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Yoshiro Yuasa Journal: Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (Vol.EN 618 Assignment 1 Submitted by: Arun P Roll No.: 04417001 Title of the paper: Multiobjective optimal unit sizing of hybrid power generation systems utilizing photovoltaic and wind energy Authors: Ryohei Yokoyama. . Decision context Hybrid energy systems integrate different energy conversion devices which may include conventional and renewable resources.116. The optimum design of such systems is important because of the following factors: (i) high capital cost and relatively low conversion efficiencies of the renewable energy components in such systems (ii) variability of the renewable resource with the weather conditions requires storage systems to ensure a continuous energy supply The designer is required to select the optimum component ratings for a given location and specified load conditions such that the desired objective is satisfied subject to the limiting constraints involved. November 1994) Objective The paper proposes a methodology for optimal system sizing of hybrid energy systems involving photovoltaic and wind generators. Koichi Ito. An optimisation problem has been formulated and solved to obtain the combinations of the system components subject to optimum annual cost and energy consumption.

kWh/year) capital recovery factor . dollars/m2) annual capital cost (dollars/year) annual operational cost (dollars/year) combined objective function first objective function (annual total cost. dollars/year) second objective function (annual energy consumption.b non dimensional coefficients for performance characteristics of wind turbine generators EWG wind turbine electric power (kW) number of wind turbine generators NWG V wind speed (m/s) cut in wind speed (m/s) Vc furling wind speed (m/s) Vf Vr rated wind speed (m/s) WBT storage level of battery (kWh) (3) Economic optimisation C Cc Co J J1 J2 R capital (unit) cost of device (dollar/unit. Figure 1.g.The schematic of the hybrid system is given in Figure 1. System configuration Variables (1) Photovoltaic system model APA EPA Hk T ηPA surface area of photovoltaic array (m2) photovoltaic array electric power (kW) solar radiation on inclined array surface (kW/m2) air temperature (0C) photovoltaic array efficiency (2) Wind generator system model a. e.

EWG (k ) = E u WG (k ) N WG where the power output from individual turbine is given by ⎧0 ⎪ 3 3 u ⎪(aV (k ) / Vr − b) EWG u E WG (k ) = ⎨ u ⎪ EWG ⎪0 ⎩ (V (k ) < Vc ) (Vc ≤ V (k ) < Vr ) (Vr ≤ V (k ) < V f ) (V f ≤ V (k )) (3) (4) .w μ φ weight for objective function ratio of period of demand side management to annual operational period unit cost of electricity (dollars/kWh) System modeling The individual component models are developed to study the performance of the overall system. Wind turbine generator (2) The power output from the wind turbines are modeled as given below. Photovoltaic system The power output from the photovoltaic array is a modeled as a function of the air temperature (T oC) and solar radiation on inclined array surface (kW/m2) The total array output is given as E PA (k ) = E u PA (k ) APA where (1) E u PA (k ) = f (T (k )) H k (k )η PA gives the power output from the unit area of the device. It is assumed that multiple wind turbine generators of identical capacity are installed The total power output from N wind turbines given by.

output relation for the components and provide the limits of its operating levels. .Battery storage The battery storage equations are obtained taking the power conversion efficiencies in charging and discharging. Storage at any time step is related to that at the previous time step and the charging/discharging process as in in out out WBT (k + 1) = WBT (k ) + Δt ( E BT (k )η BT − E BT (k ) / η BT ) (5) this is subject to the limits of the minimum and maximum storage levels and the allowable limits of power in charging/discharging Receiving device The power of the receiving device is limited by the following constraints: The energy purchased from the grid should not exceed the rating of the receiving device and the contract demand Ebuy (k ) ≤ E EP E buy (k ) ≤ E buy (6) Further the amount of reverse power (which is sold to the grid) can not exceed the rating of the receiving device E sell (k ) ≤ E EP Energy balance (7) Energy balance and supply demand relationships for the overall system based on the system configuration so that the demand is met at all times is given by E PA (k ) + EWG (k )η RT = E PW (k ) d in E PW (k ) = E PW (k ) + E BT (k ) + E disp (k ) d out ( E PW (k ) + E BT (k ) + E disp (k ))η IV ηTS + E buy (k ) + E PT (k ) = E sell (k ) + E d (k ) (8) The model equations are algebraic relations which essentially give an input.

capacity of storage battery. To assess the operational strategy for individual configurations. The solution procedure is given in Figure 2. J 1 = Cc + Co The annual energy consumption is given by J 2 = ∑ Ebuy (k )Δt k (9) (10) The optimization problem is solved as a multiobjective problem with objectives with mutual conflict. the optimal unit sizing problem is solved to minimize the value of J (as a non linear programming (NLP) using sequential programming method) (equation (9)) subject to the constraints that the maximum value of energy deficit should be zero. number of wind generators. Scenarios with demand side management are also considered which effectively brings down the total demand to be satisfied. . To obtain the set of Pareto optimal solutions under these conditions. the annual total cost includes the sum total of the capital cost and the annual operation and maintenance costs. capacity of receiving device) which minimizes the total annual cost and annual energy consumption is determined. For the system. At the upper level. a weighting method of solution is adopted with different values for the weight with the combined objective function given as: J = (1 − w) J 1 + wJ 2 (11) Solution procedure A hierarchical optimization procedure is follwed to determine the device capacities and operational strategies. a simulation based method is utilized using the system performance equations and the overall energy balance (equations 1-8).System optimisation The optimum system configuration (photovoltaic array area.

Change the values of system capacities. contract demand No Start: Initial values of system capacities. A numerical study is illustrated to show the validity and effectiveness of the optimal sizing method using the input data for a location specified by the authors (350N. contract demand Optimal unit sizing by Non linear programming Operational planning by simulation Figure 2. Parametric variation The effect on system sizing with changes in the following have been considered (i) weight for objective function (ii) effect of sale of electricity to the grid (system A and B) . The validation of the individual models based on measured/experimental data is not presented but specific references have been cited. Solution procedure Validation The paper has discussed a sizing methodology with the use of separate models for the individual components. 1350E) with known hourly load distribution for representative days. contract demand Solar insolation Ambient temperature Whether combined objective function is minimized? Yes Wind speed System simulation based on component characteristics and energy balance Demand Received/ purchased power from grid Optimal values of system capacities.

• The objective function being an economic parameter. It would be of interest to the reader if the motivation for the choice of weighting method had been presented. it would be useful to consider the sensitivity with respect to the various cost parameters. Demand side management has an overall positive effect in terms of reduced ratings of renewable energy based generators and contract demand when the objective function gives weight to energy savings/environmental protection. • The assumption of the number of wind turbines to be a continuous variable may not be applicable in practical system planning. Comments • The effect of demand side management has been taken in the model based on the overall duration when it is exercised. The trade-off relations between cost and energy savings is illustrated by generating a set of a Pareto optimal solutions. . Further the effect on the time of the day when demand side management is applied and whether that has a significant effect on the system performance should have been discussed. It would be of interest if the illustration had mentioned and described the specific measures in the context of grid connected hybrid systems.(iii) effect of demand side management Conclusions • • • An approach for multiobjective unit sizing for grid connected hybrid photovoltaicwind energy system is presented. • It should be noted that weighting approach can not generate the entire Pareto set for non-convex problems.