fall. carries a weight he must change his posi-ht and the rnan.

aid to be

otherwise

1

t

unstable equili: a body is in such a that it may easily be disturbed, .v able to recover its former state, because
(

of the

body and the load would be beyo; For iiut.. base, and he would fall. he carries a bale of cloth, or any load upon

28
his

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
back (Fig.
if 1(5)

[Lesson XII.

he must bend

lor ward
left

;

157.

T.

and

he carries a load in his

hand

how
fro.

it is

not explained to \\\<* that the pendulum swings to and

You have

P. When the ball of the pendulum is raised to a height upon one side am! liberty, it has a tendency to fall to the

ground by the force of gravity, but being confined by the rod it makes a sweep to
the point of rest, and having acquired a certain degree of velocity it sweeps on until it ascends on the other side to nearly the same height as that from which it was
set free.
Its

weight again draws

it

down,

and its velocity raises it to nearly the same height as the point from which it originally fell, and thus it continues to swing to and fro until the force of gravity overcomes the propelling force, and it
ultimately settles in a state of rest in original position.
Fig. 18.

its

Fig

(Fig. 17), he must bend the his body to the right.

upper part of

154.

T.

What

do you
?

mean by

inall

different equilibrium

P.

When
it

158. T. Then it appears that each sweep of the pendulum decreases the length of the arc. What is the reason ? P. The resistance of the atmosphere, and the friction at its axis or point of

any body
is

is

balanced in

suspension.

positions

of indifferent For example, when the wheel equilibrium. the ground to of a carriage is raised from wash it, we have a body in a state of indifferent equilibrium, upon a fixed axis. The common balance is an excellent exin

a

state

ample of
]')">.

this state,

when both scale-pans

What is the length of the arc 159. T. traversed by the fall of a pendulum ? It is impossible to fix any certain P. length, because it will depend upon the force exercised in setting the pendulum free it may be made to traverse any
;

are of equal weight.
try an experiment [Experiment 21]. I have here a bullet with a hole in it, through which a string the passes, and you will see that when bullet is drawn out of the perpendicular
T. will

number of degrees under
;

We

180, which is but generally the extent of half a circle the arc is from ten to twenty degrees. 160. T.

Does

the length of the rod by
is

which the weight

difference in the oscillations

suspended make any of the pen-

and let go, that it will swing backwards and forwards. [Performs the experiment.] You observe that it swings or oscillates, as and in doing so describes it is termed, a segment of a circle, which is called its Can you tell me what is the cause arc.
of this? P. Gravity, which causes bodies to
fall.

dulum

?

P. Yes ; the one with a long rod vibrates or oscillates slower than the one with a short rod, and here we have a motion analogous to that of falling bodies?
161.
T.

Why is the vibration analogous
?

to the falling of bodies

What is the name applied to a 15(5. 7\ rod of iron with a weight at the lower part, like my bullet and string? A pendulum which hangs perpenP.
;

Because we have learned (see Lesson XI.) that the motion of falling bodies
P.
is increased in regular arithmetical progression; and, in the case of the pendulum, their lengths are as the squares of the times of vibration. Thus, if the times occupied by one vibration of two pendulums be 2 and 3 respectively, their lengths will

The uppermost dicularly when at rest. of suspenpart is called the axis or point sion, and the part where the ball is placed is called the point of rest

be as 4 and

9.

Lesson XIII.
T.

1

N
is

VI

IKAL PHILOSOPHY.

29

What

the use of a
its

pendulum

to a c!

/'.On

account of

uniform vibration otion, for without it the

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON XII. 1. How many kinds of equilibrium are
there,
2.

wheels would go very irregularly.
-

ite

.

T. As pendulums are required only sixty times in a minute, neither slower or quicker ; how is

P.

Managed ? By adjustment of the length.

a pendulum 3. "Wh.it causes its oscillation? 4. Why does the sweep of a pendulum, left to itself, decrease in length each time ? does the length of the rod affect hy the vibrations of the pendulum ?
is
.'

What

and how are they distinguished

?

LESSON

XIII.

RECAPITULATION, &c. IT is quite as natural for a body to be in a state of motion as rest, according to the laws of Natural Philosophy, because it has been shown thnt is passive, and must therefore be influenced by some external force to make it
change
i

its

laid

condition from a state of rest to that of motion, or vice versa. Sir Isaac down three propositions, which have been called the " laws of motion."
:

They

are as follow

1st " Every body must persevere in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it be compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it." " 2nd. Every change of motion must be proportional to the impressed force, and mutt be in the direction of that straight line in which the force is impressed." " Action must 3rd. always be equal to and contrary to reaction or the actions of two bodies upon each other must be equal, and directed towards contrary sides."
;

.1 he our duty to consider these laws, and examine the phenomena they present We have already found that bodies cannot possibly continue in a state for the attraction of of motion for any length of time upon or near the earth
;

gravitation, atmospheric resistance, and friction, would operate so powerfully, that the It is therefore evident, that permanency or bodies would be arrested in their course.

uniformity of motion can only be fully demonstrated by the heavenly bodies, which have continued to move, with uniform force, since the time the Creator launched them
into space.

QUI
Suppose that there are two equal forces acting upon one point from .-, what is the result oppOM
164.
r.
.'

n ply that a

single

force would produce the

same

cil<

l>ody acted

upon

will
*

/'.

The
!
.

rctultant

in a state- of equilibrium.

-this single force called? or rywjeW, <.'

\.r.nj

two forces act in the same direction, what in ill he equal P. to that of a double load, and so on for
i

\vlicn a ship is impelled by tho <d action of the stream. rml<i
v

every additi<

wind, it will move in a d hut if the actions of those force* cease, the ship would he in.-. loving n :<-h as a rope, which
;.

ami

tl,.

iev

can only
-1

produce one motion in ouc definite dircc-

rcction a* hy the three forces ; const';

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
the single force (the rope) would be the resultant of the three forces.
T. How can you explain 167. action offerees ? P. By means of diagrams. Thus, various lines are made to represent quantity or intensity of the forces, eilbcts produced, and the directions

[Lesson XIII

the the the the
in

reach e in another second. Therefore it is certain, that if the two forces acted at the same instant, that the ball would reach the point e, and the single force that would produce the same Jesuit, if applied in the direction of the line a e, in the resultant.

which they
168. T.

act.

When

several

forces

act

in

concert upon a given point, what are they

171. T. What is meant by the composition of forces ? P. It is the process of finding a single force that is equivalent to two or more
forces.

termed?

The system of forces. If, however, we speak of them in reference to the
P.

equivalent or resultant force, they are then

172. forces ?

2'.

What

is

the

resolution

of

termed latent or component forces. 169. T. How can you determine the
resultant of forces ? P. When two or

P.
find

forces

It is the process by which that will produce a

we can motion

equal to that of a single force.
173. T. Give me an example of this. P. Let ^/represent a boat,/ithe rope by which it is drawn along, and also the

more
;

forces act in the

same

direction, their resultant is the sum of the separate forces but if they act in opposite directions upon one point, their resultant is equal to the difference of the

two, and the line of action tion of the greater force. 170. T.

is

in the direc-

Suppose that two forces act
Fiy. 19.

point, and make an angle with each other, how will you find the resultant

upon one

of them ? P. By

means of

the

law called the

parallelogram of forces, which is explained by this diagram. Suppose that a ball is placed at the point a, and two forces are

It may then be assumed force of draught. that there are two forces acting, /#, which

draws the boat forward, and f //, which would draw the head in the direction f h were it not counteracted by the helm e d, which is parallel to the line/z. When the
boat
acts
is moving the resistance of the water upon the helm, which may be explained

Fiy. IS.

acting upon

it

at

the

same moment, the

one in the direction a f, the other in the direction a d. Now let us take it for
granted that the one force will move the ball of itself in a second from the point a to b, while the other force will only move it from a to c in the same space of time. It is, therefore, very evident that the same result would ensue, as if one force acted upon the ball in the direction of the line a c, because if in one second the ball would !>< impelled as far as a b, and then the action of ihe
force cease, and the ball only subjected to the action of the second force, it would

If c a represents the resistance, it resolved into a d and e c. Now, as a d produces no effect upon the helm, it is evident that the pressure is in the line e c t which tends to turn the stern of the boat in the direction b c k, and thus counteracts
thus.

may be

the force f h.

How can you prove the correct174. T. ness of the law of the parallelogram of
forces ? P. By experiment. For example, suppose that we have three forces, each equal, and opposed to the resultant of the oilier two, a state of equilibrium will be the reYou observe that I have two \ sult. pieces of wood attached to the table, and
that each of

them has

which

apv.lley, that turns easily

a movcable slide, to upon its axis

Lesson XIV.]

NA'ITRAL PHILOSOPHY.
and
the angle a b c measure 75, and a 2, b c 3 (the length being given), then d the diagonal

in a vertical plane, is attached. Let the vertical planes of both pulleys coincide, then

=

b=

pass a line having a weight (a) at one end, and another weight (c) at the other now suspend a weight (b) at any point
;

=

4.

To
this,

prove
if

we attach
ounce
19

a four

weight
the line,

we shall find
that the anp o q

gle

measures
75.
this

From
it

(o)

between the pulleys, the whole will be of equilibrium in any definite There arc three position of the lines.
in a state

angle p o q, greater the angle.

apthat pears the greater the weight at o the less will be the and the less the weight the

forces

acting upon
o p, o

the
q,

point
o

o,
r,

in

the

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.
'2.

XIII.

directions

and

and we

may
tion.

ascertain the resultant by construcr.

do you define force? What are the laws of motion
Sir Isaac
is

How

laid

down by
Will vou explain this more
3.

Newton

?
7

NY hat is the resultant

4.

What
hat

meant by the diagonal of the
the parallelogram of forces
?

P.

Suppose that the weight a was equal
ml
u'ht
c.

to

3

ounces, the force

or
6.

is

at

b

requisite to

produce an

angle of 76

must be four ounces.

Let

Prove the correctness of the law of the parallelogram of forces.

LESSON XIV.
THE laws of equilibrium in all simple machines are <i from the knowledge of the parallelogram of forces for example, the inclined plane, the screw, the wedge, the pulley, and the lever. We have now to consider the motions
RECAPITULATION, &c.
;

produced by gravity, where the directions of the force of gravitation in various points Bodies have a tendency to proceed in a straight line when Hying longer parallel. we may see every day and this property is termed the centri>

;

fugal or centre flying force.

QUESTIONS.
/'

It

in
fly

bodies to

rr.NTKIFirOAL FORCE? that force which causes all ofTfrom t:
is

Vhat

r.

Is

the

earth

subject to this

force
/'.

?

hould pir. example of fug.l force, tuch a, tbr trundling of A mnii, tht whirling of tone in lirg with a
pupil
it.

Win-never tin re is rotaCertainly. nnd a fixed axi*. And the separate
'g

from

this axis

in

any way,

this

force

must

I

32

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
179.
T.

[Lesson XIV.

Does the centrifugal fon-t- \ .u y 178. r. with the distance from the earth's axis ? Yes all the different points of the P. earth are not equidistant from the axis of
;

Can you give me any other
?

examples of centrifugal force overcoming
the force of gravity
at a circus, when standing upon the horse which is running round the ring, inclines his body inwards, and when the horse is going round at full speed, any one may see both rider and horse influenced by this force.

rotation, and this force is greatest at the equator, and diminishes as it approaches the poles, acting against gravity, and This apparatus lessening its intensity.

P.

A

horseman

(Fig.

22)

will

explain

how

it

is

that

180. T. does the his body inwards ?

Why

horseman incline

P.

To counteract

the centrifugal force.

If this force impels bodies outfor bodies inclining towards the centre when going round a circle? P. Because there is another force acting, called the centripetal, or centre-seeking force, which draws them towards the centre, so that all bodies moving in circles are acted
181. T.

wards,

how do you account

upon by both
Fig
22.

forces.
is the axis of a body ? or imaginary line round

182.

T.

What
real

P.
the earth is flattened at the poles. You observe there are two discs, which revolve horizontally. When the handle
Is turned it conveys the motion of the larger disc by means of the string d to the lesser disc, which has the vertical axis c fixed in its centre. a b, is fas-

The

which a body

rotates.

m

183. T. The other matters in connection with Natural Philosophy must be left
for

another occasion.

A spring tened by its lower end to the axis, and the can be moved up and down, upper part and when the machine is at rest it forms a spherical figure, but assumes an elliptical
figure when the axis revolves rapidly, owing to the centrifugal force acting upon those points most remote from the axis.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
centrifugal force 1 2. How does it act ? 3. Prove its existence. 4. What is centripetal force ? 5. What does a body rotate upon
1. is

XIV.

What

?

W. EGL1NUTO.S-,

:.r.T,

LONDON,

IL-NATU1UL HISTORY.

imODUCTOBI NARRATIVE.
LESSON
THE
celebrated Carl
I.

Von

Linne", or Linnaeus,
at

was born 21th May, 1707,

Kashult, in the

parish of Stemlrohult, in the province of His fat In r, Nils I.iim;t land, Sweden.
;.

Sma-

descended from a humble peasant; but after struggling with polity, and overcoming many difficulties, obtained the ofliee of cu:
"hull,

and resided

in

a beautiful .spot

surrounded liy woods, hills, and valleyOf botany, einj.lnyod all his leisure hours in
ting his garden, wluci.

upon

the

borders of a lake,

Si

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.

[lesson

I.

Here the young Carl followed his father as soon as ho rare and foreign plants. could walk, so that, as one of his pupils has remarked, "from the very time that lie first left his cradle, he almost lived in his father's garden." There cannot he a doubt that
his eariy acquaintance with the beauties of nature laid the foundation for the study of those sciences which he afterwards so greatly adorned. His own relation of the manner in which his first lessons in botany were given, are worthy of notice. When about four

years old, he went to a feast at Mokler with his father and, as the evening was fine, the young Carl was seated upon a flowery bank with many of the guests, listening to
;

the eloquent and instructive remarks of the curate upon the various plants around them. His curiosity was awakened; hut one so young could only ask questions, the answers to which were speedily forgotten, especially the names of the plants. As he

remember names was a source of constant annoyance to by perseverance and practice, he overcame the defect. When Linmmis was seven years old, he was placed under the private charge of John Tiliander, and two years afterwards, was sent to school at Wexio, being intended for the church and here, and at the gymnasium of the same place, he remained until nearly eighteen,
grew
older, his inaptitude to

his father; but,

;

without making

much

progress in languages, literature, or the studies his father

desired, although he eclipsed most of his schoolfellows in physical and mathematical All his leisure hours were devoted to the study of botany; and his library, science.

dubbed him the
for
tailor,

consisting of a few books, showing a decided taste for that science, his fellow-students "little botanist." The father was so disgusted with his son's distaste
clerical studies,

that he determined to bind him apprentice to a shoemaker, or but was fortunately prevented by the kind offer of Dr. Rothmann, a provincial physician, who proposed to receive the young Linnaeus into his own house, and instruct

him in medical literature. This offer was not without its service, for we find that he made considerable progress in physiology and botany, and therefore, the following year,
was sent to the university of Lund, with the following introductory certificate from the " Youth at school head master of the gymnasium may be compared to shrubs in a garden, which will sometimes, though rarely, elude all the care of the gardener, but if
:

transplanted into a different soil, may become fruitful trees. With this view, therefore, and no other, the bearer is sent to the university, where it is possible he may meet with An old tutor and friend suppressed this a climate propitious to his progress."

extraordinary document, and introduced him as his private pupil. At Lund, he lodged in the house of Dr. Stobaeus, physician to the king, and and was delighted professor of medicine, who soon became aware of his acquirements,

This excellent man allowed Linnaeus to find he possessed such a knowledge of botany. instructed free access to his library and collection of shells, minerals, birds, and plants
;

him how

to

form a hortus

siccus,

and

first

turned the attention of Linnaeus to other

branches of Natural History.

Next year he repaired to the University of Upsala, with only eight pounds in his pocket, which was all the money his parents could give him; and after a short time was reduced to such a state, that he was often obliged to trust to chance for a meal, and mend his shoes with folded paper instead of sending them to a
cobbler.

Linnaeus, notwithstanding all these difficulties and privations, studied early and late, and soon attracted the attention of Professor Rudbeck and Dr. Celsius; and the latter, It was here that he contracted requiring an assistant, received him into his own house. a friendship with the celebrated ichthyologist, Artedi, and composed his Spolia Hotanica,

X

J

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.

35

which wan never published. Soon after this, he drew up a sketch of his system of The botany, and submitted it to Dr. Celsius, who showed it to Professor Rudbeck. latter was so pleased with it, that he appointed him tutor to his children, and eventually

employed him as his assistant in lecturing.* He lectured publicly, improved the garden, gave botanical excursions in the vicinity of Upsala, and commenced several of his works.
fame was now established, and the Royal Academy entrusted him with the care
of the scientific expedition to Lapland, which started on the 13th of May, 1732, Linnaeus being only twenty-five years of age. In this expedition he encountered many hard-hips and dangers, travelled over the greater part of Lapland, and, skirting the
borders of Norway, returned to Upsala by the Gulf of Bothnia, having travelled more He arranged the plants, and other natural productions collected than 4.000 miles. during the journey, and lectured publicly upon the result of the expedition. In 1736
.ted
:

England, afterwards repaired

to

Holland, where he remained some time,

Stockholm, where he took up his residence as a physician, having married the daughter of Dr. Moreus. In 1741, he was appointed professor of medicine at Upsala, and by a private arrangement with Dr. Rosen, ^or of botany, he effected an exchange, receiving the superintendence of the
sited Paris, and, in 1739, returned to

Botanic Garden, and charge of the Natural History department. In 1758, he was created a knight of the order of the Polar Star, by King Frederic Adolphus of Sweden, was admitted member of most of the scientific societies of Kurope ; and, in 176*1, having

His received letters of nobility from the king, his name was changed to Von Linne*. various appointments and an excellent practice placed him in affluent circumstances, and he therefore purchased the villa of llarmanby, about a league from Up-ala, where he spent the last fifteen years of his life, and died on the 10th of January, 1778, in the He was buried at Upsala, near the main door of the seventy-first year of his age. cathedral, with his wife by his side, under a stone, without tun Ins name upon it; but at a short distance from the grave there is a bust of the great naturalist, in ultu rclitvo, on black marble, with the following inscription engraved on a tablet of Swedish porphyn
:

BOTANICORUM

PRINCIPE,

AMICI ET DISCIPULI.
M.DCC.XCV1II.

memory was most comprehensive, seizing upon the useful, and rejecting the " In winter," he tells us in !;: i; and his love of order most remarkable. lie to six; in summer, from ten to three," and that, as soon as he "he si
felt

tired,

he ceased to study.
f.nled

He

noted everything
in the subject

in its

proper place immediately,
easily understood,

As a teacher, he was kind, made himself
and never
frugal in hi
to

interest his pupil*
t

living,

and very

iiuught

He was much, read slowly, and was most devout.
under eonsideratinn.

OR

\

most celebrated

naturalists,

because

MI has given his pupils this sketch of the life of one of tht it in instructive both to the young and more aged:
;

him the by studying the great kingdoms of nature around
i

latter to repair l!n

ir

misspent time,

niitr t

" w,

I
.

Variant's TrcaUtt on Ikt

Suet of PtanU, which he

read * short tune before

it*

ilmw up

hi*

kttch.

,36

NATURAL HISTORY.
It

[Lesson

1.

was Linnaeus who

first

natural history by

some

practically pointed outthe necessity and utility of studying system, and to him we are indebted for the fir-t I'IMNCITLES OF

CLASSIFICATION.

NATURAL HISTORY. QUESTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS.
is Natural History ? the study of Nature in all her departments, treating of, and examining abstractedly, each of the properties of all

1.

T.

WHAT

P.

It is

moveable and extended bodies, animate or inanimate, and having for its object
the special application of the laws recognised by the various branches of GeneraJ Physics to the numerous and different beings which exist, in order to explain the

Is there more than one system ? Yes; there is a natural and an artificial system, and various naturalists have established systems of their own.
8-

T.

P"

9.

7'.

What

is

meant by a

natural

system

?

PA classification and arrangement of the objects in nature, based on certain

phenomena they each present

in their sin-

gle characters and relation to each other, to the proximate objects among which they are found, and to nature generally.

fundamental principles, which, so far as the laws of Nature are known, are found to be general throughout all her productions.
10.

T.

What,

then,

is

an

artificial

tem
P.

sys-

?

a naturalist ? studies nature, especially the three great kingdoms.
2.

T.

What

is

A

method established

to elucidate

P.

A

person

who

the resemblances^ which one species bears
to others in all their varied

and complex

3.

T.

What

do you mean by the three

relations, directing us to the precise point

great kingdoms ? P. The animal, vegetable, and mineral

upon which we require information.
11.

I

1
.

What

are

the

uses of these

kingdoms.
4.

systems
P.
in-

?

T.
all

Does not Natural History
;

natural objects existing in space? P. Yes but as the subject would be too extensive, it has "been divested of such sciences as astronomy, meteorology, geology, and metallurgy, &c., that properly belong to it. and is now generally understood to signify only the three great

clude

natural system depends upon the artificial. Thus, we turn to the latter to arrive at a fact but if we desire to know how that fact bears upon other facts, we
;

The

turn to the former.
12. T. You have made use of the terms nature and natural very often will you explain their meaning? PNATURE is used to denote the laws which govern the beings that surround us in the works of creation nature is employed to denote the peculiarity of a body thus it is the NATURE of some bodies to burn others; to become converted into and nature may be intended vapour, &c. to convey to the mind that such bodies are not altered by art or civilization, that they Natural are, in fact, in a state of nature. may be applied to express to another that such a body is not artificial or made by human agency it may be used to particularize certain qualities in an object thus, it it natural for a do>* to krk, and walk
;
; ; ;

kingdoms.

How have these divisions 5. T. Natural History been accomplished ?
observing, paring, and classifying the bodies surround them.
6'.

in

P.

By

learned

men

comthat

T.

What

is

the use of classifying

objects? To establish systems or methods. P.
7.

T.

What
all

do you mean by a system?
is

P.

A

sjstem

which

objects

have

a great catalogue, in their appointed

;

place, distinguished by known names, distinctive characters, and relation*.

;

Lesson

II. ]

ttAL
r.i.-

HISTORY.
of that science
is

37 termed a

upon four U.
/'.

legs,

'o w.ilk

upon

who

botanist, or one studies the vegetable kinT.

-A

:i

division of

17.

What
.'

is

objects that surround Into the organic P.

the study of earths, tall*,

and

inorganic

kingdoms.

/'.What chss
the ur^nn c kin^t.

of objects belongs to

&c.. termed P. MINERALOGY; because it tenches the properties, composition, and relations of mineral bodies, and the art of deset ibing and distinguishing them; the

/'.Animals and
kind.
1

vegetables

of every

student of this branch of Natural History
is

termed a minrrafogitt.

\.

T.

What

class belongs to the in-

organ
P.

(ilNKRAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

I.

every kim;
v

-trute of the

viulprinci-.M--. or i.fe;
rals, >alls.

Mich as anh-, mine<

/'.What
kii.gdo
/'.

is

the study of the animal

I

Natural History How is Natural History divided? J. 3. Mow do you define the three great kingdoms ot Natural History ? \V if ,, | Ijtttaii and its ue
\Vhat
is
?
1

:i

?

from two Greek words, a discourse upon life ; and the iiitf who studies the science is called a
/

5.

How

in

are there

?

zoologist, or
1

observer of
is

life.

,;.

r._What
i

the study of vegetables

What is the difference between the ii. na'ural and artificial -\s.em 1) fine the terms nature and natural. 7. 8. How is the realm of Nature divi.icd ? 9. Give the definition of the terms 20.'
.

tern.'

>t

any, and mineralogy.

rrom a Greek word, which /'. means an herb or grass ; and the student

in.

\Vh.,t

do you mean by a zoologist,
.'

botanist, or mineralogist

LESSON
IT
is

II.

and minerals, the same as

means

for animals, vegetables, absolutely neces?arv for us to for the \arious articles in an ironmonger's shop. By this and by the wliole of another we are enabled U)

have names and places

m

;

nt group*, we can, l>y paying attention the animal kingdn and the same to the peculiarities of nn in ividual, at once assign a proper place for it It has been found desirable, in mine;al kingdoms. applies to the v.
;
1
.

studying Natural li divisions or groups, which are nine
8.

in

with the highest and descend to the nnmlii 1. Kin-d,m 2. Sub-kingdom;
:

;

Clns
\i>

Subfamily;
it is
^
>

S.

Genus

or kind

;

9.
(

Sub-

because

intends to follow the system laid do\\n l>y r, cm, although excellent and prac;

together, which

d.

of the most essential parts for we find animals grouped us systems and general anatomy.

QUKST10NS.
18.
'

iiy

a

Kis<."ion of

tlir animal, the Three grand one P. vegetable, nnd tlic mineral kingdoms.
:

It P. nature.

is

a grand or

;

20.

T.

What
t
in

is

meant by a SUBdivision of a king-

<>M

my

divisions are there?

/'.

It

a

nnm.uy

NATURAL HISTORY.
Thus, the animal kingdom has tour sub-kingdoms, each of which includes all animals possessing certain peculiarities, which will be noticed as we proceed.
dotn.
28.
T. Is

[Lesson III.

21. P.

T.
It

What
is

is

a

CLASS?
division

there not another division which naturalists notice ? These are generally P. Yes, varieties. the result of accident, such as food, situation, or malformation, and do not per-

the

first

of a

sub-

petuate their peculiarities.
[The pupil should be required to give some examples of the causes of varieties, such as unusual heat or cold, scarcity of food, &c.]
29.
T.

kingdom.
22.
T.

What
What

is

an

ORDER
?

?

P.
23.

A division in eluding several families.
T.
is

You have now
;

learned

that

a

TRIBE

P.
order.

A

group between a family and an

the order Incessores, or perching birds, has several tribes, which are again divided into families or groups, con-

Thus

taining

many
It is

sub-families.
?

there are certain points for the practical naturalist to attend to and, as the vegetable and mineral kingdoms will be examined hereafter, we must now confine ourselves to the principles of classification in the animal kingdom alone.

24. T.

What do you mean by a GENUS
a

species closely resembling each other, but yet differing slightly in some point; in fact, a collection of sub-genera.

P-

number of

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

II.

Why

do we have fixed names

for

objects of Natural History ? 2. What is the usual method of dividing

What is a SUB-GENUS ? Several species, all of the same type of formation.
25.
T.

Natural History
3.

?

P.

Why

is

the Linnaean system not so
?

good
4.

as the Cuvierian

What do you mean by
sub-kingdoms,
?

the

terms

26.

T.
It is

What

is

a

SPECIES

?

kingdoms,
orders
5.

classes,

and

an animal distinguishable from another animal on account of certain peP.
culiarities of structure, size, or otherwise.

Are all the individuals of one 27. T. species alike ? P. Yes, they all resemble the parent.

Explain the meaning of the terms and sub families. What is the difference between a genus, sub-genus, and species?
tribes, families,
6.
7.

Are

8.

Why

varieties perpetuated ? are not varieties perpetuated

I

LESSON
;

III.

IT is the aim of scientific men to classify and arrange the various objects of Natural and, in doing so, they have to confine themselves to History that surround them certain laws. They observe the difference in structure of animals from plants the

and peculiarities of each. Those animals or plants that closely resemble each other are grouped together, and naturalists have found that certain
habits, actions or functions,

individuals possess the
will not

means of perpetuating

their species

:

thus we

know

that pointers

produce spaniels, or vice versa ; and therefore we commonly call such a series It is our duty to endeavour to discover whether these races have a of families a race.

common

origin

;

for

instance, Is

descended from two parents?

it possible that all dogs, of whatever breed, are Naturalists must pay attention to the anatomical struc-

ture of animals, before they can classify them correctly. The Animal Kingdom is divided into four sub-kingdoms VERTEBRATA, MOLLUSCA, ARTICULATA, and RA-

DIATA

;

and we

shall

now consider

their principal characteristics consecutively.

Lesson III.]

NATURAL HISTORY.
QUESTIONS.

30.

T.

You have
is

said that the

Animal
;

divided into several parts what is the name of the first sub-kingdom ? /'. VKKTEBRATA, or vertebrate animal*, so called because the individuals comprised in this division have a backbone or verte-

Kingdom

largest animals belong to this d and are remarkable for possessing a greater degree of intelligence than any other class of animals.
all the animals comprised present the Fame peculiarities ? P. Yes, there may always be found some analogy, even in the most remote species, of an unifonn plan.

38.

T.

Do

in this class

bral column, each of which

composed of several parts, is called a vertebra.

31. T. Why have these animals a backbone or spine composed of several parts ? P. Because it affords them nmre strength and flexibility, and gives their movements more precision.

39.

T.

dom.
P.

You named another sub-kingWhat is it called?
or articulate animals.

ARTICULATA,

vertebral

P.
called
tpinalit

Is there no other use for this column ? Yes it protects a bundle of nervous confined within a sheath, which is
T.
:

40. T. are they called articulate ? P. Because the skeleton is in pieces, jointed, or articulated together.
41. T. In what respect do they from the vertebrate animals ?
differ

Why

the
;

spinal marrow, or medulla and also supports the skull.

the use of the skull ? To protect the brain, and organs of P. tense connected with it.
33.
T.
is

What

The skeleton is external, covering P. the whole body; while, in the former, the
muscular part
is

external.

The nervous

34.
P.

T,

What
?

is

attached to the other

end of the spine
It is

is not so highly developed, the organs of hearing and smell being generally deficient. The legs are frequently numeT:. rous, but never less than six.

prolonged, and contracted into

a

the size and length of which usually increases in proportion as the skull detail,

always open laterally, and they usually pos:e than one pair; and the blood
42.
T.
?

creases.
85.
T.
?
i

What

other attachments

has

What

is

the second sub-kingdom
or molluscous animals.

the spine
It

called P.
43.

connected at the sides with a

MOM.USCA,
T.

series of peculiar shaped bones, called the ribs, which are again attached in front to

What
?
\

is

there peculiar in their

organization
/'.
I

a breast-bone.
36.
7*.

have not any skeleton
i

the

-What

is

the use of the ribs

?

P. To enclose and afford prote the organs of respiration, circulate

I attached to" the skin. utes a soft contractile env. which strong plates, called shells, are found
in in
>(..
.

.c

production
<-era

.mil

posi-

there peculiar in t Instruct urr of vertebrated animals ? P. They have an mi, mat skeleton, a
is

lu.-h

are analogous to thoM
i

ire

en-

dowed with

all

ih-

/

biood,

and system, which are composed of several misses connected by nervous ts, are contained within thin general
i

through the system by iiUr heart, and separate sexes .;o not exceed two organs of
tiellrd
1
;

envelope.
oetophaftu,

The brain is pin or gullet, and
i

principal

ronj).. -ting

nervous
.

:nily
iily

two jaws, placed

only J.M^M-VM

filament. the organs of
.

one ahont or

Vbrr the ong sideways, and usually furnished with teeth.

hearing; and Uute and vision are the only which this senses, with this
class presents ; frequently vision
is

wanting.

40

NATURAL HISTORY.
I

[Lessen IV

They have named
P.

a complete circulatory system, and particular organs for lesuhaiiou. 4k '7'. What is the last sub-kingdom
!

j
I

by Maclcay, formed, another called ACRITA, or acrite animals;' hut as we have yet to learn more of the
,

p._Y es

who

peculiarities of each,

KADI AT A,
their

have

or radiate animals. They organs of sense and motion

we must wait we commence Zoology.

until

aiTcinged as rays around a centre. They have- no very distinct nervous system, or of sense; and in some of particular organs

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

III.

What

is

the aim of

all

scientific

them

men
?

it is is

extremely

difficult to

discover

any circulation. The respiratory organs are generally on the surface of the body.
4").

when studying Natural History 2. How is ihe Animal Kingdom divided
j

T.

Have not the radiated animals
to

been divided, so as

form another sub-

kingdom?

3. Describe the peculiar characteristics of the sub-kingdoms Venebrata, Mollusea, Articulata, and Hadiata. 4. Are there only four sub -kingdoms ?

LESSON
THE
that

IV.
shall adopt in this Catechism, observes,

celebrated Baron Cuvier, whose

method we

"the habit necessarily acquired

in the study of natural history, of

mentally classi-

fying a great number of ideas, is one of the advantages of this science which is seldom spoken of; but which, when generally introduced into the system of common education,
will

perhaps become the principal one.

It exercises the

student in that part of logic
;

which is termed method, as the study of geometry does in that which is called syllogism because natural history is the science which requires the most precise method, as geometry is that which demands the most rigorous reasoning. Now, this art of method, when once well acquired, may be applied with great advantage to studies the most foreign to natural history. Every discussion which supposes a classification of facts, every research which requires a distribution of subject, is performed after, the same manner;
and he who has cultivated
it

this science

merely

for

amusement

is

surprised at the facilities

affords for disentangling all sorts of affairs." Those who desire to master natural history must adopt a system to facilitate its study, and this is only done by observing and noting the characters and attributes of the vast

numbers of objects
as

in organic

and inorganic

creation.

It

is

much
to

as

it

is

to arrange the various matters in a house.

absolutely necessary, just If you wanted a spoon, and

had

look for
:iich
1

it amongst a heap of knives, forks, scissors, and other things, you would So it is with time, and perhaps after all your labour it might not be there. history; if you wanted to find the description of a kangaroo you would refer to
I.

Division

Vertebrata, Class

I.

Mammalia, Order IV.
is

Mar.tiifiitita

;

and then you would
is

procure the information required; and nothing

more

easy, because every animal has

some leading

feature,

which
its

fixes

its

position in the catalogue of nature, and this

chiefly determined

by

organization.

QUESTIONS.
46.
T.

Why

did Cuvier place the ver-

47.

T.

Explain how

this

is.

tebrate animals first?

Because they are more highly orP. ganised than the others.

P. In the first place, the nervous system is better developed,, consisting of a brain and prolongations ; whereas in the mollus-

Lesson IV.]

NATTRAL HISTORY.
find
;

41

cous animals, it is only two loner chords, running longitudinally through the abdomen, and enlarged at intervals into small knots, which are called ganglions Secondly, the muscles cover the bones, which form the framework of the body, and the important organs are inclosed within a or framework.

bony case

out to which of the nine orders of Mammalia it belongs and without running through all the peculiarities of each. I know that it should be placed in the order, among the four-handed animals, or qiindruiHtinu, which are divided into three genera the monkeys, marmosets, and lemurs. It therefore belongs to the monkeys.
50. T. How do you know that t! cimen you have does not belong to the lemurs or marmoP. Because these two genera present

48. T. How can you assign the proper place to an animal in the Cuvier: tern? P. Because every one of them must be placed in one of the four great divisions and the peculiarities of the animal determine the naturalist whether it belongs to the first, or the other three.
t

.

such distinct peculiarities that
sible to

it

is

make

impos-

a mistake.

[The pupil should explain what these peculiarity* are.]

51.

T.

How
they
all

is

it

that the

vertebrate

animals have been subdivided into so
parts,
if

many

agree in respect to their

general character;-' /'. Because, as I have explained before, (Jm'-:ion -JliJ they diller in some impor[

tant particulars.

52.

T.

P.

If

Explain this more fully. we examine the sub- kingdom shall find that tin ita, we
the

adapted for
water.

three distinct divisions of animalthe earth, the air, and

I thought 5-?. T. that the vertebrate animals were subdivided into four classes;

how
/'

is it
I

that

you only make three

.'

do not make three classes.

In

divisions; and, as those that are a .iion the earth are divided into

two
still

Mammalia and
2,

four classes of animals

llcptilia. tin viz. 1,
;

;

Mam-

malia;
*,. 49.
T.
!.

Aves;

3, Reptilia; 4, Pisces.

64.

T.
rate

How

can the

naturalist

know

Give me the reason that the animals are arranged thus.

where thr individti.il is to he classed, after he has ilHrrmim-d that it belongs to the
first

The first group Mammalia, or aniP. mals that suckle tlieir young i- ranged
first,

ml
!

because the an
in
t!r

n this

P.

I'pose that
a

I

have a spe-

class are superior

other
cial

eimen of
the b

hat

it
-

does not belong to
h'uhes
;

purpose
liinls

while the

and
>',H

mint
that
class
:H;

organization to the are formed for an esperesidence upon I' and fishes nave and although the
<
:

rirlly

;st

vpraUng. inhabit

ther.irth.

of vertebrate animals.

We
,

have now to

I'hiluoun.

N
\

they are also coU- bbodtd n

or howliof

monkry

66.

T.

What do you mean by
I

blooded animals

el

42

NATURAL HISTORY.

[Lesson V.

It has been found necessary to sepaP. rate the quadrupeds into two district divi-

and the cold-blooded The former maintain a constant animals. are elevated temperature, or nearly so covered with hair, or something resembling it bring forth their young alive, or are
sions, the warm-blooded
; ;

only two cavities, one of which receives the blood from the system, and the oilier propels it through the gills, &u.j

59.

T.

Do

not some reptiles and fishes
?

produce their young alive
P.

Yes.

[The pupil should
60. T.

name

the species that do so.]

viviparous, and nourish them by suckling. The latter never have a uniform temperature, but one varying with the atmosphere, and seldom rising above it are covered with scales and are oviparous, or produce
; ;

Are there not
that render
it

peculiarities

in

their

young from eggs.
T.
?

56.

How

do birds

differ

from

mam-

malia

almost necessary to separate them into another class ? P. there are peculiarities, but not Yes, sufficient to warrant us to form another class. Thus, one tribe possesses the power of rising into the air, like birds, and another lives in the water, like fishes, but then they

Mammalia,

deThe class AVES, P. cidedly oviparous constructed for propulsion in the air. The form of the body, the hollow bones, the light feathers, all demonstrate how fitted they are for the element
or birds, are

agree in all the essential characteristics of the other mammalia, while they differ materially from the classes with which they appear connected.

Can we say that they they chiefly occupy. are devoid of some amount of intelligence ? They are superior to reptiles in their organization, and therefore occupy the second
class
;

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

IV.

What
?

is

the best

way

to study

Natural
?

History
2.
3.

and
T.

differ

in not suckling their

57.

Why

from mammalia chiefly young. should Reptiles be placed
?

Why How
What

are Vertebrata placed first

can you
?

tell

where an animal

should be classed
4.
is

in the third class

P. Because they are intermediate between birds and fishes in their organization.
58. T. are fishes placed in the fourth class? P. Because they inhabit the water, are oviparous, not so highly organized as the other classes, and possess distinctive characteristics.

Why

difference between a a marmoset, and a lemur ? is the sub- kingdom VERTEBRATA 5. How naturally divided ? 6. Enumerate the four classes of vertebrate

the

monkey,

animals.
7. Give the reason that Mammalia is ranged before the other three classes, and why each is placed where it is. 8. What is the difference between warmblooded and cold-blooded animals ? 9. Explain the terms Viviparous and

[The pupil should
tli

state the peculiarities of each us, ii>iies respire the element they inhabit, by nieaus of branchiae or gills; the heart has

;

Oviparous.

LESSON
WE

V.

have already seen that the Mammalia form the highest group in the animal " Not kingdom, and were placed at the head of this kingdom, as Cuvier remarks, only
because this is the class to which we ourselves belong, but also because it is that which enjoys the most numerous faculties, the most delicate sensations, the most varied powers of motion, and in which all the different qualities seem together combined to produce a

more

the one most fertile in resources, most susceptible perfect degree of intelligence, In classifying animals, the naturalist of perfection, and least the slave of instinct" aims at establishing that system which is most natural, therefore he examines those

characters which are easily recognised and understood and, on this account, selects the external appearance of each, so that those having the greatest resemblance are associated
;

Lesson V.]
together.

NATURAL HISTORY.
In order to do this, he examines the structure of the extremities, and the teeth, which, with other peculiarities, enables him to fix each
its

arrangement of the
individual in

proper place.

QUESTIONS.
61. T.

general

the use of examining the structure of the extremities of
is
?

What

animals
P.

To
T.

enable us to learn something of

their habits.
62.

How
?

will

this give

us a clue to

their habits

Because their extremities are adapted P. for the mode of life they lead. Thus, the external configuration of the orangof Borneo at once indicates his fitoutang ness for climbing trees and clinging to their branches and the general form of the lion
:

injured during progression or other motions. By a peculiar arrangement of muscles they are enabled to retract or draw back their claws, the same as a cat does ; so you see that we are enabled at once, by examining the foot of an animal that can retract its claws, to decide that it belongs to a certain class of animals.
63.
P.
T.

Explain how the lion
will

is

enabled

to retract the claws.

You

understand the manner in

which they are retracted much better by referring to this diagram, than by a mere

denotes greater strength in front than behind the thick neck. and broad chest
;

shoulder*, are well adapted and his tin the weight of his prey fore-limbs exhibit a beautiful arran.
.

and

for

strength and seizure, the paws being armed with most powerful, hooked, sharp,

When the retraction takes description. place, the ends of the two bones (/) are
pon the ground, between which and the hones, a pad of thickened skin is inI cannot terposed. explain the itf the projection of the claws better than by
.i

drawing my hand forcibly backwards and curving the fingers, and then suddenly throwing it downwards, the arm being
horizontal at the time.

/'.Does not the perfection organs of touch influence us in clniltf

and hard dawn, suited tected by a l><

for tearing,

and prohanism from
the
.

Pig

4.
*
I*

Thtmtcl
rtr acted
ii

iportad

tht laM

whirli
(i

K

r
<

K'mlanx. retracted i't in

paw of
,.w
!.

a

lion,

mi U|.W.

of . l,nn.
(/) paaact o**r ih

lhowin K the
-

I. ..',

,

>

up

>f
>

tli

)a%t

-

tuition with
act* with

uowu

at

uc.

phalanx g and k,

cuwrmg

tiictu.

fritow.

44
P.

NATURAL HISTORY.
Yes,
T.
it

[Lesson VI.

forms an important part in

classification.

65.

How is the perfection estimated ?

the organs of the senses and P. Yes digestion exhibit its habits in common with the teeth and extremities.
;

the power of prehension or animal. grasping possessed by the Then all the Mammalia have 66. T.

P,

By

not the power of grasping. P. Certainly not, the lower we descend
the

Can you distinguish an herbi71. T. vorous animal by its teeth ! Yes they have flat-crowned grindP. ing teeth, with irregular ridges on their
;
j

surface, for triturating their food.
72.

more

it is

wanting.
this

T.

How

can
.'

you distinguish, by

guicitlated;

be correct, we ought to divide the class Mammalia into two parts. How should we do this ? UnInto animals having claws P. and animals with hoofs Un67.

T.lf

means

!

of its teeth, an animal that eat? various kinds of food The tops of the ww/ar teeth orgrinders P. are raised into flattened masses, like the end of a pestle, and are intended for bruis-

ing and crushing, as in man.
73.
T.

gulattd.
68.
T.

P.

an example The orang-outang is a very good

Give

me

of each.

How

are

carnivorous animals

distinguished by their teeth ? P. By the size of their cmiine teeth, which are very large, to enable them to
seize firmly upon their prey. [The pupil should give ex;tni|.les of the varioui teeth, Mu-h as those ot" (he lion, hoar, monkey, and state the numuer, and sheep, horse, &c.
;

Classes of each.]

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON V. 1. Why does Cuvier consider Mammalia
Fig. O.f

should be placed animals I

first

among

the vertebrate

example of the former, and the ox or deer of the latter division.
69. T. How can you determine the habits of an animal by examining its teeth ? P. Uecause they vary in structure and arrangement, according to the food of the animal and therefore the character of the teeth and extremities generally guides naturalists in determining the habits of animals.
;

2. Can you learn anything of the habits of an animal by examining its extremities or teeth ? 3. How can the knowledge of the form of the extremities of animals inform us of their habits ? 4. \\ hat other reasons have we for clas-

sifying certain animals together 5. Have mammalia the all
?

?

power of

Does not the food exert its in70. T. fluence on other parts of the body ? that is to say, can the naturalist ascertain the habits of animals by other parts of the
body?
I

grasping 6. Describe the difference between unguiculated and ungulated animals. 7. Describe the diilen nee in the structure of the teeth of herbivorous and carnivorous animals.

LESSON
WE have

VI.

seen that naturalists are guided by certain peculiarities in their classification of the Mammalia, and indeed of all objects of Natural Uistory. Our purpose is not *o enter into the peculiarities of the various orders of each class, but rather to show the
Fig. 5.

Hand

of Orang-outang.

t

Fig.

6.

Foot of Orang-outang.

Lesson VI.]
principles of classification.

NATURAL HISTORY.
The
;

be given
in

characteristics of each order, genus, and species, will Catechism on ZOOLOGY and the remaining portions of Natural History, those on BOTANY and (M:>I.(H.Y. Our present object is to consider the second class
in the

of vertebrate animals

Aves, or birds.

In classifying the birds, naturalists attend to the form of the extremities and the bill. In some birds, we see the bill and claws sharp, hooked, and powerful as in the eagle
;

and Egyptian neophron, adapted

for tearing the flesh

and holding the prey

;

in others,

Kt
the beak
is

.

T.

fit- S.f

Fig. 9.1

while some

short and thick, suited for crushing hard seeds, as in the parrots and loriets ; have long slender bills, or soft short ones, fitted for feeding upon insects.

The bill varies in length, breadth, and direction, as well as shape. The feet also differ In addition materially: thus we have perching, climbing, wading, and swimming foot. to these means of classifying the birds, the naturalist has to call to his aid the appearance of the
crests, eyes, ears,

mouth,

feathers, wings,

and

tail.

The whole

structure of

this class of

animals

is

peculiarly adapted for motion in the element the

mass of them

QUESTIONS.
74.
T.

Is there

anything peculiar

in the

structure of birds ? P. Yes; the general adaptation of the .trk to the purposes of life, the covering of the body. and
.

P. Yes: by the form of other peculiarities. [Tho pupil should name them.]
79.
in

its

feet,

and

T.

Is

then
.'

at difference
,1's

/'

Why

is

the

body covered with

the form of a those of a swimming-bird
I'.

feet

from

feath.

P.

Because they are bad conductors of
rapidly,
tl

legs,

toes

;

Tin- former h.ivc long slender Yes. bare ot md long straight while the lat;> by a web, which forms
!

bodies
76.

is

not decreased too suddenly.

abroad surface

\\!..

hat the
'

T.

Do

they

possess

a

complete
powerful,
l

legs,

arm

sharp, and hooked talci

P. Yes, and are called warm-blooded animals.
/'

front

;

and th- perching birds have three
'

/*.

By

the bo the interior of
is

How

;

hind, anil

light?
th,

:ies

arc united

by

a very short

mem-

hollow, and containing
their specific gravity.
78.
7*.

air,

which lenem
a waterI

the toes are long, with long claws

lave
s
'

natura'
in the

Can

y-

h

Ity

subdivision of the

bird from another, and

class Avc-s
I.

?

S.

U.d

of llarpjria dt.tructoc.

I

/';

9. II vail

of

Pesopor

..

fortMSW.

NATURAL HISTORY.
Yes, because there is a general conformity of type, and therefore it is difficult
P.
;

[Lesson

VEL

and in the third order, raven, sparrow, &c. the cuckoos and macaws.
84. P.
T.

Give
fifth

some examples of the

fourth and

orders.

The

fourth contains such birds as
;

pigeons, pheasants, fowls, peacocks, \c. and the fifth, the rail, snipe, heron, crane,

and ostrich.
85. T.

Give

examples of the sixth

order P.

Here we
T.

find gulls, penguins, ducks,

geese, swans, &c.
86.
in the tion
Is there anything very peculiar anatomical configur-ition of birds,

that assists naturalists in their classifica?

P.

Yes

;

the form of the sternal appa-

ratus, and the modifications ef the digestive organs.

Is there anything else ? Yes, many things; but especially the modifications of the vocal organs.
87.
T.

P.

Fig. 10.

what characters are of greater or GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON VI. because there are not lesser importance those prominent distinguishing charachave naturalists 1. What peculiarities teristics that we find in the other classes of paid attention to in the classification of
to decide
;

vertebrate animals.

birds
2.

?

Are there any orders of this class possessing marked peculiarities ? P. Yes, there are six; 1, ACCIPITRES, or birds of prey 2, INCESSORES, or perching birds; 3, SCANSORES, or climbing
81. T.
;

beaks or
3. 4.

Is there any great difference in the bills of birds ? the bills of birds differ
?

Why do
Is there

any difference in the

feet of

birds?

If so,

why

?

birds

;

4,

GALLING,

or

scratchers

;

5,

ORALLY, or stilt birds; 6, or web- footed birds.
82.

PALMIPEDES,
first

T.

Give

me

an example of the

5. Does the osseous, or bony structure of birds, differ from that of mammalian*? 6. Why have birds feathers ? birds warm, or cold-blooded 7. Are

animals?
8.

order. P.

The golden

eagle, or condor vulture.

How

are the various orders of birds

distinguished?
9.

83. T Give me examples of the second and third orders. In the second order we find the P.

How many
Aves?

orders are

there of the

class

humming-birds, fly-catcher, thrush,

jay,

additional peculiarities assist 10. the naturalist in the classification of birds I

What

LESSON
WE have now to
is this

VII.
is

consider the third class of vertebrate animals

peculiarity in the class, that their form

more

the Reptiles. There varied than that of any other.

As

their blood is imperfectly aerated, they only maintain a low degree of animal heat,
Fig. 10.
a, foot of

Egyptian neophron

;

b, foot

of nuthatch

;

c,

foot of thrush

;

d, foot

of solan

gooM.

Lesson VII.]

NATURAL HISTORY.
Their peculiar characteristics are
; ;

47

and are therefore termed cold-blooded animals.
oviparous reproduction

low power of making heat

peculiarity of protecting-surface.

and a heart with three cavities, one of which receives the blood from the lungs another from the system generally and the third propels the blood which is mixed in it partly to the body and partly to the lungs so
scales, or hard plates,
; ;

by means of

;

hen each contraction of the heart takes place, only part of the blood is aflected by the air, and the consequence is, that their motions are sluggish, their sensations
dull,

and

their digestion slow.

QUESTIONS.
the chief reason repre separated from other animals ? P. Because the conformation of their body is different, and also the circulation
88.
7".

What

is

I

of their blood.

A
genated
I
1
.

Is not the

blood perfectly oxy-

95. T. Have not naturalists adopted other divisii P. Yes, but as they refer to other peculiar characteristics, and the more especially to extinct species, it does not belong to this pan of our arrangement to consider
:

them.
96.
T.

No; because the nutritive functions
feeble.
T. Is
it

Are

reptiles easily distinguished

and power of circulation are
90.

possible

for

reptiles

to

suspend their respiration? I'. Yes because the smallness of the pulmonary vessels enables them to do so while submerged and thi> i> dom- without
;

from the other classes of vertebrate animals ? P. Yes, by their prominent peculiarities.
97.
T.

What

is

the
?

general

locality

where
P.

reptiles are found

;

In

thickets,

caverns,

and

dark

e circulation

of the blood.

moist places.
Is there anything peculiar in 98. T. the fourth order, orfrogi f P. They undergo a curious transformation, especially the loss of gills, upon

/'.Why

are reptiles covered with
?

scales, or hard plates

se, as they are not warmblooded animals, they are only covered

with a naked skin, which is not caj retaining heat like those animals covered with fur
92.
T.

attaining their perfect state.
99.
T.

Explain

and give account of
to country people

r.insformat.

How

(ling

are reptiles sutxlivi to
<

P

It is well

known

who have been

in the habit of seeing ditches

\NS, or lizards. or serpents. 4. Thfrtft,

.'3.

'J

'in -Oi-in
\

I'.M u

IUANS, or

arrangement satisfactory gent P. No; and therefore they have adopted that proposed by M. Brongniart, viz.
to naturalists
i

93. T.

Is this

\ss, or
'

lurtifs

a:

BATRACHIANS,
94. P.

H, or serpents. or frogs.

4.

The
?

T
No.

Do
1

reptiles incubate their
:

eggs

Batrachians

they

h.i

and in tin- Miakrv .ire tolerably advanced in their form when the egg is
depos

ami ponds dtirinp the npring, that thrre are mill. luM.I hU inatses, resembling

48
jelly,

NATURAL HISTORY.
found floating
strings
in these places
;

[Lesson VIII.
peculiarity

some
is

2.

What

marks
or

or

dis-

that look like
like

bunches of grapes, the others
of heads.

The

first
;

the

tinguishes the cl.i Are they 3.

warm

cold-blooded

spawn of toads, the other of frogs and these
necklaces of heads (as it were) gradually get heads and tails, and grow on until they have legs, and lose the long tail they each had. The gills disappear, and they then and from breathe hy means of lungs
;

animals
4.

?

Why Reptiles separated other Vertebrate aninuils ?
are
5.

from

Can they suspend

respiration

?

6.

7.

Why are Reptiles covered with scales? How many orders of Reptiles are

vegetable they gradually ascend to insect food, which they swallow whole, slugs and beetles disappearing in large numbers.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

VII.

What

is

the

name

of the third class

of Vertebrate animals?

there according to Cuvier, and how many according to other naturalists ? 8. Where are Reptiles (.-enerally found ? 9. State some peculiarities found or observed in the fourth order of Reptiles. 10. When and where do the transformations of frogs, toads, and others of this order take place ?

LESSON
WE

VIII.

did not adcfpt the classification of some zoologists in our last lesson, and divide the Reptiles into two parts, so as to make a fourth class, called Amphibious animals, because the great Cuvier did not do so, and we wish to adhere to his system. GRANDFATHER
is a zealous disciple of Cuvier, and does not desire to depart from his plan. There may be good reasons for separating the Reptiles, into those strictly inhabiting the but although the AMPHIBIA are intermediate land, and those that are amphibious between Fishes and Reptiles, they are destitute of scales or hard plates a gooo reason, some will say, that they should be divided from the Reptiles; hut GRANDFATHER
;
1

WHITEHEAD

;

WHITEHEAD

thinks differently, and therefore adopted the system of Cuvier.

Perhaps,

some day, he will give his reasons, in his " Lectures to Little-Folk." We have now to consider the last class of the Vertebrate animals Fishes. They have
a double circulation, respire through the

medium
beneath
culiar,

of water, and. consequently, can live
its

hear.

surface. Their structure is pebecause they have little or no weight to Their bodies are formed for the purpose

of easy propulsion, being of nearly the same
specific gravity as

furnisi'ed

with

fins,

the fluid they inhabit, and Ly means of which, and

the lateral

arc enabled to

movements of the tail and body, they move without much effort. It is
is

the texture of the fins that
their
classification,

so important in

and therefore the proper

but, nevertheless,

we

are enabled

to divide

arrangement of Fishes is a very difficult matter; them into two great divisions Bony and

Cartilaginous Fishes.

The number of

the fins varies in different groups, and assists in the

arrangement of the orders and
*

species.
b,

Fig.

12.

Whitebait, a, dorsal fin;

candai

iiu,

or tail;

c,

anal fin;

d, ventral fin; e,

pectoral

fin of

one

side.

Lesson VIII.]

NA'ITilAL HISTORY.

100. T.

Why are fishes called Oviparous

/'.

MALACOPTERYGII
;t

nun
p.

lins

under

from born from eggs.
101. T.

Because the species are reproduced eps. and the term signifies those

the abdomen.

100
P.

T.

How many
?

families are

they

into

Where can you procure
the roe, which
is

these

3,
'.

From
T.

a mass of

1, the Car Pikes; Sheat-fishes 4. 'ho Salmon or Trout family and 5. the Herrings.

Five.

the

,

:

1

10.

T.

What

is

the third orderof

Bony

102.

Do

any fishes bring forth their
/'.

young
P.

air

Ihe
or
ventral

MALA ton,
sot'.- r;i>
i-il
t.

more

Yes; but the description of them is suited to a Zoological catcchis-m than
T.

rill ATI.

the

tins

under

th.>

];ee'o.-als.

and

the pelvis suspended to the shoulder bones.
103.

What
?

is

the

first

order of

Bony

111.

T.

What do you mean by

the term

Fishi-s called

P.

AcANTHOPTERYOti.orspiny-finned.
T.

P.
112.

Jointed- fins.
T.

What

is

there peculiar in the
in

What
?

families

arc

contained
the
Flatfins

order.

in the third order

/'.They have
dorsal, if
in tti- tirvt |.T! anal fin has a!

spinous rays
'h'Tc
is

the

first

P.
fish
;

I, .v

the

Cod family:
su<v.

2

more than one, and spinou-

ventral

each ventral
T.

fin

The only one. rays spinous, and one such ray. has generally
n

formed into a
113.

T
i

The
;

third family of the third
: ;

order of Uoi.\
le

give

What do you mean by
-he rib
that
:

the ray
/'.

of the

!'>

of a
P.
1

tick

ing. fish,

and when we say

which
1
I

att.iches il^cll to th
7'.

is,

nearest to the head

4.

Why
and
V-

AP-

i

ovided

of th
P.
7*.
1

What do you mean by

the rays

to

rock-*

oil

<

bein j

bone,

whether

I

1-1.

'/'.

stiff
;.il 1)

'<>

1><

ones or
/'."
i

ihe ray is said to

ifOIf APOI
union

orfi
T.

eel tr.l

Knumeratr the families of the
ll-i.
/
i'

e

lies.
/'

examples

of this

,.ly

:

2.

tl

Bar

/'!>,
-iicna, anil

the

^minxus.
nl

c

the Lsiv
in

117.
.

j-.
>

WIni

is

thenaiw
mi.
>r

i:

the

pl>

order
ti
''

>es T

to the

pec-

/

l...i-iior.u\N
.Its

tor;.!'

tins
r
:!

;

]

f

Ihf

Ml Mil":*

and

l. >,

r.
in

What

peculiarities arc oi

the second order of

in thi

Bony Fishes

called

I

P.

'I

50

NATURAL HISTORY.
P.

[Lesson IX.

rows, like the teeth of a comb, are arranged in small rounded tufts the body is coveied with hard plates instead of scales the jaws are united, except at the very end, so thrt they appear to have a tubular snout or and the nose, especially in the sea-horse male is provided with a pouch, in which the female deposits the spawn, where the young are hatched, and retreat when
; ; ;

ClIONDROPTERYGII

BRANCHIIS

These FIXIS, or fishes with fixed gills. fish have the edges of the gills fixed, instead of being free at the edges, and the water enters through a number of small holes on
each side of the head, as in the shark
tribe.

alarmed.
119.
T.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
What
is

VIII.

the sixth order of the

Bony
P.

Fishes called?

PLECTOGNATHI, or fishes with soldered jaws; so named because the bones of the jaw are immovable. The gills and gill-covers have a covering of thick skin.
120.
T.

are fishes divided ? 2. What is the most important object to attend to, and guide us in the classification
1.

How

of fishes
3.

?

How

are the

young of
?

fish

and the

species reproduced
4. 5.

What
?

is

meant by

CHONinstead

DROPTERYGII
P.

Fishes

with

cartilaginous,

6.

What do you mean by spinous rays ? What is the ray of a fin ? How many orders of Bony Fishes are

of bony skeletons.
121.
T.

What

is

the

first

order of this
LI-

division called? P. CHONDROPTERYGII

BRANCHIIS
gills,

Name them. Explain the meaning of the various terms applied to each order ? 8. Give some examples of each order ?
there?
7.

BERIS, or
sturgeons.
1

fishes

with free

such as

9.

How many
Name
?

orders

of Cartilaginous
their pecu-

fishes are there?
10.

22.
?

T.

What is

the

name

the orders, and

of the second

liarities

order

LESSON
WE

IX.

have now to consider the second great division of the Animal Kingdom the AMMALIA MOLLUSCA, or soft-bodied animals. These animals present many peculiarities,

being without an articulated skeleton, or back-bone, and without brain or

Their blood is of a bluish tinge, or white ; and their muscles are spinal marrow. attached to the integuments instead of to bones. Cuvier says, " that their organs of motion and of the senses have not the same uniformity in number and position as in
the vertebrated animals; and the variety is still more striking with the viscera, particularly in relation to the position of the heart and respiratory organs, and even in the

structure and nature of the latter the fresh or salt water."

;

for

some mollusca breathe the

free air,

and others

Some

others are protected by shells.

of the molluscous animals have naked bodies, while Cuvier divided the molluscous animals into six classes,

which we have now

to

examine.

QUESTIONS,
123.
T.

What

Is

the

first

class

of

molluscous animals?
P. The CEPHALOPODES, footed animals. or

head-

P. Because the animals in this class propel themselves by means of appendages connected with the head.
125.
T.

Name some

examples of

this

124. T.

Why

are they called thus

?

class of animals.

Lesson IX.]
P.

NATURAL HISTORY.
and
cuttle-fish.

The

nautilus,

P.

The former have protecting
latter are
T.

shells;

[The pupil should name the peculiarities of both these example*.] Wh.it is the second class called ? 126. T. P. PTEROPODES, or fin-footed animals.
127.
T.

and the
136.

naked, or without shells.
is

What

the

name
or

of the

fifth

class of the

Mollusca?
animals
with

P.

BRACHIOPODES,
;

State the peculiarities of this

arm-feet

but we do not know much about them, except that they have two fleshy
arms, furnished with numerous filaments,

Cuvicr says that, like the cephaP. " swim in the ocean, but can lopodes, they neither fix themselves to any object, nor crawl on the ground, because they are without feeL They move from place to place by means of tins, placed like wings on each side of the mouth."
128. P.
T.

which they can protrude from and draw

mouth
P.

within the shell when they please; is situated between these arms.
137.
T.

the

Name

the sixth class called ? or animals with hair feet, like the barnacles (Lrpat), which atis

What

CIRRHOPODES,

the third class.

They

are called

GASTEROPODES, or

animal* that move on their stomachs, such
as snails and .-lugs.
T.

State something
is

more about
nine
orders,

this class.

P.

It

divided

into

containing

many

species,

some of which

are entirely naked; others have a concealed shell ; but the greater number a complete covering as snaiK, which shelter from the .vt .( kx of other animals. Most

of those

that

live

in

the water have an

door, attached, which protects the animal when it has retreated within the
optrctilum, or little
-

130.
/'.

T.

What animals
?
:

with shells are
or mollus.

d in this class
!

I

ivalvft;
in

cous animals with shell*
elass? ATI. IMI u.rs. P. heads. Thin is n-*'

one
\

do you
or

call

the fourth

animals

without
they
this

rcct, as

have heads.
T.

Give
-,

me

an example of

mussels,

and

all

bivalve
bivalve

oca.
133.
7*.

tnrh thnmclves to ships and posts by long In c \^ class we also have fleshy M. ms The principal in-shells (balantu).
part of the shell consists of a hai with sn opening at the narrower pai or leas closed by two or lour valves.
.

What do you mean by

Soft-bodied animals, with shells in

two pieces,

mny
/'

orders are

tl

KAL QUESTIONS ON LE89O
1

IA
nn, in

i.

.irrpkalaUttactai and
is

2,

Vfhatbl
n of the uniinal
I

ft he

second great

Acrphnln

7'.

What

the difference

1

V- Bunch of LtjMuAt
to part of a j.ir.

5-2

NATTRAL HISTORY.
2.
I

[lesson X.
is

low do the Molluscous animals
?

differ

i.

What

tin-

meaning of
.'

the

terms

from the Vertebrate
o.

Name
(Jive

the \arious classes of Mollusca.
fro-ii

applied to each class 7. What is an ti/ii'rculuni ?
8.

4.
5.

examples

each class.

Kxplaiu
bivalve.

uli.it

is

meant hy a

univalve

State the peculiarities of the Molluscous animals.

and

LESSON
EACH
great division of the

X.

Animal Kingdom presents some generality of form.

We

have observed the peculiarities of the first t\\o divisions, and we have now to notice ANIMALIA AKTICULATA, or animals with articulated those presented by the third That great naturalist, Cuvier, observed that "this third general form is as bodies.
well characterised as that of Vertebrata
;

the skeleton

is

not internal, as in the latter;

articulated rings which encircle the and as they are usually hard, body, and frequently the limbs, supply the place of it they furnish all the necessary support for the muscles by which the body is moved

neither

is

it

wanting, as

in the

Moliusca.

The

;

;

so that

among

the animals, as

is

the case of the Vertebrata, those which

have limbs

Thus they have some general resemblance, more are able to w.tlk, to s^im, or to Hy. particularly in their internal organisation, although in most respects they differ from each other to the utmost degree."

QUESTIONS.
In what respect do all articulated animals resemble each other most? In their nervous system. P.
138.
T.

;

supplies nerves to all the parts near to the head, and two chords whi'-h encircle the oesophagus are continued along the abdo-

MO.
in
it

1

T.

Is

there

anything
is

peculiar
j

?

P.

Yes, the brain, which

very small,
j

men, and connected at intervals by ganglia, from which the r.ervcs are sent to the various parts of the body and limbs.
140.
T.
?

What
seems
to

oflice

does a ganglion

perform
P.
it is

It

act

ferring sensibility on

like a brain, conthe parts with which

intimately connected.
T.

Are there any other pecube observed in the Articulata /'. Yes, their jaws arc invariably lateral, and shut together like a pair of scissors that is, horizontally, and not upwards and downwards and besides this, we observe that they have not any distinct organ of
liarities to
.'

HI.

;

smell.

142.
///. 14.

T.

How
?

are

the articulated ani-

mals classed
is

placed over the oesophagus or gullet, and
* t'iy.

H.
..MII!

the double chord.

Nervoua iyiniof Carubus Clftibntci.Hiii of g;iii;:ll;i Connected by

P. Into four principal classes 1. The ANNELIDES, or red-blooded worms. 2. The 3. CRUSTACEA, or hard-coated animals
;
'

l

^

;

AEACHDA,

<>r

animals like spiders

;

4.

The INSECT A,

or insects.

Lesaon X.]

NATfUAL HISTORY.
distributed about the body, espe-

1 13. T. Why have the Annelides been separated from (he other three classes ? Because they have red blood, and P. are the only invertebrate animals that have. The circulation is douhle, consisting of arteries and veins; almost all of them live in water, except the earth-worms. The

middle portion. The Ar have beautiful little gills in tufts upon the
cially the

body, which is more or less elongated, is always divided into little rin^s, whence the name (the Latin word annetltu signifying a little rinp), and they respire by which are either spread over the of the body, concealed internally,

ioped externally.

m.
is

T.

How

are

the

Annelides di-

Into three order*, the first of which P. called the Tt'Blcot^E, or worms inhabiting tubes. Some of these animals form tubes

and mud, which are lined by a membrane; others form an uniform calcareous tube and o:h< rs have their tubes composed of membrane
of fragments of shells, sand,
;

only.
T.

What

is

the

name

of

the

middle part of

second order ? /' The DORSIBRANCIIIATA. ime their peculiarities. /'.They have their bronchia or
-

ti ry fifth ring larger than the others, and the feet and gills attached to it. In the same order we have the Nereids, and many other

1

gills

curious and interesting genera.

1

17.

7'

-\\ h

t

is
f

the

name

of the third

is

destitute of external respiratory
t<>

order of Annelidrt

and they M-CIM

ABHANCHIA. This order of animals

surface of the skin, or, a* in the letc

intern*!

some have

bristles,
j

and others
I

ar.
t
--\

f

them, they

moving.

di.-idnl into

^fffmlm Contorlnplicata, with a portion of the body protrudtd from
*
4.

UM

tub* of

*nd
\

n
lul

I

fr.imrnt of (hells.

\l.

ArrnKoin fUcatotmm,

.

54
148. P.
T.

NATURAL HISTORY.
What
are these two families
setigera,
?

[Lesson XI.

The

^bronchia
bristles,

C.I.XF.RAL

provided
1.

QUESTIONS ON LESSON
is

X.

with

silky

as

the

earthworm

What
What

the

division of the
2.

name of the third Animal Kingdom ?
?

great

are articulated animals

3.

How many

classes

of

articulated

animals are there ? 4. Describe the peculiarities of the first class, and give examples of each order and
family?
Fig. IS.*

and 2, the Abranchia nuda, or the tribe ^bronchia without bristles, such as the leech
;

5. Why have the Annelides been separated from the other classes ? b'. Is there anything peculiar in the nervous system of the Articulata ? If so,

tribe.

state the peculiarity.

LESSON XL
LINNJEUS
classed the Crustacea, Aractmida, and name of Insects
;

Insecta together, under the general but other Zoologists have thought

The second class of articulated proper to divide them. animals is, properly speaking, the crustaceous or hardcoated animals. They have a great many genera and
species, articulated legs, respire

of

by branchiae, or a kind sometimes enclosed, and in other species the circulation is double, and external to the shell resembles that of the Molluscous animals; and the
gills,
;

nervous system is of two kinds, which will be noticed in another Catechism.

QUESTIONS.
149.
T.

How

are the Crustacea divided?

P.
150.

Into the
T.

MALACOSTRACA and ENTOMOSTRACA.

Describe the peculiarities of the former. The shell of the animals is hard and calcareous; P. and they have ten or fourteen legs, hooked at tlie tip some have fixed eyes, while others have theirs placed on a moveable piece.
;

151. T. division ?

What

is

there

peculiar

in

the

second

p._The shell is slender, and generally in two parts ; the eyes are fixed, and frequently there is only one The legs vary in number, have only of these organs. one hook at the extremity, and appear more suited for swimming than anything else.
*
Fig. 18.

ffirudo nflicinalis, or leech.
;

d

A vertical longitudinal section of the common t Fit. 19. a. mandibles and palpi b, the lobtter (AstacHs marinus). otoinach c c, intestinal prolongation of the same d, the outlet; e, the heart / g h i. a system of KI eat blood-vessels distributed to
; ; ; ;

19 -t the posterior portion of the animal kl m, great blood-vessels distributed to the sternal or anterior aspect of the body; n n n, lobes of the liver.

XIL]
T.

NATURAL HISTORY.
orders are there in
is

55
are destitute of wings, do not
insects,

How many
?

P.

They

the

first

division

p._Five.

The

or ten-footed, all furnished with nippers; and the common lobster, which is included in the second family, is an excellent example of the order.
153.
T.

called Decapoda of which have ten feet,
first

undergo any changes of form like and differ in their nervous system.

How r. 157. are they divided ? P. two Into
.orders.
1.

T'.ie

What

is

the

name of
in

the
the

second order? P. There is very
are

spiders and 2, scorpions, and
true

little

of interest

second, third, fourth, or
dipoda,

fifth

orders, which

The Miiall animals known as
scorpions, such as the book-scorpion, and the mites.

called Stomopoda, Amphipoda, Lcemo-

and Itopoda.
T. How is the second division of a divided ? Into the Branchiopoda and Pcecilo-

P.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON 1. How are the Crustacea divided?
2.

XI.

poda, which have each certain peculiarities.
T.

What

is

the

third

class

of

division,
3.

Describe the peculiarities of each and give examples from them? Name the various orders of each
they are divided

lataf

P.

The Arachnida,
ite

or spiders.

division, and the reason from the others ?
4.

the peculiarities and rea-

How
?

is

the Arachnida, or third class,

sons why they themselves.

have

been classified by

divided
5.

Give examples from each order?

LESSON
Tiir. fourth class

XII.

comprises those creatures called Insects whose peculiar and beautiful In a treatise form, colour, and instincts, have captivated all enthusiastic naturalists. a mere transient glance. like this, we can only take a glance at them They undergo
various changes during their brief existence, wonderful to behold, and yet \\ man's existence and future state. They are divided into twelve orders, each characterised by
C..

here, but will be particularised in

the Zoological Catechism.

QUESTIONS.
r.
first
*

What

iniects are found in the
'la?

P.

The common
.:ited with.
/'.

flea

(Pulfx

irritant)

which every one of us
ar<-

is,

no doubt, well

which
159.

NVli.it

are

the

names of the
rs T

is

there peculiar to the
;*,

(if

li.

sixth,
1

and M
tilth

/'

is

call.

do not change md have peculiar organs of locomotion at the side* or end of the body.

sixth, Orthoplera;

and the seventh, Himifind in the

ptrra.
/

"hat animals do we
rally beetle*.

A
/'
/'

What
r

is

the third order called?

lini.
/'.

on
(inn

parasites,

such aa

ticks,

&c.
r.

What kind

of insect do

we

find

in the fourth on:

fig. 20.- Jrirui
(liijhij mmguiflMl)

4omttHt*4. or atucJuag a ptoo* of

ehM
'
<

mtt*,

N ATl'RAL HISTORY.
kind of insects or animals in the sixth order ? P. Such kind as cockroaches and ear164.

[Lesson XIIL
History, especially

T.~ "What

know more of Natural
Zoology.

wigs.
165.
T.

Give

me

an example of the

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

XII.

seventh order. P. The bug tribes.
166. T. Name the remaining orders. P. 8. 9. Hymenoptera. Neuroptera. 10. Lepidoptera. and 12. 11. Rhipiptera Diptera.
;

Why

2.

are insects placed last? Is there anything peculiar in
?

their

organisation
3.

How many
?

orders

are they divided

into
4.

Give a familiar object under each

167. T.

P.

They

Give the peculiarities of each. shall be described when I

order.
5.

Name

the peculiarities of each order.

LESSON
THE
or
fourth,

XIII.
is

and

last great division of the

animal kingdom,

the radiated animals,

that are called thus because they generally agree in one respect of having the parts of which they are formed arranged round an axis or central point Their organs of motion, when they have any, consist of moveable spines, or flexible

RADIATA.

They

to the skin. papillae, capable of inflation, attached according to their organization.

They

are divided into five classes,

QUESTIONS.
What is the last class of radi168. T. ated animals called ? P. Echinodermata, or bristly skinned animals.
169. P.T.

rous small holes, from each of which protrude small tubes, terminating in suckers, which enable the animals to walk, or adhere
to rocks.

They

State their peculiarities. have a digestive and a vascular

system a well-organised skin, and a nervous system which partakes of
;

their general form.

cl;i^s

How is this 170. T. divided ?

P Into two orders; those with feet, or vesicular appendages, serving as feet ; and those without.
Fiy. 21.*

171.

T.

What

is

the

name

of the

first

order P.

?

PEDICELLATA.
Fig. 22.

172. T. this order

Is there anything peculiar in
?
;

P.
*

Yes

the skin

is

pierced with
Star-fish

numea the

the animals in this order alike? P. Not individually, but generally;
173.
T.
all * The Axttriai aurantin, showing the Fig. 22. osseous plates audition^ moveable spine*.

Are

Fig. 21.

Nervous system of

mouth.

Lesson XIII.]

NATURAL HISTORY.
crush the shells of the
feeds.
fish

therefore they have been divkled into three or star-tish. 1. The Attervu, f.nnilies. 3. The 2. The Erhinida, or sea-eggs.
IIu!o!tiuri<r,

on which

it

or sea- slugs.

/'.Describe
P.
ot!'

the star-fishes.

Can you tell me anything about 176. T. that curious animal, the Sea-slug The flololhurue are sometimes called P.
.'

The mouth
licijiit!

is

lu-rve

on the underside, and surrounds it, and sends

"

sea-cucumbers," and have a number of

iilainenis to eacli
;

21]

or ray [see Fig. the anus or rays are five in number, :ieciesare covered with osseous
c Miles

arm

furnished with strong
there peculiar about

moveable spines.
17'..

T.

What
?

is

the sea-eggs

P. The body is enclosed in a calcareous shell, composed of various segments,

Fig. 15.

curious looking tentacula distributed over their bodies, which they can retract at
pleasure.

They have

a leather-like skin,

with an aperture at each end, and a most

complex structure.
177.
7".

NVh.it

is

the

second order

called?
P.

APODA,

or

animals witho;
II iol/iurt.r,

which are

chiefly found in th nd resunhle the

with the exception of their skin, which is devoid of tentacula, and the \\.iui
fig. *>.

which

closely together, and are arranged in alternate rows of plates, with tubercles to which the spines are atfit

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

tached, and perforate for the memplates braneous feet to pass
i

NV-i.it
ii

is

t'.ir

:.e

last

great

of anima;
i.ils

arranged

mouth
with live flat, calcareous terih, winch are pointed with hard enamel. The whole dental apof paratus consists
-'i.d

last?
>w are the Iladiata divi
1.
N\

DERMATA
5.

?

Is

there
:

anything peculiar
lass?

in

the

nervous syti
>f

the first
bristly-sk
lie

twenty
J*f
-,
.

-

five

dsf
in

i.

t
<

which
H.

animal

to
ive

reason the animals
eparat<

(his

Kckinut, or tea-urchin; the right (he left hat them retide covered wilh tpmea moved to how the pUte* of the hell.
;

been

others.

The Uttfa t Fig. 24. their arrangemrut.

of Ma-urchin, showing

amond

Fig. K.-Hololk*ria. howin< the t. In rows on the surface of the UUj, nd ihe irce-hke mpiralury vr*m

58

NATURAL HISTORY.

[Lesson

XIV

LESSON XIV.
have the remaining four classes of the Radiated animals to examine,
viz. 2. The 3. The ENTOZOA, or intestinal worms. ACALEPHJE, or sea-nettles. 4. The POLYPI, or animals with many feet. 5. The INFUSORIA, or animalcules. The Entozoa are

remarkable

for being the inhabitants of the internalparts of other animals, especially the Vertebrata, but the other animals are scarcely

ever affected with them.
tain a large size, especially

Some

of

them

at-

such as the taeuia,

which are often twenty feet long, and sometimes more than a hundred feet. The Aculepha
have been divided into the simple and the
hydrostatic,

and include

all

those animals.

Polypi are capable of producing new individuals, both by putting forth a kind of

The

bud and by eggs, .which are left to the The Infusoria are mercy of the waters. little known, although Ehrenberg, Pritchard, Owen, Grant, and others have written
covered, as regards their organization, and

upon them, yet much remains still more in classifying them.

to

be dis-

QUESTIONS.
178. T.

For what
?

are the Entozoa re-

markable

P. Inhabiting the interior of animals, where they can only exist.
179.
T.

other

The order Nematoidea comprises P. several genera which are remarkable for having no circulation that we can discover,
and a simple nervous system which is only seen in some species, consisting of two cords extending from a ring round the mouth. The thread-worms ;md ascarides
are familiar

Is there

anything

peculiar in

no breathing apparatus, which shows that the nutriment they receive is aerated by animals upon which they are parasitic.
;

their organization ? P. Yes they have

examples of
state

this order.

182. T. Give

me some examples

of the
it.

second order, and

something about

180.

7

1 .

Are the species of the Entozoa
;

numerous ? P. Yes

and they are divided into two

the Nematuidea, or cavidistinct orders tied entozoa, and the Entozoa Parenctn/v/afa,

P. The order Pareiichymata contains four families, and is remarkable for an absence of an alimentary apparatus, and no visible signs of a nervous system. The
fluke found in the livers of sheep
;

;

the

which have the viscera obscure, the body being filled with a pulpy matter. 181. T. Give me some examples of the order Nematoidea, and their peculiarities.
*
Fig. 26.

tape-worm (see Fig. 26'*) and hydatids, are all examples of this order.
183. T.

What

is

supposed

to

be the

use of the Entozoa ?
pores,

The Taenia tolinm,
anterior, or

or solitary

worm, exhibiting the alternating

head with suckers,

and the narrow

neck part.

Lesson XIV. J
P.

NATt'KAL HISTORY.
ISti.

59

from

their habits being concealed observation, we are unable to ascer-

From

|

j

tain the part

they play in the

economy of

2.

are they divided ? /'. 1. Into the Camosi, or fleshy polypi, The GeUitinosi, or gelatinous polypi;
T.
3.

How

and
71

The
T.

Coralliferi, or corals.

Name
float

the peculiarities of the
?

or sea-nettles
P.

They

upon and swim

in

the

water, propelling themselves by alternate

Name some examples of each. Actinia Mesembryantftemum is an example of the CARNOSI the Hydra viridi* of the GELATINOSI ; and Madrepore* Of the CORALLIFERA.
187.

P.

The

;

contractions and dilatations of their gelatinous bodies. They do not appear to have circulation, and their bodies of a net-work of animal filaments, filled up with water, which exudes from their interstices when they are cast upop the seashore.
185.
7*.

Hi.

188.

T.

What

is

there peculiar in the

INFUSI
P. The greater part of them have a gelatinous body, and very simple .structure. They are very small, and require the aid of a microscope to study their organisation, as they differ somewhat in thtve been divided into the ttuttfera

What

is

there peculiar in the

They have a visible stomach, and tentacula around their mouths, which vary

and Homogenea.
18ft
T.

What

is

there peculiar in the

/'. The body is oval and gelatinous, usually ending in a kind of tail while the fore part has a singular mbrs, with teeth at the brate rapidly. iur <>f V> toothed wheels revolving.
;
:

r. What is supposed to be the use of this apparatus that appears to re-

volve
/'.

?

he body
Irical,

is*

always
viscera

It has been stated to be cm with respiration ; and a* it does not assist the food, there is good reason d with the u of respiration.
<

and

the

oawtimr*
F,9 / >y.
.

..

Pig
IT.

.

tfyrfrorirM*.

poofrmh-wttr

n
Acttmto mutmbrgaiUJumitm.

toi the body, containing (th il, i.ucrM * * icuucula, wUor.b> u lay*

cn>

28.

bold

oi

tu pr*y.

GO
191.
T.

NATURAL HISTORY.
What
is

there peculiar in the
to

on

its

axis,

and

contains

several small

P.

There does not appear

be any

y lobes, each of which, it is thought, tains a numerous emhryo race.

conthe

Wh-n

mouth,

viscera, or nervous system.

biusts, and the globe escapes to perform like offices.
it

Volvox arrives at maturity

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON XIV. 1. Name the second and third classes of
Radiata.
2.

3.

4.

the fourth and fifth classes. Give examples from each class. Why have the classes been arranged
?

Name

thus
5.
Fiff. 30.

*

192. T.

Give

me

an example

of an

infusorial animal.

P.

The

Volvox globator, which revolves

What is an infusorial animal? Into how many orders are the infusoria divided ? 7. Give me an example of an infusorial animal.
6.

RETROSPECT AND REMARKS.
MAN,
its

like the other animals, is subject to the law of death, but after his soul has left Some naturalists have earthly habitation, it shall continue to exist for ever.

excluded him from their system, because he is too exalted in the scale of creation to be classed with the "beasts that perish." Among these, Aristotle, Hay, Willoughby, Swainson, and others, maintain that he should not be classed with animals, but hold a
as he
is

distinct position. Let us see why he has been classed with animals. It is argued that is suckled at the breast of his mother, he naturally belongs to the mammalia he
;

animals, because he has nails upon his fingers and toes ; and is classed with the apes because some of them have a hyoid bone, (a bone situated between the root of the tongue and larynx, or windpipe). Respecting this, Swainson " What can be a all other consideragreater violation of nature judiciously remarks tions apart than to place a solitary species of creature walking erect upon two limbs,

placed

among unguiculated

among others which walk upon four ? The various systems that have been put
tend to mislead the beginner;
striving to prove

"

how

superior

it

forth by naturalists from time to time, only he gets within a labyrinth of them, where each is It is on this account that GRANDis to all others.
of Cuvier, until
at the

iviiiKK \VIHTI:UEAD recommends his pupils to follow the system sufficiently grounded in Natural History, and then to lead the others,

same time
skeleton in

making such observations as they may think necessary in a note-book. M. Lamark errs in his system, by placing all animals with an internal
;

one division, and those with an external skeleton in the other division because by such an arrangement, animals with the rudiments of an internal vertebrae will be classed with As we have already remarked, Cuvier divides the apes, lions, and other quadrupeds.
animal kingdom into four great divisions, and bases his classification upon the organiIt is true that there are objections to the sation and nature of the animals themselves.
* The Volvox globltor, exhibiting the minute hair-like Fig. 30. with the voung escaping.
cilia,

and the small globes

inside,

01

adoption of the Cmie: shall be perfect, lor we have such vast
entire
liarities to

no easy task to form any xyMcm that numbers of animated beings, with liistinc; pecubut
it is
it

examine, understand, and classify, that

requires the undivided attention tf a

Suppose, for instance, that we saw a sprat, and were ignorant of its name and position in the animal kingdom it is not an easy matter to fix upon the exact spot it should occupy in Nature's catalogue, for there are upwards
lifetime to arrive at correct conclusions.

of eight thousand varieties of

fishes.

We

could, however, at once decide that
a ivry
little

it

did not

belong to quadrupeds,
that
it

birds, or reptiles;

and

belonged

to the fishes,
it

and not the amphibious

further inquiry would determine animals. It does not require much

should be classed with the hony fi>hes. and a little attention to other peculiarities of structure, such as the position or ab>ence of the ventral fins, which we hve already noticed, will enabl* us to place it in the second order of hony fishes
o decide that
;

and then, by examining the
fifth

scales,

upper jaw,

gills,

&c.,

we know

that

it

belongs to the

family of the second order. evident that the primary types of nature are very few, the variations almost s. Any person can tell a bird from a pig or quadruped, yet as there are nearly 7,000 species, it is not an easy thing to know a parrot from a barbet or other bird,
It is quite

unless by attending to the external characters

we have pointed out

in this

Catechism*

and the general organization.
.re has arranged the animal, like the other kingdoms, with admirable pr and her disciples or pupils can discover most of the groups by diligent observation and

patient attention. Could any sensible being mistake a cat for a sloth ? The habits, Certainly not.

form,

and construction,

difference.

The

cat
loi

is

all point out the nimble, can
.

the claws, has
ill

the sloth

is

at case

on the ground, he moves slowly and the
and sole of
I'lte
i'

:.<1

not he

sloth

does n

.

ramble upon the ground, soar into
.

.1

habits,

'

tlu

m

susjuiuKd

fro;..

\

fast

IIRATA,
orvrrlrl

perhaps some of n
.plained

!

nxk what
th
j

that

bone or spine
each of which
ii

is

made up of

several
-en

<.,!!.

I

a

rrttrhra; and if a na urn lint has one

of boi.e

;im to rximiiie. he c.v

nally formed par
usj.cudvd from the branch of

fig. 31.

The

tiirce-tuitl tloln.

trtt.

62
of.

NATURAL HISTORY.
I

have no doubt that a great the great anatomist, was enabled

many
to

stale the

of ycu have read or heard that Professor Owen, form and structure of an extinct bird of

New

Zealand, and even the kind of food it used, by examining some of the bones that were brought to England. We know he was
correct, because since he examined the bones, other parts have been discovered, which verify his statements.

A natural
in

scientific basis, that

system should have such a thoroughly it should connect all the links

observation that there

the chain of relationship. all know by is a scale in nature, and

We

that each kingdom gradually merges into, or is blended with, the other. The difficulty is, therefore, to know where we are to draw the line of

demarcation
Fig. 32.*

;

hence the complexity of natural

systems.

It

may be remarked
to be

that

there
is

are

several Natural Systems,

and that the pupil may request

informed which

the best.

GRANDFATHER WHITEHEAD considers the best Natural System to be that which approaches nearest to Nature's own plan, and exhibits a unity of classification he has explained the difference between a natural and an artificial system in this Catechism.
;

To become a good Naturalist, it is necessary to observe things accurately and quickly, so as to be able to distinguish differences in the structure of animals almost at a glance. This will be acquired by practice; and I would advise my younger pupils to acquire Let them place the habit of observing all things closely and quickly, but not slovenly.
number of specimens of birds before them, such as swallows, swifts, sparrows, woodpeckers, &c., and endeavour to find out and describe the peculiarities of each, how they differ, and how they may each be distinguished or let them examine the skeletons
a
;

of a dozen quadrupeds, and exercise their minds in discriminating between one genug and another.

and economy of animals, and make notes upon them book arranged alphabetically the number of young they have, or eggs they lay; the changes the young undergo giving examples of longevity, temper, &c. food, how Let the young read White's Natural they capture their prey, and all interesting traits. History of Selborne, and endeavour to form such another history of the place they reside in. In after years, such a book will afford them many hours of amusement and
It is well to learn the habits

in a

;

;

;

instruction.

Cuvier has been blamed for arranging his animal kingdom upon anatomical principles, and severe remarks have been made upon his system for that reason. More than one
author censures him for giving anatomical descriptions of the animals. Is it more Which is the more necessary difficult for a naturalist to study anatomy than an artist?
that the artist or the naturalist should

make

it

their study

?

form the largest portion of the animal kingdom, having nearly 600,000 species and yet, by attending to the principles of classification, We naturalists have not any difficulty in assigning the proper place to each of them.

The

insect tribes

THE INSECTA
;

*
c,

Fig. 32. Side vertebral canal.

and front view of the vertebra of a salmon,

a, the

body;

b, b,

the processes

;

RETROSPECT AND R KM ARKS.
hare only to look at the accompanying diagrams, to see how the external appearance of an ant differs from that of a bee and if we examine a beetle such as the Elm- destroying we immediately nee how differently it is formed from either the auu, the
;

scolytus,

Fiy. 33.

*9-

3 <-t

bees, or butterflies

;

do not possess; we

in fact, the wings are protected by hard covering, which the others could not, therefore, place them in the same ordrr or genus.

One thing

is

for the naturalist to especially necessary

remember;

that the

mere

collect-

ing of specimens, without any other object than that of acquiring a heap, as the miser does of gold, is useless, unscientific, and
attended with
least of

many inconveniences,
is

the

expense. Students should not be alarmed at the

which

looking names employed in Zoology, or indeed any other science, they and after reading them are necessary
difficult
;

over a few times, they will become almost as familiar as the names of their schoolfellows.

The
if

best

way

to

master the
th-t

dif-

ficul v of reading

and speaking
i

chnir.il

names

ar

to

copy them out
1

several times in a book,

<

tables,

then ask some scientific friend to pronounce
the

words, and write
tn

the

pronunciation
fttrmica
let

Opposite
'.lid

them;

thus

nifa

roofha).

Do

not

>our only

object be to learn a long list of scientific frirmN. but endeavour rather to thoroughly urns.you do learn. Commence by getting a gcnertl knowledge of the great divisions of any one clam of animals, such as tin- quadruped*, of which there are about 1,200

name*

to

Ml

D

r

j>eruli..ritics,

names, orders,

tribes, fan

copy these names

over and over again, and persevere in mastering all the uifhVultirs that start up before If one name appears more difficult than another, underline it with ml ink, and you.

study that more than the others. \Vln-n you line brrome acquainted with their name* and peculiarities, endeavour to discover the reason each animal is classed as described,

fiy

m

MJmit.

mnlr and fml-/orm,V-t rw/a. .rnn. qur*n, ml worker.

eoTr

3.V .Vro/y/w of the intect.

rflre/r

,

or

Kim demoting

tcolrtos, txhibltlnf

thttxptndvd w!ng ami wins

NATURAL HISTORY.
you appear doubtful about the matter, consult some books, or note it in your common-place book, so that you may consult some scientific friend upon the subject, and
if

when an opportunity
If

occurs.

you desire to be a naturalist, if you wish to excel your equals or betters, if you would gain a wreath of fame remember that the worm of idleness will destroy the result ol your previous labours, undermine your plans, and eat away the green leaves
;

you have ordained
th
it

for

your brow.

It has

been said thai "

it

is

a

mistake

to

imagine

only the violent passions, such as love and ambition, can triun.ph over the rest Idleness, languid as she is, often masters them all; she, indeed, influences all our

designs
virtues."

and actions, and insensibly consumes and destroys Beware of her influences; live like a hermit; work
;

both

passions

and
to

like a slave;

bow

confirm reading by practice; experience; store your golden grains of knowledge and. whatever method you adopt, first draw out your plan, and then abide by its PRIN-

CIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON RETROSPECT.
have some naturalists excluded 1. from the animal kingdom ? 2. AY by have Cuvier, and others, ini^U'ied Man in the animal kingdom? 3. What objections does Swainson urge
aprainst
4.

WHY

8.

Can we
?

readily distinguish a cat from

a sloth

9. Is there anything very peculiar about a vertebra ?

10.

What can we learn from
?

the examina-

Man Mammalia ?

being

classed

with

the

tion of a vertebra
11.

What
?

is

the

object

of Natural

recommended by GRANDFATIIKR WHITF.IIKAD

Why
?

is

the system of Cuvier

Systems
12.

.'

What Natural Systems

5.

How

does

Lamaik

err in his classifi-

13.

Why
Is

are the best? has the arrangement of Cuvier
?

cation

been blamed
14.
if sufficiently

anatomy

essential to a naturalist

7

[The pupil should,
t:ivu :he division

advanced,

15.

Is there

much

difference between

an

proposed and adopted by

M.
fi.

Virey.]
is

ant, a bee, and a beetle ? 16. State how these insects differ?
17.

How
?

the classification of Cuvier

What
?

should naturalists always havt-

arranged

in view
18.

7. Are the primary types of nature very numerous 1

What

become

arc the best means to adopt tc a naturalist, or student generally ?

IIL-MECIIAMCS,

NAlillATIVE.

LESSON

I.

A

FEW

miles

from
a

Keith,

a

little
.n,

village in Banflshire, lived a poor in

family by an occasional day's work, and the profits arising from the cultivation of a few
large

who supported

acres

of land

which he rented

;

but

although poor he was honest, and n iis duty towards liis Maker.
1

nd

late

fields,

he was seen working or busy about his house,
hi^li

in
v.

the

was situated on a
in the

midst of groves of beautiful trees.

66

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.
truly picturesque, and

[Lesson
the

L

The country was
scenery

from some

points of

surrounding

" The cottage chimneys, half conceal'd from view By their embowering foliage, sent on high
Their pallid wreaths of smoke, unruffled to the sky."

the river might be seen, like a glistening serpent, winding amidst the luxuriant trees that decked its hanks.

Afar

off,

Sometimes, when the labours of the day were not quite so severe, the father would
instruct the elder children to read and write; but this was only in his leisure hours. Although his family was large, yet it was still further increased by another boy, who

was born

in the year 1710,

and duly christened

at the proper

time

James Ferguson.

history of Ferguson, written by himself, and prefixed to his Select Mechanical Exercises, published in 1778, (second edition,) is so instructive and interesting, that it
to give it in his own words. writing respecting the manner in which he acquired a knowledge of reading, he tells us that it was during the time his father was teaching his elder brother to read the Scotch Catechism.
urill

The

be better

When

11

Ashamed

to

ask

my

father to instruct me, I used,

when he and

my

brother were

abroad, to take the Catechism, and study the lesson which he had been teaching my brother; and when any difficulty occurred, I went to a neighbouring old woman, who gave me such help as enabled me to read tolerably well before my father had thought of

teaching me. " Some time

after,

he was agreeably surprised to find

me

reading by myself

;

he there-

upon gave me further instruction, and also taught me to write; which, with about tJiree months I afterwards had at tlie grammar school at Keith, was all the education I ever
received.

"

My

taste for

mechanics arose from an odd accident:

years of age, a part of the roof of the house being decayed,
it,

When about seven or eight my father, desirous of mending

applied a prop and lever to an upright spar, to raise it to its former situation and, to my great astonishment, / saw him,
;

without considering tJie reason, lift up the ponderous roof as if it had been a small weight. I attributed this at first to a degree
of

strength that excited

my terror

as well as

wonder

;

but think-

ing further of the matter, I recollected that he had applied his strength to that end of the lever which was furthest from the

prop

;

and finding, on

inquiry, that this

was the means whereby

the seeming wonder was effected, / began making levers (which I then called bars) and by applying wights to them different ways,
;

I

found the power gained by

my

bar was just in proportion

the prop.
*

I then

thought

to the lengths of the different parts of the bar on either side of it was a great pity that, by means of this bar, a weight could be

b be a wheel, c d its axle, and suppose the circumference of the wheel to be eight F iy. 1. times as great as the circumference of the axle then, a power, p, equal to one pound, hanging by the round the wheel, will balance a weight, w, of eight pounds, hanging by the rope k, which goes cord which goes round the axle and as the friction on the pivots, e f, or gudgeons of the axle is but small, a small addition to the power will cause it to descend, and raise the weight; but the weight will rise with only an eighth part of the velocity wherewith, the power descends, and consequently, through no more than an eighth part of an equal space, in the same time. If the wheel be pulled round by the the power will be increased in proportion to their length, handles. *, g is a ratchet-wheel on one nd of tbe axle, with a catch, A, to fall in its teeth." Ferguson's Lecturet, 10th Edition, p. 55.
; ,

" Let a

;

,

Lesson L]

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.
On
this, I

7

soon imagined, that, by pulling round a wheel, the weight iiii_-ht be raised to any height by tying a rope to the weight, and winding the rope round the axle of the wheel and that the power gained must be just as great as the wheel was broader thin the axle was thick and found it to be exactly so by hanging one
raised but a very little way.
;
;

weight to a rope put tound the wheel, and another to the rope that coiled round the axle. So that, in these two machines, it appeared very plain, that their advantage was as great

gone through by the working power exceeded the space gone through by and this property, I also thought, must take place in a wedge for wood but then I happened not to think of the screw. By means of a lathe u-hich fattier had, and sometimes used, and a little knife, 1 was enabled to makt wheels and other things necessary for my purpose. hen wrote a short account of these machines, and sketched out figures of them with a pen, imagining it to be the first treatise of the kind that ever was written but found my mUtake when I afterwards showed it to a gentleman, who told me that these things were known long before, and showed me a printed book in which they were treated of; and I was much pleased when I found that my account (so far as I had carried it) And from that agreed with the principles of mechanics in the book he showed me.
as the space the weight ;
:i
;

t,.

;/.-//

;

(1

a constant tendency to improve in that science.

me while I was in pursuit only of was rather too young and weak for hard labour, he put me out to a neighbour to keep sheep, which I continued to do for some years; and in that time I began to study the stars in the night. In the day-time I amused myself by making modeU itcels, and such other tilings as I happened to see. " I a considerable farmer in the neighbourhood, whose name waa 1 found him very kind and James indulgent but he soon observed that in the evenings, when my work was over, I went into a field with a blanket about me, lay
her could not afford to maintain
I

" Bi.

these matters, and

;

<

;

hack, and stretched a thread with small beats upon it, at .1: eye and the stars; sliding the beads upon it till they hid such an in order to take their apparent distances from one another stars fr and then, beads, according laying the thread down on a paper, I marked the stars tin rat first laughed at me; to the:: .ons, having a cat
a

my

..

,

;

but when

I

explained
f.iir

my meaning

to

him, he encouraged
1

might make

copies in the day-time of what

me to go on and that I had done in the night, he often worked
;

at Keith,

nt him with a message to the Rev. John Gilchrist, the minister and Ferguson carried what he ttar papers" show the clergyman, who was examining some maps. Mr (ul hust had
;

conversation with Ferguson, lent hint a in ip to copy, and gave him a n c MI, \>'.< ted this task, and Il< k, and paper for the pui| >'. ..itii the while map and copy under his arm, lie observed a
passes, a ru
:

OHM

-

Cantli-y, painting a sun-dial on the wall of the school wl,> .ml while staying to observe him, the formerly had three months' r master came out, and asked Ferguson what he had under his ami. Ferguson showed

man, named Alexander

him

the

map

In-

also pi

had drawn, which pleased tin- -rh..;n a the same timeilhat

1 .

.u
it

i

v<

ry imu-h,

and the

\

was a pity such a lad

o

nconngtoi
r

he arrived at the minister's, and while convening with him, a neighbouring

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.

[Lesson

I.

gentleman (Thomas Grant, Esq.. of Achoynaney,) called, and was so pleased with Ferguson and what he had done, that after asking him a few questions about the construction of maps, he promised that if he would go and live at his house, he would order his

Ferguson thanked Squire Grant for his butler, Alexander Cantley, to instruct him. Kindness, and promised, when the tima of his servitude had expired, he would avail himself of the offer. " " When the term of my servitude was out," writes Ferguson, I left my good
master, and went to the gentleman's house, where I quickly found myself with a most humane, good family. \Ir. Cantley, the butler, soon became my friend, and continued

so

He was the most extraordinary man I ever was acquainted with, or till his death. perhaps ever shall see ; for he was a complete master of arithmetic, a good mathematician, a master of music on every known instrument except the harp, understood Latin, French, and Greek, let blood .extremely well, and could even prescribe as a
;

He was what is generally called self-taught but, physician upon any urgent occasion. I think, he might with much greater propriety have been termed GOD ALMIGHTY'S scholar.
"

He

immediately began to teach

me

learnt vulgar arithmetic, at

my
;

leisure hours,

decimal arithmetic and algebra for I had already from books. He then proceeded to teach
;

me

the elements of geometry

that branch of science, he left Mr. Grant,

but, to any inexpressible grief, just as Iwas beginning and went to the late Earl of Fife's, at several

miles' distance.
'he
;

The good family I was then with could not prevail with me to stay after He had made me a present of was gone so I left them, and went to my father's. Cordon's Geographical Grammar, which, at that time, was to me a great treasure." From a description contained in this book, Ferguson constructed a globe of wood covered it with paper delineated a map of the world upon it and made a graduated

horizon, and meridian ring of wood, covered with paper. Finding that his father could not support him, he went into the service of a miller, who spent most of his time tippling at an ale-house, leaving the whole care of the
.mill to

a

little

Ferguson, who was almost starved by his master, so that he was often glad to get oatmeal mixed with cold water to eat; and at the end of a year was obliged to

.his

return home, being in a very weak state from want of proper food. Having recovered as a labouring servant to a neighbouring strength, his father advised him to go

ifawner,

who practised as physician in that part of the country, telling him that the doctor This proved a great temptation to Ferguson, who liad promise^ .to instruct him. accordingly entered the doctor's service, but was so over-worked, that he was obliged
to leave
it

at the

o

much

disabled in his

end of three months, without receiving anything for his services, and left arm and hand, that he despaired of ever recovering

their use.

In his Autobiography, he complains bitterly of the conduct of Doctor Young, for not while in his service, or visiting him after he left it, and giving him any medicine While at his attributes his recovery to some medicines sent to him by Cantley.
father's, in order to

amuse
bell,

himself, he

of

broken

was the neck of a Ferguson tells us that this clock kept time pretty well, and then adds "Having then no idea how any .time-,kceper could go but by a weight and a line, I wondered how a watch could go in all positions and was sojry that I had never thought Mr. Cantley, who could very easily have informed me. But happening one of

wood

;

and the

on which the

made a wooden clock, hammer struck the

the frame of which was also
.hours,

bottle.

:

;

asking

Lesson!.]

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.
;

69

day to see a gentleman ride by my father's house, (which was close by a public road,) he looked at his watch, and then told me. As he I asked him what o'clock it then was

begged of him to show me the inside of his watch; and though he was an entire stranger, he immediately opened the watch, and put it I saw the spring-box, with part of the chain round it, and asked him into my hands. what it was that made the box turn round he told me that it was turned round by a steel
did that with so

much good

nature,

I

;

Having then never seen any other spring than that of my father's punspring within it lock, I asked how a spring within a box could turn the box so often round as to wind all He answered, that the spring was long and thin that one end of it the chain upon it
;

was fastened to the axis of the box, and the other end to the inside of the box that the I told him I did not yet thoroughly axis was fixed, and the box was loose upon it.
;

Well, my lad,' says he, 'take a long thin piece of whalebone, between your finger and thumb, and wind it round your finger: it will endeavour to unwind itself; and if you fix the other end of it to the inside of a small hoop, and leave it to itself, it will turn the hoop round and round, and wind up I thanked the gentleman, and told him I a thread tied to the outside of the hoop.' understand the matter.
hold one end of
it

'

fast

understood the thing very well." From the scanty information he had thus acquired, Ferguson constructed a watch with wooden wheels, and made the spring of whalebone, enclosing the whole in a wooden but a clumsy neighbour, while looking at it, let case, very little larger than a teacup
;

the watch

fall,

and while endeavouring

to pick

it

up, crushed

it all

to pieces with his foot;

which discouraged him so much, that he never attempted to make such another machine again, especially as he felt convinced that he could never make one that would be of
1

use.

strength was sufficiently restored, hs carried his globe, clock, and copies of some other maps, besides that of the world, to Sir James Dunbar, of Durn, who
Sir James was much pleased with lifed about seven miles from his fulu-r's cottage. him, and desired that he would clean his clocks, which he did; and also paint* globular stones that stood on the top of the gate of Sir James's house, with oil

Urge

WhiK- at colours: the one representing a terrestrial, and the other a celestial globe. uc, he was introduced to Lady Dipple, sister to Sir James, and was requested to
draw patterns for needle-work for her; and, soon after this, he obtained plenty of such \ ment from other ladies in the country go that he was enabled, occasionally, to supply the wants of his poor father.
; '1

his astronomical observations
:

;

ures and prints, he en

several of

and, as Sir James's house was full them with pen and ink and
;

severing, he was enabled, through the interest of

Lady Dipple,

to set

up as a

urgh.

anatomy, surgery, and physic, intending t.> Ix-romea native place put these thoughts nut of his head, u irs. He w< painting, which he followed for tu mlirA again this was in 1739, the year he was ness, and commenced his astr not w married, a ,t; and, we may
physician; but a
visit to his
;
>

irph. he studied

suppose,
It
i<

good reason, as he and his whilst Ferguson was delivering

very unhappily togethrr. a lecture in 1770, on astmi.

if<

lu.-.l

related, that

Mid upset several pieces of 1m apparatus; but he merely looked at her, and said, " Ladies and gentlemen, I have the misfortune to be married

MECHANICS.
o this

[Lesson

L

works.

woman." He made several orreries; and, The following year, lie began to deliver

in 1747,

commenced publishing

his

lectures on astronomy, and, subse-

He died quently, on mechanics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, pneumatics, and electricity. in 1766, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, worth about 6,000 in property and cash,
50 a year from the Privy purse for many years. He was very properly elected a Fellow of the Royal Society for his scientific acquirements. ~\Ve must acknowledge, that, however much astronomy, and the other branches of science,

having received

were indebted to his untiring perseverance and research, yet he rendered most essential service to the study of MECHANICS.

MECHANICS.
QUESTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS.
1.

T.

WHAT

do you mean

by Me-

chanics ? It is the Philosophy of Machinery, P. or the Theory of Powers or Forces, being a science which teaches us the proportion of the forces, motions, velocities, and even the actions of bodies upon one another,
either directly or by
2.

means

of machinery.

for some time, the metal is reduced in thickness by the mechanical action of the particles of brick again, [Experiment 2] if a tin can, with a small hole in the bottom of it, is filled with water, and placed about two feet above the brick we have just used, and allowed to remain there for some time, the water will act mechanically upon the
;

T.

What

is

the term mechanics de-

brick,
7.

and wear

it

away.
di-

rived from ? From the Greek meelcanee (M7jx"^)> P. vhich signifies a machine.
3.

T.

Have not some philosophers

T.

P.

What do you mean by force ? The power exerted on a body
change
its

to

make

position. [The pupil should read Q. 131, 132, and 133,
p. JM.]

it

vided the science of mechanics, or as Dr. Wallis terms it, the " Geometry of motion," into two parts ? P. Yes, into STATICS and DYNAMICS ; but it is better to consider the subject as a whole, and not adopt this mode of dividing
it.

4.

T.
?

What do you mean by
it

a maI

8.

T.
is

What

is

meant by

Statics,

and

chine
P.

In the sense

is

here employed,

mean any mechanical instrument by which force may be made to act.
5.

the term derived from ? P. Statics is the doctrine of the equilibrium of forces, and the term is derived from the Greek verb stao (Sracw), to stand.

what

T.

How

is this

accomplished

?

Machines can only convey the moP. tion imparted to them to another body;
they cannot act of themselves, but may regulate or modify the force employed, although they cannot produce it. [Pupils should study Lesson X., p. 24, and then
they will be better prepared to understand what is meant by motion, force, velocity, &c.]

9. T. What is the word Dynamics derived from, and what is its signification ? It is derived from the Greek word P. (liin(t)iiis (AIJVU/J.IS), force or power, and lite-

rally

means
T.

the theory of force and power.

10.

When we
?

have to apply a mato

chine,

what are the chief things
1.

be

considered
P.

The

force

which we have

to over-

6. T. Explain what you mean by the term mechanical. P. Mechanical action is the result of

come, sustain, or oppose. 2. The force which will enable us to overcome, sustain,
or oppose the resisting force. 3. The machine by which the desired eflect is produced, by transmitting the requisite force or power to the resisting force.

the application of power or force acting upon a body. For example [Experiment brick 1], if 1 rub a metal button upon a

II.}
11.

IIANICS.
has been g:

/'.What name

the force we have lo overcome, sustain, or or, in other words, the body which
It is
1-j.

technically termed the weight.
is it

simple machines belong to one or .asses; and all complex machines, r large, are only made up of part* which are simple in themselves, and cume under these three mechanic p<>
17. T.

T.

Why
What

called the
effect.

weL

Have
;

these

p<

<'d

any

/'.

Because we can always obtain a
/'.

weight of equivalent
is

particular name from philosop Yes P. they are called the Primary

the force which

is

em-

Mechanical Power*, from winch
are derived.
/'.

ail

ployed term
P.

to

overcome, oppose, or sustain,
in

How many
?

other

mechanic
n

technically called the power, and communicates motion to the
It
1

powers are there
P.
'Ihree:

1.

The wheel and
S.

/'.Then you would imply
sustains the weight.
~t: il

that the
is

:om the Lei
ncd
Pltine.

The

srrcu-,

iiom the

to say so,

but this

not

Inclined Plane.
19.
r.

actually the case, because it is quite im.for the power of an ounce to sup-

P.
20.

What are these powers called f The Secondary Mechanical Power*

port the weight of two thousand pounds. w it cannot do so. yet by employing :ue it appears to do so.

T.

How many

mechanic

powers

are tin

/'.Three Primary and three Secondary;
in nil, six, from which are deri\ elements of every kind of machinery.

How can you account for this ? Kvcry machine has certain points, and it is so managed or contrived that the pressure caused by the applied weight or power, or both, shall be thrown It ie fixed points of the machine. can be so arranged that the greater part of
/'.

1\

!IAL
1

QUESTIONS ON LESS
is

Kxplain what
\\':i.t
is

meant by Mechanic?.

J.

the weight shall

1

<1

amon-

the derivation of the word

tin-

fixed points, and that the remaining part shall not be greater than the power emrefore we can now

Mechan 3. What

is a mac \plain the difference betwe<

understand how one ounce apprart to sup<> thousand pounds, and when we learn more about mechanic powers this will be more easily understood.
/'.

chanics and i: 11 has the science of Mechanics
."..
.

\jil.iin
7. What mind in

idcd by some philosop the meanings ami
statics

<i.

:

ivations

and

dyi
?

What do you mean by
'

ID-

are the

pow<
P.

r

in

the application of machines

The most simple ma<
H.

8.
II

VSH
the

'.'

which
n
;

ar
2,
lt.

and power. Dclini- the t< \\ r mtc-hanic powers, and how an- there ?
:,

m

:

thr-c

in

How

are

the

mechanic powers

di'

Pulley or Cord

3,

the Inclined Plant,

All

LESSON
FEROUSOW
his
Is

II.

an admirable example for us
:

all.

The young should

endeav<

zml

liahiii,

humility, and perseverance; and the and that love of practical knovtedgt

only,

which some persons extol so high

uson's case,

it

waa

his misf

MECHANICS.
:

[Lesson

II.

rather than his fault, to be an empirical mechanic but, in the present age of cheap scientific literature, those who reject the theoretical part of mechanics altogether, have

Dr. PJayfair, in contrasting theory and practice, thus only themselves to blame. " For a happily expresses himself: long time practice, standing still in the pride of empiricism, and in the ungrateful forgettulness of what science had done in its develop-

ment, reared upon its portal the old and vulgar adage, 'An ounce of practice is worth a ton of theory.' This wretched inscription acted like a Gorgon's head, and turned to stone the aspirations of science. Believe it not for a grain of theory if that be an
;

expression for science

wax

into the

when planted, like the mustard-seed of Scripture, grow and The pressure and difficulties of the age, and the rapid greatest of trees.
will,

advancement of intellect in continental nations, have been the Perseus to cut off this Medusa's head from the industry of England, and to fix it on the shield of Minerva, who turns to stone such as still believe that science should be ignored by practice but, reversing that shield, wisely conducts those who would go further under her
;

men who openly avow, although they actually enterantagonism between theory and practice. Theory is, in fact, the rule, and practice its example. Theory is but the attempt to furnish an intelligent explanation of that which is empirically ascertained to be true, and is always
guidance.
It is

now

rare to find

tain a belief in, a necessary

even when wrong. Theories are the leaves of the tree of science, drawing nutriment to the parent stem while they last, and, by their fall and decay, affording materials for the new leaves which are to succeed."
useful,

Ferguson saw
on to
built
relate,

his father

lift

up the ponderous roof by means of a

lever,
;

and he

tells

us, that he did not consider the reason, but that the fact terrified

him

up was well founded.

that he thought further on the matter, and inquired if To his great satisfaction, he discovered that his ideas were

however, he goes the theory he had

correct.

How

further of the matter, and inquired

few children there are, even at double his age, that would have thought Many growp-up people would have observed and
!
;

passed on, without considering anything about the matter and if they had, their false Ferguson pride, in all probability, would have prevented them making any inquiries.
with levers, applying weights to and endeavouring to prove, practically, that which he believed His experiments were successful and, therefore, all that he knew was theoretically. not like the knowledge acquired by those who make learning a labour he knew what had cost him so much trouble to learn, thoroughly, theoretically, and practically.
did not stop here, he

commenced making experiments
;

them

in different ways,

QUESTIONS.
21.
T.

What

is

a

LEVER?

sider as essential to the constitution of a

inflexible straight bar, or rod of any material, which turns on an axis, is It is one of the usually termed a lever.

P.

An

lever

?

P. crum.
24.

Three:
3.

1.

The

power.

2.

The//the

The

weight.

most useful and extensively mechanical powers.
22.
T.

employed
of the

T.
is

What do you mean by

What

is

the principle

fulcrum ? P. It

lever founded on ? P. The theory of equilibrium, like that

of

all

mechanic powers.
T.

the axis upon, or about which, the lever moves, and is generally termed the prop but is technically termed ihe fulcrum.
,

23.

What

things have

we

to

con-

25. T.

What

is

the use of the lever

?

Lesson
P.

II. ]
It

MECHANICS,
crum,
the

enables us to overcome a

point

on which

it

turns.

A

a weight, bearing on one point, by applying a power to another.

ance, or

move

common claw-hammer, employed

to raise

T.

What
f

are the parts of a lever on the fulcrum called ?

P.

The
T.
?

arm*.

How many

kinds of lever* are

there
/'.

relative situation

Three, which vary according to the of the power, fulcrum,

%.*>
nails, is a lever of the first class; but, in this case, the line of direction of the power

and weight
28. T.

How

are

these

levers

distin-

guished
/'.

?

Into a lever of the

firtt kind,

where

the fulcrum is placed between the power and the weight a lever of the tecond kind, the weight is between the fulcrum
;

All perpendicular to the resistance. instruments for cutting or holding, which of two pieces crossing each are composed
is

other in the midd

of the third

here the power is placed between rum and the weight. Fig. 2 is an B example of a lever of the first kind.

A

^
is

^
JS

"*~~UT ^T.
.

\ '\

pincers, pliers, nippers. &c., are familiar the pivot or joint being the fulcrum, the resistance or weight the paper, grass, \'c. ID he cut or seized, and the power applied hy the hand. A common crowft,
-

as sci-

termed the long arm of the
1*

lever,

ni-.d

represents some Mich as a hand drawing down the as rig arm at A, and, hands who *--d to be weak or
t

3^ bar, applir.i to r:u-e stones or otht-r the fulcrum is another familiar example being another stone placed near to the one to be raised, and the power
ft?' *
t
;

raises it

[S
'

-

or arm must have a relative length than the one to he weight is attached.
red

with

the

resistance

30.
in

Are levers always straight /*. No; they are sometimes cur, 5. The same advantage cai Fig.
T.

ve

me some examples of levers
tin

When a poker i* P. the bars of the fire-grate to raise
we have
a
f

\*a.

(Fig. 8.)

fa lever of When we use a pin
from
its

shell,

we

a lever of he Irvcr, and the hhell the fulcrum. ike of a pump is a lever of the

f.

M
i,t

'on

nncl

th<-

'

being
Fio
<

be raised,

pump-ro<U and the luU

derived from a bent lever as from a straight

3.-A,

th

pok.r.
Is,

bar.

or

v*f<
jwvr;
Is
.

J

A B

ihvoretirally

P. the Irrrr. or Infltx, rappoMd to b of
;

t Fig.

4.

a, tb

hind, or

the nail,

MMT;

weight in every ,,rt

DIP /-.. n<l W. I>,P troy*/ Tl.o.r partide of the fulcrum arc Uie each
F.

md/. lh//rrnin r.rtW b9tr. .upPOMtd by
armt of

rnm

F.

Th

wtifkl

W,

atuchtd

10

B

74

MECHANICS.
32.
T.

[Lesson III.

one of the same length. Let B E represent a curved lever, which is .supported at
F, having the weight (W) attached at B, and the power (P) applied at E. If we wish to find the momentum of the weight,

How

is

the

mechanical

ad-

vantage of the power and weight of a lever
described ! PBy a line drawn from the fulcrum, at right angles to the direction in the which the forces are respectively acting.

we have only

to multiply its weight by the ideal lines F, or B C ; and the momentum of power will be found by multiplying its weight by the ideal lines E, or F G.

A

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

II.

D

What
What What
?

is
?

the difference between theory a lever?
essentially

[See Q. 137 and 138, p. 25.]

and practice
2.

is

stated leads me to suppose that levers do not always act in the same direction. Is this the case?
31.
T.

What you have

3.

is

necessary

in

a

lever
4.
5.

All straight levers are supposed to have their powers or forces acting at right angles with them but bent levers act obliquely, and not at right angles, which is the reason bent levers are not so advantageous as straight ones, because the obliquity in their action diminishes the mechanical gain.
P.
Yes.
;

Describe what is meant by a fulcrum ? is the use of levers and how many kinds of levers are there ? 6. Describe and of levers give examples

What

;

of the
7.

first

kind.

How
How

do levers of the
class differ
is
?

first,

second,

and third
8.

the advantage of the power and weight of a lever represented ?

LESSON
FERGUSON
tried

III.

many experiments
It

with levers, to prove that the theories he had confor us, if

structed were correct

would be well

we always followed

his

example

in

this respect. He applied weights to the levers in various ways, and was thus enabled must examine the principles of the to determine the advantages gained or lost.
""

We

lever experimentally, and endeavour to establish facts. in mind, that what if gained in power is lost in velocity ; velocity
;

One thing must always be borne we cannot create either power or

but we

may

substitute the one for the other.

QUESTIONS.
the power applied at a greater distance from the fulcrum of a lever, than that at which the weight bears ? P. In order to overcome the resistance
33.
T.
is

Why

more
34.

effectually.

Suppose that a pole, twelve feet long, resting in the centre upon a block of is used as a lever, and that a wood, weight of ten pounds is placed at each end, what
T.
will be the effect
?

pound weight placed there instead, the fulcrum being situated nearer to the ten pound weight than to the lesser one, what will be the effect ? P. Possibly the same because it will depend upon how near the fulcrum is if a weight of For example placed.
four
;

;

Provided the pole is of uniform gravity, it will remain in a state of equilibrium, or in other words, it will lie balanced but if one end of the pole is heavier than the other, it will descend, and the lighter end be driven upwards.
P.
;

placed on the short arm of a lever, at the distance of six inches from the fulcrum, it will require a weight of six pounds to be placed twenty inches from the fulcrum, to balance it.

twenty pounds

is

30. T. How do you know that this is correct ? P. By experiment and calculation ; besides, it is a general rule, that the force of the lever increaset in proportion an the dis-

35. T.

If one weight

is

removed, and a

LeonIII.]

MECHANICS.
proportion as the distance from the fulcrum diminishes.

75

tnnceof the power from the fulcrum increases,

T.

How

can we find out, by cil-

culation, the requisite
/'.

power

to

employ

I

\Ve must first of all establish The points then act by rule. points, and are 1. The resp.-ctive lengths of the long arms of the lever. 2. The units and short Jit and distance.
38.
r.
it

small weight, descending a long way in any given length of time, is equal in effect to a great weight descending a proper:, \V ill shorter way in the same space of time. you give me an example of this, and state if it is correct ? It is quite true P. and it is on this In this principle that the see-saw acts. diagram we see that two boys are amusing Ives with a plank, which is balanced
;

What
and

do you

mean by

the units

uis-.i

If we fix ounces or pounds, or any P. other weight as the unit of the short arm of the lever, we must fix the unit of power ami if we make of the long arm the same the unit of distance of the short arm to be an inch, we mutt have inches as the units of length of the long arm.
;

on a stone.
t

The

class,

What is the rule you mentioned? Multiply the very simple one. its distance from the fulcrum weight by its distance from iltiply the power by if the products are equal, the same point
39.
T.

fulcrum.

As

planlc A B, is a lever of of which the stone F is the the boy E is heavier than

/'.A

;

;

^ht and power will counteract each
other.
[See Q. 35,
bore.]

have not told me yet how to calculate the power we must employ at ' ann of a lever, to balance a known attached to the short
40.
T.

You

:

1

the boy o, it is necessary to place him It is easy to see nearer to the fulcrum. that the lighter boy traverses a greater space from H to D, than the heavy boy from c to Let us suppose that E repA. a weight of ten pounds, and that If the s a power of one pound. power is depressed too. the weight will be oc; the space B D bears the same proportion to c A, as the arm B F to A P.

in

easily

<i.

weight by the length of the short
in the long
result
is

a:

be ten times c A, which ihe power o, ol one pound,
,

m

the power

only raised

/

r

U

<

11

.

:

,

qualto
\\hieh
is

of the short nrm,) gives us
f

240 as the resistance overcome.
saying that
r it

the cause

240 by 24,

retpiir. * ten

pounds
;

(which
>unds

to raise a

weight of ten pounds
]><

machine was enabled

to over-

we must employ

;

iiis

resistance with a Mini!
,tinct efforts

mechanical because the weight
is

instead of

only

(

twice that of the power.
41.
T.
;>

Ifwe*
hort

levertooverpreferable, a

eome

useful

applic.r

long one or a

A

short on.

he long one,

an example, uh'-n

srn
'

a scale
/'.

It

i

s.ii<l

to

be a

rule,

/.,

acting upon the

arm

ac, and

MECHANICS.
kept in equilibrium by a movable weight p, on the other arm of the lever. As the weight j> can be slipped along the lever
this
is

[Lesson IV.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON III. 1. Why is one arm of a lever usuaJly
longer than the other ? 2. When a lever is balanced
in its centre,

to

any required point,

it

follows that the

and equal weights placed at either end, what takes place? 3. Give me a rule, to prove that power increases and diminishes with distance.
Fig. 1.

heavier the weight

is,

the further

must the
{

movable weight be placed from the

ful{

crum a, in order to balance the weight. The common scale-beam for weighing
another example of this class, and is generally prefered to the steelyard, because the subdivision of weights is more precise.
is

4. How can we calculate the proper power we require to employ ? 5. Explain what is meant by units of weight and distance. 6. "Why is a short lever generally better

than a long one
7.
8.

?

Explain how a see-saw acts. Explain the principle of the

steel-

yard.

LESSON
and

IV.

SUPPOSE that aline passed round a pulley, to the end of which a weight p was attached, that some force was acting in the direction ab, equal to the weight p. By the theory of the parallelogram of forces, we are enabled
to

decompose the forces meeting
b,

at a,
;

and acting

in the

direction a

into lateral forces
a,

one of which acts in

the direction of d from

being a prolongation of the

direction of the radius g a, while the direction of the If the pulley is other force a e is parallel with h p. fixed, the action of the force a d will be counteracted by

"

the resistance, altogether, of the central point g; we may therefore take away the component force which
is

equilibrium

acting in the direction a d without disturbing the and we may replace the active force a b,
;

by

its

component force acting

in the direction a

e.

If

the line a c represent the force p acting in the direction a b, then the line a e, will give the amount of the
"

relations of size between a c

component force P, (Fig. 9) and without working out the and a e, or p and P, we can easily see thatP is larger than pTherefore, without disturbing the equilibrium, we may replace the force p, acting in the
f^o- 8 -

^3J

direction a b by another force P, acting at a in a vertical instead of a lateral direction. Snppose that, instead of the force P being allowed to act directly at a, we make it act

any part of the line a e, we shall find that the equilibrium will not be disturbed. For example, let the force P act at the point /in the line a e, where it is intersected by the line ft g, and we shall then find that we have two rectangular forces p and P in a
in
state of equilibrium, at the

ends of the line

fh

revolving round g, as in Fig.

9.

The

two forces are unequal,

as

their respective points of action at

/

and

/*

are at unequal

..

IV.]

MECHANICS.

77

We must now find out the relation which exists distances from the fulcrum g. between the size of the forces p and P, and the lengths kg undfg. It will be seen / that the triangles c a e in Fig. 8, and afg are similar to each _ * and therefore a c and a e are and a and
'
'

'

'

other,

equal

iofg

g

t

the lengths a c and a e are to each other as the forces p and P, consequently we may say that these forces bear an inverse
ratio

to

the distances
g.

fulcrum

We can
g

now

of their points of action from the see that a lever does revolve round a

**

*

fixed point, as at

in Fig. 9.

QUESTIONS.
45. T. ment of a
/'.

What
f
is

is

meant by

the ttatic mois

P.

The oar which urges a boat forward an excellent example the blade forced
;

the product obtained by multiplying the force by the arm of the lever, :hat force which, acting at an arm of
It

on the opposite side of the fulcrum, ^reserve the state of equilibrium.
t

Explain this more fully. suppose that the force to the right of Fig. 9 is equal to 6, and the arm
/'.

of the lever equal to 4, the static n. of the force will be 4 multiplied by 6, or 24 then if the force on the left hand is to be in a state of equilibrium with the former, the static moment of the two must be equal, and the force acting on the left side of an arm equal to 2 must have a weight of 12.
;

against the water is the fulcrum, the boa; the weight, and the man's hands the power. The rudder of a ship acts in the same manner. When we open a door, the hinge is the fulcrum, the air the resistance, an. If we the person opening it the power. crack a nut we use two levers of the second kind, the hinge which keeps them together forming the fulcrum, the nut the resistance or weight, and the hand the power. The old sugar-chopper used by grocers is a very

/.What do you mean by a lever of the second kind ? It a lever which has the weight P. placed between the fulcrum and the power.
i

IV
good example of a

n.
;

lever of this kind the !" -ing the fulcrum, the sugar ihe resistance or weight, and the handle the

/If. 10.

A

fam

<

of this kind of lever
.

is

When a crowbar is placed underneath a stone, and the end of the bar raised, it becomes a lever of the second kind, the end resting on the ground being t: crniii. the M ,,| the upward movement of the man's hand the Two men carrying a sedan-chair power.
t.irnung the

the fulcniM.

lii-ing

presses on the the barrow and
ted
l>v

moving power and fulcrum with
each other, while the weight
49.
/

rov,

in

the chair.

Its load,

wh
v-

T.

What

is

meant by a one-armed
fixed,

the two handles
in
1

ui
.s

lifts,

and

propor

.

<n

AS

or shorten*

handles, so

is

the power
familiar

which has one end and two forces acting in opposite dir<
It is a lever

*. [See Fnmtbpttc*.]
48.
/

same

idr
i

give

me

an example of

examples of

a lever of the second class.

this kind of lever t

78

MECHANICS.
it

[Lesson IV.
to

In this diagram we shall see that P. has been applied to the boiler of a steamThe valve p, which covers and engine. closes the opening of the boiler, is forced up by the pressure of the steam, but this

to
[
'

overcome resistance, hut

move a
for :-ome

weight with great speed, or else
sanicular purpose.
54. T.

Give

me some familiar examples

Fig. 13.

pressure is balanced by a smaller force (the weight u>, which acts downwards), because it acts at a longer arm than the pressure on the under surface of the valve. In this case the fixed point of the lever a is the fulcrum.

of levers of this kind. P. The treddle of a turning-lathe is one of the most common, the end which rests on the floor is the fulcrum the foot of the man, which presses on the board near to he fulcrum, is the power; and .the crank upon the axis of the fly-wheel, which is attached to the other end, is the weight. man using a flail with two hands is another But the most interesting exexample. amples of the application of such levels are to be found in the structure of animals, particularly the arm and forearm of man ;
;

A

What is meant by a lever of the 51. T. third kind ? It is a lever with the power placed P. between the fulcrum and the weight or
The fulcrum is resistance (Tig. 13). placed at the extremity of the short arm, at

Fig. 14.*

and, although there is a mechanical disadvantage in the action of the biceps, yet there is a corresponding increase in The lower jaw also furnishes us velocity.

AvJ
;

Fig. IS.

the weight w is suspended from the F end of the long arm and the power, p, is placed between them.
;

52.

T.

Is
?

this

form of lever advanta-

geous or not
P.
velocity
;

is gained in advantageous for some purposes, because a small power will cause the long arm of the lever to move
is

What

lost in
it

power

therefore

is

1?

Fiy. 15.

over a great space.
53.
T.
is

How
lost

is it

that you

tell

me
;

that

kind of lever and then say, that a small power will cause the long arm to move with greater velocity ? I spoke comparatively, because we P. know that a grr-ater power must be actually required than would be the case if the power was applied directly to the weight and therefore this kind of lever is not used

power

in

this

with an excellent example of the force exerted by muscular action, which, at times, cannot be less than three hundred pounds in man, and even more in large animals. riif. 15 shows the arrangement of this kind A represents the masseter muscle, of lever
;

bones of the forearm

;

Fig. 14. a, the humerux, or arm-hone; ft, <?, d, the muscle which bends the forearm, called biceps flexor cubiti, and is inscried at e into the posterior part of the tubercle of the rodius c ; and/, the weight.
;

*

Leeson V.j

which chiefly c.mses

this force,

and

is at-

tached to the lower jaw, B, at P. The fulcrum. F, is formed by the condylt or end of the bone, which rests against the temporal bone, T, while the weight or resistance is at w.
55.
T.

:.VL
1.

QUESTIONS ON LKSSON

IV.

Give an explanation of the decomposition of the forces acting upon a levrr. !>j

Give

me some

examples of

levers of the third class. pair of shears, such as ar for shearing sheep, and a pair of tongs,

compound
P.

A
is,

.:.les.

action

the

same
r

;

and here

In both enis a diagram

means of the theory of the parallelogram of forces, and explain how equilibrium is maintained. \plain the meaning of the static moment of the force of a lever. Define a lever of the second kind. 4. Give spme examples of levers of the
.'}.

second
.'>.

class.

F

What do you mean by

a one-arm-'d
acts.

lever?
t).

Explain how a one-armed lever

in

of a pair of tongs which will illustrate
i'

this.

P. the parts

where we

Define a lever of the third kind. 8. Is there any advantage to l.e gained iiNing levers of the third class? 9. Give some examples of third-class
7.

lay hold of the tongs, represents the power; and the coJ, W, is the weight or resistance.

levers.
10.

Are

levers of the third class single
?

or

compound

LESSON
IF

V.

we
10

\vi>h to

have a very long lever, or one possessing great mechanic il power, it is arrange a series of levers, so that the power acting on the end of the first lever

hall raise the second,

and

that,

depressing the end of the third, will raise a weight at
tli.v
j>

the further

example, suppose
the

means of one pound, the distance of

.u, r

loot) pounds by from the fulcrum must he 1000 times

e levers for that of the weight, and as this would be very incoir. the purpose of obtaining the same result. The relative length of the a lever it a* ten to dne ; and if we see that the levers are so /'/'#. 17, we shall

arranged, as to bear upon one another.

'1

liu.>,

the power of one

pound w,K balance the

r

-tr

,\
weigh'

md;
ige as the

and as the weight end of the first lev econd lever, it Mill exercine a force of ten pounds upon
f

it.

Tiic

K raised with a
first,

v

with a force rqtul to loo pounds.
:

This force of 100 pound*, being applied >S and raise

tiie ui-j;ii:

;.

1

ith

a force of 1000 pounds.

MECHANICS.
In calculating the action of any compound system of
levers,
it

[Lesson V.
does not affect the

principles of calculation if some of the levers are of the first kind, and some of any other. The rule is, to " multiply the weight on any lever by its distance from the fulcrum, and multiply the power by its distance from the same point if the
;

products

are equal, then the weight and power will balance each other." If we wish to calculate the effect of the system given in Fig. 17, we must multiply the length of the long arm by the power, and multiply the short arm by the weight or resistance offered.

QUESTIONS.
is a compound lever ? a lever composed of several simple levers connected together, so as to act one upon the other.
ttb.

T.

What

P.

If the centre of gravity of the lever

P.

It

is

be in the vertical line through the axis, its weight will only increase the pressure on the axis by its own amount, without

can the force of a comlever be regulated ? P. Very easily because, as each lever acts with a power equal to the pressure on
57.
T.

How

causing any other
61.
T.

effect.

pound

;

Suppose that the centre of gravity of the lever be on the same side of the axis as the weight, what will be the
effect

it of the next lever between it and the power, the force may be increased or decreased by the kind of levers employed,

then?
It
;

P.

will

oppose the

effect

of the

and their number.

How can you determine the 58. T. advantages of a compound lever formed of
any number of levers ? P. We must, first of all, call the arms of the various levers next to the power, arms of power ; and those next to the
weight, arms of weight; then we shall have Now, if the length of prepared the way. the arms of power and the power itself be
successively multiplied together, obtain a product equal to the continued product of the arms of weight and the weight, when the power and weight are in

power and, therefore, a certain amount of power must be allowed for its support. 62. T. How can this amount of power
be estimated
P.
?

By common you find the moment
lever collected
at its

calculation. First, of the weight of the

centre of gravity,

done by multiplying that weight by the distance from the centre of gravity to the fulcrum therefore, we know that
is
;

which

the

moment

of that part
it,

of the

power

we

shall

equilibrium.
59.
T.

What do you mean by
?

the

power of a machine

because it must be Now we have only to find equal to it. out how much of the power, multiplied by double the distance from its centre of gravity to the fulcrum, will be equal to the weight of the lever multiplied by the distance from the fulcrum to the centre of

which supports

P. It is the number which represents the proportion of the weight to the equiliThus, if brating power of any machine. one pound sustains a weight of six pounds, the power of the machine is six. Again, if a power of three pounds supports a weight of eighteen pounds, the power of the machine is six, because 3 is contained in 18 only six times.
60. T. There is one important thing that we should consider in all our experi-

gravity.
63.
T.

Suppose that the centre of gra-

be at a different side of the axis from the weight, what will be the
vity of the lever
effect

then

?

P.
the

The weight of

the lever will assist

power

in sustaining the weight.

How can you determine the 64. T. amount of the weight thus sustained ? Find out how much of the weight, P.
multiplied by the distance from the weight to the weight of the lever multiplied by the distance from the centre of gravity to the fulcrum.
to the fulcrum, is equal

ments with respect
of the lever
itself.

to the lever

the weight

Can you

tell
its

me

if this

makes any great

difference in

effect?

Lesson VI.]

MEGHAN
3.

81

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON V. 1. How should we act when a lever is
required to possess very great mechanical

What

is

a

compound

lever?

power
_'.

?
is

4. Is the power of a compound lever capable of being increased or diminished? 5. Explain what is meant by the power of a machine.

Hew

the action of a system of
?

levers calculated

6. State how the variation in the centre of gravity of a lever affects its action.

LESSON
THERE
is

VI.
it*

cannot be a doubt that science

is

vastly indebted to the lever, but yet

use

limited,

and

its

action

intermitting;

and,

therefore,

we must look

for

further

mechanical assistance, and, fortunately, we have not

much

trouble in obtaining it

that Ferguson tried many experiments with levers ; and then he thought that, by pulling round a wheel, the weight might be raised to any height by tying a rope to the weight, and winding the rope round the axle of the wheel and, when he
;

You remember

tried the effect of his theory,

he found that

it

was correct.

GRANDFATHI.K WHITKJIEAD

wishes his pupils to imitate Ferguson, and make some machines for themselves, and Ferguson tells us try the mechanical experiments he is going to perform for them.
that,

and a

by means of a turning-lathe which his f.ither had, and sometimes used, little knife, he was enabled to make wheels, and other things nee
It is not every

for his purpose.

lathe; but they

may

one that can avail themselves of a turningget some old cotton reels, and, by sawing off the two ends
(as in the annexed diagram,) very tolerable wheels and by means of them, a few pieces of boar.: a knife, and a saw, many excellent temporary blockt
is

and glueing them together
for pulleys

may be made

;

stout wire, a pair of pliers,

may be
a bucket up a
.'

constructed.

In the frontispiece
is

an illustration of a
axle,
<

man drawing
although the
Ciitt

well.

The

principle

the

same as the wheel and

i>

only one of the

many

varieties of this

mechanical appli.uu

so

many important

advantages.

QUESTIONS.
P.
lever,

and axle ? A more complicated form of thft contiting of a wheel or large flat
T.
is

What

the wheel

it

has sometimes been called
lever,"

"the perpetual

and

son

T, with

a smaller cylinder passing

through
t

its

centre,

which has received the

axle.

68. T. Did you not tell me that moved upon or about a fulcrum, or

a lever a fixed

axis?
/'.

66. T.

Is the wheel fixed to the axle,
is

P.

The wheel
that both

sometimes

fixed to
r

its

about
r

show

I have given you to prove that it nrnim upon or fulcrum and shall now be able to that it moves about a fixed axis
;

Yes; and

the same centre, a its axle ; but wr

i

1.

tin-

ver received

i

31.

Take

a

any other name

?

of wood, bore a hole in

its

centre (a), and

82
insert a piece of wire into the hole.

MECHANICS.
If

[Lesson VI.

you

push one end down

your right (/;) with hand, taking care to hold the wire fast with the other, you will cause the opposite end Now, (c) to be raised, and vice versa.
this
is

phery of the wheel has another rope coiled round it, in a contrary direction, with the

power suspended
74.

to

it.

[See

/'/>.

1,

and

description in foot note.]
T.

just the
acts.

principle

on which the

What

is

the

fulcrum of the
is

wheel and axle?
P.

The

69.

T.

How

can a wheel act like the

common
75.

centre of the axle, which to the whole machine.

straight piece of

wood?

have only to call the parts P. by other names, and you will immediately Let us call the wire at see that it is so. a the fulcrum, or fixed axis, and b c the arms of the lever we shall now have two arms, spokes, or radii of a wheel, and we have only to multiply or increase the number, and we shall then increase the leverage, as in the case of the wheel by
;

We

T. How does the machine act ? P. When the wheel revolves, of course the axle does the same and as the rope is fixed to the axle, with the weight hanging
;

at its end, it is wound so raises the weight.

round the

axle,

and

which
70.

a vessel is steered.
T.

What do you mean by
?

the peri-

phery of a wheel
P.

It is the circumference or

rim

;

the

name being
peri
(irfpi)

derived from two
;

Greek words,
I carry.

about

and fero

(<j>fpo)

How can you balance this ma76. T. chine, or produce an equilibrium ? P. By proportioning the two powers to the diameter of the wheel and the axle, so that the one power or weight may be made to balance the other power or weight. Suppose that the machine is made to move rapidly, it will then be found that the velocity of the power will be to that of the weight as the circumference of the wheel
that of the axle; because it is quite clear that the power must sink through a space equal to the circumterence of the wheel, before it can raise the weight
is to

71. T. of a wheel

What do you mean by
?

the radii

P. They are the spokes or arms, which radiate from a centre therefore that part
;

of a wheel which is situated between the centre and the circumference is said to be a radius. If we draw a line directly through the circle or circumference of a wheel, so as to touch both its sides, it is called the diameter, which is nothing more than two radii or semi-diameters joined together in the same line of direction. All the radii or spokes of a wheel are kept together in the centre by a cylindrical piece of wood, which serves as the common fulcrum for all the wheel, and at the circumference by the rim.
72.
T.

through a space equal to the circumference
of the axle. Now that we know this much, we have next to find the momentum, which is done by multiplying its velocity and

weight together.
that if the

number

It is therefore evident, of inches of the circuit

of the wheel, multiplied by the number of in the power, produce a sum equal to the product of the measure of the axle multiplied by the number of pounds in the weight, the machine will remain in a state

pounds

of equilibrium.

Have
?

all

wheels their axes in

What does the 77. T. wheel depend upon ?

effect

of

the

the centre

P. No, some have not, and are called eccentric wheels but we must leave the consideration of them for another time.
,

The superiority of the radius, or P. diameter of the wheel to that of the axle. In 7-V/r. 20, we observe that the weight (T)
corresponds to the counteracting force (P) in an inverse ratio to the arms of the lever; that is, inversely to the radii (A B, and r> c) Let us suppose that the of the wheel. radius (A B) of the axle, is lour times less than the radius (D c) of the wheel, we may
equipoise a weight of eighty pounds by a force of twenty pounds.
78.

73.

T.

What

is

the usual arrangement

of a wheel and axle ? P. The wheel is fixed to an axle or spindle, which revolves horizontally on
its

two ends, which are supported

in

some

manner (usually by upright

pieces of wood), and around this axle is coiled the rope, which sustains the weight, while the peri-

T.

Give

me some examples

of the

-VI.]

MECHANICS.
.le.

S3

application of the principle of the
::st'in
is.

perhaps, the most

udUss

^ and only differs from in having its revolving axis

power has to descend through a proportionably greater space, in order to rai-e the through the same space in the same amount of time.
82.
T.

Can you

tell

me how

the very

inconvenience of having a large wheel on a very slender axle may be avoided, without diminishing the mechanical adgreat

vantage? P. Yes ; by employing a machine, which is called the Chinese wheel and axle, because it was introduced into this country It consists of two cylinders, from China.

Ftg.M.

placed vertically. The circumference is pierced with holes, which receive long

by which it is worked by men, who walk round the capstan, and make it revolve by pressing the ends of the levers
levers,

forward

"l-mill IB another variety. In this case the weight of several people on the circumference of a long
.

Fif.

JU

paddleon the sam'- printhe water, which offers a res to the motion of the paddle-boardf a tteam-boat arts

-

it

to revolve.

The

power.
>

>e

it

that these

machines
;

not sometimes happen will stop for a short
to recoil
?

order to previ nt the rrcoil, it is UMI.I! to have a wheel, whffl. fixed to the axle to as to allow it to turn in one ciir prevent it going back, x a catch placed at the aide, which falls into the space between the teeth, and prevents the
hut. in

Ye

one larger than the other, turning about the \is. The weight is attached to a pulley, which plays on a long cord, which is coiled round both axles in contrary ciirecti 'lie winch is turned, one end of the eord uncoils from the smaller and is wound round tlv cylinder, thus the weight is <-le\ turn, through a space equal to half of the difference between file circumt'errnrr of the
! ; :

.

witli its ]n.

c ratio

half

its

excess above that of the lesser one.

\L
'

QUEST
>

we make a wheel larger in circumference, what will be the effect? It will lengthen the long arm of the lever, consequently we shni
7*.

If

1

ihriraxles?

is

the

machine been son
axle re-

weight
axle.
/'.

pluin

how a wheel and
'i*rr

If ihi

bo the case, do
itn ?

we not
as
7.

of a wheel'

/*.-

a a

little

.ve all

wheel* central
the fulor.

Advantage
but then we
lose
it

i

Where
!

is

again, because

the

placed

MECHANICS.
8.

VII.
is

How

is

equilibrium maintained with
equili-

10.

How
1

the effect of this machine

this

machine ? Give the rule for finding the brium of this machine.
9.

governed
11.

Do we

gain or lose by increasing
t

the size of a wheel

LESSON
BEFORE we can understand
if

VII.
it

the pulley,

we must consider what
it

consists

of.

Now,

we examine

a pulley attentively,

we
;

shall see that

is

and

axle, with the multiplied cord

so that, in fact,

it is

nothing more than a wheel a compound machine. It is
really
is,

therefore evident, that

we must understand what the multiplied cord

before

we can consider

of action of the pulley. The multiplied cord has sometimes been called the funicular machine, or rope machine, the term being derived from the Latin word funis, a rope. You observe that I rest the ends of this rope upon the backs of two chairs.
so,

the uses and

mode

[Experiment

4.]

It is not in a straight line,
it,

and

will not

be

whatever force

may

be employed in stretching

because

its

own weight

will

prevent it. Suppose that I hang a pound weight in the centre of the rope [performs the Experiment], the chairs, which are the resisting points, are dragged towards each other thus proving, that a very small force, if properly applied, will be sufficient to
;

overcome a great resistance
bracing their
sails.

We know

a practical fact that seamen avail themselves of when that ropes are not perfectly flexible, and that, as their
;

if they were flexible, we should be strength increases, their rigidity is in proportion able to dispense with the assistance of the pulley in many instances. For example, if we could bend a rope over a sharp edge (F), as in Fig. 22, and the rope could be moved without friction, we should be enabled

to transmit a force in

any one direction, overcome resistance,

The force P 0, could or impart motion in another direction. be transmitted to T W, so as to support or overcome the resistance

(W)
to

;

or,

a motion in

the direction

of

O P

could be

made

Fig.

22,

But, as not perfectly flexible, the angle sharp, and friction and, exists, the force employed would cause the cord to snap therefore, we find it is necessary to employ a curved surface for
the cord
is
;

produce another motion in the direction

W T.

If the weight is only to be sustained, then a simple curved the cord to pass over. surface will answer the purpose but if the cord has to move over the curved surface, it will be subject to friction, and corresponding wear; therefore, it has been found more advisable to cause the surface on which the rope runs to move with it, which is the
;

case in the

common

pulley.

QUESTIONS.
83.
T.

P.

wheel grooved turning upon an axis or pivot, passing its through its centre at right angles with in a case plane, the whole being enclosed The ropes and cords are called a block.

a pulley 1 It consists of a round thin disc or at its edges, called a sheave,
is

What

called
it is

machine
84.

; and, when the whole complete, and in working order, called a block and tackle.

a

tackle

is

T.

P.

How are pulleys divided Into fixed and movable.
What
are fixed pulleys
1

1

85. J.

Lesson VII
P.

]

ilANICS.
!

Th'-y are pulleys fixed to some place, such as a beam. The object of the fixed pulley is not to gain power, but to afford a mure convenient mode of raisinga weight;

forces
in

I

meeting at f, which could only be equilibrium if their resultant were so. If the two forces meeting in/, and acting in the directions/ 6 and/e are equal, their

requires the same amount of resultant will bisect, or cut into two, the power to raise the weight as the amount of angle bfe, and will then pass through the the effect the weight itself, it is evident that it does fixed central point c on the axis not possess any mechanical advantage. of which will be a state of equilibrium, but if one of the forces (f b) is greater than the ii-n in frontispiece raising a cask other (ft), then the resultant will not pass with two fixed pulleys.] through the axis, and equilibrium cannot What are movable pulleys? 86. T. be maintained. /'. Th< y are of the same form as the How can you estimate the pres89. T. fixed pulleys, but instead of being fixed or stationary, they sustain the weight, and sure which the axis of the pulley has to are suspended by means of the cord that It is evident from what we P. f Easily. .hangs under them. In 23 we have a re- have learned before, that the pressure to A presentation of a fixed be sustained is equal to the resultant of the

and

as

it

;

:

(A)

ard

a

movable

C reprepulley (B). sents a hook inserted
into a

beam, and supporting one end of! a cord, which passes
under B, the movable pulley, and proceeding

M. upwards, passes over the fixed pulley A -ends to P, is the power, acting against the ce or weigi
s the use of the fixed pulley in the machine you have des> o change the direction of the power.
1

88.
in a pi

T.

How

is

equilibrium maintained

But if the directions of the forces. forces be parallel, as in f'/> 2*>. the pressure upon the axis um of forces (p and w), and the weight of tlupulley. [See Catechism I. Fig. 20.]
two
/'. How i* a movable pulley maintained in equilibrium ? P. By the lorers which siends of the cord being equal to one

nay be explained by looking
which represents a
(c)

pulley
or
line

moving round
d

axis
tlie

pivot,

and

forces

acting in tli< tions a b and d
If

pUB
\

t.

we could prothese
lines,

and causing their resultant to r, through the central point The action of this resultant is not stopped hut because owing to the axis
i

I

a

third
to

power
it.

in

tlie

axis, in the
is

long

he resultant, which

they would n the point/ and u it therefore evident
that
1

equal

and opposed
91.
T.
in'

What

is

the third

power you

if

/

were
.

a

have

*

y,

we

usually attached to a hook fastened

from a

T.

What advantage

H<

and

it

to

/,

without

alter

any

*.._-.

we

hould have

two

able po**?* It halve* the weight. P.

ey

T

MECHANICS.
93.
T.

How

is

this

accomplished?

The weight (W) hangs in the cord, and drags down each side of it equally so that it has the same strain upon it at C as at P, consequently the
P.
.

weight (W) is divided between the two ends of the cords which is the same as
;

that if the weight (W) is forty pounds, the end C of the cord sustains twenty pounds, and the end P the other

saying,

twenty pounds.
94.
T.

What

is

the

principle

upon
distri ~
*

which pulleys act?
i
',
.
,

..

. ^

jiL..guftjm

p -~ By
*

i

*

1

1

i

*

Lesion. VIII.]
:

MKCHANICS.
3.

87
is

with diameters as the even numb. \ block. The cord ., tor the upper grooves, as

What

a pulK-y

?

and
-.m.,

is

thrown

oil"

Describe the difference between fixed and movable pull How can you maintain equilibrium
4.
."..

manner

as if every groove

was

a separate revolving wheel.

in a pulley 6. Does

?

the

movable pulley possess

1IONS
1.

ON LESSON
machine
?

V!I.

any advantage over the fixed pulley I 7. How do pulleys act? 8. How can pulleys be increased in

What
A

is

the funicular

power
y.

?

hy have pulleys round shea.

What

is

White's pulley?"

I.KSSON VIII
THF. inclined plane
familiar.
is

the

most simple of
often

all

machines, and perhaps the most

present instances of the application of this and useful purposes. In applying this machine, it is generally principle to practical ^ed to be fixed, and the weight or load to be the movable body ; but, sometimes,

Roads and

railroads

it is

necessary to

move

the inclined plane whiie the body or load

is

partially fixed.

QUESTIONS.
100.
T.

What

is

generally understood

T.

How

is

the advantage gained

by the term, an
.

inclined plane ? unifies a plane surface,

by
per-

this

machine estimated?

P.

Hy subtracting

and unyielding, inclined in such a manner, that it forms some angle iutal plane, but not a right
angle.
T.

the perpendicular :rom the length of the plane, and or excess of length, show* the ,.uct,

What do you mean by
i.

a plane

and forming an
will

angle with a horizontal plane.
explain
I'.
I

.-my.

A

the tents plane, or a surfai

advantage gained.
.nclined
<>ne

Suppose the height,
pi..

;i!ed in

loot,

and
four

the
tret
;

hit-lined

A
/,,
r,.

I)

11

is

n right

he

thm

a

W)
line

t.|

four

pounds placed on the
y a weight
at the

A B;
nl
.<

AC
.with
re,

pound
end
the
ot

(!')

plane, or

hanging over a pulley
:it

tli.it

an acute

I'oursh

of the

power p-ipmed through the space
iiiflnii
.I

to

raise

Olea

B

C.
t

it

up the

plane

III all

eases win
ist

the object of the inclined To raise weights to great n. P.
i

uing
KIK
<1

be made

|

/

n,..

.

plane afford us
;,

murh
.

/'

I

h as raimn.
;

the ap;

"eight.

loads to considerable heights

but

I

MECHANICS.
other machines, what
lost in
is

[Lesson IX.

gained in power,

is

time or velocity.

What have we to overcome in 105. T. drawing a body up an inclined plane? P. Friction, and the gravity of the body, which always tends to make it occupy the
lowest level.

of wheeling barrows to heights, or rolling ladders hogsheads to or from heights placed against houses or walls flights of stairs ; some kinds of printing-presses ; the shovel, and many other things are familiar enough to most of us.
; ;

What do you mean by the gra106. T. dient of an inclined plane ? P. It is the proportion of the height to its length, and therefore the gradient may be said to be 1 in 100, or 1 in 50, as the case may be.
107.
P.
T.

Are not roads over hilly counconstructed on the principle of the inclined plane ? P. Yes and when a road has to be made to the top of a hill, it is usual to
109. T.
tries
;

make

W hat
r 1

do

you mean by the
50
?

gradient being

in 100, or 1 in

It signifies, that the road rises 1 foot in height, for every 100 or 50 of its length, and therefore the additional load to be impelled up the inclined plane, will be the one-hundredth or fiftieth part of the

wind round the hill, or ascend in a zigzag line. Carters usually their carts describe a zigzag line of direction when ascending steep roads, because it saves their horses expending too much power.
it

either

make

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

VIII.
?

weight

to

be impelled.

Are inclined planes always

fixed

2.

108. T. Can you give me some familiar examples of the use of the inclined plane ?

3.

Describe an inclined plane. Are inclined planes advantageous or

not?
4. Why do we use inclined planes ? 5. In using the inclined plane, what have we to overcome ? 6. Give some familiar examples of the

P. Yes the common chisel is an inclined plane, and the wood to be cut is the resistance or power to be overcome. Hatchets act in the same manner planks placed in various positions for the purpose
; ;

inclined plane.

LESSON
IN our
last lesson

IX.

regard it considered the inclined plane as a fixed body, the load or weight was movable but in the present case we shall find that the load or resistance is fixed, and the inclined plane movable. In Fig. 31 you will see that we
;

inclined plane as a fixed body; we have now to in the condition of a movable body, or movable inclined When we plane.

we considered the

have an inclined plane (i, p), with a heavy weight (w) resting upon its small end (B). This will illustrate the double capacity of

ment

For example, [Experithe weight up the inclined plane by means of a cord, which is represented by the dotted line, we raise the
the inclined plane.
5,]
if

we

drag

[Experiment 6.] We will now reverse weight from the level of B, c, to the height A. the thing, and move the inclined plane by pushing it under the weight, and you now see we have moved the inclined plane through the space c, B, and the weight has been
In the former experiment raised through the height c, A. in the latter experiment it acts as a wedge.
it

acts as an inclined plane

;

Lesaon IX.]

MECHANICS.
riONs.

89

110.

P
(brin,

wedge? It is a simple machine of a triangular consisting of a solid mass of iron, v _ wood, or some other hard
is

T.~- What

the

and is generally described as being com/material, two inclined posed of planes, united at their bases, or placed back to
\

inclined building to a perpendicular posiIt is the principal agent in the oilmill ; the seeds from which the oil is to be extracted are placed between pieces of hard wood, and wedges are inserted between the bags, by allowing heavy beams to fall on them. The key-stone of an arch is a
tion.

back,
w.

as

Fig. 32, B A being line of union of their bases.
111.
/'.

nt

represented

in

wedge planes, knives, razors, nails, pins, needles, awls, and most cutting and piercing instruments are wedges. most useful
;

A

the

Is the
?
;

wedge always sloped on

both sides
P.
side,

No it is sometimes flat on one and sloped or inclined on the other,
A
/'.

as B,
P.

31.

112.

WUi
is

is

the use of the

wedge

?

generally employed to divide solid bodies, the edge A (fig. 32) being driven against - - -- t!iem b y lorce 1^"*)
It

m

5 tffr^K'

:ii>plied

to
/

the

^J B^LPl L^

V.I
\

T\

I

\

1

,1

33 represents a wedge enterin.r
a piece of wood,

!

application of the wedge, is that of fastening large timbers together by means of a wedgeshaped mortice. 115. T. How can we calculate the of the wedge ? P. cannot do so satisfactorily, because the exact force applied will depend upon the numbet of blows, and the resistance opposed by the sides ; but we may lay it down as a rule, that in proportion as the angle is greater, so must be the power to overcome the resistance, which increase* with the inclination, the same as in the inclined plane. Therefore, a long thin wedge has a greater power than a short thick one, because it does not require so great a force to be applied.

We

llii.

7\

How

is

it

when

a

wedge

is

L
H0.Mp.

blows, you observe 1 1: en into the substance of the wood, so as to cause it to

driven into a block of wood, that K generally forced out again by the wood ? P. Because the friction, which is very
great, acts upon the wedge in th< r that a ratchet wheel does upon the

wheel and axle.
nails

It is to this
;

principle that

34.
act, so as

does the wedge to divide the wood thus ?

r

their efficacy for, if it were not for the friction which arises between their and the wood into which ti.

owe

How

driven, they would recoil from their places.

When the wedge is urged by re/*. peated blow* to enter the substance of tinthe fibres of the wood ar.- com; wood,
the two sides of
*till
t

:

IONS

ON LESSON

IX.

the difference between and a movable inclined plane f
1.

What
ft

is

A fixed

illy,

as

some
are

illustrations of both,
its vat

a ted, the

p<

furthrr

space that at
.

firtt

MOW
i

Mi- point A, is ol eparatr, no a* to allow D c to enter
11
\.

wedge and wedges used ?
the

>

what may
ve

it.

some

their action beasn familiar examples of the

I

Isthewedjj.
solid bodies
?

useful applicntinn of the wedge.
7.

Is

it

possible to estimate the power

/'.-

the docks, wedges being
keels.
It

has been

used to restore an

hy arc not wedges forced out of the substances into which they arc dl

90

MECHANICS.

[Lesson X.

LESSON
WHEN
an inclined plane
is

X.

coiled

round a cylinder, we have a machine which has

name of the screw. The screw consists of two parts, a solid cylinder with the inclined plane coiled round it, called the male screw, and a hollow cylinder with an inclined plane coiled round the inside (so as to receive the former one), called & female The male screw consists of a projecting ridge winding tcrew.
received the

round the cylinder, which
is

is

termed the thread of

the

.-irreic.

and

said

screw,

to be spiral, but is really helical, being like a corkwhich is the helical thread of the screw without the

cylinder.
line

The

difference between a spiral line

and a

helical

be seen by the annexed diagrams, Fig. 35 representing the helical, and Fig. 36 the spiral line. The hollow screw has a helical thread winding within it,

may

Fig. 35.

Fig. 36.

the solid screw.

while the other

is

between the turns of the thread of corresponding to the spaces of this arrangement, either screw may be made to revolve amount of pressure may be produced. kept steady and, therefore, any

By means

;

QUESTIONS.
What is the screw ? 117. T. solid cylinder with a projecting P.

A

ridge, winding round in the form of an in-

it

into seven equal parts (a, b, c, d, e,f, B) ; if we draw lines from the perpendicular line A B, each equal to the circumference

clined plane, ridge or thread may present a thin sharp edge as in Fig. 37, or a square

which

J

edge,

as

in

Fig.

without
principle
Fif.37.

affecting of the

38, the

d

"'~

of the base, in a plane with the hori/on and paA rallel to each otner then -L join A g and a h,
c
*'

>

b

i,

c k,

d

I,

e

ma-

c hine.

Will you illustrate how the inclined plane, being coiled round a cylinder, forms a screw ?
118.
T.

m, we shall form as many inclined planes as there
are
line
if

parts

in

the

A

B.

Now,

A A

P. cut a piece of paper of Certainly the same shape as I p, in Fig. 31, and let the line B C be eighteen inches Jong, and C six inches high, then black the edge B. Wind this paper found a ruler, C, and when it commencing at the part is all coiled round the ruler, you will observe a black line like the thread of a screw.
;

A

roll these planes round the cylinso that the point g shall meet the point a, h with b, i with c, and so on, the longest lines of the inclined planes (A g, a h, b i, &c.) will form a continued helical line upon the cylinder, the same as the thread of a screw. 120. T. Why is the thread of the screw called a helical line ? P. The name is derived from the Greek

we

der,

screw

119. T. It appears, then, that the is like a series of inclined planes Can you coiled round a cylindrical axis.

word

elix ("e\t|), a whorl ; therefore, signifies winding. this line is termed a helix,

and

helical,

One

turn of

explain this ? If we examine Fig. 39, P.
that

turns, or

more than

and several No two one, helices.

we observe

points of a helix are in the

same plane.

A B c D represents a cylinder divided

[See Fig. 35.]

1:21.

from
the
!:

i!.

line, is

the cylinder only leave the helical there any mechanical advantage in
T.

If

we remove
::tl

l'2o.

T.
?

How

is

the

t>

fleet of th<

estimated

P.
:

Yes, the
i:

it

is

still

a screw, as in the
i

common

corkscrew (Fig. 35);

P. By the proportion between the space described by the power, and the space between any two of its threads, in one revolution of the screw. Therefore, the
effect

ami when
.in

inclined plane
;

helical

into a substance, 1st, by the point line being smaller than the
it

power applied to a long lever inert u of the machine, and hence it follows

that, in order to increase the

power of the

upper p

trt

'Jnd,

as
:.t

by the line assuming a ascends; 3rd, by the
il

machine, we must lengthen the lever, and decrease the distance between the threads
of the screw.
I'Jti.

of the thread

does the screw act ? the solid screw is inserted into the hollow screw, and is made to act .ly to raise a weight? it will be found that when the weight has been r.t one turn of the screw over one thread, or to i-, in /'>. .39, that it has really
/'

How

T.

Is there

no other way of

in-

power of this machine, because it frequently happens that it is inconvenient to have a very long lever, and if the threads of the screw are too thin,
creasing
the

ropellcd up the inclined plane me; i of the screw, independent of friction, will be as the length of the plane (m e\ is to the height For example, if / e is a quarter of (ft).

they are liable to break. There is a compound screw, invented P. by John Hunter, the great anatomist, which enables us to increase the efficacy of the machine, without diminishing its

an inc.. three inches. then a power equal to one pound, the screw, would balance a weight of by twelve pounds suspended from the nut,
.

T. Can the screw be applied so as to act by itself? i: is never used alone, but the /' -N in always applied by means of a power or passing through. the head of the screw [see Fig. 41], on t icrew i
.
.

i

40 J.
This i?, accomplished pi<>>ing a large screw (a), which turns in a hollow screw placed in the beam (b). The ;y of the large screw contain* a hollow scn-w, which is a smaller screw (r). and, therefore, while the larger screw passes forward, the smaller drawn back, and as both screws revolve together, each time .1 in\

takes

place,

the
a

beam

rough
of the distats
l-Vf.
.

sp.ve

r.,1!

(t) is prettied .1 to
:

:he thread:"

T.

If a

v

the thread* of the upprr xrrcw are |th of
?

an

pfcot of wood, does it not act alone, On M P. od oorre*! screw, and the screw

r screw inch apart, ami the. J^th of an inch, th-n the *anM effect v

d

JIH

if

th'

he threads of which were only

^lh

MECHANICS.
because ^, multiplied by of an inch apart to -fo the difference between j^, are equal the distances of the threads of John Hunter's compound screw.
;

[

Lesson X.

placed where the end walls formerly stood, and the cradles (5), which are brains with
a projection corresponding to the groove in the ways, are placed on them, both being Large beams (!) previously well greased. are placed over the cradles, between them

127.

T.

Is there

and the beams (2) which support the ends the screw? of the house, and wedges driven in to Yes by having a screw with two, P. render the whole tight and secure, which three, or more threads, instead of one. is also effected by additional blocks (7). Suppose that we had a screw with a very The screws are now removed, and being broad thread say, for example, one inch are made to act together and that we wished to increase its velo- placed horizontally, the cradles, and move them along three threads against city, we have only to form the ways, at the rate of about four feet a in each, each one a quarter of an inch to the place the house is to occupy. day, in width, with a space the one-eighth of Then, by inverting the operations, the an inch between them, and the thing is beams are removed, and the house firmly This is a fact, and as the accomplished. fixed, without sustaining any injury, and thing is applied to printing-presses, any often without even moving as much as a curious person may see it for himself. chair from the house.
;

we can combine

velocity with

any method by which power in

128.

T.

Are

not

houses

sometimes

129. T.

What

is

the principle of the

moved by means
P.

but

is

of the screw ? Yes. It has been done in England, The chiefly practised in America.

screw applied to ? Various purposes. P.

Among

others,

annexed diagram

will

we may enumerate the cider-mill, oil-null, common printing-press, napkin -press,
bookbinder's press (see Fig. 40), patent cork-screw, vice, clamp, augers, gimlets, and many similar machines, which owe their efficacy to the principle of the sen \\. Common screws combine the principle of the wedge with that of the screw, for they are smaller at the point than at the lever There is another form which must end. the endless screw. also be mentioned This is a solid screw, revolving on fixed the thread of which is adapted to axes, teeth on the circumference of a wheel.

explain the method. The building to be

moved
ings are

must

be

a

detached one. Open-

made

in the

end
the

walls, just

above
large
insert
fifteen

ground,
to

enough

beams, about

inches square, across the building (1) the end of each beam is supported on blocks of wood, fixed into the ground, and clear of the walls, and each
;

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

X.

beam

and tight by driving wedges between the beams and the upright

When this has been done, the block. foundation is cleared away, and a clear Then other beams (2) are space left. placed under the first, and resting like them on blocks of wood, and by this means the front and back walls are supported,
v>

Describe the difference between a male and female screw. 2. Describe the difference between a spiral and a helical line. 3. Define a screw. the difference between a 4. Describe screw with a triangular thread, and one
with a parallelogram. 5. How is the inclined plane referable to the screw ? 6. What is the helical line, and what is the term derived from ? 7. How can you estimate the effect of a screw ? 8. Can the power of the screw be increased ?

and now the whole foundation is exposed. The screws (3) are placed under the ends are forced of the second beams ('2), whic upwards by their means, and the weight of the whole building sustained by them. The ground underneath being all removed, set of grooved-ways, or beams (6), are

Lessor

MECHANICS.

LESSON XL
have now duly considered the leading elements of Mechanics, and even some of the compound machines formed by uniting together two of the mechanic powers, as the lever and screw, and the lever with the wheel and axle. We have also examined the
;>roduced by combining some of the simple machines with each other, and thus producing systems of their own, as with levers or pulleys. In combining bo produce mechanical effects, we have certain laws to guide us, and certain objects to One thing we must ever bear in mind, that the fewer parts there are in a machine, and the more simple its construction, the better.

WE

QUKSTIONS.
ISO. T. When we undertake to conitruct a machine, what are the chief objects

portion to the diagonal section of the body, so is its absolute strength.
136.
r.

we have to consider? are four. 1st The strength or durability of the materials 2nd. The of the parts of the machine arrangement in as simple a m.inner as possible 3rd. The correct adaptation or fitting of one and, 4th. Ease, regularity, part to another and unifor ion.
; ;

What

is

the relative strength of

a

body?
<

;

P. The force which it opposes to the process of breaking. In this is applied at right angles to the direction its long axis, while one or both are supported.
<

i'

131

7'.

What
steel,

are machines generally
brass,

constructed of?

/'.Inn.
T.

How is the connexion between 137. T. the particles of a solid body overcome? P. BY breaking, tearing, twisti:
crushing the
hotly.

wood,

or any

durable materials.

Do
:

the materials differ greatly

in their strength ? P. Yes but independent of the durability of the materials ary to pay

You said that the position of 138. T. the materials employed in a maehine affected their stn-ngth. Explain this.
P.
I
in

7.J

You

observe that

employed,

it is

neces-

which they are placed, their form and bulk. 7*. What do you mean by the
:th

have a piece of thin wood, two feet long, my band it is called a lath and when each end rests on a block of wood or stone, snow [places the ends of the lath
;

of a body

?
.

stones,]
hi<-h
it

it

will require

twice the
o-

"ie force wit ii

resists

the s< absolute o
|

rs

particles,

and may be

Applied than it will
.

to

its

centre, in if only the

cmlro

is

134.

T.

What
is

is

the abtolute

ttmglh

of a body?
the force by which th> resist* being torn asunder when sir
It

supported, and a weight suspended to each :,t to break end; and four tin if only one n.d is it, than it will firmly fixed or supported, and th to the other. Observe, that when I attach a weight of one pound to its centre, that it

)rngthwy.
apart
;

bends, and
'<

it

this

is

incrra-<

<1

of a piece of India-rubber or when a grvat weight is sm; A r ..d. whirh has the other
:

hy
i

end fixed perpendicularly. T Upon what does the absolute Strength of a body dep>
It*

.ind

>uobhave in rarer, that the l.ith does not uch as hecause the length of th.ic stones is not so great as in the
I
i

it

1

!.

diagonal

tection
th'

;

that
.

is,

a

last

experiment
stance
n

straight

line

drawn
i>po*it

/n to

t*o

angles; and,

i:

the

ends of the lath was

94
feet,

MECHANICS.

[Lesson XII.

the lath being of the same thickness as in the present case, what would be the effect of placing it on the stones without the weight ? It would bend with its own weight. P. As we shorten its length, we increase its strength, because the thicker and shorter a beam is, the stronger it will be and if a beam is twice as broad as another of the same length, it will be twice as strong.
;

arch, therefore the particles, or the concave or hollow part, are more compressed than

on the convex or rounded part consequently the more pressure we apply to the upper or convex part in a perpendicular direction, the greater will be the compres;

sion and resistance to the weight.

does a beam increase in increases in size ? it contains a greater number If we double the of resisting particles. of a beam we render it four times as depth strong, because the number of fibres are
140.
T.

Why
it

strength, when Because P.

does bulk influence the of materials ? P. Because, after a body has attained a certain size, the additional increase of bulk only adds to the weight without increasing its power of endurance, for the weight increases more rapidly than the
143. T.

How

employment

doubled, and the lever

is

increased.

and on this account we are strength obliged to limit the size of our machines, which would not be able to support their
;

You said that the form of 141. T. materials employed required consideration.
Explain
P.
this.

own weight

if

made

too large.

We

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
that

XI.

know

the

arch

is

the
1.

strongest form we can construct, and this we learn from Nature, when we observe
the roof of the skull, eggs, or cylindrical bodies.
142. T.

"What are the desirable objects

in the

How

is

it

that the arch

is

the

construction of a machine ? 2. What materials are machines generally constructed of? 3. Are all materials of uniform strength ? 4. What is meant by the strength of a

strongest form ? Because the particles of which it is P. composed, bear upon each other like a

body, and
5.

how

is it classified

?

How does

position affect the materials
?

used in machines

great

many wedges

pointed towards

the

with their narrow ends hollow part of the

6. What influence has the form and bulk of materials on machines ?

LESSON
A
MACHINE
is

XII.

made up

available for the particular purpose the

which are so connected, as to be rendered machine was designed for and the manner in which one mechanic power acts upon another, may be changed
of

many

parts,

;

(liuuDr?

to suit certain particular purposes. Power may be transmitted ky belts, as in Fig. 43, where it is obvious that the wheel c is

u, which receives its motion from A but, The motion of smaller, the velocity is increased. machinery may be regulated so as to produce a uniform velocity ; or a quick motion may be transformed into a slow motion, or vice versa ; motion may also be made to

turned by the belt B
as
it

;

is

alternate

by means of eccentric wheels, or wheels that have the axis nearer

to

the

circumference than the centre.

QUESTIONS.
are the chief agents in the transmission of power ?

144. T.

What

P.

Tooihed wheels, bevel wheels,

shafts,

and pulleys, which are arranged according to the direction of the motion required to be conveyed. Fig. 44 enables us to understand

LeMon XII.]

MECHANICS.
'

how

the change of direction is effected SeveJ.ed wheels placed at various angles ; and F/V. 45 exhibits another method of changing the direction by means of a

friction,

adopted for subdividing the by making the axle to revolve OK
i

fif. 44.
A
.

two or more wheels, which are therefore termed friction wheels, as in Fig. 46.
l-'il.

heel, which works into an ordinary whose axis is at right angles to its

T.

How may
li

the irregularities of
rvoir of

own.
i< meant by a cog wheel ? wheel with projecting teeth; the term cog being used for all large teeth.
i

machinery be generally reme,.
P.

By

a

power

to

each machine, which will enable the prime mover to give a more equal motion. This

s

a shaft?

long and large axle, attached to some part of a machine, which enables us a great <1
P.
til

A

accomplished by the fly-wheel, which seen attached to mangles, turninglathes, &c.
is
1. VJ. T. Then it appears the power is capable of being accumulated and concenIs this the case? trated. P. We see this in the grocer's Yes. handmill, which has a fly-wheel attache?

shafts are call-

ed spindles.

H7.
1

T.

What
gudgeon

is
?

a pivot or

'ie

end of a
it

shaft, axle, orspindle,

upon which and rests.
148.
r.,.4*.

turns

r

What
?

is

a crown wheel
teeth placed at right angles to its
<

ference (see Fig. 45.)
7*. In not the motion of mat sometimes irregular ? Yr* and it m*y proceed either from P. pal mover.
;

The coining-press
I

(Fig. 47) said to have

-Mire or the load,

or def
force,
.v

proper transmis

example of the
i

effect of

cause the
fric-

.

A man

causing the
i

ncrew to

irregularity of motion i bo prevented ?

;

and how may

ken a
:

good
ml uf

imjirrisinn nf the die
i

upon

tli.

\

Kr
MI;

by whirling the balls
tur.

at

the

in the of a whr-l. whu-h revolves with great and, in order to din. ;

proper acUpt.r ng away, KM

153.

T.

Can

the force of machinery bt

Yes; by employing a

cog-wheel,

96

MECHANICS.
156.
T.
I

[ Lessen

XTL

called the governor wheel, which regulates the velocity of the machine with which it is connected. Thus, in the steam-engine it
in the water-mill upon the valve and in the windmill, upon the shuttle upon the sail-cloth. In the steam-engine

cranks were thought usrd to make alternate motions change into revolving motions. Explain this
that
difficulty.

acts

;

;

it

consists of two heavy balls, A, attached to the ends of two rods,

A

P. Sometimes they are employed for that purpose, and are double, being made

which play upon a point at B, and as they rotate upon C, and separate by the
a ring depressed, which acts by means of a rod upon the valve and closes it, thereby diminand as ishing the speed the balls fall or are at rest, the valve is opened, and the speed again established by supplying more steam.

centrifugal

force,

above

B

is

Fig. 50.

;

two wheels as in Fig. 50, but the same arrangement may be retained, and only one crank used, which is the same as turning the handle of an organ, the piston
to turn

154. P.

T.

What

is

a crank

?

A mechanical

of which into an alternate motion.

contrivance, by means a revolving motion is changed

rod being represented by the hand. as the piston's motion is alternate, or falls and rises, the crank converts that motion into a rotary one, and conveys it to the wheels. observe this in turninglathes and steamers.
or

Now

We

155. T. How is this effected? P. [Experiment 9.] I have a piece of iron wire, which you observe is straight. I will now bend it so as to form a crank
easily understand that while the

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON XII. 1. How is motion transmitted to machinery
2.
?

thus,

and you

will

Can motion be changed
?

in its direc-

tion

B axis (A) revolves, the part Fiy. 49. B, which is out of the same line, will describe a circle (makes it do so by twisting the wire between the finger and
"

3. What is the difference between a crown wheel and a bevelled wheel ?

4.

How may
?

friction be partially

pre?

vented

thumb).
to

Now

if

a piston or rod

is

attached

same

the part B, its motion cannot be the as the axis, but must rise and fall, or

5. Is force susceptible of accumulation 6. What is the governor wheel ? 7. What is the use of a crank ? 8.

be alternate.

Are cranks single

or double

?

IV.-CHEMISTRY,

INTRODUCTORY NAERAT1VE.
LESSON
RATHER more
years
ago,
I.

seventy-three there resided in the old

than

which is corporate town of Penzancc situated on the north-western shore of

Mount's Bay,

in

Cornwall

a carver in

wood, who has left some specimens behind him in the town, to testify that

he was a skilful workman.

On

the

17th December, 1778, his family was increased by the addition of a fine boy,

connected with
Sir

whose name was afterwards intimately Chemistry, and will

ever #race the calendar of

science-

Humphry Davy.

98

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.

[Lesson

I.

Biographers inform us that Humphry Davy received the rudiments of a classical education at a seminary in Truro, and that he was afterwards placed with a surgeon and Instead of paying proper attention to his medical studies, apothecary, at Penzancc.

Davy was always making experiments

in the garret of his master's house, frequently

alarming the whole household by his detonations; or rambling about the con: that his master was obliged to part with him. "When fifteen years of age, he was placed _with Mr. Borlase, another surgeon in Penzance but his mind was too much
;

occupied with other subjects to allow him to follow his medical studies. He laid down an extensive plan of study for himself, which embraced the learned languages, natural

and so philosophy, botany, geometry, anatomy, metaphysics, history, chemistry, &c. great was his application, that in three years he had made considerable proficiency in
;

all

The
we

these branches of learning. fascinating science of Chemistry was peculiarly suited to the taste of Davy, and are informed that he pursued the study of it with the greatest ardour. He was not

furnished with expensive apparatus to enable him to prosecute his investigations, but he managed to convert the phials and gallipots belonging to his master, the pots and pans used in the kitchen, and many other things, to the purposes he required. His first original experiment is said to have been the examination of the air contained
in the bladders of sea-weed, which resulted in his discovering that these plants have the property of purifying the air contained in water, the same as other plants have of

purifying the atmosphere.

Mr. Gregory Watt, the son of the celebrated James Watt, being in delicate health, was advised to try the air of Penzance, and, while lodging with Mrs. Davy, he discovered One day, soon after Mr. Watt the talent of her son, and his devotion to Chemistry. became his mother's lodger, young Davy was leaning on the gate in front of the house,

when Mr.
friends,

Gilbert, afterwards the President of the

Royal Society, passed with some
attached to Chemistry.

one of

whom remarked

that

Davy was much

This

attracted Mr. Gilbert's attention towards Davy, and after some conversation with him, he was so pleased with his talents that he offered him the use of his library, and what-

In 1798 Davy was introduced to the celebrated studies. Dr. Beddoes by Mr. Watt and Mr. Gilbert, and as that physician had just established at Clifton, near Bristol, what he called a Pneumatic Institution, for investigating the
ever he required for his

medical properties of the different gases, he offered Davy, who was scarcely twenty years of age, the superintendence of the institution, which was accepted at once. The following year Dr. Beddoes published a work, called Contributions to Physical and
Medical Knowledge, principally from the West of England, and among them we find some " Heat, Light, and the Combinations of Light," with essays by Humphry Davy on new "Theory of Respiration ;" on the " Generation of Oxygen Gases," and the " (
;i

of the colours of Organic Bodies." His attention was then turned to the existence of silica in various plants and in 1800 he published a work, called Researches, Chemical and Philosophical, chiefly concerning
;

Kitrous Oxide, and its Respiration, in which he detailed all the experiments made with This work created a great sensation, and was the me;.. this and other gases. introducing him to Count llumford, and also establishing his reputation as a chemist

and philosopher. In 1801 Davy came to London, and delivered his first Lecture at the Royal Instituc The tion, to which he was appointed Professor o. Chemistry, on 31st May, 1802.

Lesion

I.]
if

INTROIK

*

TORY NARRATIVE.

99

to

in Ib0'2, and engaged him Agriculture appointed him Professor of Chemistry deliver a course of lectures On the Connexion of Clumutry tcith I'egetable Pftt/tiohgy,

and he therefore continued fhich wire highly appreciated,
i

to lecture at the meetings.

for ten successive years,

on subjects connected with agriculture, which

were published at the request of the Board in 1813. was elected a Fellow of the lloyal Society; in 1SOJ he was made a member and, in 1806, he was elected Secretary to the lloyal of the lloyal Irish Academy and chosen to deliver the Bakerian lecture before the Society, in which he
;
,

made known

The following the results of his inquiries into galvanism and electricity. in 1803, baryam, calcium, and year he discovered potassium, sodium, and boron ; and, In 1810 he obtained the pri/e of the French Institute, and during that and ttiontium. the following year he delivered two courses of lectures before the Dublin Society, for which they voted him 11,30; and Trinity College, Dublin, conferred the degree of

On

was married

the 8th of April, 1812, the Prince-Regent knighted him; and, on the llth, he The following year he was elected to Mrs. Apreece, a widow of fortune.

Corresponding

Member

of the

French

Institute,

and Vice-president of the

Royal

The most important of his discoveries was made in the year 1815. The many dreadful accidents and great loss of life frequently occurring from the explosions in coal-mines, occasioned by the fire-damp, induced some of the proprietors of mines to form a comand
Bishop- Wearmouth, for investigating the causes of these frequent disasters, means of preventing their occurrence in future. Sir Humphry he Davy's assistance was requested, and he immediately set out for the collieries, where obtained specimens of the fire-damp, for the purpose of analyzing on D to London ; and also made some experiments, with a view to
at

to consider the best

and adopting a system of ventilation. After examining the fire-damp, trying numerous experiments, he discovered that the carburet ted hydrogen gas, or fire-damp, would not explode when mixed with less than six, or more than fourteen times its volume of air and that, when the gas did explode, the explosion could not past through apertures less than one-s
;

tqfcty-kimi),

Satisfied with these results, he construct. of an inch in diameter. " It which is generally termed by miners

is

a

simple oil-lamp, enclosed in a long cylinder cage of wire gauze, which conThe wick tains about four hundred holes in the square inch. by a bent wire, passing tightly through a small tube in the body lamp, so that the wick can be kept burning without unv !cr, an act that woul.l endanger the lives of the miners.
that passes through the wire
i

The

air

produces enough When the air is foul, or charged with causing any explosion. damp, the flame of the lamp becomes extinguished, and the int

sufficient to support combustion, carbonic acid and nitro fire-

gauze

is

damp

fire-

wire gauze cylinder other* ite by eon-

is

i

>o

explosion take place.

When

the lamp

is

.should withdraw, long the gauze will be destroyed, and ai. removed to a purer air the wick becomes
.

Tht Dart, or

M iner

Safety Lamp.

100

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE.

[Lesson

I.

The coal owners of the northern districts relighted, and the green flame disappears. rewarded Sir Humphry Davy for his valuable discovery by inviting him to a public dinner in 1817, and presenting him with a service of plate worth 2000.*
In 1817 Davy was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy; and was created a baronet in 1818, while absent on the continent. On the 30th November, 1820, he was elected President of the Royal Society, (in the place of Sir Joseph Banks, who had died,)

and he continued
Immediately

to

fill

the office

after this

till 1827, when he resigned it in consequence of ill health. he proceeded to the continent, where he continued to prosecute

his philosophical researches, contributing the results of his investigations to the His chief residence was at Rome, but, in consequence Transactions of the Royal Society.

of an alarming attack of paralysis, he was obliged to leave for Geneva. Proceeding by easy stages in company with Lady Davy, he arrived at La Couronne on the 29th of May, 1829, and repaired to an inn overlooking the Lake of Geneva. After he retired to rest he was attacked with apoplexy, and expired early on the oOth May, 1829, in the fifty- first year of his age.
Sir Humphry Davy published Chemical and Philosophical Researches; Elements of Cltemical Philosophy; Electro-Chemical Researches; Elements of Agricultural Chemistry ; and a great many pamphlets and papers in the various leading scientific journals.

His

last

works are Salmonia, and

The Last Days of a Philosoplur, the

latter

being

Humphry Davy must remember his gentlemanly deportHis head, which was small, was set off by an ample and His eyes, which were remarkably penetrative, elevated forehead, and light-brown hair. were light hazel. His nose aquiline, the mouth rather large, and marked by a thoughtful expression, which imparted a fulness and prominence to the under lip, and comHe was about five feet seven inches in height, with a large, well-formed plexion fair. chest, slender neck, and small feet and hands.
ment and quiet manner.

published after his death. Those who have seen Sir

A

simple

monument

in the

burying-ground of Geneva, which

is

without the walls

of the city, marks the grave which received the remains of Sir Humphry Davy, on "NVhen we reflect upon the career of this remarkable man, we. the 1st of June, 1829.
are struck with the perseverance he displayed, and his thirst after knowledge; no difficulties seemed to deter him on the contrary, they only appeared to stimulate him to Although studious in his habits, he was, nevertheless, particularly greater exertions.
;

fond of the amusements of fly-fishing and shooting, few persons being able to excel Viewed as a scholar, and a philosopher, he is greatly to be him in either sport. admired his writings display great force, judgment, and extensive knowledge hi.-,
; ;

discoveries were most important to the scientific advancement of the age, and the wellbeing of his fellow creatures. Thousands of people were saved through the invention

and adoption of
is

his safety-lamp

another instance of the

many

obligations that society

under

to

CHEMISTRY.

1

* The Davy Safety-lamp was improved by the Rev. W. Thorp, of Womersley, in the West Riding 1. By introducing the Argand or solar burner, with a circular wick. of Yorkshire, in the year 1849. 3. By having an adjustment outside the lamp, 2. By admitting the air from the bottom of the lamp. to regulate the wick. 4. By having an iron chimney based with glass, introduced into four or live The advantages of this new invention are therefore 1. Incrensi chambers of wire gauze. 3. The oil does not fall out if laid on one side. 2. The lamp only requires trimming once a week. 4.

It

is

more

easily cleaned.

5.

It

burns the cheapest

oil.

G.

It

is

much

safer than

tl;e

old lamp.

Lesson

I.j

CHEMISTRY.

101

CHEMISTRY.
QUESTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS.
1.
/'.

T.

WHAT

is

Chemistry

?

science which enables us to discover the nature and properties o ments of matter, their action upon each other, and their combinations ; the proportions in which these elements unite, the mode of changing compound bodies itnple ones, or single bodies into compound; and the laws which govern
It is that

8. T. When we change a compound body into simple ones, what is the process termed ? P. Decomposition or analysis, which chemists have divided into simple and compound, or single and double decomposition. Thus, when a body composed of two substances is decomposed by means of a third body, which acts simply, it is called single

their action.

What
rived
/'.
i

is

the term chemistry de-

or simple decomposition. If the intervention of the third body causes two new com-

pounds instead of one, the operation
then called compound,
silion.
9-

is

of doubtful derivation; but is probably derived from the Coptic root, chfms, which means obscure or secret.
It

b

or double decompo-

T.

What is

the term analysis derived

Do you remember
properties of m.r /' Yc> extension,
;

the general

from?

impenetrability, mobility, extreme divisibility, gravitation, porosity, and indestructibility. [The pupil should be requested to define these terms, and, if not able to do so, should consult Cat. I.]

The Greek word analuo (o'wAt/w), / dissolve, and therefore means the resolution of a substance into its component
P.

puts. Analysis was first scientifically pursued by Bergman of Sweden.
10. T. When two simple bodies are changed into a compound body, what is the process termed PSynthesis or composition, which is directly opposed to analysis. 11. y.What is the term derived from ? /'.Two Greek words, soon (<rw), with, and tithemi (TI^TJ/LU), I place.
.'

What
ties

are the secondary proper-

of matter ? P. Opacity, transparency, softness, hardness, elasticity, colour, density, solidity, fluidity, and others of a similar (These terms should be explained
to the student, According to their general acceptation. Thu, co*l is 9la* is transparent; clay toft; fcM OTf, ft*]

*?*;

5. T. What do the various phenomena of chemistry chiefly depend on? he modifications of attractive and e force, exercised on particles of matter at Insensible distances from placed each other.
1

' <'. :i.e examples of analysis and synthesis. /' If I decompose water by galvanism, and cause the evolution of oxygen and hy-

1-

drogen gases at the opposite" poles, I exit analytically; but if I explode .hese two gases and cause them to bine so as to form the water, which had jreviously 1,,-,-n decomposed, I examine
i

nn me what are
ffttef
P.
1.

the

at:

helically.
T. You hare made use of the terms limplc and compound bodies several times, explain their meaning. v simple body, or element, is n substance that ciniiiit In- fun!; or resolved into any other kind of mat
13.
ijas

"* if **tr*g*4to*.
.

ftteifcv at traction, or the attrac2.

Chemical attraction

[SeLeMn
at

VIII., p. Jl.]
f

are the repulsive agents

oxygen.
ai

A

compound
'stances,

and Galvanism.
[SeeLewonlX.,
p. J2.J

body

is

compose,.
r

nature

/<

of sodium or c

102

CHEMISTRY.
and
a
l.

[Lesson

II.

composed of a gas called chlorine, metal called sodium.
\

i:\KRAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON

I.

Explain the difference between integrant and constituent particles.
1.
'/'.

composed. which form the integrant particles of a complex body, differing from each other and the mass which they form. For example, the particles of iodine, and those of silver in a mass of iodide of silver, are the
constituent particles of that body.

P. Integrant particles are the smallest meparticles into which a body can be chanically divided, and resemble each which they originally other and the mass Constituent particles are those

AY hat is chemistry ? 2. Give the general and secondary properties of matter, and examples of each. 3. "What are the chief chemical
1.
;i

4.

traction

Explain the difference between atand repulsion, and give examples

of each.
5. Define analysis and synthesis, their derivation, and examples of e;.eh. <>. AYhat is the difference between a simple and a compound body
.'

7. 8.

'\Vhat is

an integrant particle
a constituent particle

?

"NYhat

is

?

LESSON

II.

THE student in Chemistry should endeavour to imitate the great Davy, by constructing rude and extemporaneous forms of apparatus for himself. It is not necessary to have expensive apparatus for the elementary part of the science indeed, with a few simple Let things the student may perform the greater portion of the experiments required. him procure a few Florence flasks, such as salad oil is sold in, five or six gallipots or
;

tea-cups, four or five

common

plates, a basin, a

and mortar, some glass tubing of

different sizes,

dozen phials, a glass funnel, a pestle two dozen large corks, a few wine-

glasses, an iron saucepan, a triangular file, a yard of brass tubing one-eighth of an inch in diameter, and a foot one quarter of an inch in diameter, some long glass jars, copper and

we add

iron wire (o to O), a few blocks of wood, and a brass stop-cock, if possible. If to these a common blowpipe, a piece of platinum foil and wire, he will be in possession of nearly all the apparatus required but occasionally we shall have to construct extem;

poraneous apparatus for his use, which a few shillings will pay for. It is a positive advantage to a student to be thrown upon his own resources, as it gives him a habit of thinking and observing. If he is ingenious and careful, he will contrive to convert

many

window

Let him save all the broken things to his use, that others would throw away. and cut it into long, thin strips they will serve to evaporate solutions glass, upon, or act as stirring rods some of the glass should be cut into pieces
;

;

varying from 2 to G or 8 inches square, as they are useful for covering The feet of wine-solutions in small vessels, and many other purposes.
glasses, &c.

may

also be used

for covering solutions

;

the bottoms of
;

stoppers of kinds are useful, and should be kept to fit bottles, &c., by grinding them with a little sand and water. Very good evaporating dishes may

broken tumblers
all

will frequently serve as evaporating dishes

be made by

and then slightly scratching a Florence flask with a file, For example in passing a red-hot iron wire in the direction required. the directions ac and be in Fig. 2, which will enable us to have dishes

As with very tolerable lips (a and b) for pouring fluids from them. these flasks are sometimes apt to be broken when used as retorts, the pieces should be directions saved, as dishes may be formed from them by following the same plan in the
fg, de, and b
g.

The neck

h

may be

converted into a small test-tube, by means of a

Lesson n.
blow-pipe, and
a red-hot wire.

MISTRY.
tobacco-pipe makes a tolerable temporary and a common flower-pot an excellent extemporaneous furnace; but these we must leave for the present, to consider affinity or chemical attraction,

A common

blow-pipe

;

which

is

the basis of Chemistry.

QUESTIONS.
is

chemical

affinity

?

!t is that property of matter which P. causes heterogeneous or dissimilar bodies to combine, and form compounds frequently quite different from the sub

compose them.
. .

I will dissolve

For example [Exthese copper

or this piece of copper wire, in a sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), and allow it to crystallize, and then we shall get a salt commonly called blue ttone (sullittle
f .e

of chlorine gas in the jar marked C, and if you observe closely you will see an oily compound produced, when the two gases d [mixes them]. You see it collects in large drops on the sides of the jar in which they were mixed, and the gases are being gradually absorbed. This oily compound is called chloride of defiant gas ; nve other matters to consider before we can describe all about the gases.
18.
T.
?
:

Are

different copper), which is quite acid, or the metal in its appear-

there not other changes of

form

Caustic vegetable or properties. alkali will corrode the flesh, and so will \itriol; but when these two arc

ance

P. Yes but the consideration cf them would occupy teo much of our time.

ash,

we get a salt called sulphate of potwhich may be swallowed with safety.
.

[The pupil should be required to give some examples of those changes of form and quality, x ample, a liquid and a tolid form a liquid (salt mixed with wau-r). Liy. dtice gate* (nitric, and hydrochloric acids,
1!). T. Are same manner
.'

/'.

Why

did

you
it

call

potash a
all

vegetable a
]'.
.

bodies affected in the

from

so.la

the

mineral, and
/'.

ammonia

the volatile alkali.

It appear*,
\<

of form and
cal
c<
/'.

n

Is

it

then, that change results of chemiso f

with

-

olid* will

ice,

[Experimei. and a lump of
1

produce a fluid. a lump of solid

the attractive force is exerted degrees of force }> different bodies ; sometimes it acts very feebly, sometimes with great ener at other
;

P.

No

different

;

at all.

salt, anotlr

place these two tope: combine and form a fluid [places them in You observe that we ha contact.] .1 quantity of brine by our D of the substances are altered. Again, tolidt will produce a are a few gat. grains of gunpowder, and you will see that, the end of this heated wire

How do you know that all bodies 20. T. are not similarly affected ?
MI.

[Expcrim

Here

is
1

a piece of

camphor.
placed in this wineit

when

it

is

glass, containing

alcohol,
if

will

ii.
'..

.lie

alcohi

Now,
into the glass

son
:h

the

on them,

tlu-y will to a

,

explode, gaseous form.
totid
;

Two # ascom

.sition

both
a;

<.

7 :he water

bodiet will form

a

thus,

nc acid vapour of an gas, dense white fume* will be pr< which then collect in flakes ai ides and bottom of the jar; this is muriate of ammonia or sal an
j

combines with the alcohol, !ior and
21.
T.

nl

Has

no! tlr

;

combination been
.

called
/'.
")

itieuUr n

'

tingle

ift trill
!
.

product a liquid. [ I have some oleAant J gn h is marked O, and an equal volume
I

P.

Why

.!

vT

104
P.

CHEMISTRY.
Because a substance chooses or

[Lesson III.

elects one substance from several others in preference, and to the exclusion of the rest,

and then combines with it. The particles of a certain body, having an affinity for the
with particles of another body, will unite them, but if they have not any affinity for

bases of the salts formed may be decomposed or separated from the acid by adding any of the substances above it to the solution, until we arrive at baryta, and then we find that the other substances do not exert
affinity of baryta and sulphuric acid. The same thing occurs in Table II. with regard to oxygen, and the various metals placed underneath it.

any power over the

another body they
23.

will

not combine.
this.

T.

Give

me

an illustration of

[Experiment 6.] Here is a small piece of gold, which 1 will place in this wine-glass, and then pour some aquafortis You ob(nitric acid) upon it. [Does so.] but serve that no change has taken place when the gold is removed and some potash
1\
;

25.

the

Are T. phenomena

there any laws by which of chemical attraction a:o

added, chemical combination is the result, and nitrate of potash, or saltpetre, is formed. In this experiment we see that the acid had
a stronger affinity for the potash than the gold, in fact, its affinity for gold is im-

regulated ? 1st. The force is said to P. Certainly. e exerted in different degrees by various bodies. 2nd. As it operates on the molecules of bodies, it is found that its action
is

promoted by any method which

assists

the mechanical division and intermixture 3rd. Chemical of the minute particles.

combination

is

generally attended by altera-

perceptible.

Then you think that some subhave a stronger affinity for one substance than for another ?
21.
T.

tion of temperature, and sometimes emission of light. 4th. Opposite states of electricity

stances

P. Undoubtedly; and if you refer to the following tables you will see that it really is the case.
I.

Sulphuric Acid.
Baryta.
Strontin.

II.

Oxygen.

are observed between bodies which have an 5th. Chemical affinity for each other. combination consists of the combination of a certain number of the molecules or atoms of one body, with some definite number of atoms of the other body comChemical attraction 6. bining with it. takes place either by simple or compound
affinity.
7.

Zinc.

Lead.

with

other

All compound bodies uniting bodies without undergoing

Potash. Soda.

Copper. Mercury.
Silver.

decomposition, act as simple bodies.

Lime. Magnesia.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

II.

Ammonia.
if we look at Table I. we see that sulphuric acid has an affinity for ammonia, and the result is sulphate of ammonia but

Now,

necessary to have expensive apparatus for the study of chemistry I 2. Define chemical affinity. 3. How many kinds of alkalies are
Is
it

;

there
4.

?

then,

if

we add magnesia

to the solution,

decomposition will take place, and sulphate of magnesia will be the result. This proves that the acid has an affinity for all the substances placed below the lime, and will combine separately with each, but that the

affinity change the form and quality of bodies ? of chemical attraction 5. Is the force

Does chemical

the
6.

same

for all bodies

?

What are the

laws regulating chemical

attraction.

LESSON
WE
do not require
to

III.

study Chemistry very deeply to discover that an alteration of temperature generally takes place when bodies combine. Heat is evolved when sulphuric The production of acid (oil of vitriol) is mixed with water, or when lime is slacked. cold takes place only when heat is rendered insensible by the conversion of a solid into

Lesson III.]

CHEMISTRY.

105

a fluid, or a liquid into a gas. [Experiment 7.] Thus, by combining three parts of sulphate of soda, and two parts of diluted nitric acid, eighty degrees of cold is produced. If we mix two parts of pounded ice with one part of chloride sodium 8.]

[Experiment

(common salt), we shall when surrounded by the

mixture.

cause the mercury in a thermometer to sink to five degrees, This effect will always be produced, whatever may
;

be the temperature the thermometer was occupying previous to the experiment the mercury will never fall lower. Before entering into the consideration of other matters, it will be necessary to examine some of the phenomena attending combustion Firstly. Because they are intimately connected with heat Secondly. Because they are so frequently witnessed, and so little
: ;

understood by the chemical student.

QUESTIONS.
26. P.
7*.

COMBUSTION ? The phenomena exhibited by burnis

What

How do you know that substances 31. T. are altered in form, without being destroyed
P.
?

ing substances, which are attended by heat lit, and the production of new compounds. Will any substance burn ? T. It must be a combustible
substance.
7*. Suppose that we heat a piece of and make it what is commonly termed red- hot, is not that combustion ? although it emits light and

[Eperiment 10.] If I place a piece of heated charcoal under a glass jar it generates a gas called carbonic acid, which is known by adding some limewater, the result of which is a white precipitate of carbonate of lime.

By experiment

26.

iron,

heat it does not burn, or ignited.
/'.

it is

only incandetcent

Then what do you mean by
?

Do the substances which burn 32. r. support combustion ? P. No, they neither support it, nor burn, unless when assisted by a supporter of combustion, which will not burn of itself, although it supports combustion.
33.
r.

combustion
/'.

Give

me

an example.
burns
;

What
.'

is

the chief supporter of

The body experimented upon

combustion
P.
34.
r.

or consumes in combustion but, when rendered incandescent, it cools again, and remains unaltered, or nearly so. For example, [Experiment 9] take a piece of I. urn it will charcoal and set it on fire and waste away, and finally leave a residue \V. know that it has been of white ash. consumed by combustion, and heat has
;

Oxygen

gas.

How

do you know that
?

it

sup-

ports combustion

been evolved ; we feel the heat, and thereWhen we heat fore know such is the case. a bar of iron, heat is evolved, l.ut the iron does not consume, because its temperature is not kept up by the heat evolved in its union with the oxygen of the air.
/

is /'.Ik-cause, lighted plunged into this gas, the taper burns more brilliantly, but the gas itself is not If the same candle is plunged into ajar of coal gas the gas is ignited, and the candle if
i

a

candle

extinguished.
/'. Is it not possible to burn iron, and other bodies of a like nature ? /'.Yes we can burn the most incombustible bodies by means of the oxjrtobacco-pipes, blowj.ijif, even
;

:i

How

in

it

that the charcoal
is

is

v

ycd,

and the iron
is
'
.

not
is

pipe-clay,
f

* .

The charcoal P. altered in i* destruction

not
<

deitroyrd, but

hen

I

placed a lighted
tin-

not any such Matter in Nature. .ilthottgh its form
is

under a glass

jar, the jar

with moisture, and then NVh.tt was the rcnout.

became covered caudle went

tor annihilation laws of Nature.

contrary to the

he moisture was water, caused by the hydrogen of the candle uniting with

F.1

106

CHEMISTRY.

[Lesson IV.

part of the oxygen of the air within the Then the carbon of the candle glass. united with a part of the oxygen of the air, and formed carbonic acid gas, which is not and as the a supporter of combustion oxygen, the chief supporter of combustion, was withdrawn, the candle went out.
;

1.
'1.

i'.AL QUESTIONS ON LESSON III. Can we burn any substance ? What is the difference betweeft com?

bustible and incombustible substances
'..

What

is

incandescence

?
.'

a substances be destroyed

LESSON
WE
is

IV.
supporter of combustion, and hence
it

have seen that the oxygen of the

air is a

follows, that in order to maintain combustion, a fresh supply of air must be established, and the smoke allowed to escape. It is therefore evident, that combustion, after all,

nothing more than a process of oxidation, or combination of oxygen with the body consumed. Now combination is not merely mixing, it is more it is the intimate and For example, [Experiment 11] we have some oil in this close union of substances. bottle, and when I add some water to it, you will see that the two substances mix, but they do not combine, because when they have stood a short time, the oil will separate itself from the water. [The bottle is allowed to stand, and the oil is then seen floating on the top of the water]. I will cause these two bodies to combine, by adding another substance potash, and then we shall get a soapy compound, differing from the oil, the
;

water, or the potash. The elevation of temperature generally promotes the chemical action of bodies, but nevertheless, the effect will depend, in certain cases, on the degree of heat adapted for

For example, if we expose mercury in a proper vessel, and in particular purposes. contact with the air to a heat of 680 Fahrenheit, it becomes converted into the red
mercury
oxide of mercury. If we expose the red oxide of mercury to 980 Fahrenheit, the will be reproduced in its metallic state, and a gas given off, which is oxygen.

what caused the red oxide of mercury to resolve It could not have and the gas, oxygen? Heat. We therefore learn that heat is an been effected by any other means than heat. important agent in chemical combination. When elements unite with elements, chemists regard the union as combinations of When these combine, to form sails, we have comas acids and bases. ihejirst order When we find double salts resulting from the union of binations of the second order. Bodies do not salts with salts, we regard them as combinations of the third order. generally combine chemically, otherwise than in fixed proportions hence every body, For example, the result of chemical combination, generally contains fixed proportions.
This naturally leads us to
reflect,

itself into the metal,

mercury

;

water always consists of one atom of hydrogen, and one atom of oxygen.
[The pupil should read Lessons
III., IV.,

and V., of Natural Philosophy, before entering the question of this Lesson.]

upon

QUESTIONS.
the atomic theory ? P. It is the theory which explains the manner in which the atoms of bodies
37.

T.

What

is

combine chemically
to

in certain proportions

form new substances. For example, we know that an atom of hydrogen and an

Lessor.

CIIF.M1>TKY.

/.How can you determine the atom of oxygen combine and form water, the atomic weight of which is 9 hence it relative atomic weight of bodies ? P. follows that the relative weight of the atom By fixing a particular number, as n is as the atomic weight ot" any one su: of hydrogen to the atwhich is the same as saying that and then determining the atomic weights
;
.

>:n of hydrogen weighs one grain, and the atom of oxygen eight grains.

38. T.

Then

I

suppose

that

is

the

of other bodies, according to the proportions by weight in which they uni example, let us assume that the atomic

reason water is always said to be composed of 1 volume of hydrogen and 8 volumes ol
/'. You are correct. It is nothing more than saying, water is composed of * measures of each gas, instead of volumes.

weight of hydrogen is equal to 1, the atomic weights of other bodies may then be found; thus 100 parts of sulphuretted

39.
/'.

T.

Do
;

not some bodies combine
?

in all proportions

Yes for example, gold and silver, water and alcohol, and water and sulphuric acid. Other bodies combine in all pros to a certain point, but cannot be made to combine after that for example, water will dissolve and hold in solution any salt, (as alum or Epsom salts,) but after it
;

hydrogen contain 5-9 parts of hydrogen and 9 1*1 parts of sulphur. We suppose that there are an equal number of atoms of hydrogen, and the same of sulphur, therefore we have the proportion 91-1 equal to 1 16. Thus we know that
<

:

the atomic weight of sulphur of hydrogen iu 1.

is 16, if

that

/'.Has

the knowledge of the relaJits of the atoms been usefully
;

has dissolved a certain portion, it is said to be saturated, and cannot dissolve any more. Some bodies unite in several defifor example, 14 parts oportions of nitrogen will combine with 8*16, or 2-t of oxygen, but will not combine with parts any intermediate proportion. Certain bodies unite in only one proportion, as chlorine
;

P. Yes the relative weights of the atoms of bodies, and their chemical equivalents, are expressed by the same m;

Who in vente tithe atomic theory ? He supposed the Dalton, in 1804. atoms of bodies to be spherical, and invented symbols to represent the n
.

/'.

in

which

he

thought

they

combined

and hydrogen.
40.
3".
?

Have

all

bodies the same kind

of atoms

Thus, hydrogen was represented together. by a circle with a dot in the centre ; nitrogen, by a circle with a vertical line drawn through the centre ; oxygen, by a
plain
circle;

/'. \c bodies have simple atoms, and compound bodies have compound atoms. For example
:

and

carbon,

by

a

black

/'.How

did he classify the combi-

HtniATK or
SODA.

Ox rosy.

Some*.

rig.

.

1'. Those substances containing only 2 atoms he called binary compounds, those mmpounds, those with 4 atoms, quaternary, &c.

46. T.
/

Is

it

;

simple
1

and 4 are diagrams representing atoms of oxygen and sodium

probable that the disposi.'

(natrium), but Fig. 5 represents the atoms of nitrate of soda.

com-

m
1091
absolute

Live these atoms any weight, say the atomic weight of water
'

arrangement of the atoms of solid bodies can influence their form P. When a solution of Certainly. any salt is set aside to crystallize, and the on slowly, rtgular crystals aro process goes
tion or
;

l>ut

it

it

is

too

sudden,

the

> not know anything of the weight of atoms; they arc too mall to weigh therefore we c.n determine the rvfctfev weight of atom*, but it is certain that atoms have some weight.
;

crystals are irregt; 47. T. How docs this prove that form depends upon the arrangement of the

atoms

?

/'.If

order, the

th.y are arranged suddenly ami same salt that always

108

CHEMISTRY.

[Lesson V.

crystallizes in octahedral crystals, will be amorphous from a (a ) without, and morphe (uopcfnj) form, or devoid of regular forms. For example, I have eight balls here, and can arrange them into many forms, thus

OOO OOO 00

abed
O

:

e

OOO OOO
O

OO OO OO OO

O

OO OO OOO

OO oooo OO

large cricket-balls for the apples 1 and 2, the figure will be wedge-shaped, like that within the lines i c, c d, d k, and k i ; but, if we put the balls where 2 and 3 are, the figure will be similar to that enclosed by the lines ah, hg, gd, df, ft; and eo. Let us suppose that the apple marked 2 is removed, and replaced by a pear; provided it is the same size, the form will not bo altered. It is thus with the atoms of some
crystals, they may be removed, and replaced by other atoms, without altering the form of the crystals hence we infer that certain
;

but
as

it

is

possible to

make them assume

more
it

figures than those I have formed, and is probable that all the atoms of

atoms are isomorphous. What do you mean by the term 49. T.
isomorphous ? The term P.
is

bodies are not the same size, we can easily understand how the form of bodies is altered by the arrangement of their atoms.
48. T. Explain how this affects their form. I have four apples here, 1, 2, 3, 4 P. and if I place them upon the table, as in fig. 7, and draw four lines round them, I
;

derived from two Greek

words, isos (icros) equal, and morphe (/iiop^) For form, and signifies of the same form. example, the phosphate and biphosphate of soda are of the same form as the arseniate and binarseniute of soda, and only differ in
the one salt containing phosphorus, and the other arsenic.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

IV.

What

is

the

difference
?

between

a

mixture and a combination 2. How are chemical
Fig.
7.

combinations

classified
3.

?

4.

Explain the atomic theory. Have all bodies atoms resembling
?

shall have a figure like that represented by a, b, c, d, in Fig. 8, which has its four sides

each other
5.

equal.

Suppose that

I

remove the apple

marked 2 from within the square, and place a nut in the spot marked 5 in Fig. 7, and
then draw a line
apples
1

form

(In) so as to touch the 4, and include the nut, the be similar to the shaded part within the square. If we substitute two

the knowledge 6. of the relative weights of the atoms of bodies been applied ? 7. Explain the terms amorphous and

Can we weigh atoms ? To what purpose has

and

isomorphous.

will

8. How does the arrangement of atoms influence the form of bodies ?

LESSON
THERE
are

V.

connected with the atomic theory which are worthy of remark. We observe that certain substances, having different forms and qualities, are composed How is this to be accounted for 2 The atomic theory comes to of the same materials.

some

facts

our assistance, and seems to say that

it is the arrangement of the particles or atoms. For example, the cyanic and fulminic acids are isomeric compounds of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. From this we learn that the same elements may be grouped in different ways, which is the same as saying that having a dozen bricks it is possible to place them

Lesson V.]

CHEMISTRY.

109

in other positions than one above the other, but that their position does not alter the It is not absolutely imperative that pewter (an alloy of tin with lead and materials. antimony) should be made into measures, the same materials will form dish-covers,

hot-water plates,

dishes, &c. ; and so it is with the atoms of certain materials, as they are placed in groups, differing from each other in arrangement, so will the compounds they form differ in their qualities, properties, and appearance. Some bodies

consist of the

same elements,

in the

same

ratio,

and yet

differ in their equivalents.

QUESTIONS.
50.
T.

What

is

the

derivation

and

of the word isomeric ? It is derived from two Greek words, P. and meros (/utpos), part ; isos (TOJ), equal and is applied to those substances which contain the same elements, in the same

meaning

;

53. T. Have the atomic weights, or, as they are sometimes called, the chemical equivalents of the elementary bodies, been determined ? P. Yes ; and arranged into groups. 54.
T.
?

proportions,

and yet differ essentially their chemical qualities.

How

in

are the elementary bodies

arranged

How does the atomic theory 51. T. solve the problem of the isomeric state of bodies depending upon the grouping of
their

atoms

?

P. Simply by demonstrating the arrangement of the atoms. If we take twelve square pieces of wood we can easily see how this is effected. For example, we see that

P. They are divided into the nonmetallic and metallic groups. The nonmetallic elements are divided into gazolytct, or bodies which are permanently gaseous halogens, or bodies which produce salts when combined with the metals; and metalloids, or bodies resembling metals in
;

their

chemical relations.

in

T. How are the elements expressed chemistry ? P. By symbols, which were selected by Derzelius, from Latin names, because that

55.

language
56.
/!,.
2.

is

known
is

to all civilized nations.

T.

What

the use of symbols

?

tig. 10.

in Fig. 9 the atoms are arranged in groups containing six in each; in Fig. 10 each 1 1 each group congroup conta. atomscomsists of two; and, bine in groups of three. [See Question 47.]
i
*

the express composition of a definite chemical compound in a concise manner, by using the initials of the elementary bodies, and numbers annexed to them, denoting the number of atoms of the several constituents

P.

They

enable

us

to

/.

weight
P.

How

You said (Q. 41) do you know

that

atoms have
?

existing in the compound.
57. T. Suppose that a symbol has not any number allixc-d what does it mean? That only one atom of the substance P.

that they have

Although we cannot weigh them,

because they are so small, yet it is certain that they mutt possess some degree of

exists in the
58.
r.

compound.
n.

we take the common puff-ball fungus in our hands, we are sensible that when it bursts, and it possesses weight its fine dust, we discover that each
weight.
If
;
,

Is there any particular

particle

is

diameter.

about y^irnjth of an inch in Now it would be as absurd to

of arrangement observed in expressing chemical formula* by symbols f /._Yi-s. substances, such as metals and salifiable bases, electro-negative substances, such as oxygen
i
:

j

these particles, as

attempt to define the weight of one of it would be to weigh the
i

and acids,

in

'

th.-

\ grain of musk, not possess .if these weight, the puff-ball, or the grain of musk, could not have weight.

frequently expressed by a dot, placed over odj ui-h which oxide of lead is cnmb'in >*,
;

silica,

si

;

and

sulphuric

we

therefore learn

that the lead

c 3

110

CHEMISTRY.

[Lesson VI

contains one atom, the silica two atoms, and the sulphuric acid three atoms, of When a compound contains oxygen. proximate and ultimate elements, the mode of union is expressed by means of points,

two atoms of hydrogen, and two atoms of oxygen.
(il.

T.
?

What

is

meant by

a stroke over

a

symbol
P.

commas,

-f-

signs,

and

brackets.

For

example, crystallized sulphate of ammonia (one atom of ammonia, one atom of sulphuric acid, and two atoms of water)
is

Berzelius used it to express the vegetable and animal acids thus, T, siguiiies tartaric acid, and P formic acid.
62. T.

Nil 3

HO s"II. The dots under the symbol of a body denote atoms of hydrogen and commas, or strokes leaning from right to left, atoms of sulphur as, when we
2
;

+N SO" +

2

HO

= NH

Why

have

some

symbols

a

3

SO 3

,

stroke under them ? P. It is an abbreviation

sometimes
,

used to denote two equivalents of a substance thus, Fe instead of Fe a O 3 or it
;

may
63.

be written
T.

-F e

O3

.

express the tersulphuret of molybdenum,

Have

not

certain

placed on the right and upper part of a symbol, expresses the number of atoms of the substance denoted 3 means one thus, SO by the symbol
thus, Mo.

A number

particular symbols appropriated to P. Yes; water is written Aq

compounds them ?
;

gen,
6-1.

Cy
T.

;

tartaric

acetic acid,

A

;

cyanoT; + citric acid, c; M &c. Morphia,
acid,
;

atom of sulphur, and

three atoms of oxygen.

How

is

the water of crystalliza-

59. T. Why do you place the number above the symbol, instead of below, which is more usual with chemists ? P. Because it is more easily read than

tion expressed ? P. By attaching

the substance of acetic acid.

;

an li to the symbol of thus Ah denotes the hydrate

when placed
60.

below.

do the numbers placed before symbols mean ? P. number placed before several symbols multiplies them all as far as the next -f- sign, or comma or, if the number is placed before a bracket, it multiplies all the numbers or symbols within the brackets 2 CO 2 thus, KO, xc 2 ill means, that one CO-, atom of potash, two atoms of carbonic acid, and one atom of water, unite to form bicarbonate of potash, and 8 (CaO, ScO 3 ) 1 16 Aq., gives the 2 S, iQ*
r.

What

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON V. 1. How is it that certain substances,
composed of the same materials, possess
different qualities
2.

A

and forms

?

;

KO + HO =

+ HO =

the meaning of isomeric, and give its derivation. 3. How do we know that atoms have

Explain

weight
4.

?

are the elementary bodies arranged and expressed ? 5. Do symbols express the elementary

How

+ KO

,

+

bodies in a satisfactory manner 6. Give of the illustrations
>.

various

composition of apophyllite

;

2

HO

means

symbols.

LESSON
WE
have found how certain substances
is

VI.

may be expressed by abbreviating them, and somewhat alarmed by seeing so many great h's, o's, and other letters, combined with -f's and figures staring him in the face, we must take which are, in fact, the alphabet of this opportunity of recommending that the symbols
as every beginner in chemistry

chemistry be practised by the pupil with a piece of soft chalk on a slate or board. If a little attention is given to the subject, an hour's practice will overcome the difficulty. It is said that chemistry has a great many hard names, but, really, it does not abound Tor example, with more than any other science, and after all, they are very simple.

lesson VI.]

CHEMISTRY.
the words oxioV, chloride, bromide, Sec., but they only

Ill

we meet with

mean

the combination

of metals with these substances, and it is not more difficult to understand them than " Oh, saying a syrup of orange, mulberry, &rc., or an essence of lemon, verbena, &c. but are not those long names, protoxide, bi-chloride, &c., very disagreeable and " No they are really very easy. Let us see what they difficult ? says a lazy juvenile.
;

mean.
,

Proto

means

first,
;

and therefore a protoxide
(still

is

a double oxide

tritoxide, or teroxide,

a triple
is

oxiile,

a single oxide &c. and
;

;

deuto.

when the base

r.-.ted

with oxygen

not acid)

it

called a peroxide.

All the difficulty

be removed by remembering that each name has a prefix, which explains the meaning thus profo means 1 ; sesqui, 1} bi, bin, dcuto, di, 2 tf t qitinto, 5 quadra, 4 As we shall meet with some other names of a peculiar kind, it will be b
.ig

these

names

will

;

;

;

:

;

:

examine

their

meaning

first.

We

shall find that acids

ending

in ic

form

s:i/

bases that end in ate

and potassa form
thus,

at least, such is a general rule ; for example, sulphuric acid Acids ending in ons form salts that end sulphate of potash.

phosphorow acid and potassa form

phosphi/t? of potash.

When we meet
;

with

words terminating in uret, we know that the simple non -metallic substances combination with each other, with a metal, or with a metallic oxide thus, carburet of The names of most metals end in urn iron means a combination of carbon with iron. and alkaline bases, when expressed in one word ter as sodium, platinum, &c.

magnesia and potassa. The prefix hypo, means less thus ty/>o-sulphuric acid acid with less oxygen than the sulphuric, and more than the sulphuron*. The thus, /<y/*r-nitrous, and per-chloric acids, means prefixes hyper and per signify more acids with more oxygen than the nitron* and chloric.
in a, as
;

means an

;

QV;.
/'.

Name

the

first

group of the

68.

T.

Name
are

t:

elementary bodies, and give t:. and the symbols at the same time. /'. first group, the gazolytct, contains three elementary bodies, viz. s >, n ... i
1
i

P.

They

tiity in

number,

viz.

:

Jfamf.

:

O.

... ...

8
II

66. T. What substances are found in the second group ? /'. Tin.- lialogent consist of four bodies,

T.r

-i

.:

.

78-4 33-4

i

!

...

187
i.

ictalloids.
.

:ii

group contains only four bodies,

n

.

Sulphur

112

CHEMISTRY.
Names
of Metals

[lesson VII.
of copper
viz

atomic weight of oxide
continued.
Symbol.

3<)-S.

Jfame.

Equiv.

Magnesium
Manganese Mercury (Hydrangyrum)

Mg.

127
27-fi

Mn.
Hg. Mo.
Ni.
?

101-4

Molybdenum
Nickel

43
29-6
?

Kiobium

Osmium
Palladium Pelopium Platinum Potassium (Kalium)

Os.

Pd.
r

99-6 53-4
?

Pt.

987
39-2 52-1
51 7

K.
R.

70. T. Can we find the composition of any compound as easily ? P. Yes. For example, Peroxide of Manganese is represented by Mn O 2 and by adding 27'6, the equivalent of manganese, to 16, which is equal to two atoms of oxygen, we get 43'6 as the product, which is the atomic weight. Let us take of bismuth for another example ; sulphuret the symbol for this is Hi 2 and S 3 and, by
, ,

Rhodium Ruthenium
Selenium
Silicium
Silver (Argentum)

the
is

Ru.
Se.
Si.

same 260 8.

rule,

we

find that

its

equivalent

40
14-8

Ag.

108M
23-2

Sodium (Natronium) Strontium
Tanivlium Terbium Tellurium Thorium Tin (Stannum) Titanium
Tungsten (tt'olframium)

Na.
Sr.

44
185
r

[The pupil should be requested to explain the meaning of the following symbols, and to give their equivalents Cd S viz., Cu2 S; Pb S H S5; AsFe3; Zu O, S O3, 7 HO.]
;

;

Ta.
T

71.

T.

Have not some chemists pro-

Te.

fi4

Th.
St.

596
59
' '

Ti.

W.
U. V. Y. Zn.
Zr.

2^-5 95

posed the adoption of other terms, instead of sulphuret and phosphuret ? P. Yes, Professors Graham and Hoffmann propose using the terms sulphide and

Uranium Vanadium
Yttrium Zinc

217
68-6 32-2

322
22-4

Ziuconium

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

VI.

C9. T. Will these equivalents enable us to find the composition of the compounds of these elements ? P. Yes. We can learn that by finding out the weight of the atoms of its ingredients, from the groups we have examined, and adding them together thus, Oxide of Copper is expressed by Cu O and, as we know that the equivalent of copper is 3T8, and that of oxygen 8, we add them together, and that gives us the
:

Explain the meaning of the various prefixes to chemical names. 2. When the names of acids end in ic,

how do
3.

the

names of

When

their salts terminate ? acids end in ous, how do the
?

names of
4.

their salts terminate

How do

the

names of most metals and

;

end ? Give the symbols and equivalents of each group of elementary bodies. 6. How can we find the equivalents of
alkalis
5.

compound

bodies

?

LESSON
WE

VII.

have already noticed some of the peculiarities and properties of heat (p. 22), but as some of the processes in connexion with the science of chemistry are under great obligations to this agent, we must notice some other properties belonging to it.

Heat

or Caloric

is

It causes bodies to expand,

the great agent of repulsion, as its particles repel each other. and pass from a solid to a liquid, and from a liquid to

a gaseous form, and we are enabled to observe the changes of temperature by availing ourselves of this property. Thus we measure the degrees of heat by means of a thermometer (Fig. 13), an instrument constructed for materials which readily expand

Lesson VII.;

CHEMISTRY.
have already learned
22) how heat
is

113

by been

heat.

We
s^

^

found

has (p. by experiment that certain bodies are better conductors than others, hence they have been divided into coi</MC/ors and non~conductort, and
it

communicated, and

their relative

Gold
-r
fedl
-

conducting power has been given by Despretz as follows 1000 Tin 303.9
:

Copper
I'latinum

&*

Iron

898.2 381 374.3

Lead Marble
Porcel.in

23.6
1

J J

Fine Clay

11.4

Zinc

363

the best conductors ; liquids and When a solid aeriform fluids are very imperfect conductors of caloric. becomes a liquid, a certain amount of heat becomes latent, that is to say,
this

From

we

learn that metals are

and when a liquid becomes as it were, squeezed out and disappears Intent heat varies according a solid, a corresponding effect is produced. for example, the heat of fluidity in to the substances operated on
it is,
;

;

Bismuth Tin Zinc Bees- wax Lead
Spermaceti Sulphur
/if.u.

550 500 493
175* 162" 145 143 142*

Water

All bodies expand by heat, and contract on cooling.

QUESTIONS.
"When we place a vessel containing water upon the fire, how is the
r.

heat diffused
/.

?

Hy

confection

that is, the heated particles ascend, or arc carruil to the top of the
vessel.

P. If the temperature is very high, like that of furnaces, we use one of Daniell's platina pyrometers, but if only for boiling liquids, we use a cylindrical thermometer, graduated on the glass tube to 572 3 Fal which may be fitted into a cork, and
:

/'.Why
water
roll

does the about and bub-

I adapted for any \essel, or allowed to float in the liquid.

H H
ticles of

which
in

it

ble up when it boils ? Ik-cause the parP. is composed, are con-

/.What
produced by heat

are the chief effects
?

tantly put
>,

motion by the contending
currents arc they of which
hot

and the escape of steam.

liquefaction, v.porisation, evaporation, and bun. or ignition.

/'.Expansion,

/'.

What

ak?
atcending centre of the von*/. 14), and a detetnding cold curr f ,,t on each side of the
/

expansion
current
in
tin-

An

do you know caused by heat ? P. By experiment and obst :, The iron rim of a cart wheel is ex;
77.
7'.

How

ft

is

TWM!

(c c, Fig.

l

/'. When we wish to measure high degrees of heat in chemical exper.

by heat before it is put on, nn<l tin is thrown over it, it cools ai tracts, thus binding the spokes and c
water
together.
[fee

how do we manage ?

Question H,

P.
,

8; and Question it
p. 13.]

and

114
78.

CHEMISTRY.
T.

[Lesson VII,

Then
.'

this

knowledge

is

practi-

cally applied

in laying down railways, Certainly building iron bridges, and constructing all works of the kind where metal is much

P.

;

evaporation ? P. The dissipation of a liquid by, jlj", conversion into vapour. It may be spontaneous, or caused by the application
<

82.

/'.What

is

83.

T.
?

How is

employed, provision is made for expansion ? /'. How do people know how much
to calculate for the

spontaneous evap

produced
P.

expansion

?

P. By referring to tables of the expansion of various bodies, and remembering that the degree of expansion is in the direct ratio of the increase of temperature,

by the tempcratur partly by the solvent power of the atnu*. spheric air forming a solution of the body.
Partly

Ether, alcohol, and volatile oils amples of the class of bodies that undergo
;

this

change.

and that when the heat decreases, the body
will

MM.

the result

contract again to its former size. Lavoisier and Laplace investigated subject, and the following is the
:

T. What is the object of cm] heat to cause evaporation ? P. To drive off the fluid from the substance held in solution for, evaporation is generally used for the purpose of obtain-

84.

;

linglish flint glass ......... T^CS* Common French glass .. Glass without lead
Steel, Steel,

ing salts from aqueous solutions

;

b

when the

fluid is valuable, as

alcoi-

untempered tempered

example, then the process of distillation is employed. When we wish to evaporate any solution, we employ a ~stand like that

Soft iron

Gold
Brass
Silver
........................

Lead
.

.......................

T , *iT
?

80.

T.

What

causes liquefaction

P. The repulsive agency of the caloric, which drives the particles of bodies capable of assiimirig the liquid form so far apart, that their cohesion is diminished, and they are rendered easily movable on one another
is vaporisation ? rapid conversion of a solid or liquid into an aeriform state, as when water is converted into steam by boiling it Now

in any direction. What 81. T.

P.

The

under ordinary atmois removed Steam is invisible, colourless, and transparent, which at the spout of may be proved by looking a tea-kettle, when it will be found that the first half inch from the spout appears
\vater boils
at

212

spheric pressure, but when this it boils at a lower temperature.

fig.

1C.

in Fig. 16, which has a movable slide (a), so that we can raise or lower the evaporating basin (&); the heat is supplied by means of an argand gas-burner, (e), supported on a heavy base, and furnished with a flexible

unoccupied, but that the rest of the space in front is occupied by what is generally called steam, which is in reality condensed Steam is 10% times greater in vapour. bulk than water; therefore, one volume of water will yield 1696 volumes of steam.
* The fractions show the amount of expansion in length of the rods of the various bodies passing from 32 to 212.

If tube of vulcanised India-rubber (d). gas cannot be procured, a common '.argand
oil-lamp, or a spirit-lamp will do.
Is it necessary to employ a 85. T. great heat for evaporating purposes, such as you have described ? No. P. very convenient method is to use an iron saucepan filled with sand, is heated by resting it upon some which

A

VIII.;
btieka,

CH:
to be distilled are placed in
,

115

and placing an argand lamp, similar
,,nder
it.

one part called

This

is
: :

\v

which has a pipe connected with end this pipe passes through
;

a sand-bath.
is

Sometimes the

cold water
vessel,

contained

in

a

tub

or
:.

other

over boiling water in another vessel, which is called a >uvenient manner water-bath. of evaporating small portions of i. to hold a small slip of glass over the flame of a spirit-

placed

and as the pipe (or worm,

technically called) is coiled within the tub, every part of it is exposed to rating action of the eold v. It requires to be renewed occasionally. may be conducted on a smaller scale by using a common glass retort, which may be fitted with a stopper, being then called

lamp, as
poratii.

in

i

Occasionally an evaover a
spiritl.-tiup

*'
tongs tongs

l7-

(?&
;

by means of a pair of 18) bent near the points. These .iseful, being frequently

F>g. 19.
Fig. IS.

required for lifting small crucibles from sand-baths, or furnaces.
86. T.
/'.

What

is

ignition

?

The neck of tubulated, as (a) in the retort is inserted into n flask immersed :n of cold water, and the heat maintained by a lamp (b) placed under the retort.
ttAL (irKSTIONS
1.
2.

This scarcely requires explanation, because nearly everybody knows that bodies become luminous when exposed to a high degree of heat (800 in the dark, and about

ON

LF.SSOX VII.
?

How
?

1000

in the daylight),

without undergoing chemical change. red hot it is said to be ignited but when it appears paler, or what is called white hot,
;

and radiate caloric any great marked body looks

measured What changes may be ascribed to
is

caloric

caloric
3.

Give the relative conducting power
?

of bodies
4.

Give examples of the degrees of the
t

(indetctnt.

heat of fluid

T

What
lie

is

distillation?
i

by convcc
of the bubof!

condensation of the vapour of a liquid or solid, by means of a particular kind of apparatus. Forexampl*
preparation of alcohol and distilled waters, the common still is used. The n.

motion

.v

are high temperatures nu ns of expan.

vaporisation, evapora<

tion, ignition,

and

III.
ve look around us, and sec the

many improvement* made

in objects that are

daily

I/:

by Chemistry.
bleaching,

our notice, we are struck with the great benefits conferred upon us The luxuriant crops of the farmer, the improvements in dyeing,
r

smelting, photography and soap and candle-making, flax-dressing, dagucrreotyping, baking, brewing, distilling, calico-printing, nml sugar-refining, are t not .liar instance* of the obligations we arc under to Chcmistr

116

CHEMISTRY.

[Lesson VIII

forget the improvements made in the manufacture and colouring of glass, the discovery of gun-cotton; the separation of wolfrum from tin, by Mr. Oxland's process of roasting; electro-gilding and silvering, the electric telegraph, the Bude light, porcelain manufacture; and the preservation of wood, canvass, &c., by Sir W. Burnett's chloride of zinc they furnish us with admirable examples of the application of Chemistry to useful purposes, benefitting mankind by its results, and turning our thoughts to Him
;

of the elementary bodies, we must notice some of the apparatus and processes required. Rectification is performed by the aid of heat, and is only the repeated distillation of any product obtained by distillation, but as it
requires a lower temperature than distillation, the more volatile parts only are raised and pass into the receiver, while the impurities remain behind. According to the process and the results, so it has received its name ; thus, when the liquid is distilled

who developes the faculties of invention. Before commencing the investigation

from any substance it is called abstraction ; when the product is re-distilled from the same materials, or another supply of the same materials, it receives the name of cohobation; and when the object is to increase the strength of the fluid by leaving the
watery part behind, as in the case of spirits, the process is called concentration or Sublimation is another process required to be performed the product is dephlegmation.
;

called a sublimate.

condensing them

It consists in driving off certain volatile parts of substances, and again in a solid form, which is done by employing a common crucible
it

with a cone of paper over mouth may be used.

in

some

cases

;

in others, two flasks placed

mouth

to

In determining the weight of bodies, the Apothecaries or Troy weight
used, according to the following table
:

is

commonly

POUND

[libra lb.]
1

OUNCES
==

[uncia |]

12
1

= =

DRACHMS

[drachma 5] 96 8
1

SCRUPLES

\scrupulus

3]

288 24
3
1

= =
==

GRAINS [granum,
5,760

gr.]

480 60
20

all that is required. Apothecary's balance with the necessary weights, is will be seen that drops are Liquids are measured by the following table, in which it not recognised, as they are very liable to vary in quantity from various causes. Graduated glass measures of different sizes are used for measuring

And

a

common

:

GALLON

[congius

C]

PINTS

[octarius 0]
1

FLUID OUNCES

[flu id- un

= = =
61,440 7,680

16
1

FLUID DRACHMS
1,024 128 8
1

[fluid

drachma /5]

MINIMS [minimum
480 60
their distinguishing signs, are inserted

The Latin names for the various weights and measures, and between bracket*. The Latin names are given in the singular.

Lesson VIII.]

CHEMISTRY.
QUESTIONS.

117

83.

r.

What do you mean by

the

70

will

occupy

less space.

a body ? specific gravity of It is the ratio of its weight to the P.

fore,

been found convenient

It has, thereto weigh all

weight of an equal bulk of another body, If taken as a standard [Experiment 12.] we fill one egg-cup with water and another with mercury or quicksilver, we shall find that although they both occupy the same space, yet the mercury is 13$ times heavier than the water, and hence we say that the density of mercury is greater than that of water. [See Q. 55, p. 15.]

bodies at a fixed temperature, such as 60 Fahrenheit Let us see how the 1,000 grain bottle acts. [Experiment 13.] I have the bottle here it is filled with distilled water, at 60, and you see how correct
;

it

is, for

it
it,

[Weighs
dries

How is the density or specific 89. T. gravity of a body ascertained ? P. It depends upon the nature of the That of fluid* is easily obtained. body. For example, take a small bottle with a
narrow

neck (Fig. 20), and
it

weigh
fill it

carefully.
(a),

Then

will now fill it with sulit]. phuric ether, and weigh it [ Does so, and the bottle is found to be too light]. You see that it requires 270 grains to be placed in the same scale with the bottle to balance the 1,000 grains weight; therefore we say that the specific gravity of the ether is 0730. Let us fill the bottle with sulphuric acid instead of the ether, and observe what takes place. [Does so, and the bottle

We

weighs exactly 1,000 grains. then empties the bottle and

with pure water up to a

weighs down the

and weigh it Now empty the again. bottle, dry it well, and fill it up to the same mark with any
certain
fluid

mark

see that we must add 875 grains to the scale with the weight in it, consequently the specific gravity of the acid is
1

You

1,000 grains weight]

say, for example, beer
it

the specific gravity of fluids ascertained by

91. T.

Is

not

and weigh

again

;

then

divide the weight of the fluid, r,y. jo. (the beer) the specific gravity of which is required, by the weight of the water, and the product will indicate the By employing a vial that specific weight holds exactly 1,000 grains of water,* much time and trouble in calculating is saved,

some other means than weighing them ? /'. Yes by means of the hy;

drometer or areometer, which conhollow glass tube, with a scale in the inside () so nrr that it denotes the specific gravity of lighter fluids by a scale with the degrees proceeding from the bottom to the top, and of heavier
sists of a

because we only require to weigh the liquid contained in the bottle, and its weight
expresses
90.
T.
its specific

gravity.
to

be particular necessary with respect to the temperature of the fluid to be weighed ? /' Yes; because we know that liquids arc extremely expansible when heated therefore, if one fluid (water) iswel. 60, and the other (spirit) at 70, it is probable that you will not have weighed an equal volume of each, because when they reduced to the same it will be found that the one that stood at
Is
it
;
i

Th*M botUTniar bVprocurtd for U. fid. tach .of Mr.,Ihormr.lt. * Wood, 1M, N.w,.,.,tr..t. London, from whom any or th apparatus UMd by Ga*or* y be purctuucd at a moderate ratt, ud
of tht belt quality.

by the degrees proceeding from the top to the bottom the' end of the tube is blown out into two hollow balls (Fig. 21), the lower one containing mercury, so ai to balance the instrument Now, if we place this instrument in vessel containing a fluid, and find that it marks 80 on the scale, uc learn that 80 parts of the fluid the speas loo d w.itrr weigh as much cific gravity is therefore that of water 100 to 80, or ViP or 1>25 / How can you asccrt.v a solid body f uprcific gravity of First weigh the body in P. then suspend it fnm the pan of a common balance (Fig. 22, b), by a fine thread, and
fluids
; .1
;

=

M

1

t

118
;

CHEMISTRY.
P.
Pulverisation
is

[Lesson VIII.
the

immerse it in pure water at 60 weigh it, and as it weighs less than when in the- air, will fall. Remove weights the opposite pan from the pan a until the equilibrium is restored, and the weight removed will
be the weight of the hulk of water disNow by the body immersed. divide the weight of the body in the air, by the weight of the water displaced, and the quotient will be the density of the body experimented upon, water being =1. need not be frightened at seeing the specific gravity of any body stated to be

reduction

of

placed

We

and brittle bodies, to a state of powder, and is generally performed by means of pestles in mortars. Trituration is performed by a rotatory motion of the pestle, and has the effect of making the powder very fine indeed. Levigation resembles trituration, only the process is assisted by using a liquid that docs not dissolve the body operated upon, such as water, spirit of wine, lard, honey, &c. When a painter uses a muller and slab to mix his paints, lie levigates them, (iranusolid, friable,

9 (as uranium),

it

only means that

it

is

used to divide mct;ils, and is performed by melting and stirring them quickly until cold, or pouring them through a bundle of damp straw, which is shaken
lation is

while held over a basin of water.

What are the 96. T. separate substances ?
P.
filtration.

means used

to

Sifting, washing, or elutriation, T.

and

97.

Explain the processes of

sifting,

and

elutriation.

Fig. 22.

p. Sifting is used to separate the finer particles of powders from the coarser, and is usually performed by means of wire or
Elutriation or washing hair- cloth sieves. to separate the finer parts of is used powders from the fluids with which they

nine times heavier than an equal bulk of
water.
93.
cific

How can we ascertain the speT. gravity of a gaseous body ?
To do
this
to

P.

we must have an
and weigh
it

air-

This may be done are sometimes mixed. by using a glass syphon (Fig. 23,) taking
care to insert the short leg b into the vessel containing the fluid, until it nearly touches the bottom, then closing the end

pump.
of air
;

We
this

then take a flask with a stopit,

cock attached

when

full

gives the weight of the air. the air by means of the it again, so as to find have now only the weight of the flask. to fill the flask with the gas, the specific gravity of which we have to ascertain, and weigh the flask, and then we learn the

Then we exhaust

air-pump, and weigh

We

of the long one with your finger, suck up the fluid by means of the arm c, until both legs are full, and on removing the finger the fluid will flow from a into a vessel placed The liquid may also be to receive it.

drawn

off

weight of the gas.

For example, suppose that the flask full of air weighed GO grains, and the empty flask 54 grains that leaves
;

attraction.

by capillary Sec Q.

107, p. 22.]
98.
/'.

T.
It
is

What

is

6 grains as the weight of the air and if the flask full of gas weighed 72 grains, it is evident that the gas weighs three times as much as the same bulk of air, or the gas
;

filtration?

is

=
P.

18,
T.

and the

air

=

used to separate solid bodies from fluids, the object
being to
liquid.

6.

get a

clear

9-i.

How

are bodies reduced to the
for

For

this pur-

state of

powder

chemical purposes

?

pulverisation, trituration, gation, and granulation. How are these processes 7'. <).').

By
?

levi-

take a square piece of white blotting paper, A B c D, (Fig.
pose,
at
first 24), double it over, B D, then at A E, and round it with a

per-

formed

Lesson VIII.]
1

TRY.
o,

110
a very simple apparatus. Take two common earthenware
flower-pots,without any flaw, and twist some iron wire tightly round the upper part of each, then make three or four holes (d), in the lower part of one (a), and place it on three or four stones so a.s to raise it above the ground, as in /'/'.-. IN. Have a piece of sheet iron pierced with holes r, fitted to this pot, and a chimney p, made of 8 |, eet j rou filted to tjie otner

so as to

make

P.

By

it look like the black part in the figure, then fold it again upon itst-lf, until it looks like the letter open it out, place it in a

V

;

uith
vater

disfig. 1*.

and pour the

liquid gently into the filtering paper.

If

the fluid docs not pass through readily, in consequence of the paper adhering to the sides of the funnel, place a straw between iner and the funnel.

is digestion? the process of obtaining the pot b, which should be somewhat larger soluble parts of sub- than the one The chimney just described. stances by the aid of should be about 2J to 3 feet long, and o heat glass matrass inches in diameter. When the heated (Fig. 25) with a piece of charcoal is placed above the perforated wire twisted round it to sheet iron c, and the pot with the el; suspend it over a spirit- covered over it, as in the Fig. abo\ lamp, is used for the have an excellent temporary furnace. When the va- little practice with this furnace will soon purpose. pour of the liquid in enable any one to regulate the quantity of which the substance is air required for the purpose of maintaindigested is valuable, as ing combustion. Crucibles should be puralcohol, the cork of the ci.a-.d. flask is fitted with a long we not another method open glass tube, so that the vapour be- of obtaining an intense heat on a small comes condensed in the tube and returns scale? again to the matrass, and on this account :cesi is called circulation.

What

P.

It

is

A

A

/Have

100. T.
I

What

is

decomposition

?

he separation of the component parts of substances, and may be (he result of the greater affinity of certain particles of the compound, for the decomposing lie caused by heat, elecor galvanism, separating the particles.

Fig. 27.

101.

if

flame o. With a gns-jet ;uid blowrowing down or separation of dizing the liquid whi^h pipe, or even a candle, and holds it in solution, caused by some other tobacco-pipe, and charcoal, we or rcduro their tain, may d. i.rcripitant is the body which prometallic oxides to the metallic form. .d the pr thrown do*: usually
i

precipitation

?

by means of the blow-pipe. consists of an inner deoxidizing or reducing flame d o, and an outer oxi/>.

Yes,

me

-lasses like

champagne GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON 1. Can you describe to me the processes

*

necessary sometimes i>tincd

of rcctific.r
'

abstract!. >n

:non

fire,

how

i

procur

hat are the weights ittf

made use of by

120

CHEMISTRY.
5.

[Lesson IX.

3. Describe the specific gravity of a fluid, a solid, and a gas. 4. Describe the signification and processes of pulverization, trituration, levi-

Describe the processes of sifting, elutriation, and filtration. 6. What means have we of obtaining a greater heat than that furnished by an
ordinary
fire ?

gation, and granulation.

LESSON
Now
that

IX.

we have become acquainted with the general principles and leading points of chemistry, we shall be better prepared to commence the investigation of some of the elementary bodies. The first group we shall consider is the gazolytes, consisting of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. In order to make experiments with gases, we must have a peculiar kind of apparatus, but it need not be expensive, and as we shall First of all we shall require it very frequently, it will be better to construct it at once. want a spirit-lamp, and therefore you had better cut off two inches of
bore a hole in
tubing.

brass tubing, and having fitted a small bottle (Fig. 28, d) with a cork, its centre with a red-hot wire, and insert the piece of

Pass some cotton through the tube,

() and

fill

the bottle

up

to the shoulder with spirit of wine. It is better to have a tin cover (c) fitted to the bottle, in order to prevent the evaporation of the spirit.

shape of the one Fit a Florence flask with a sound cork, then make in Fig. 29, and let it cool gradually. a hole in its centre to receive the bent tube, and place the flask upon the ring of a The retort-stand is only an iron rod, fitted to a heavy retort-stand (a 6), as in Fig. 29.

Fig. 2S.

long enough for your purpose (about eighteen inches) the flame of the spirit-lamp, and heat it gradually ;

Select a piece of glass tubing, about the size of a goose-quill, and hold it over ;
it

will

soon

begin

to soften,

and you should then bend

it

to the

and furnished with movable rings, which can be fixed in any position by screws.
base,

The pneumatic
tin,

trough

(t) is

generally

made of

japanned, and has a movable shelf, to support the receivers of jars in which the
It should be about 14 gas is collected. inches long, 9 wide, and 8 high, and when used is filled with cold water. "When not

able to procure a trough and convenient receivers,

a

common

washing-basin will form
latter.

a
Fig. 29.

good

substitute for the former, and a few

pickle bottles for the

about to collect gases attend to th then raise 1st. Fill the receivers by immersing them in the trough following rules: them carefully and place them mouth downwards on the shelf in your trough ready for 2nd. Before use, taking care that the water is at least one inch above their mouths. to escape, because the first portions are collecting the gas for experiment allow some
;

When

always inferior.

3rd. Attend to the lutings and joints of the apparatus, to see that no remove the end of gas escapes. 4th. When you apply heat to the apparatus be sure to the gas-delivering tube (c d) from the water before you remove the heat, otherwise the

Lesson IX.]
flask

CHEMISTRY.
5.

121

gases are to be kept for any length of time grease the 6th. Do not collect gases too long before stoppers of the receirers. they are required for use, as they are apt to deteriorate. 7th. As some gases are soluble in water be

may

burst.

When

careful in their preparation.

QUESTIONS.
oxygen ? 1'. One of the most widely diffused elementary bodies, and therefore
placed
105.
first

10 K

r._What

is

T.

among the gaseous bodies. What i< the name derived

same apparatus as before (Fig. 29), and place chlorate of potash in the flask by itself, and as soon as it boils the gas will be given off'.
ties

from, and by whom was it discovered ? /'. It is derived from two Greek words,
oxttte

108. T. Describe some of the properof the gas. In order to do this I must make P.

(dvs), acid, and gennao (ytvvaw), and therefore means the give rise to acid-maker. It was discovered in the year "L-heele in Sweden, and Dr. Priestley, in England the former called it al air, and the latter vital air but
I
; ; ;

some experiments.
gas,

and as

I

I have a jar of the wish to plunge some sub-

er
is

named
1.1057.

it

oxygen.

Its

specific

106. T. How is oxygen obtained ? /' By mixing one-fifth of black oxide of manganese with four-fifths of dried chlorate of potash, and placing them in a flask, as in Fig. 29, then applying heat, and placing the end of the gas-delivering tube under the receiver. By this means the whole of the oxygen is given off from the chlorate of potash, with greater facility n oxide of manganese is not used. T. Is this the only method of 1 the gas ? /'iy be obtained by using * short tube of hard glass, fitted with a -d cork and bent tube, and sup.

stance into the jar, I must turn it up. Observe, I grease this square piece of glass well on one side, and place the greased side under water against the mouth of the jar, and now I can turn it up and place it on the table without any fear of the gas escaping [Experiment 14]. ,i piece of copper wire, and you see that the end is turned up, thus. Now I will fix a small piece of wax candle to the part that is turned up, I. and pass the wire through a cork that
the bottle exactly [Does so]. If light the candle and blow it out so as to leave a red-hot wick, and then plunge it into the jar, it will ignite and burn with
fits

w

ng.

3i

we

a brilliant flame [Performs the ExperiAlthough oxygen burns so brilliantly now, yet it will not burn by and is therefore called a non-combustible, but a supporter of combustion.

ment].

109. T. Give me tions of its properties.
P.
j

some other
Here
is

illustra-

another [Experiment J of the gas, and you see that instead of the candle, I have a piece of red-hot charcoal attached to the wire, and, * plunge it into the gas it will bur:
1.3.

r

[.Performs

the
is

Experlu-.-uitiful,
it

Now, although
falls far

this

very
is a

short of another
.:m-nt Ki.J

I will
;

show you.

iron wire coiled

Hrre round to look like a corkhas been heated T<

by holding
ans of
"),

plunge

it

it over the spirit-lamp, into the jar of gas.

Gay Lussac's Holder,
.

and em|>.
,d of

:-(.]

You
I
\

i.irhaa

thin

was because

did not take

Of potash

(red prcn, but a better
;

chlorite

way

is

to use the

the precaution to ue a jar < ends, and the red-hut metal, winch you saw

122
fall
ill

CHEMISTRY.
little

[

lesson X.

globules, cracked the bottle.

experiment is performed the moved from the trough, jar should not be and the greased glass placed at the upper metal will fall in part, by this means the
"NVhen
this

"NY hat do you mean by 113. T. oxygen forming oxides with metals P. The gas combines and forms a compound which is called an oxide. These
!

oxides

are
;

divided

into

three

principal

the water.
Is there anything peculiar 110. T. about these globules ? Yes they are found to weigh more P. than the actual metal used, thus proving that they have combined with something which has weight this is oxygen, and the globules at the bottom of the trough are masses of black oxide of iron.
; ;

groups

1.

Those which resemble potash,

soda, or the oxide of lead in their chemical relations, called alkaline or basic oxides, and

sometimes

salifiable bases.

2.

Those which

have properties directly opposed to the first group, called acids, which have a strong tendency to unite with the salifiabK such as sulphuric acid and potash to form 3. The the salt sulphate of potash. neutral oxides, such as black oxide of

111.

T.

Can you
some

give

me any

other

manganese, which show

little

inclination

experiments
P.

to illustrate its

Yes, but
;

properties? of them are very

to unite with other substances.

and we have performed enough to show that it supports combustion, and readily combines with many substances.
dangerous
112. T. Is oxygen necessary existence ? P. Undoubtedly, but not in a
state.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSO 1. How are gases collected, and

what

to

our

You know

that

it

is

pure found in the

apparatus is required ? 3. Describe the processes of obtaining oxygen. 4. Give the properties of this gas.
5.

Illustrate

its

properties

by experi-

air

combined with nitrogen,

in water

com1

ments.

bined with hydrogen, with metals forming oxides, in the tissues of vegetables and animals, and in our blood.

oxygen essentially necessary ? does oxygen exist in com7. "Why bination, and not pure
;
.

G.

Is

LESSON
"WATER
consists of the two elements
it

X.
:

oxygen and hydrogen

we have examined the

former, and

will

now be our duty
it is

we employed

heat, but

procured oxygen not required in the preparation of hydrogen, the apparatus

to consider the Litter.

When we

being very simple, merely consisting of a common flask, or bottle, fitted with a good cork through which a tube-funnel (b) passes, to enable us to pour liquid into the bottle, and a gas-delivering tube (a) is also inserted into it, as in Fig. 32.

QUESTIONS.
hydrogen ? A gaseous body which we are unP. able to liquefy either by cold or pressure. It is inodorous, colourless, and tasteless when quite pure and has a very low with that of any specific gravity compared other form of ponderable matter, being
;

114.

T.

"What

is

gases; but certain things that cannot be weighed, like light, heat, and electricity,
are called imponderable*. [See Q. 111.
p. 22.]

116.

T.

What

is

the

name hydrogen
udoor,
(i>5up),

derived from ? Two Greek words, P.
water,
to
;

0.069, while atmospheric air
at 1,000.

is

estimated

What do you mean by pon115. T. derable matter ? p. Anything that has weight is said to
\>cponderable, such as

if

and gcnnao, (yevvaw], I give HM.it signifies a producer of water. How can we obtain hydrogen ? 117. T. P. By several methods. For example, we wish to do so for experimental pur-

oxygen and hydrogen

poses,

we usually place some granulated

Lesson X.]

CHEMISTRY.
121.
its

zinc, or zinc cuttings, in a wide-mouthed bottle (see Fig. 32) fitted with a glass tube to deliver the gas, and one to pour

T.

Give

me some
place
it

illustrations of
is

properties. /'.In the
all

first

the lightest

ponderable substances, being nearly 1 J times lighter than atmospheric air, and times lighter than oxygen. In order to 16 prove this, I will perform an amusing experiment. [Experiment 17.] I have removed the gas-delivering tube from the bottle we had before, and inserted another of a different shape (A) to which a small balloon, made from the lining membrane
1

of

of a turkey's crop, is attached. Of course, the dilute sulphuric acid has been added to the zinc in the bottle, and the gas generated

a fluid into the bottle ; we then add dilute sulphuric acid (one part of acid to five parts of water) by means of the tubeYou then see effervescence take funnel.
place,

before the balloon was and the gas rapidly issuing from attached, so as to drive Do not begin to collect any of oft* the atmospheric air. the tube a.

the gat until all the almoiphtric air has been txptllcd from the bottle, or an explosion will Some chemists collect two take place.

[The balloon
tilling

is

seen

as in Fig. 23]. hat the balloon is

bottles,

contain,
periir.*

and afterwards reject the gas they before obtaining any for cx-

full, I will tie

a string

some examples of the 118. T. several methods of procuring this gas. the same process as that llcpcat t now [Q. 117J, but substitute .Is for the zinc, and the gas
Again, take a gun-barrel and generated. place a quantity of iron turnings in it, lit one end with a long brass tube, and then e centre of the barrel red-hot, and pour water slowly into the o: will soon observe that gas escapes by the !>o collected as usual, H the first supply of course.
.as

MM

round the neck and set it free. [Does
sol.
it

You observ has ascended to the ceiling of the room, and
if

this

was
open

performed
air,
I

*.**.

in the

the balloon would soon be

out of sight.

have another pn

have got a bladder Till hydrogen, and littnlto a common tobaccopipe, and you must also observe that 1
I

u

become of the oxygen
i

of the

,.

squeeze the neck of the bladder to Now I will blow some gas escaping. of the soap-bubbles by dipping to soap-suds, ami :M; the bladder a squeeze tinder my a;
;
1

1

hat combines to form oxide

>t

iron
/'.

al loons

lil..

drogen

o.
iiis

gas was some.

IA

hydrogen an inflammable
it

times collet
/

is

it

gas

.'

hut although
this is

burns

it

docs

done by voltaic
clcc-

not support combustion.

electricity,

and

r.hcn

we consider
ic

Ummable.

process.

l-'t

CHEMISTRY.
tion of hydrogen,

[Lesson XI.

have placed the end of the bent glass tube (Fig. 32, a,) under water, and that bubbles
I will apply a of hydrogen arc escaping. lighted taper to them, and we shall see that they will ignite and explode at the same time. [Applies the taper, and the Here is another exbubbles explode]. periment to prove it is inflammable. [Ex.periment 20]. You see that this bottle has some zinc cuttings and diluted sulphuric acid in it, and that instead of a glass tube, the cork (which fits tight) has a piece of I will allow tobacco-pipe adapted to it. some more of the gas to escape, so as to displace the air before I apply a light, and then you will see that it burns. [When the light is applied, the gas burns with a very

which unites with the

oxygen of the

air.

125. T. As hydrogen burns without supporting combustion, and oxygen supcombustionwithout burning, it is probports

when combined a very rapid combustion will be the result. Is this the case? P. It is, and advantage has been taken of the fact, to produce the most violent degree of heat known, by means of an apparatus called the oxy- hydrogen blowpipe. In addition to this the oxy-hydrogen gas is thrown upon lime to produce ;i very
able that
brilliant light

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

X.

What

is

there peculiar about the pre?

faint light]

paration of hydrogen gas r
2.
3.

124. T. .What other peculiarities are there about hydrogen ? P. [Experiment 21]. You observe that the hydrogen is still burning, [Uses the bottle with the tobacco-pipe, Experiment 20], and that the sides of the tumbler I now hold over it are covered with dew. This dew is water formed by the combus-

W hy

is this

gas

named hydrogen

?

Explain the difference between ponderable and imponderable bodies. 4. Give the various methods adopted to procure hydrogen. 5. Does hydrogen support combustion ? 6. Give some illustrations of the properties of this gas.

LESSON
THE
especially

XI.

next elementary substance we have to investigate is called Nitrogen, a gas that constitutes about four-fifths of the atmosphere, and is largely diffused in nature, It was discovered in Scotland, in 1774, by in the organic kingdom.
its name from two Nitrogen means the generator of nitre, deriving to produce it is also, (vnpOv), nitre and geimaein, (yevvativ} and zoe (frr;), life meaning the lifeerroneously, called azote, from a (a) privative, it without dying, whereas if they breathe destroyer, because an animal cannot breathe is 0'972, and the oxygen it is so stimulating that they will go mad. Its specific gravity gas is devoid of taste, smell, and colour.

Dr. D. Rutherford.

Greek words,

nitron,

;

;

;

126. T.

QUESTIONS. How is matic trough

Nitrogen obtained? P. By burning phosphorus in air
enclosed in a jar orer water, as in Fig. 34. [Experi-

then touch the phosphorus* with a piece of hot wire, and cover the jar You observe, the jar is over it. [Does so]. being filled with dense white fumes, produced by the combination of phosphorus with
;

The oxygen, to form phosphoric acid. fumes have now disappeared, and you see
that the water has risen about one-fifth of the height in the jar, and the phosphorus has

ment

22].

Take

a piece

phorus
Iplace

phosabout the

of

jsize of a large pea, it in a small

^earthenware

dish,

and

let it lloat

on the surface of the pneu-

is a dangerous thing to handle, as hand may cause it to ignite. should be done under water, and always preserved in a bottle of water.

*

Phosphorus
cut,
it

the

warmth

of the

When

Lesson XII. j

CHEMISTRY.
P.

hausted

become extinguished because it has exall the oxygen in the jar.
T.

Yes, by passing chlorine gas through

a strong solution of

did the water rise in the jar, and what became of the white fumes ? P. The water rose in the jar because the air in the jar having lost about onefifth of its volume, and the water occupies The white fumes were dissolved its place. by the water, and pure nitrogen remains.

Why

ammonia; but preparation is attended with danger to inexperienced persons, I will not try it.
131. T. Give me some illustrations of the properties of this gas. P. [Experiment 24.] Here is a small jar full of it ; observe what takes place when I introduce a lighted taper. [Does The so, and the taper is extinguished.] reason the candle went out, is because

TV What has become of the oneof the air in the jar? P. It is exhausted by the phosphorus in the process of combustion, being the of the air, for you know that 100 volumes of atmospheric air contains olumes of nitrogen 21 oxygen carbonic acid Ja ^5 and the vapour of water. T. As this method of preparing nitrogen is not altogether free from certain objections, prepare the gas by some other
fifth
i
.

nitrogen cannot support combustion, [ExThis jar also contains periment 25].
nitrogen, and as I

am

going to add some

method.

observe what takes place. [Does so, and no change is observed ] You seem surprised that there was not any change, but I never expected to see any and only used these means to satisfy myself that the jar contained nitrogen and not carbonic acid, a gas that changes limewater white by forming an insoluble salt called carbonate of lime.
it,
;

lime-water to

Here is a porce23.] with the turnings of copper, now when this tube is heated to redness and a stream of atmospheric air passed through the tube, the nitrogen will issue at the opposite end. [Does You obso.] serve that the copper turnings, which have cooled, weigh more than they did put them into the tube they have combined with the oxygen of the air, to form "f copper.

/'.[Experiment
tube
filled

lain

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESS
1.

What

'

is

nitrogen

?

2.

Give the derivation of
nitrogen

its

name and
?

meaning.

known by any other name

1

;

gas obtained, and is there any danger attending its preparation ? 5. Give the composition of atmospheric
1.
is

How

this

air. 6.

Is there not another )f preparing the gasf 130.
T.

method

Illustrate the properties of this gas

by

experiments.

LESSON
have

XII.
:

now

to

examine the

halogens, or tail j.roilurcrt

Chlorine, discovered by
;

Hrornine, Scheele, in Sweden, in 177J; Iodine, discovered by Courtois, in France, in 1811 discovered by Balard, in France, in 1826 ; and Fluorine, first accurately examined by

Scheele, in

Swu

QUESTIONS.
132. r.
/'.

What

is

Chlorine
!
.

?

A
'.)

uurine.

greenish-yellow, pungent gan, oe, and rrttinhliug Its specific gravity
:

/'. Hy placing some finely powdered black oxide of manganese in a Mil pouring some strong liquid hydrochloric

heat,

.

x

i

thcnamed 11* lcA/<,ro,( X Apof),grcc.
/ x

fiiiAitiiti.iiutiii'aiiniMiiivuiav* mixing equal parts of the black
,

'

to lts colour '

/

^ ^h,,

02
1

ftud

1-U.

r.

How

is it

prepared

t

<

and acid)

sulphuric acid (equal part, of water to them when placed in the flask.

126

CHEMISTRY.
ment

[Lesson XII.

Instead of collecting the gas over water as usual, let the tube pass to the bottom of

Here is some metallic anti29.] mony in line powder [pours it into the jar of the gas] now see what a beautiful shower of iire it produces. [Repeat Ex;

periment 28, using copper leaf instead, and plunge phosphorus in the gas for another experiment.]
137.
it

T.
?

What

other

properties

does

possess P. It

is

infecting

agent,

a powerful bleaching and diswhich results from its

ment damp
Fig. 35.

strong affinity for hydrogen. [ExperiThis wire holds a sprig of 30.] let us see what will be the. parsley effect of plunging it into the gas. [Places it in the It has lost its beautiful jar].
;

receiver, which should be loosely covered with a piece of card by this means, the chlorine will fill the bottle and displace

the

green colour,
white.

and

is

rapidly

becoming-

;

the air

;

it

may

be collected over

warm

water, but then the gas expands from the heat.
135. T. Why is not this gas collected over water as usual ? P. Because cold water absorbs it. [ExYou observe that about periment 26.] two-thirds of this bottle is occupied by I will chlorine, and the rest by water. shake it [does so, and the water dissolves the chlorine], and now you see that the yellow-green colour has disappeared, because we find that one part of water will
dissolve two parts of chlorine, forming what is called chlorine water.

138. T. What is IODINE? P. solid body, which looks very like plumbago or black-lead, and smells like chlorine. Its name is derived from the

A

Greek word iodese, (iwSijs), violet-coloured, and its specific gravity is 4-948.
139. T.
properties.

Give some

illustrations of its

P. [Experiment 31.] I have placed a few grains of iodine into a flask observe what a beautiful violet colour it gives out when heated over a spirit-lamp. [ExThis tumbler contains a periment 32.] solution of starch, made with hot water, and allowed to cool observe wluu place when I add this very small piece of
;
;

136. T. As you have collected several bottles of the gas, give some experiments illustrate its properties. to P. Be careful not to come too near,

iodine and stir the starch. [Does so, and the starch changes to a beautiful blue colour]. This last experiment proves the value of
starch as a test for iodine.

because this gas

How is iodine procured ? 140. T. very irritating, and if From help, or the half-vitrified ashes P. Now, you observe inhaled, is injurious.* but the process is too long that I have several discs of millboard, well of sea-weeds greased, to go over the tops of the bottles, to enter into. and also that each disc has a piece of What is BROMINE? 141. T. twisted wire passing through its centre. P. It is a deep brownish-red liquid, [Experiment 27.] I will plunge this wire, with a very foetid, disagreeable odour, as witli the lighted taper attached to it, into its name implies, being derived from the it burns with a dull the gas [does so] Greek word bromos, (fipwfjios), a noisome red light, and is now extinguished. [Ex- smell. Its specific gravity is 3. This wire has a piece of periment 28.] How is bromine obtained? 142. T. leaf attached; see how vividly it burns gold From sea water but the process is P. now that it is placed in the gas. [Experisuffice it to say that too long to describe * When experimenting with chlorine, it is ad- chlorine is used to decompose the bromide visable to sprinkle a strong solution of ammonia of magnesium, in which form it is generally about the table, and also to have a cloth moistened found, and that ether is then added, and with near to the
is
;
;

;

;

it,

operator.

Lesson XIII. j

CHEMISTRY.
of silver, &c.

1.7
It is said to dissolve nearly

agitation employed, so as to dissolve the bromine ; afterwards, caustic potash is

everything

it

touches.

added, and evaporation and other processes

conducted.
its
.

properties!

so

y soluble in water, in alcohol, and freely in ether.
j

more [Ex32, the

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSi 1. Name the discoverer of each
halogens.
J.

of the

Repeat Experiment

using bromine instead of iodine, and colour is changed to orange-yellow instead of blue. ^'hat is FLUOR P. It is an element that has never been isolated, because as soon as it is separated from one compound, it unites with soir.e other substance.
.

What
?

is

there

peculiar about chlo?

rine
3.

How
What

is it

obtained

4.

Illustrate
'rimi'iits.
is

the properties of chlorine
?

T.

i

:>.

iodine
its

How is it

prepared

.'

anil 6.

what are

proper

Illustrate the properties of iodine

by

experiments.
7.

T.

How

do we know that

it

does

How How

is

bromine obtained, and what

are

Because

it is

found in the fluoride of
is

8.

calahm

(fluor, or

Derbyshire spar), fluoride

properties ? is fluorine obtained, and what there peculiar about it ?

its

LESSON
it
;

XIII.

you have learned all about the elements of Chemistry, you should then study more fully because it is a science that requires a life-time devoted to it, and even .nnot be mastered, as fresh discoveries are made every day. It is on this account

that I have not described the compounds of elements, such as oxides, hydrate?, nitrates When you are better acquainted with the chlorides, iodides, bromides, fluorides, &c. For example elements, you will learn that these substances form many compounds.

bromine vapour and hydrogen combine in equal volumes oxygen and carbon combine to form carbonic oxide.

to

form lydrobroviic

a<

QUESTIONS.
.

i

Carbon?

148.

T.
?

Is graphite or

plumbago pure
;

body, found in many ,t forms, constituting a large proportion of all organic structures, animal Actable, and found in a state of
.ry

carbon
/*.

but the finest specimens of Borrowdale plumbago consist of pure carbon.
as well as a piece of charcoal, or any other

Some specimens

contain iron

and crystallised, as plumbago, and as diamond.
purity

graphite or Thus, char-

coal, black-lead, bone-black, lamp and the diamond are, chemically speaking,

/'.Is carbon combustible ? ond /'.Yes, we cm

the
1

same substance.
(7. y.

kind of carl

What
/'.

are its properti
elc<-

diamond, charcoal, and the other substances you have na
If the

good conductor of and a bad conductor of heat.
It is a

It is

not

posed of the same substance, how iliflcr in appearance ?
,

itures,

but
air

rr.-uli

arrange)!. as I explained to

gas or

common

<>xygen
to redness,

when heated

you

and leaves only a small quantity of ashes,
but generate* a gas called carbonic acid.

128

CHEMISTRY.
?

[Lesson XIII.

151. T. What is carbonic acid gas P. An extremely poisonous gas.
is

It

jar in

upon the flame of the spirit-lamp from the my hand. [Does so.] You sec it
has extinguished
154. P.
T.
it.

incapable of

supporting

combustion,

and therefore differing from carbonic oxide, which is a combustible that burns with a

What

is

SULPHUR?

The former contains its pale blue flame. own volumes of oxygen, and the latter only half its volume of oxygen.
1.32. T. How is carbonic acid gas obtained ? P, By decomposing a carbonate with one of the strong acids, and collecting the same as chlorine, only with this difference, that we do not require heat, and that the gas should pass through a long tube filled with fragments of chloride of calcium. [Experiment 34.] Take a piece of marble, break it into small pieces the size of a pea, and put ten drachms of it into a bottle like that used for generating hy-

A simple elementary body, often found in a free state. It is too well known to In its require much description. chemical relations it bears great blanceto oxygen. It is insoluble in water and alcohol, but soluble in bisulphuret of
carbon, the fat oils, and oil of turpentine. It has no taste, nor smell, and is fusible.
15J. T. What is PHOSPHORUS? P. An elementary body, closely allied to sulphur, nearly colourless, and resemis inbles partially bleached wax. It soluble in water, but dissolves iii oils, of carbon. alcohol, and sulphuret

156.

r.

How is

it

prepared?

drogen (Fig. 33),

then add six drachms

of distilled hydrochloric acid (equal parts of water and acid) by means of the tubefunnel. [Experiment 35.] Repeat the above experiment, only substitute carbonate of ammonia instead of marble.
153.
T.

P. By decomposing the phosphate of lime in bones, by means of sulphuric acid, and then causing it to undergo a long process, which I will not describe, as it is not
sufficiently useful.

Illustrate

its

properties

by

experiments. P. [Experiment 36.] Here is ajar of I will carbonic acid.

What is BORON? 157. r. An elementary substance procured P. from borax, but as I have never seen it, (and I believe very few persons have,) it is as well to pass it over.

plunge a lighted taper into it, holding the jar mouth upwards. [Does
so.]

What is ALUMINUM ? 158. T. P. A metal, and therefore I shall defer
its

occurs

description until another opportunity of examining all the important

You
is

see that the

metals.

extinguished. Here is a [Experiment 37."] jar with some lime-water in it You see that I pour the (A). carbonic acid from the other jar like you would water (see
(n) Fig. 36). [Does so.] Observe, the lime-water is milky, because an insoluble carbonate of lime

flame

[The pupil should consult Cat. XI.]

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON XIU.
1.

What

2.

is the purest kind of carbon ? Describe and illustrate the properties

of carbon.
it

fiy- so.

has

been formed.

[Experiacid

What is carbonic acid gas ? 11 w is obtained, and what are its properties? 4. \Vhat is sulphur, phosphorus, and
3.
?

ment

38.]

I will

now pour carbonic

boron

.

EOL1XGTOX,

1'IU.NTEH,

GCbV.tLL blKKKT.

OPTICS,

AND ACOUSTICS.

INTRODUCTORY NARUATIVK

LESSON
'I

1.

town and royal burgh of Jcdburgh, which is situated on tinJed water, in Roxburghshire, was
in

old shire

formerly celebrated for
strong
castles,

its

bold

woodland
koned the
as the
t>

and splendid

ecclesiastical builu

some of which
.nid,

ruins of
.

Jedburgh Abbey now
of science,
J
iiiti-rest,
it

st;I\

I

possesses an addil-ii)!:
tlu- >)irth-

from

130

INTRODUCTORY NARRA1 iVB.
David
Bre\vstv,r,

Lesson

I,

place of the celebrated philosopher Sir December, 1781.

who

v

Q the llth of

His father, who was a worthy member of the church of Scotland, and rector of the grammar-school of Jedburgh, educated his son toi'ollow iu his footsteps, and therefore, after David had received a thorough preliminary education, he was sent to the university of Edinburgh, and having completed his studies, became a licentiate of the

church of Scotland.
In the year 1800, when only nineteen years of age, the university conferred the honorary degree of M.A. on him and he commenced the study of the science of optics by repeating Sir I. Newton's experiments on the inflection of light, from which
;

he concluded that the phenomena of inflection are not dependent upon the nature of the body by -which they are caused. In a few years, ill health obliged him to give up the clerical profession, a circumstance that caused

him much

regret.

In 1807, the university of Aberdeen conferred the honorary degree of LL.l). him and in 1808, the Royal Society of Edinburgh elected him Fellow of their body. 4i In 1808, he commenced editing the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia," a work that \,ii:
;

ever be a memorial of his indefatigable labours in the cause of science. Bcsiu. tributing the articles on the sciences of electricity, optics, mechanics, hydrodyi

astronomy, and expansion, he wrote upon the kaleidoscope, which he invented
roicroscrope, anemometer,

iu 181G,

and other instruments, besides the biographies of many eminent scientific men. When engaged upon this work, he was one day much bothered by an abstruse calculation. Evening had arrived and it was not solved he therefore ordered his carriage, and notwithstanding that it was late at night apd he was much exhausted, yet he carried away his papers, and accompanied by his servant, to prevent him going to sleep, drove off to Minto, where he arrived early in The noble lord soon saw the morning, and explained his difficulty to Lord Minto.
;

how

it -was to be solved, and whiU: engaged in finishing the calculation, Brewster fell upon the floor quite exhausted, and was soon fast asleep. Few can imagine, the mental and bodily exertion that he endured while editing this work, from the year 1808 to

1830, when it was completed. In 1810, he married the eldest daughter of J. Macpherson, Esq., of Belleville, Inverness, by whom he has had several children. In 1814, he visited France and Switzerland. In 1816, he received half of the
of France, the other half being adjudged physical prize of 3,000 francs of the Institute to Dr. Seebeck, of Berlin, for the most important discoveries made in any branch of In 1819, he gained the RumfYrd science in Europe during the two previous years. of London, for his discoveries on the gold and silver medals of the Royal Society
polarization

of light. in In 1819, he was elected General Secretary of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, In the same year he established fair. consequence of the decease of Professor Play " Jameson. Afterthe Edinburgh Philosophical Journal," conjointly with Professor " wards he conducted the Edinburgh Journal of Science," and established the Society
ai In 1825, he was elected corresponding member of the Institute of France, and many other the Royal Academies of Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Denmark,

of Arts for Scotland.

scientific bodies.

I.

ELEC.KICITY.

In 1S26, he left Edinburgh t<> take u;> bis residence on the banks of the Tweed, near to Melrose, where he bad purchased a property, and where he st.ll laboured at " the Edinh icdia," and other works. Beautiful as this part of ihe country
-j

naturally is, and interesting from many associations, yet it is rendered still -so by the beautiful ruin of Mel rose Abbey, which was founded in 1136, by David I., or, as he is more commonly called, " St. David."

more

King

In 1828, he obtained the Keith medal of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, for the discovery of two new fluids contained in the cavities of the topaz. In 1830, he published an admirable essay on polarization iu the ** Philosophical Transactions," for which the Royal Society of London awarded him one of their royal " medals; and the following year he published the life of Sir I. Newton in the Family

He was elected Vice- President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in the year 1831, and received the decoration of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, with several other eminent and scientific men. In 1832, he was knighted by Kin<r William IV. He now fills the Principal's chair in the united college of St. Salvador and St. Leonard, at the university of St Andrew's, Fifeshire. And in the Great Exhibition he was chairman and reporter of the jurors and associates in Class X. i, (Philosophical Instruments and their Dependent Processes.)*
several

Besides contributing various important papers and essays to the transactions of the learned bodies with which he h.is been connected from time to time, and

'he journals he has conducted, he has also edited the

works of

others, translated

Legendre's

Amon
of the
.

the

"Geometry and Trigonometry," and published several scientific works. Letters on Natural Magic," which is one number, we must m- mion his
' ;

volumes of the Family Library; "The Martyrs of Science; or, the Heirs of " a treat ihe on "Optics," in M Lardner's Tycho Brahe, and Kpier " and the papers in th- M I. imbur-h Encyclopaedia which more mat piia;"
interests us iu the present instance.

QUE8TI
1

ECTBIC1TT, ND EXPLANATIONS.
/'.

7'.

What
:

is

the

term Electricity
clf<t

It

has been observed by philosos

(hit
/'
v

word
.on Id

then- arc certain "l. which acquire the property of
light

rpW).
/'.-

a-

1

bod

es,

when

they are

amber gire the
one of the wise
:ie

I

hale*,

flee-

Were aid

t'

be dtri?,,,tl

.

r <>,(>, r-l,ke.

nee?

peculiar kind of excitation Hid it has also been observed, n in a dark :nd the excitation N- powerful, that taint flashes of hitht. or luminous sparks, that then- is a crack i. ;md is,attending the excitation, tad alto a peculiar oil '/'. (live me some proof that MetlOB
i
-4

recently he ha* been consulted respecting the funoui diamond exhibited In lh< recommended ihe " Koob-i-noor," or " Mountain of l.lcht." tnd he BiMMtion. n known
I

M
is

hu

o
i

cut anew; D

*Uo

of optoiwn that

it

not ihc true K.onh.tBogr,

.Ubough a

vluMr

*ir.

nU.

132
\cite the properties

r.l.KcTL.UTV.
you have men?

Lessen

I.

tioned

glass, and apply them to the pith- hah, shall observe that a sensible effect is

we

pro-

duced upon it, for it is either attracted towards the substance presented, or it is Some bodies, such as wood, repelled. charcoal, and precious stones, scarcely produce any attraction and if we rub a metal we do not observe the least attraction.

^'.[Experiment
rod,

1.]

Here

and you see that when

a glass I touch the
is

6.

T.

From what you have
that

stated

it

would appear
electrical

some bodies beemne
and others do not

pieces of paper, elder-pith balls, feathers,

by

friction,

and sawdust that are upon the table, that no change takes place. I will try this
(Does so.) You see no change and if I were to try a piece of amber or sealing-wax it would be just the same. [Experiment 2.]
that there
is
;

rod of brimstone.

acquire such a property by that means. Is it so? P. Yes bodies are divided into conductors and non-conductors. The former called aneleclric bodies, and the latter idio:

eleclric bodies.
7.
7".

the glass rod with my silk handkerchief, which is quite dry. (Does You observe that the pieces of paper, so.) pith, balls, feathers, &c., are attracted (see Fiy. 1) towards the rod, and if we rubbed the amber, sulphur, or sealingM-ax, the same effect would be produced. The cause of the phenomenon you have witnessed is called Electricity.
[The pupil should try Experiment 2, in the dark, and he will observe faint luminous
with a cr.ickling noise, and peculiar odour. Let him repeat the experiment, and use oiled silk sprinkled over with Mosaic gold, or aurum musivum, or mosaicum.*
flashes, aivl sparks,

I will

now rub

Enumerate the non-conductors.
;

Shell-lac, sulphur, amber, jet; all resinous bodies, pitch and wax gums,

P.

including india-rubber and camphor; all vitreous and vitrified bodies precioiu' substones, gutta percha, bituminous stances, silk, dried furs, and skins, hair.
;

feathers, paper, porcelain, turpenvarious oils and fatty fluids, choca. dry gases, the atmosphere, steam of Fahr. high elasticity, ice at 8. T. Enumerate the conductors. All metals, well-burned and dryP. charcoal, plumbago, concentrated and diluted acids, saline fluids, water, moist
tine,
all

wool,

5.

7*.

body P.

will

do you know whether a electrical by friction ? By using the electrical pendulum.

How

become
It

(See Fig. 2.)

consists

of a piece of wire, bent as

you see here, and inserted
into a
glass

vegetable matter, living animal matter, flame, smoke, steam. 9. T. Demonstrate to me that some of the substances you have enumerated possess the properties ascribed to them. If we use an electrifying machine P. and develop electricity, we render the

stand at one

end, while
the other end

supports

a

conductor of the machine, which is a If we bring a metallic body, electric. metal cylinder, supported on a glass pedestal, in contact with the conductor, the metal will be electrified through its whole
extent
its

pith -ball, which is suspended by a n' n e linen
thread.
If

hold of the cylinder, all instantly disappear, because the human body is a good con;

if I lay

electricity

will

ductor.
10.

we

place a

body near the

ball

T.

Your observations

lead

me

to

and

not attracted, it is either non-electric or too slightly electric to produce any
it is

believe, that all idio-electric bodies or nonI correct? conductors are insulators.

Am

effect.

It

we rub

resin,

* For the method of cvm, see Family Frit-iid,
Series.)

amber, sulphur, and preparing aun.m tnosaivol.
ii.

p.

56.

(Old

P. Yes ; and all anelectric bodies transmit or conduct electricity. A conductor of be electric electricity can, therefore, only while it is insulated or surrounded by

Lesson

I.

;

KICI

n.
n

133

and steam perfect non-conductors. Water ->d conductors, aud, therefore, uo can understand how it is that electrical
not answer in damp he attr.osph.-re conducts Bat a dry atmosphere being a it away.* noo -conductor, it insul.. rub a metallic rod while it not it is held in your lund, why does
I

made

electric

by contact with a

will

rubbed with silk, and the other by a rod of shell-lac rubbed with fur. When I tee. Now, observe what t.ikes
]>'.

glass rod

bring the shell-lac near to the ball that has been repelled by the glass rod, it w ill
attract the ball. [Does so.] No will see that the reverse takes place

on the

become
P.

electric ?

>"d

Because the electricity which is by friction is transmitted to the

other side. Places the the ball.] \ouobserve pelled by the shell-lac is have thus
electricity
tical

glass rod near to that the ball reattracted by the provid that the

/'.

bodies doctors and non-conductors ? Vrs ; it would be more correct to P. call them good and bad conductors. How maiiy kind? of electricity 13. T.

Would it not be better to call by some other names than con-

>ly.

developed by glass is not idenwith that evolved from resin, because the one attracts and the other rep <> How are the terms positive and 7'.
1

negative expressed ? P. By the arithmetical sijrns of plus + ami minus the former denoting the , positive and the latter the negative elec-

P.
2.

-

Galvanic
I

or
>-;

Frictional electricity ; Voltaic electricity ; 3.

Theme-el
.M.i:

on

:

and

6.

Electrofractional

From what you have shown me, it appears that certain phenomena occur when substances that possess electrical properties come in presented to each other.

tricity. 17. 7".

low many kinds of

contact, or are I'.xplaiu these

phenomena.
-,

and

/'.

15

xlus

in

dissimilar states of elecin

rtsinons or negative electricity. Prove that such is the case. 15. T.

tricity attract anci
;

each other; for exam;
simil
ir

/'.Here

is

i.i

.

lulura.

each other for or both +.
to be n
18.

xaniple,

when
t:

both

'S are in
-

an ordi-

nary state, or uneitctrifu-d,
/
,/.

3

)

T.

Does

i.

y

depend

in

/'.Yes; smooth
silk

glass
\

rubbed
it

or wool becomes positive, but
sand,

if it

with be

becomes
nt.

under the same tn atnu

QUESTIONS ON I.KSSUN
1.

I

Wh.it
:il

is

n:-

-dies

being

?

v
a plasR
i

peculiar about elec-

!

'rove
ich

that

ti

of
i

ball is

supen<i<
M<Iultim

li

>\\

.in-

bodii

i

<i;

of 3

f

i

1

Of

T1>U berrd v
'.v

I*

Impor'nn
to 7.
.

and rare taken

Ho

.t

:

ooad -ions of

warmth and

frkt.

bodies expressed

?

134

ELECTRICITY.

Lesson II

LESSON

II.

ELECTRICITY, according to Franklin, signifies a single imponderable fluid, which produces the phenomena of positive and negative electricity, by its relative excess or deficiency. Dufay and Symmer consider it to be two imponderable fluids, similar in their properties, but diametrically opposed in their mutual relations. The hitter theory has been more generally adopted as a means of explaining electrical phenomena, and it has been considered that when these two fluids are united in one body, and they mutually neutralize each other in that body, it is in its natural condition"; and when the two electricities are decomposed in a body, if the vitreous electricity predominates,
it

will

become

minates.

A difference

positively electric; but negatively, if the resinous electricity

predo-

Very

recently,

has always beeu made between the electric and magnetic fluids. however (Feb., 1852), Mr. Groves demonstrated before the members
is

of the Royal Institution that electricity
relations

not a

fluid,

but merely a quality of djnaniu.-

between molecules.

We

will

perform

his

experiment

for ourselves.

\

[Experiment 3.] Here is a bar of wood suitported at both ends, and having six small balls of ivory suspended from it (a bed ef) by silk cords. Now let us imagine
that the line of balls represents the particles of a bar or wire If we through which the electricity is to he transmitted.

/ ed

c b
4.

a

remove

Fig.

ball b, the

act only on the ball/ at the rest and to be moved in the

and allow it to impinge or strike against tinwhole line will not move forwards, but will appear t<> the other end of the row, causing it first to separate from tin
thetball a,

motion,

same direction as the ball which communicated tin from the position of /to/'. The ball/' will, in turn, impinge on tin ball e, and cause the ball a to be separated to the distance a', which is not quite s<> From this experiment, Mr. Grove* great as that of/' from its original position/.
viz.,

concludes, that as the transmission of a force without motion, except at the extremities is very evident, that electricity or the transmission of what is calK-d the electric current,

may

be referred to a parallel agency.

Mr. Groves
electricity
is

cited as an

example of

the molecular disturbance of conductors

when

transmitted through them,

the -well-known expansion of a platinum wire when voltaic electricity is passed through it, and the appearance of little globules all along the wire when electric fusion was employed. [The pupil should read Catechisms I. and III., particularly pages 12, 14, and 70.]

QUESTIONS.
19.

T.

If

+

electricity

be given
it

off

together,

you

will

not observe

by

friction in a body, does

not follow
off in

any traces of

electricity as long

that

electricity
?

must be given

an

equal degree

P. Yes ; and I will prove it to you by a simple experiment. [Experiment 4.]

as they are in contact; but immediately that 1 separate them, the one becomes positively electrified,

and the other negatively.
so,

Here are two
rods.

discs

insulated

by glass
I

[Does

and the

result

is

as

The upper

one,

which

hold in

right hand, is made of glass, and the lower one of wood covered with leather, which has been rubbed over with amalgam. Now, when I rub these two discs

my

anticipated.] Do 20. T.

bodies

show

you imagine thru a preference for

either kind of ekcrrieity ? No ; the same body P.

may

Lesson III.
be ni;
jt

133
v olec-

is

r

.

s

positively
silk,

electric

when ruhbM wiih wool or
i

According to the amount of surfaces on passing from one insulated conductor to another. Suppose that a charged conductor is brought in contact
/'.
1

II. 1 circumstances ?

>:

with fur. bodies influenced by

i'h

the ground,
it

it

will lose all its elec-

\ P. \r. arrangement of the moleci iture, and the surface of the bcid-L-s produce different effects for exfrom those usually observed ample, a blacl; silk riband will be ren.

:

distributed over so further suppose two the same size and halls, iusula-ed ; the one on the right being d and the other not. When these re brought in contact, the electrified one will lose exactly half its

because large a surface.
tricity,
ic

is

And

both

.

dered

nejra'ivi'iy electric if
/".

rubbed with a

elcctnT.'

What
?

are the best insulating

How

is

electricity
it

communi-

substances

pass from one by in: contact, or by traversing a distance of more or less" extent between the body communicating and the body conveying
/'.

When

free

may

.

eith.-r

it. It may h. communicated by from one body to another withou' and then we ohs. rve what
;

/'.The vitreous and resinous noncondiuvors (see Q. 7), such as shell-lac, sulphur, dry glass, and also silk. Wo know that there are two 26. 7". kinds of electricity, because it has been demonstrated by experiment. I wish to know if one kind only can be developed
/'.Certainly not. One kind of eleccannot be developed without the oiher, any more than one kind of magnetism. If a body is rubbed, the body and the rubber assume opposite states; the one is positively and the other negatively electrified. "(See Q. 19.)
tricity

is

an electric spark. [Experiment 5.] a metal rod, and VMI will observe that when it is brought rear to the conductor of the electrifying machine, that a vivid spark is produced, and also a snapping noise. [Does so, and the effect is If I placed my k:. observed.] near a rubbed glass or shell- lac rod, the much effect would be the same, only
o .IK-d
!

x n
>

it

possible to

draw

.

respecting

sparks from the

human
.

bo-:

n stand

upon a

stool
<>!<!

ny reason to doubt the
th

with glass Ifgt, and bring the body into tor of an electrical contact wit!
turned, a peculiar creeping K If I get upon snlated Mool, and place my knuckles near a spark will be any j p, n in pr< 1, and a shock to the distance the electricity has tra1
.

ory
in
;id

tii

fluid?

we

lu-LMtiv

>n

excite equal degrees of poat the same >ns of friction? the same body have opposite
(i-

States
5.

if

ler:rieity

In what
Is
it

manner

H

y

com-

gm

6

possibk

>sitive elcc-

VMMd
/'.

How

uthout developing negative ekeis electricity

dulri

1

LKs>n\
have already seen that the opposite
and, like states, repel e
.

in.
states
n
:>

attract

Now

this attraction

one another, show* >

KI.KrTRICITY.
itself

Lesson III.

the two kind* of electricity are uncombined, but al.-o \\-\u-n they are combinc-d and tlu re tore wlu-n an rleetric body is placed neur to a body in a natural condition, disturbance takes place. This is

when

;

easily

demonstrated

[Experiment

6].
to
it.

Here

is

an insulated

nu-tal

hook, with a metallic ring attached
resin (a),
ring, the

and two

fine metallic threads,
I

having pith-balls at their extremities. which has been rendered

Now when
electric

by

friction,

bring this roll of near to the

two balls will be repelled, although the resin is at a considerable distance from them and the nearer it is brought the more the balls diverge; but immediately the resin is removed the balls will fall together. [Removes the resin, and the balls
;

Now all this depends upon the are seen as represented by the black balls in Fig. 6]. separation of the electricities which were combined in the metallic ring and pendulums before the resin was placed near to them and the reason is this, the electricity is repelled towards the balls, whilst the + electricity is attracted to the ring.
;

When a body charged with one kind of electricity is placed near to other bodies, Let us but not in contact, it communicates the opposite kind of electricity to them. Here is some apparatus of a simple kind that you may see that such is the case.
construct for yourselves.*

*

I

Fig.

7.

Fig.

8.

Fig.

9.

Fig.

10.

Fig. 10 represents the prime conductor of an electrifying machine ; Figs. 8 and 9 are two insulated metallic cylinders, placed end to end, but not in contact with each

other or the conductor.

Fig. 7
7].

,

is

an insulated brass
if I

ball,

with a pith-ball (') sus-

turn the electrifying machine, the surface of Fig. 10 is positively electrified, and acts upon the insulated cylinder Fig. 9, so as to make the end r negatively electric, and the end v positively electric. This is by

pended to

it,

[Experiment

Now

induction, and

we observe

that the central part c

is

neutral,

and that the adjoining

cylinder (Fig. 8) is also rendered negatively and positively electric at either end, as in the other case; and further, that the brass ball (Fig. 7) is rendered negatively
electric

on one

side,

and positively

electric

on the opposite

side, so as to repel

the

pith-ball (a').

QUESTIONS.
meant by induction? P. It is the excitement exerted by a body already electrified upon all surrounding substances, and is exerted at
27.

T.

What

is

very sensible and considerable distances, producing a state opposite to its own in

the proximate parts, and a similar one in the remote parts. [See Experiment 7]. 28. T. Does the intensify of the electrical disturbance depend upon the proximity of the bodies? P. Yes, it diminishes with the distance

* For the method of constructing various kinds of Philosophical, Chemical, Electrical, and other " Practical apparatus, see the papers now publishing in the new eries of the Family Friend, on Science."

Lesson III.
from the charged body (d Fig 10); and if it is entirely removed, all the disturbance ceases, thus demonstrating that the nent was only temporary or induced.
'29.

li V.

T.

Suppose that one end of an

render this plainer, we have only to say that if we want a negative charge M ruS a glass rod with silk, and use that, because it is + electric. /'.How do you account for the action <.f electric bodies upon the electrosco;
/'.

To

cylinder (Fit/. 9) is made to communicate with the ground by means of a conducting medium, what would be the el": VI, I,- the electric body (d Fig. 10) still acred by induction, all the repelled electricity would be carried off by the and the i;isuhted conductor reearth, main charged only with the electricity of If we remove the iucting b.>dv. communicating nudium with the and the inducting body, the insulated
insulated

By
7'.

the laws of electrical induction.

33.

What apparatus do we

require

to develop friction*! e ectric
/'. The apparatus is very extensive, because we also require some for collecting the electricity, as well as developing it. It will be better to describe each s-pa H>w do you usually excite and 34. 7'.

conductor will be. charged throughout with the same electricity. 30. 7'. What is an e'lectroscope? \n instrument for

shoeing

t!

of electrical excitement. It may be constructed of

I\ By an electrical machine, which is generally a hollow cylinder, or a circular All frictional electrifying plate of pl.isv machines consist, 1st, of the electric body to be excited; 2ndly, of a rubber or exciter; and 3rdly. of an insulated conductor for collecting the electricity. Then it is not necessary to have 35. T. a glass electrifying machine.

two pith-balls (/ or two strips of gold

leaf,

enclosed in a glass vessel, to prevent the action of current* of air, &c., upon

P. Certainly not, any electric body will In the (lrc.it I'.xlnlrtion there answer. was a gutta-percha machine. (C. 10, No.
444). 36. T.

Explain the construction of the

11)
t

Some-

cylindrical machine.

times <^>pe is tarnished with a gnu duated arc, in which case
it

acts as an
i_-iy.

nu-usurcr of
is

/'.How
/'

the electroscope used?

wish to examine what is tinnature of the electricity of a body, we charge the electroscope with a kind of
ve
.:

lfw

a

roll

know; for example, by of shell-lac over the disc, and finger, so as
th*
1

to carry
ai In

<>tf all

w

th*-

other to be
ids

accu-

Now
a
roll

obft'-rve,

of shell-lac
is
i

ctmtcope, which
with
f

ivi-s

is

observed],

when
.

I

rcaOTC
will

"i leavm
i-.rs

di/'
I-

Fif. I).

as

in

/',.>.

II]. nt is

Now

pa rate.

it

is

erid

<>MMtg of a hollow cylinder of
in
c<

gltM (CO), which
volves
pillars
i )

charged wi
tit

of the shell-lac.

of glass

(i

13S
furnished with

ELECTRICITY.
it

Lesson

III.

a -winch handle (H), by be made to revolve. A cushion or rubber (R), which is covered with an amalgam,* is attached to a glass so as pillar fitted with a sliding base (6), to allow it to press with a greater or less

which

may

force against the cylinder. flap of oiled silk (s) is attached to the rubber and thrown loosely over the cylinder, and just where it terminates is a cross-piece of brass furnished with points, corresponding to

A

one on the opposite side (A), this is connected with an insulated cylindrical conductor (N and p), and as the machine is placed between two of these conductors, one collects + and the other electricity.
,

the use of the silk flap? To keep up the friction on the surof the glass, so that the electricity face excited by the rubber (R) may not be lost on its passage to the conductor (P). Can we produce positive and 38. T.
37. T.

What is

P.

Fig. 13.*
jlass,

Fiy.

.

the diameter of which

of course

negative electricity at will ? P. Yes, if we wish to have a charge of vitreous or positive electricity, we put the conductor (N) in connection with the earth,
so that electricity is continually supplied If we wish for a to the glass cylinder. supply of resinous or negative electricity we reverse the proceeding, and remove the + conductor (P), or connect it with the
earth, so that the electricity thrown upon the glass is relieved, and a constant supply of the electricity we require afforded to

varies, some plates being only 9 inches, and others 80 inches in diameter. An axis passes through an opening in its centiv, to one end of which is a winch-handle, and the whole is supported by the frame- work This to which the rubbers are attached. machine is furnished with a conductor,

which, like that of the cylindrical one, is and has ends with points plac'-.i opposite to the termination of the silk
insulated,
flaps.

41.

T.

What

is

the

conductor (N).

simple electrical appa-

P.

A

an electrophorus

?

Is it necessary to have the ends ratus, depending of the cylindrical machines permanently upon the princiclosed ? ple of induction. P. No; it is better to have the ends It consists of a for cake the hand, of resin sufficiently large to admit the purpose of wiping out and drying the fused in a cirare closed, con- cular plate of inside, because if they J'fo. 154 densation takes place on the inside and metal which is hns a prevents the proper action of the machine, larger than the resinous disc, and and therefore the ends should be fitted cover with an insulated handle, which is with wooden caps which n't the openings * machine. A, Fiy. 13. Plate-glass electrical time. exactly, and may be removed at any conductor. B, cushion or rubber, smeared with Describe the plate-glass elec- simalgam. c:, c, silk flaps. K, glass plate-, r. 40. T. winch handle, p, frame-work or pillar. trical machine. t Fiq. 14. End view of the machine, showing P. It consists of a circular plate o

39. T.

m

* This is made by melting two ounces of zin an iron ladle and then adding one ounce of tin, after which four ounces of heated mercury

the arrangements of parts, a, /', plate centre oi rf, cushions or rubbers, c, c, c, c, It. /. glass with the axis, <, <, pasting throng* winch handle, p, p, the frame-work, or pillar.
'

should be gradually poured into tlie ladle and the whole well stirred, and when nearly solid the amalgam should be poured into some vessel and agitated BO r,8 to reduce it to powder.

J

'

t

Fi<i. 15.
e,

o, b,

tho insulated handle,
/, y,

cover,
j

disc of shell lac.
sole.

c, rf, the conducting

metal disc or

Lesson IV.
trical plate.
!

ELECTRK
can then get a spark of
the cover.

139

of the elecplaced upon the uppi-r surface

+

electricity

from

>w

is

P.
:

]

the electrophorus used ? M removed, and the sur1.

:he shell-lac struck pretty smartly of dry silk, fur, or cat's-skin, so as to make it negatively electric ; after which the cover is replaced. The elecof resin acts inductively he two electricities hitherto corar; the + electricity is d, and will he found in the lower ver, and the electricity is and accumulates in the upper part observe that [Exp. 9.]
1
.

UAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON III. What is the effect of an electric body

being placed near to a body in a natural
condition ?
2. If we place any body charged with only one kind of electricity near to other bodies, what will be the e'ffect, provided the electrical body does not touch the

others
.",.

't

Ym

i

I will brin^r
f

my

electrophorus, and now knuckle near the cover.

I

Kxplain the meaning of induction. 4. What di>es the intensity of electrical disturbance depend upon ? \ plain the use and action of the
-cope.
6.

Does

now

so, and a spark is elicited.] touch the cover with my fin.
:

If I

What
\

are the usual

means of developand how they
i

;city will escape, and the + in combination with the ity remain

;

ing fractional electricitv ?
plain the various machin.
act.

the

+

of the resin as long as the son. If the cover is rei electricity will be set free, and we
tricity

for frictional electricity,
8.

What is the electrophorus, and mode of action ?

LESSON
Our purpose
is

IV.

or abstruse matters relating to the laws tricity, but rather to give a general outline of its leading features, which will bear the same n sembl. -abject that a skeleton map does to a complete one.

not to consider the

difficult

*, six

to electrical science; and, therefore,
it

times the size of our complete volume, would scarcely cont.iin the index where our readers imagine they discover neglect,
to

want of space than lack of knowledge.*

n and proved by the oscillations of an rlec-rie pendulum. As long a body remains in a natural condition, that is, as long kinds is are uniformly dist: of electricity are unc< probabK through the whole mass of the body. When the two kinds of electri*

now

that aa the distance increases between hex!
is

repulsion diminish; this

M

.

separated, and a conductor is charged with free electricity, the individual elements of ^ ill these freed repel each other, and continue separating until checked by This is the reason that electricity is disinhutfd ov<-r the sa r:'.ice of a
'.

because,

M the body

is

a good conductor,

it

does not hinder the dispersion

QUESTIONa
43.

7*.tin-

flmnce

the form of a body indi-triUn:.ii <-f U-etrieity ?
!)

I

P.

|

better, for as

Yes; the more round a bod> it departs from a round

t

Sfluncncrt

ted ofany proclir*/ irorlr on tclf tDr*TiiEaWiitT*BiA, feeling the* MiiMof papm on " Practical Science," in the new (tries of the Famiig />,<*, an Appendix to the present rUrhUai, and an Introduction to other in> led

14U

ELECTRICITY.
49
/'

Lesson IV.
b and c d, charged with opposite electhe former with + ,and the latter

the electricity is less equally distributed over its surface, and collects at points Iving farthest from the* middle. " Do po n'e<l bodies affect the 44. 7. accumulation of elec'ricity?
;

The two spheres a

Fig

16, are

tric. ties,

If a point is brought near an Yes. P. insulated conductor, the electricity will be at that part, und therefore more dense overcome the resistance of the air, which

with el crricity. New the electricity of the one sphere is attracted by that of the opposite sphere, nnd being prevented from escaping they comb ne. How must we manage to make the combination
perfect? P. By separating the spheres with a

envelopes
layer.

it.

as

if it

were a non-conducting

Experim nts prove that electricity flows readily from sha r p-pointed bodies. Is the knowledge of the in45. T.
?

Franklin
50. T.

pl.i e.

fluence of pointed bodies practically applied

Explain what you mean by a Fr.mklin plate, and its mode of action P. It is a plate of glass, partially coated on both sides with
tin foil (o Fiy. 17), so as

P.

Yes, in the construction of lightthat

ning conductors. 46. T. Suppose
insulated
electric

to

leave

the

outer

part

place conductors, similarly near to each other, how will the charged, electr city be distributed on their surfaces
?

we

two

free.

If this plate is placed

between the two spheres, theone part will be charged with + and the other with
electricity, so that the glass alone separates them;

P.

The

between near to eaeh other, arid increase at those points furthest from the point between
the two, thus
:

electric density will diminish the conductors as they are placed

and

;is

they
is

are

unable
the

to penetrate the glass

combination
fect>

pretty per-

*J Of*
a
I

b

c

*

d

c d,

The sphere a b, and the sphere when insulated, and placed
if

near to each other,

charged

Is it necessary to bring both 51. T. sides of the Franklin plate into contact with the spheres to charge its sides with

Fig. 16.

M

j

tn the

same

electricity, will

The electricity of cause a disturbance. one sphere will repel that of the other, and therefore at b and c the density of the electricity decreases, while it increases at a and d. The nearer the spheres are brought together, the greater will he the increase of intensity at a and d, and the diminution at b and c. What would be the effect of 47. T. bringing a non electric conductor near to an electrified insulated conductor?
P.
It

opposite electricity ? P. No, because by charging the front
side

with

+

electricity

it

will

act

by-

would

become

electric

by

in-

duction, and act like a body charged with the opposite electricity. 48. T. Suppose that the two spheres (Fig. 1G) are placed in contact, what will

induction upon the combined electricities of the other side and as soon as we place that side in connection with the earth, the + electricity will pass into the earth, and the electricity will be inAs the duced to the back surface electricity of the back surface repels the the front surface, it f electricity of enables electricity to pass again from the conductor to the front surface, which again repels it, and thus increases the By acting electricity of the back surface. in this manner, we may charge one surface with +, and the other with electricity.
;

be the effect? P. The density of the electricity will be null where they' touch. If these spheres had been charged with opposite electric! ties, then the matter would be reversed, and on bringing the spheres together a spark would be produced, because the density of the electricity would be at b and c instead of a and d.

52.

T.

How

can

we

make
P.

this plate discharge its electricity at once?

By means
-

of the

Fiy, 18.

{Fiy, discharging rod 18), which, as it touches both surfaces at once, into conputs them nection with each other,

Lesson V.
so that the accumulated opposite electntwo surfaces pass from one To use this rod apply to the other.
citirs of the

141

l\\

-

done
;

in

order to obtain

one

ball to

one surface, and then apply

the other,
vil

when

a vivid spark

aad ex-

he produced. with
out-

53
P.

T.

A

What is the Loyden j.ir? glass jar or bottle coated tin-foil ins'de and
side, as 19) in

s'rong charge and in this ease we are obliged to employ larger jar?, and then the brass ball of t-.ich jar i* connected with its fellow, and all the external coatings of the jars are in connection with each other, ax well as the inn.r
\N h n this combination coatings. the apparatus is called an electric 1-l.it-e

as (a Fig. the one on the table, and therefore leavof naked rim ing a

high

battery.

the tin-foil. is of it mouth with a woo which bus a brass rod passing thr.wch its centre, to the upper end of which

glass above

The

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

IV.

fitted

:

the effect of the distance being increased between bodies? 2. Is there any objection to ur using
is

What

ansuhr and sharp edges
bodies?
3.

to

a brass hall is attached, and a brass chain to the
i',

conducting

lower part.

/'.

What

is

the principle of the
j

jar? A modification of Franklin's late. T. Are not several of these jars 3>nietimes u:

Explain the distribution of electricity on the surfaces of conducting bodies. 4. How does a Franklin's plate act? How can we discharge a Franklin's
.">.

plate?
6.

Explain what

is

meant by a Leyden

jar and au tlectric battery.

LESSON
WE
know
is

V.

that when electricity has accumulated in a body and is discharged, that a produced, but that the body will not afford the least appearance of light as long at a state of electric equilibrium subsists, and the two electricities are und-sturbed. The distance at which a spark can be drawn from an electric body depends upon the
light

conductability of the substance, the power of the electric discharge, and the sue of the corfaee. A powerful charge is required to make round bodies emit sparks spontaneously, but angular or pointed bodies will emit sparks with a very weak charge. Sparks are multipli -rupttng the conductor by which the t-l.-ctricity
to the earth.

Thi

may

easily be proved

by ex p. rim. -nt. [K\;

a plate of glass of the same shape as /'<</. 20, and fasten a brass ball to the top of it, and connect this brass ball with another at the botton

Tike

means of rbomboidal or dimond-haped
that they glass, hut so arranged lower ball with the outer coating
tli<
:

plates of tin-foil

j>..sted

on the

do not touch each <.th. r Connect the jar, and the upper ball with
.

then M-e sparks IK to, and the effect produced in the dark [Does
knot) of
i

will

twen
is

each

pie-

beautiful].

[Kxperimeat

jty.

o.

have here a glass plat* (Fiy. 20) wli colours, red, blur, and yellow, and covered with pieces of
10.]
I

tin foil, the

sane

144
that
its

BLECTBICITY.
some of the
liberated electricity he the zinc, so as to ea use76.

Lesson VI.
If
thf.se

T.

two polos are con-

abstracted from

density to be less than 1, we should then find that the loss of the + electricity from the zinc plate would be immediately compensated for by the electromotor force, while an equal amount of electricity to that of the newly-formed + electricity passing to the zinc pi ite, would pass to the copper plate, and thence to the

nected, what would be the effect ? P. constant reunion of the electricities developed in the pile, but if they are separat.-d a little, we shall observe an

A

oue

uninterrupted current of sparks pass from
to the other.

ground.

- Is your voltaic pile now fornu-d? No; I have only a pair of plates, and voltaic piles may consist of any num73. T.

P.

ber of plates from 4 to 500 or more, and I have not yet used the moist cloth, which must now be placed upon the zinc, when it will be found that the liberated + electricity will pass from the zinc to the moist cloth; now the effect of this ac-ion is a loss of electricity in the zinc, which is therefore immediately supplied, so that the density of the + electricity of the zinc and cloth will he equal or 1. NVe will now place a copper plate upon the moist cloth, and we shall find that -f- electricity is distributed over it, and has a density of 1, so that -we now say that the under copper plate in connection with the ground, has a of 0, while + electricity of a dendensity = 1 is on the zinc plate, the moist sity cloth, and the upper copper plate. 74. T. Then it appears, that a voltaic pile consists merely of a series of plates of copper and zinc, with an intermediate substance, moist cloth, and that they are arranged in the following order, copper,
zinc, cloth, copper, zinc, cloth, copper, &c.

T. What do you mean by a galvanic circuit ? P. All apparatus serving to produce a continual electric current are called galvanic circuits, and are generally constructed of two metals and one fluid, similar to the voltaic pile, which is not so useful as the trough apparatus. 78. T. What do you mean by the
77.

trough apparatus ? P. It consists cf several square plates of copper and zinc soldered together, and in a wooden placed perpendicularly trough lined with a coating of resin. The plates are so arranged that there is an interval between each pair, and this is filled with
acidulated water, which acts like the moist cloth of Volta's pile. I correct in 79. T. supposing that there are different forms of the galvanic

Am

circuit ?

P. Yes; there are many. When there only a pair of conductors immersed in a fluid, it is called a single circuit when two or more pairs are immersed, it is called a c mpound circuit and they are also
is
; ;

called voltaic batteries. 80. T. Is it possible to have a powerful battery in a small

compass?

P.

Exactly

so,

and the density of the

electricity is proportioned to the

number

of pairs of plates used. For example, if we pile the elements in the order you have mentioned to the number of 100, it will be found that the freed + electricity upon the 100th zinc plate will have a density of 100. One end of this pile is called the zinc end, or posi'ive pole, and the other the copper end, or negative pole. 75. T. What would he the effect of insulating the negative pole, and connecting the positive one with the ground? P. The density of the freed electricity of the zinc end would be 0, and the electricity would be distributed over the

P. Yes; I ha\e one here (/ty. 22). It is called a Smee's battery, and consists of two plates of amalgamated zinc (z z), with a plate of platinized si.ver (s) between them
;

these plates, you observe, are confined to a piece of wood (\v) by u binding screw (r/), and the

whole immersed inavesse j containing dilute sulphuric acid (A).* By means of this batFig. 22.

tery we obtain immense power without much trouble, and ensure a pretty steady
action.

Here
is

which
*

is another battery (Fig. 23). called Daniell's constant bat cry
r

whole

pile, its

density increasing towards

the copper end.

On-

part of

.-.:'!

to seven of w,-te

Lesson VII.
P.

[Experi

iient la

<
I

ere

is
;';

a shal-

low cxlindrieal
sel

(Fiy. 24), furnished with two g'ass tuWs (A. and B), which are filled with water acidulated
ilphuric acid, and d over two small

plac

plates of platinum conuecti-d with two platinum
.

23.

because it produces a long-continued and uniform current. The outside vessel (A), ;nade of copper, and is
filled

wires pa-sing through the bottom of the vessel
will now (n and p) count ct these wire- with th- \\ o poles of a Smee's
t

We

with a strong solution
is

<

;

vitriol" (B).
that th re
in this,

\

another cylinder placed withhut separated from tin- eopp r \esf (D), which is full of holes.
;

Upon the shelf are some blue lumps these are crystals of sulphate of copper, placed there to maintain the strength of the solusecond cylinder, is a porous earthen tube, is "a rod of zinc i-ported by a cross piece (i). and surm<> 1 screw (E), which s a wire (o); a similar cap and screw 0) is affixed to the outside vessel, a wire (in. Both these 1C electric current from
tion.

[Doesso.] You bubbles of gas are rising in each tube frni the platinum plates. Y-u see that the gas in the tube over the negabattery.
se<-

tliat

Within

this

tive pole or zinc end, occupies twice the space of the gas in the other tube the former is hydrogen, and the latter oxygen.
;

[See Lessons ix. an<1 x., Catechiim iv., for th
characteristic properties of each.]

QUESTIONS ON LKS<
1.

>N

VI

the electric equilibrium of two solid bodies be disturbed ?
->.

How may

an

we determine

the of voltaic eKctii-

tor

What do >ou mean by an electro- mopower? and give the scale of tension ? l-lai'i wh.it is meant by a voltaic
and how
it

ring that the polarity

pile,

is

constructed.

or disturbance
i

commences

at

tin-

tracked, and starts fn then passes through the
I

\jilain the taie pile.

theory of the action of

by
voltaic
G.

i

he

I'oles

of a

tal <>r

conducting body, and

retur

;rr.

/'.You Mid you would descrih ing oxygen citj ; please to do so now.'
:

Explain
1

the

difference between

a

and a Da>s

of obtain*
7.

How

lattery.
is

water decomposed

1>\

electri

II.

have sen that the galvanic current decompose water. If space
s*lu.
'

WE

will

produce heat and

light,

and that
:

it

will

poses
,011

ami that we arv
t

n

>n,

y be the pictures del.vervU by or the service of rlectm-plat* that are ranged upon our tables,

t'*P

of

v
There
is

Lesson VII.
no
electric current, or
its

a law which

is

called the electrolytic law, that

com-

p;ir.!tivi-ly

only a very

weak

one, can pass through a lluid without

passage bein;:

j by chemical decomposition. This occurs in every cell of every galvanicapparatus as long as the circuit is complete, and the quantity of the electric current i> proportionate to the amount of decomposition in each cell.
actions.

have now to consider other actions of the galvanic current its magnetic For a considerable period it had been known that powerful electric charges, under certain circumstances, affected the magnetic needle. Experiments were made,

We

but in the year 1820, Oersted discovered a means of causing electricity to act certainly and constantly upon a magnet.

QUESTIONS.
S3. T.

How can we
magnets

magnetize
?

soft iron

so as to form

By passing a current of electricity right angles to it, in which case the iron will acquire magnetic polarity, either temporary or permanently, as the case may be, the direction of the current determinat

P.

ing the position of the poles. [Experiment I have a bar of soft iron in my hand, and you observe that it is bent into the form of a horse-shoe here is some copper wire which is covered with silk for the purpose of insulation, and you observe that I have now wound it firmly over the bar of iron, so that the windings are all close
;

wire of an electric current is a magnet. Is this the case ? P. Certainly; arid it shows attractions and repulsions for other electric wires. For example, if the wires of two circuits are placed side by side, and are free, they will be mutually repelled if the direction of the current is the same iu both, and attracted if the currents are contrary. Can motion be produced by 86. T. the galvanic current? P. Yes ; a continuous motion may be produced by the magnetizing action of the galvanic current but the apparatus is too extensive for me to demonstrate it to you. Attempts have been made by Jacobi, of St. Petirsburgh, and Wagner, of Frankfort, to apply the galvanic current pracbut the expense tically as a moving power
;
;

is

a seriojs objection to
87.

its

use.

togc-ther;

we

will sus-

T.

Has any

practical

application

pend the horse- shoe bar to a hook in the beam
by means of the ring at the top of it. [Does so ] Now let us try if it \vi:i Tig. 25. support the keeper, or even an iron nail. [Tries them, and they fall to the ground.] Let us place the ends of the wire into communication with a small voltaic bat[Does so, tery, and try the keeper again. and the keeper adheres firmly, so as to be able to bear a very heavy weight as in If we disconnect the wires, the /'/<;. 2.j.] weight and keeper will fall to the ground.

been made of the magnetization of soft
iron by galvanic currents ? P. Yes, iu the construction of the electric telegraph, the arrangements of which admits of a perfect correspondence from attraction being carried on, resulting

and repulsion.

What 88. T. electricity ?
P.
89.
It
is

do you mean by thermo-

simply electricity, developed
is this

by heat.
T.

How

p.

We know

produced

?

that an electric current
infe-

[Does

so,

and they instantly

fall.]

84. T. Which is the north, and which the south pole of this magnet ? P. Where the + current enters, a

north pole

where the
sf>.

T.

formed, and a south pole current enters. Then it would appear that the
is

an develops heat on passing through rior conducting substance, or if its passage This is by no means anyis interrupted. but within the last twenty thing new of Berlin, has years, Professor Seebeck, discovered that heat may be made to proThis is duce a current of electricity. managed as follows two metals are sol;
:

Lesson VIII.
dered
to the
togetlu--,

ELECTRICITY.
whose
susceptibility to heat as heat is applied
j '

147

two places of junction, an electric -oduced and maintained as
the difference of temperature con-::mth

j

and copper answer very

<>r

this purpose.

/".

N
it

it

necessary to employ

me-

tals?

Kach metal causes a positive current to la-s upon any metal above it, and a negative- upon any metal below it; therefore, if bismuth and antimony were solden-d together, a negative current would pass from the antimony to the bismuth, and a positive one from the bismuth to the antimony; negative electricity radiates from the junction through the bismuth, and
positive electricity through the antimony. 'J'2. T. Is it possible to form a com-

/'.No;

is

found that

if

hot water

and cold water are mixed together, that Li produced, and that the hot Peonies negative, and the cold
;<>*itive

pound thermo-electric circuit ? I*.Yes by joining several bars of
;

with acids ; a cold one. the former becomes positive, and the latter negative. aid that bismuth and answered very well can you i;ime of any other metals that ab;

but the reverse takes place for if a hot acid is mixed with
;

metals together; but then the heat requires to be applied to each joining thermo-electric piles may be constructed as
:

well as voltaic piles.

used?

This table will exhibit ertainly. the order of the principal metals in combinations, and the farthest asunder any two metals are placed in this Table, the more powerful is the
<

RAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

VII.

How

can we form temporary

hem.
Ant
:

-ass.

J. How do you know the north from the south pole of a magnet ? 3. Is it possible to cause motion by the ilvanic current?

4.

Upon what

principle

is

them*

'city produced? 5. Describe the

electric

method of obtaining au current by heat, and nai erally empfc

-SON
FOE many obvious
lesson, last

VIII.
subject

reasons

we have

placed magnetism, the

on our

of the present

list

We

have already seen :ro|1 may imparted tem . and permanently to steel but certain iron ores which have this rty are found in the earth, and are termed natural
;

^

are generally

made

ii

.;,

^

^4

magneto. horse-shoes.

QUI

148

ELECTRICITY.
If

Lesson VIII.

P.

we present one
mugni
t

pole of a barheld in the hand to

the pole a (Fig 26,) it will be repelled, while h will be attracted. If we reverse the magnet, and present the other pole to a, it will Fig. L'6. be attracted and b repelled. 96. T. What is the reason of the phenomenon you have described ?

the first, and decomposes the magnetic influence in the iron. [Experiment 16.] Here is a b.tr-magnet (a b, Fiy. 28), with a piece of iron (e) attached; if I
bring another bar magnet near to it, so that the

opposite pole

b'

is

placed
piece
off.

over the pole
of iron
(e}
so,

a, the

will
it

fall

P.

Because

it

is

a law

in

magnetism
Fig. 28.

that similar poles repel each other, and The contrary poles attract each other. two poles of the magnet in the hand are

[Does
99.

and

falls

as

T

7
.

represented in Fig. 28.]

Can }ou

render

any

other

opposite poles, because they are of a different nature. 97. T. Is it possible to impart ternporary magnetic influence to iron? P. Yes. [Exp. 14]. Here is a bar

metal magnetic besides iron ? P. Yes, nickel and cobalt may also become magnetic.
100. T. What do you mean by the armature of a magnet? P. It is generally a piece of soft iron brought into contact with the magnet, in order to preserve its power by means of the magnetic decomposition going on in

I

magnet (a b). and a small bar of iron You observe Cc). when I dip the bar \d of iron into some iron filings that no magnetic effect takes place; but when the 27. bar of iron is presented to the magnet, then it is attracted and supported by it- I will now dip the bar of iron into the iron filings, and observe what takes place. [Does so, and the iron filings are attracted in a tuft, as
.

the soft iron. 101. T. What tion of magnets?

is

meant by the

direc-

P.

It

has been observed, that

when

magnets are suspended horizontally, or magnetic needles revolve upon a fixed point in an horizontal plane, that they alwavs point one particular end to a parti,
cular spot or point in the horizon. If you turn this point away from this point, back it comes again ; consequently there must be a magnetic force which acts at all points of the earth's surface ; and we find that this force distinguishes between the two poles, attracting one and repelling From observing the other like a magnet. this, we have been enabled to name the two poles of the magnet ; thus one is called the north pole, and the other the south
pole. 102.

in Fig. 27.] This clearly demonstrates that under the influence of a magnet, iron I will remove the becomes magnetic. itself

iron bar, and

you

will then see the iron

tilings fall off, because no further attractive force remains. [Does so, and the

iron filings drop off,] Instead of using iron

[Experiment
filings
I will

15.]

em-

ploy small cylinders, attaching four of them to the first (as d Fig. 27), and you will then find that a chain is formed, of which the magnet is the first link, but that as soon as the magnet is removed, the chain will fall apart, because there is no magnetic power to hold the links together. [Performs the Experiment]. If the pole of a bar magnet 98. supports a piece of iron which is in danger of lalling from its weight, what will he the effect of bringing the contrary pole of another magnet immediately over it? P. The iron would f ,11 off, because, the second magnet disturbs the actions of

T.

Then

the

magnet points

to the north,

north pole of the and the south north pole of

pole to the south ? P. Certainly not.
the

The

magnet points to the terrestial magnetic south pole, and the south pole to the
magnetic north
pole.

T

!

103. T. What do you mean by the declination of a magnetic needle? P. It is the deviation of the needle from Thus it may the astronomical meridian. decliiirtte easr or west, which is the same as saying that it turns towards one or the other side of the astronomical meridian.

Lesson DC.
104.
/'
I*.
i

OPTIC8L
the incalled?
4.

149
hat
1- tin-re

What do you mean by

are

the ends of

a

magnet

of the net tile?

deviation from the horizontal thus one point of the needle position appro iches the earth, or what is techand this we find dips, nically called increases or decreases according to our position near or from the equator and the
Its
;

anything peculiar about the attractive force of magnet-? 5. Is the magnetic force increased by usiner two magnets instead of one? 6. Explain the meaning of the terms direction, declination, and inclination of
a magnetic needle.

poles.

!IAL

QCKSTIONS OX

LESSON* VIII.

[GRANDFATRKH

"\VHITI:HRAI> refrains

from entering into the discussion of animal
too electricity, because the subject is abstruse for the greater part of his pupil?,

1. Is the magnetic influence uniform in a magnetic hat is the difference between tbe ends and the centre of a magnet ?

and not so practically useful as the subjects already considered].

OPTICS.
science of Optics reveals to us the intimate nature and and as we judge of the various objects around us, chiefly by our sense of sight or vision, the science of optics becomes interesting to us all, and enables ijTprehend many of the highly interesting, curious, and important phenomena connected with vision; and hence its name, which is derived from the Greek word

INTRODUCTION.

The

affections of light

;

optomai (OTTO/UK), to see; therefore the science of optics signifies the theory
sion.

of light

In investigating this science, we have to consider the following points. I. The general properties of light, and its effect on the organ of vision. 2. The reflection of 3. The refraction of light, or the light from the surfaces of bodies. change it under-

goes in passing through transparent bodies. Modifications of reflected and refracted light

\;\

of colour^

1

IX.

passage of light, and of other bodies being seen through them ; they are therefore called transparent.* Some are exactly tl.< thi, and are called opaque; others only admit of bodies being imperfectly s.

SOME

bodies

a<

1

:

.

them,

nd are
-ht,

called setni-transparrn;. or h

;.

If.

transparent

;

others

ar.

and are called luminoou; and some can only be seen by means obtained from the luminous bodies.
iv v

now

to treat of the theory of direct light,

The word lra*,parmt

U

derived from l.r

apparent. TbU word U frequently from the Orrek word dlnr >

u-w

in lead of

Iran,, through or beyond, and d*pt>o*o*,, which ilfnines the Mftir, f through.
.-

parnu

150

Lesson IX.

QUESTIONS.
105.
2'.

What

is

light?

Rapid undulations or vibrations by very minute particles or produce luminous bodies in a thin and elastic medium, called the luminous ether, which is interposed between them and the seat
P.
I

Others are transparent,
glass.
light,

as water, air, and These bodies yield a passage to

so as to allow us to observe the

of our vision. T. Htj.

How

do these undulations

produce light?
P.
effect

By
T.

stimulating the optic nerve by
vibrations,

means of
107.

and producing an

form of objects beyond them. Translucent bodies (such as thin paper and ground glass), admit of the transmission of some portion of light, without however allowing the form or colour of objects being recognised if they are far distant. I cannot gi\v you a more familiar illustration of
the comparalirc, but not the actual degrees of distinction between opacity, transparency, and translucency, than the common
fowls' egg-shell. If you hold it when boiled, and full against the light, you will have a good definition of opacity. Now
light,

which we

How

call light.

does light proceed? In a straight direction from the luminous

P.

body which
towards
the
acts.

produces
part

it,

upon

which

it

Thus from

empty it, and on holding it against the you will observe that some parts of

every luminous point rays of light proceed in all diFhj. 29.

rections,

as

seen in this

diagram (Fig. 29).
108. T. of light?
/'.

What do you mean by a ray

It is

the smallest portion of light

which can emanate from a luminous body, and is generally represented as a mathematical line, although it is really an
infinitesimal pyramid. What do 109. T.

you mean by a

medium
P.

'i

any transparent space through such as air, water, and Even empty space is a medium. glass. What is a luminous body? 110. T.

It is

which

light passes,

the shell are darker than others, which are spotted as it were with light, and that there is also a thin membrane lining the Now the shell itself will represent shell. opacity, the light spots on it translucency, and the membrane transparency. Be sure to remember, however, that this is only the comparative degrees of distinction, because the whole of them are translucent. You mentioned before (Ques112. T. tion 105) that a ray of light proceeded in a straight line towards the part upon which it acts, now when it reaches that part what takes place? P. As long as the ray remains in the same medium it advances in a straight line, but as soon as it comes in contact
partly thrown if the surface body is transparent, the light partly enters and is the body in an altered direction,

P.

It consists

essentially of ponder-

and the ultimate physically perceptible atoms are called luminous therefore as every body is made points; up of molecules or atoms, so is a luminous body made up of an assemblage of luminous points.
able matter,

with another body it back, or reflected from

is

its

:

then refracted.
light travel fast ? velocity is so great, that it traverses all distances upon earth in an It imperceptibly small space of time. travels over 19',000 English miles in one
1

13.

T.

Does

P.

Yes,

its

[The pupil should read Lesson III., p. 11.] Are all bodies luminous? 111. T. P. No, some are opaque, as stones, metals, wood and clay, and do not suffer

through them. This property however depends upon their thickness, for all bodies will admit of the
light to pass

passage of some degree of light if we make them sufficiently thin. For example, if we affix a thin gold leaf to a glass plat*-, and hold it to a strong light, we shall perceive a blueish-green light through it.

second, and therefore would require eight minutes and thirteen seconds to traverse the space between the sun and the earth; while a cannon-bull, going at the rate of 1,200 feet in a second, would require fourteen years to pass through the same
space. 114.

T.

How

do

you

account

for

shadows?

Lesson X.
Light being transmitted in follows that a dark body of light must throw a I because the light does not pass
/'.
'
I

straight

light.
'

exposed shadow, through
familiar

part brine; nearer to the candle, N dark pan farther from it.

and the other part dark, the lighted and the

will

illustrate

this

in

a

|

no actual shadow cast from the apples held in the hands; but if you look at the stand of the table you will observe that there are shadows (c & D) thrown from
I

because the natural light
side,

st:

the other
i

and therefore
t

the.

part

forms the limits of In tliis manner we can understand how :dow of a body exposed t<> the
it

sun's light
it,

is sharply defined while at a greater distance undefined.

it

V

,;.\L
1 .

QUESTIONS ON LESSON
light.

I\

Describe

-2.

How
,

is
is

Fig. SO.

.\v

light produced? light transmitted?

and what
between

Place a lighted candle in the centre of a small table (as in -n tie a thread to the stalk of an apple, and hold it high above the light nother thr. another apple, and I will hold it nearly on with the table (as B Fig 30); now -ervc that the half of each apple is

way. [Experiment

17.]

is
,

meant by a medium ?
4.

Describe

the

difference

and transit opacity, transparency, and also what is meant by diaphonous. :. What Mkes place when a ray in its con: light is interrupted
7.
ist does light tra Explain how shadows are formed.
:
.

of

I8OV
nsity

v

increase.

of light diminishes in proportion as the squares of the d.< This U a known fact of much importance in optics, and should therefore be
red.

ring
;n

more
use.

fully into the science,

common

Thus a
1

pencil

is

it will be well to explain some <>f thv a slender portion of rays, or a small bundle of

a beam is a large bundle of pencils. Rays are said to diverts from the luminous point; a separate from each other as 1 All rays ai >int proach closer t> each other. umiJ v are made to converge by the aid of some substance having u The /<>.< is the point from which rays diverp ;ve or refractive power.
;

they conv.

./i/ _/.Viw is the point to
refra<

which

parallel rays are

made
no

to

converge by reflection or
exist

re those

wh

n direct coarse side by side, at the
su<
.illy

same distance from each
focal

other, thus

distance between the focus and

ngth g or refracting which they fall. re thrown back Reflected roy ray* are not thrown back, bat pass through th> indium in an alien [See Question 110.]
tl
:

The
!"

^A ^^

body.

1

OPTICS.

Lesson IX.

QUESTIONS.
105.
7'.

What

is

light?

Others are transparent,
glass.

Rapid undulations or vibrations produced by very minute particles or luminous bodies in a thin and elastic medium, called the luminous ether, which rposed between them and the seat
P.
of our vision.
IOG.

as water, air, and These bodies yield a passage to

T.

How

do these undulations

light, ?o as to allow us to observe the form of objects beyond them. Translucent bodies (such as thin paper and ground glass), admit of the transmission of some portion of light, without however allowing the form or colour of objects being recog-

produce
P.
effect

light ?

nised

By
7'.

stimulating the optic nerve by
vibrations,

means of
107.

and producing an

which we

How

call light.

does light proceed? In a straight direction from the luminous

P.

body which
towards
the
acts.

produces
part

it,

if they are far distant. I cannot give you a more familiar illustration of the comparative, but not the actual degrees of distinction between opacity, transparency, and translucency, than the common fowls' egg-shell. If you hold it when boiled, and full agamst the light, you will have a good definition of opacity. Now

upon

which

it

Thus from

empty it, and on holding it against the light, you will observe that some parts of
the shell are darker than others, which are spotted as it were with light, and that there is also a thin membrane lining the Now the shell itself will represent shell. opacity, the light spots on it trauslucency, and the membrane transparency. Be sure

every luminous point rays of light proceed in all di29.

rections,

as

seen in this

diagram (Fig. 29).
108.
7'.

What do you mean by a ray

of light?

P.

It is

the smallest portion of light

which can emanate from a luminous bod}-, and is generally represented as a mathematical line, although it is really an
infinitesimal pyramid. What do 109. T.

you mean by a

medium?
P. -It is any transparent space through which light passes, such as air, water, and Even empty space is a medium. glass. What is a luminous body? 110. T.
It consists essentially of ponderP. able matter, and the ultimate physically luminous perceptible atoms are called is made points; therefore as every body of molecules or atoms, so i a lumin-

up

ous body made up of luminous points.

of

an assemblage

remember, however, that this is only the comparative degrees of distinction, because the whole of them are translucent. You mentioned before (Ques112. T. that a ray of light proceeded in tion iqr>) a straight line towards the part upon which it acts, now when it reaches that part what takes place? P. As long as the ray remains in the same medium it advances in a straight line, hut as soon as it comes in contact with another body it is partly thrown if the back, or reflected from its surface body is transparent, the light partly enters in an altered direction, and is the body then refracted. Does light travel fast ? T. 1 13.
to
:

[The pupil should read Lesson III., p. 11.] Are all bodies luminous? 111. T. p. No, some are opaque, as stones, metals, wood and clay, and do not suffer

velocity is so great, that it distances upon earth in an It of time. imperceptibly small space travels over 195,000 English miles in one

P.

Yes,

its

traverses

all

through them. This prothickperty however depends upon their the ness, for all bodies will admit of
light to pass

second, and therefore would require eight minutes and thirteen seconds to traverse the space between the sun and the earth; at the rate of while a cannon-bull,

going

if we passage of some degree of light make them sufficiently thin. For example, if we affix a thin gold leaf to a glass plate, and hold it to a strong light, we shall it. perceive a blueish-green light through

1,200 feet in a second, would require fourteen years to pass through the same
space. 114.

T.

How

do

you

account

for

shadows?

Lesson X.
Light being transmitted straight lines, it follows that a dark body -\ of li L'ht must throw a sh-idow, because the light does not pass through F will illustrate this in a familiar rt
/'.

i.M

m

;

light, and the other part dark, the lighted part being nearer to the candle, and the dark part farther from it. > no actual shadow cast from the apples held in the hands; but if you look at tinstand of the table you will observe that there are shadows (c & D) thrown from it this is because the natural light strikes thi> other side, and therefore the part beyond it forms the limits of th<- shadow. In this manner vre can understand how
;

the

shadow of a

body exposed

to

the

sun's light is sharply defined close Miind it, while at a greater distance it becomes

undefined.

IIONS
1
.

ON LESSON

1\

Describe

light.

2.

How
i

is

light

produced?

Fig. 30.

>w

is

light transmitted?

and what
between

Place a lighted candle in the centre of a small table (as in / then tie a thread to the stalk of an apple, and hold it high above the lijzht .nother thread to another apple, and I will hold it nearly on a level with the table (as B Fig 30); now you observe that the half of each apple is

way. [Experiment
i

17.]

is
,

meant by a medium ?
4.

Describe

the

difference

,

opacity, transparency, and also what is meant
:>
j

and

transit;

by diaphonous.

What

takes

place

when a ray of
are formed.

in its course? light is interrupted How fast does light travel? f,.
7.

Kxplain

how shadows

V
1

ii

K intensity

increase.

of light diminishes in proportion as the squares of tl This is a known fact of much importance in optics, and should therefore be
ring

more
use.

fully into

|]

.n

common

il is

to explain some of the it will be well a slender portion of rays, or a small bundle of
. i

a beam is a large bundle of pencils. they Rays are said to ./ trom the luminous {mint; and 00) separate from each other as t proach closer to each other, until they meet in a. point. All rays are originally made to converge by the aid of some substance having a
i.

e or refractive power.

The

M

>/*

is

made

they conv< to con.

the point from which rays diverp the point to which parallel rays arc ifl
re those

llection

-r rei'ra.

which e-ntimu

n direct course side hy side, at the

same
(lie

dist:i

ach other, thus

Z
body.

no sur
distance between the focus and
r< tl<

ngth
cting or refracting
ft

^^

Reflected ray* are thrown back ray* are not thrown back,
'

which they fall. m in an alter.

152

OPTICS.

Lesoon

X

QUEST10NS.
115.
/'.

T.
It is

What

is

meant by catoptrics?

that part of the scienc-- of optics

which treats of the laws of refl, cted light, and the phenomena of vision produced by reflection. The term is derived from
the Greek a mirror. 116.

word

kutoj>tron (*cdronrpor),

ror (c) at an angle of about forty -live with its surface degrees, reflecting towards the pencil now if you look in the mirror will observe that the yon image of the pencil is horizontal instead of being perpendicular. [Looks in the
;

T.lf

a ray of 1'ght be admitted

ii.to a darkened room, and allowed to fall upon a polished metallic surface, what

will be the effect?
It will he returned or reflected in P. such a manner thar the angle of incidence shall be exactly equil to the angle of reflection. For example, if n i (/*/(/. 31) he

mirror, and observes the image to be in the same position as the arrow a it, Fiy. Now I will reverse the position of 33.] the pencil and place it horizontally, and you will then observe that the image

appears to be perpendicular.
119.

[Does

so.]

T.

reflection

Why do we observe the of our figure in a mirror re-

the direction of the incident ray, and i p a per</v M pendicular drawn from the surface of the mirror ni m * m, the ray will be refleeted in such a direcFiff. 31. tion t d, tnat the angle of reflection dip is equal to the angle of incidence n i p. Hence it is clear that the ray makes the s.iine angle with the perpendicular, both before and after its reflection. 117. T. What is the relative position of the image of an object when seen in a

m

cede when we recede, and approach as we approach the mirror? P. Because the lines and angles of incidence are always equal to the lines and angles of reflection. [See Q. 114.] 120. T How can you observe the profile

P.

reflecting I'lane?

image

such that every part of the appear as far behind the plane as the object itself is before it. [Experirueut 18.J Take a mirror (A B Fig. 32), and hold any object
1'.

-It

is

of your face? By standing between two mirrors s* placed thus and looking at A, so f' that a threequarter view of the face is obthen served, the turning
1

will

eyes towards you will observe your proFig. 34.
file distinctly reflected in the

(such as a knife, pen, or arrow), in the position shown in F H in this

F

iff.

32.

annexed
diagram,
an'i

H D

figure. we shall find that the lint s F c are equal to the lines c E and

and you wll see image of the obj. ct reflected, as E c. in the Now if we examine the
figure,

the

mirror. By altering the position of the mirrors the reverse effect, is obtained. 121. T. How do you account for the profile of your face being observed? P. Because the image which is delineated behind one mirror serves as an object to be reflected from the surface of the other.
122.
7'.

D

G. and therefore the intake appears as Jar behind the plane of the mirror as the

Upon what
?

principle

is

the

kaleidoscope constructed

object before it. Does the position of the 118. T. mirror alter the position of the image of the ol ject reflect* d in it? Yes. P. [Experiment 19.] You obser e
that
I

P'

The

multiplication of the reflection of an object caused by placing it

between
rors

two

mir-

(A
Fig. 33.

B, Fi<j.

ha^e H pencil here 33 ) which is
Ft'}. 35.

toinclined wards each other at any angle. For ex-

ample, here

is

a diato-

perpendicularly, and I now place a inir-

plaeed

gram showing two
mirrors inclined

Lesson XI.
wards each other at an angle A c B. and .- an object op placed between them.
!

153

mirror

is its

T.tline

;

and

this is

i

in the

images will be circumference of a
:

-

i

ry Of virtual focus r difl'erent parts of tliat the central part

circle.

alone

by drawing behind each mirror, with the image formed in turn by each Thus we observe that the image, object. mirror, AC, is po while its '//, and tl re f->re the on of po in b c will be *"/>," while
.::n

h- mi'!

'ace

Do concave mirrors exhibit li:.. r. any remarkable phenomena? 1 es /'. ami sons.- of them are very curious and interesting, depending upon
;

t

the image of

'//

in

AC

the -ituation of the object with respect to the mirror and the observer. T. Is there not something very

will

1

remarkable
reflected in a

in

Therefore it appears that p" o" is th< image of both p"o' in the mirror of o' // in the mirror a c, one of the images :ig the other, if the angle B c A be
flO^,

P.

Yes

;

the image of an object concave in: the image is inverted, or

as in the diagram that is to If the nnjiV be part of a circle. r or less, the image p" o" will be
;

Id.

T.

Does the angle formed by the

mirrors materially affect the
the images?
/'.

number of

turned upside down. Some curious optical deceptions are produced by means of concave mirrors, which almost appear supernatural and a singular netural phenomenon, known as th<- * Sji.-etre of the r!ie reflection from Brocken," is a concave surface. This is observed at a distance from the highest peak of the Hanz Mountains, in Hanover.
;
<

Yes: if the mirrors had inclined an angle of 45, or 36, or one-eighth or one-tenth of the whole circumference, we should have, inclusive of th
at
itself,

noxs ON LESSO
Explain the meaning of the pencil, and beam of light
1.
t,

eight or ten images. i<es as the

The number
ancle dimi-

con-

nishes, their number b. -coining infinitely great if the angle of the mirrors be null;

vergent, reflected, refracted, and parallel rays; focus, principal focus, and focal
distai
i.

that

is,

if

the mirrors be parallel to each

What

is

7*.

We
ti

that part of optics,

which

have hitherto been conction of objects from
suppose that the mirror
-1

treats of reflected light,

ace
falls (ijMin a plain

named? when a ray of light
:

irfaces; but
in

mirror?

which
/'.
I .

was
<

it

would be the .:' image would be

of a mirror inthe reflection of an object? \m the image of an object be re:roin aiioth.

present a miniature picture of th> The image must placed opposite it. "-cause always be small'-r than
the rays which form
spectator.

and what

is

;

the

principle upon which
eil.
:

them i^aqe to the eyin a

the

k.i

convex and
reasons

Anoti

concave

-I

explain th

served in the image reflected

convex
\I.

ence.

red the laws relating to the reflection of light, but we have now to investigate the phenomena ,.f the refraction of light, or the sci. 'lioptricc.* Bj refraction we mean the dcvi. \ ray of light in patting from one medium to another, and before proceeding further.
I

In

;'

i-

>m the Gn*k dtoptomai

>

t

.-

%

to

we

through.

154

OPTICS.
two
si-uple experiments.

Lesson XI.

I have placed a shilling at [Experiment 20 ] the bottom of this teacup, and if 3011 walk back, so that you can merely see the edge of it, I shall be ready to perform the experiment. [The pupil does so.] I will pour some water into the teacup, and the shilling will then appear to rise more and more, as the level of the water rises in the vessel, until at bst the whole piece of money will become visible, because the refracting power of the water is gr< -ater than that of the air. [Performs the experiment.] The next experiment is still more simple. [ExHere is a tumbler of water and a spoon; now you will observe, when I periment 21.] place the spo >n in the water, that it will appear as if it Mas bent. [Does so, and the spoon appears bent.] This is because the light reflected from the spoon is refracted An oar, a stick, or any straight object, will produce the as it issues from the water.

we

will try

same

effect.

I

will illustrate the

atmo-

spheric refraction of light by a simple diagram (Fig. 36). Here we have four
lines,

A

A,

B

B,
;

c

c,

and D
these

D, parallel to

one

another

let

represent

the

strata of the atm< sphere,

which become

denser as they approach the surface of s represents a star, from the earth
;

which a ray of light proceeds in a straight line s a, until it enters the atmosphere at a, its direction is then changed into the
fi9
3C

line

a

b,

then

when

it

reaches the line

and again when it reaches the line c c into c, finally reaching the eye at The effect of this would be to make the star appear at s', which therefore raises o. it from its true position by refraction, the same as the shilling in the teacup.
B B into b
c,

QUESTIONS.
127.

T.

Are

rays

of

light

always

changed in their direction when passing from a rarer into a denser medium? p. No. If

_

they
/

fall

in

the

u direction of the perpendicular r
!', Fig. 37, their direction is un-

refractive than salt of aniseed even still more powerful than the turpentine. How is this ? You have said 129. T. before that the denser a body is, the greater is its refractive power. 7>. It has been found that coinbustible bodies have greater refractive power than
oil

of turpentine

more

and water, and

oil

incombustible
greater density.
that
tin:

substances
It

of

equal

or

changed,
p
r

and

was the knowledge of

there is no refraction ; but if

this that led Sir Isaac

Newton

to believe,

ditmwnd was an inflammable sub-

fall the rays fig. 37. obliquely as R, they are bent towards the The opposite of this takes perpendicular. place in every respect where the rays pass from a denser to a rarer medium. 128. T. If what you have stated

stance.

about the medium be correct, different substances must posses different powers
of refraction. Is this the case ? A solution of salt is P. Partially so. a more powerful refractor than pure water,

What substances are ge130. T. for exhinerally employed by opticians the biting the phenomena depending upon refraction of light ? but Glass and transparent crystals, P. chiefly the former. Does the form of the refrac131. T. exercise any influence upon the tive
body
relation of the refracted rays?

/>_y

.

(

s.

|>,y

varying the obliquity of

Lessou

XL
retractive body, we ree and direct! >n of the
t

the surfaces of the
:

of the proper
*

:

retraction "':>' bring s of light to u forus by means of a ive body, the surface of which pre|

We

that of imparting c<>lonr t bodies ir rather absurd will, pv rsons to he.ir that a green leaf p.
to a cerutiu eo.ours of all the objects that surrouud us are due to :he I.:;/, the colour of a substance resultin >ur!ace being adapt i-d to

parts

with

ditfereiit

degrees
usual
:

of

extent

it

is

true.

The

obtkra

/'What
:<

are

the

forms
the

p.

lenses? There are seven kinds

1st,

reflect its peculiar colour. 136. T. is the infliien

How

b
1-

c

d

c

f

s

g. 38.

a globe of glass 2nd. the (a) tilled with water, or solid T, or one that has both external surfaces convex (6) 3rd, the }>l>ino-c<mvfx (r). which has one plain and one convex iurface ; 4:h. the In-t-onctn'c (</), or one that has both stir aces concave externally ; 5th, the plano-cancnve (e), or one that has one surface plain and the other concave
il

kind,

made of

the produeti. n of colour ino. /'. Bj refraction; and this is r dcmonstra'-ed by me.ms of a prism of glass, or by the following simple uient. [Kxjwriment i?'J J Place a pircof paper upon the table, and then place a wineglass, with a stem cut (as in the accomi

;

more
the

panying figure) into ni: planes, upon the ei
:

;

paper,

taking

c;.i

;

6'b,

theowfvm' court /. having one surf.ice and the other convex, this kind
;

irnici (/), Iwcause it is like is called a 7th, another trm of cnna little moon cavo-comvex (y). which is also considered The 2nd (6). 3rd (c), to be a mc*i*cu*. and 6th (/). are thicker at the centre am! than the edges, bows. rgent lenses are thinner in t)u middle than at the edges, such a
:,th (<
).

arrange them on the table so that a ray of light from the sun shall pass through thstem, just as I do now. [Does so, and the paper is found t be coloured.] You see that there are several e Fig. 39. upon the paper. First you s e there it. vuili't, which is a compound colour; then
then blue, an nnother compound colour: then green, a com:
;

an original

;

orange, a compound;
>

and

]'

ii.

that these
i::i<-.ju;il

Off

and so

'

to say
Is.

and

7:li (y).

If

;nds of

.1

ray of

r

lii,

't

is

per-

glasses used in optic*? nut with the /'. Ye*. - v. ml r tion of prisms or glasses,
;

formed

in a
ii.rror,

an

ol
i

and

is

called the *pcctr*m,

plain tablets rally used, such

:s

are not

s

as

fr

poLris

and which exhibits the prisn we have seen. /'. \vi,at do you mean by
rs?
/'.

pris-

do you mean by the
of light? polarisation
1'.

Tn. y are the simple colour* of tbe
-.cause they by decomposing a ray of means ot' a nri*m.
1

The *

;>ui

ray of light
:n
<

th.

otlur in ;> properties; the most .nr in of these U that of pr< several ways from a ray which appears to
be colourless.
that a ray of ligut has
/'.

light

!>y

/'.

Has

thit to

knowledgr been any navful pur-

POM-

:-

A

Yes, to several; and the im
nse
is

any

*.-

chiefly

156
139.
T.

OPTICS.

Lesson XII.
Kxphiin how
illustrate
ir

What do you mean by

achro-

2.

refraction takes place,

substance without colour, the term bt- ing derived from two Greek words. a (a) friratiri, and Kroma (XpaJ/ua),

matic P.

?

and

A

by simple experiments.

Does refraction alwais take place when a ray of \\r\\t passes from a rarer
.'?.

to a denser
4.

medium

?

The term is applied to these colour. lenses because the coloured fringes and other defects observed in images formed by a single lens are removed.

Do

all

substances possess the same
?

power of
5.
6.

refraction
is

Describe the various kinds of lenses.

What
?

meant by polarisation of
colours

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

light

XI.
?

7.

What
?

are the

of the solar

What do you mean by

refraction

spectrum

LESSON
THE

XII.

organs of vision are usually described under the head of optics, but I think it better that they should be described when treating of anatomy, and we will now enter

upon the consideration of some Optical Instruments. Optical instruments are so various, that it would be impossible to describe one-fourth of them in our volume, we shall therefore only consider the most common, com-

mencing with the Telescope.

QUESTIONS.
the most simple kind of refracting telescope ? The astronomical, which consists of two convex lenses, an object-glass, and P. the foci an eye-glass, of which are in the
140.
7'.

What

is

"same place.
a

Here

is

diagram (Fig. 40)
will

that

explain

it.

Let A B represent the ravs from the moon

Fig. 40.

upon the object glass c D, then the imae formed upon this glass being seen through the eye-glass E F, will have its
falling

angle of 45, and at the upper and back part a plate of ground
placed at an
glass,

apparent diameter magnified accordingly. The image will he inverted with respect to the object, but this is not of any consequence for the purposes to which it is Its applied. power may be calculated if the object-glass have a power thus,

E F G D. The rays of light proceeding from the object Q P, pass through
an inverted image in its posterior focus, which is received upon the mirror, and is reflected upon the ground
142.
T.
It is

the lens, form

glass.

What

is

the camera lucida?

=

20,

and that of the eye-glass
magnified to

=

object will be times.
141.
T.
It

20x8 = 160
?

8,

the

Describe the camera obscura

an instrument similar to the camera obscura in its effects, but smaller, and therefore used chiefly lor drawing It consists of a quaddistant objects.

P.

P.

consists of a rectangular box,

f
ft

"""- -^

^

ABCD,with

"TH

U^y-^i'A$W T^K/:
c

a

circular
in
fitted

a P erture

^ont, with

which the rays rangular glass prism, by from an object are twice reflected, and thus form an image on a sheet of paper As the prism replaced underneath it. volves upon an axis, it can be turned to
the proper position.
mri'hsiiry to describe the imcmscopt s, magic-lanmodifications of the terns, &c.. as they are only same principles as tho.se already hud dcwn.J

a

rooveable

tube T, havFig. 41. ing a convex lens at its extremity. In the bodv of the box is a mirror, E I n D,

not consider [Grandfather Whitelimd docs

it

Lesson XIII.
I

157

IONS ON LESSON

XII.

-'

H.,w
1

i>

of this telescope

1.

Describe the principle of the diop:

calculated ? >escribe the
4.
\v
<

camera obscura.
.tnitra lucida?

trical

ACOUSTICS.
;ODDcnox.
.it

The

science of Acoustics forms a very considerable branch of part which treats of the nature of sound, and the law*

.

the origin, propagation, and perception of sound. The term acoustics is of akouo ('Airouw), to hear, and sometimes origin, being derived from ined Phonics, which is also a word derived from the Greek word
:

pkone

(*u>-j;). a voice, or sound.

LESSON
-

XIII.

If atmospheric vibration takes place, we experience the sensation of sound. a bell rings, or a bird sings, the knowledge that such is taking

place

is

duced
air.

in the

conveyed to our brain by means of the vibrations proatmosphere, which cause wave-like motions in ih

\f external ear,

These waves of sound are collected by the concha, or from which they are conveyed along the auditory canal or external auditory passage, and impressed upon a fine

nervous membrane, called the drum of the ear or which is situated at the bottom of the auditory canal,

tympanum augments
and transmits them
chain of
little

the

vil

:

i-s

i

\tnnu-

by means of a and partly by means of the air striking another membrane, and causing vibralal \rinth, which is a The vibrations are then admit: tions there. bony maze, consisting of three portions, viz., the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the The audifon ni-rve h iving received ;i, in fact, the true auditory or^an. ha\v thought it necessary to the necessary impressions, conveys them to the brain.
to the internal ear partly

bones, which are placed behind

it,

I

inform you thus much of the structure of the ear, before i-ntering upon the science of acoustics but when we consider the anatomy of our bodies, we shall learn more about the internal arrangements of this curious structure.
;

QUESTIONS.
143.

T.

Is air

necessary to tinuration of sonorous vibn!

144. T. a oonti;
i

Why
,1

is

it

necessary to have

/

I

use sound cannot be conveyed
I

/'

N

>.

It

is

the usual
n< rial
:i

medium;

hut

(iii'l,
it

or

body

will answer,

form*
the

Etween the sounding body and the ear.
Pijr. 12.

low ,lo you know thataooRd 145. T. cannot be conveyed in a vacuum ? /' Ik-cause if a small bell be
or
llttlr l,.v

aw

a,

tgmp**m

or <n
f.

..,Ht,,,.

the comrk*. or external

er

;

/ 1,

tb* radttOfjr eawO, or

xlwnal

160
,,
4j

S TI(J6.

ItaSOii
a

XIV.

same manner
light,

as a

r.i\

<.>'

:e

i.N

tion

because the vibraof sound is propalines,

gated in right
flection

and

therefore the angle of re-

must always be equal to the angle of incidence. Hereis a diagram Fig. 45. to ex pi a n M-hat I mean. Let A B be a wall or any dense surface, and suppose that a sound is propagated, from F and travels in an oblique line, it will impinge upon the wall A B, in the direction F c, and be reflected from c in the line c E, forming an oblique angle with If the sound was emitted the wall A B.

^V

-I

j

i

,

plain my Suppose that like the tick of a watch could not b<heard in the line A r,, it may U- so increased bv reflection as to be disiineth heard Thus it may go from A to < and from c to B, by a motion of lesser reil <tions from d e c b a, alternately terminal This is the principle of the ing at B.
:

diagram meaning.

(fig. 41.) that

will

.

|

London

j

Whispering Gallery at St. Paul's Cathedral, and the speaking-trumpet is alsc
;

I

and proceeded in the straight line would return again in the same line, and be heard again at D, producing what is called an echo. What is an echo ? 161. T. p. It is a reflected sound, and may be double, triple, or even quadruple, according to the number of surfaces from and to which the sound may be reflected. Does the reflection of sound 162. T. always produce an echo?
from
D,

D

c, it

constructed upon the principle of the reflection of sound. 163. T. How do you account for discordant sounds like cracked bells? P. There is a double vibration, and the sound waves interfere with one another consequently, we have discord.
;

164.

T.

Why

is

sound conveyed better
?

by night than by day
P.

Because the

air is less disturbed by
is ol'

accidental vibrations or currents, and

a more uniform density.
165. a salute
T.
is

Why

do windows

rattle

when
air

fired?

P.

Because the vibrations of the
i

P.

No; because

instead of producing an echo, it may concentrate the vibrations so as to make heard the sounds very distinctly at a
l

are communicated to the glass by impinging upon the panes, the same as
wall.
[See Q. 160.]

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON LESSON
1.

\1\

For great distance. example, if the sound is repeatedly reflected li'om a curved surface ; so that if the sound is propagated or emitted in the focus of one reflecting surface, it will be conveyed to the ear placed in the focus of the other reflecting surface.

2. 3.

How are musical sounds produced? How many notes are there in music ?
Can you account
?

for

the

musical

notes
4.
5.
(i.

How does sound travel ? Explain how echoes are produced. Why do we hear discordant sounds

?

C

II

E

A

B

Explanation of Answer No.

15i

London

:

Printed by William Tyler, Bolt-court.

M-H

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