KSLIA’s Position Paper: - Development of

Sign Language Interpreting Profession in Kenya.
Approved by the Board of Trustees, Officials and Members on August 25, 2007

Abstract It is the position of the Kenyan Sign Language Interpreters Association (KSLIA) that the provision of quality and professional interpretation services is a right to all Deaf Kenyan community. Interpreters – trained, untrained, freelance and employed or working in various settings throughout Kenya are leaders in delivering a very important service of interpretation in professional and community settings, including advocating for funding, and inclusion of these services in programs, projects and policy initiatives at local, regional, national and international levels. In addition, all interpreters as members of KSLIA are leaders in facilitating and participating in research, training and documentation the field of interpretation profession in Kenya. The Kenyan Deaf community believes that it is a linguistic minority; their native language is Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) with several variations across the country. They view themselves as visual people, with their own visual language (KSL), social organization, history, and mores. They believe they have their own way of being, their own language and culture. Interpretation is the processes facilitated by bi lingual individuals (interpreters) to enable this community communicate effectively, accurately and comprehensively with the other linguistic groups in Kenya. In an era of increased opportunities for Deaf Kenyans to be involved in various professional, social and academic engagements, there is increased demand for the deployment of qualified and professional interpreters in fulfillment of the PWD Act 2003. Through the involvement and rigorous engagement of KSLIA in research, curriculum development, training, testing, certification and continuing education Kenya will be a beacon of interpretation excellence in this region and leading the way in empowering the Deaf community by giving equal access to information, education and communication for persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. Position Statement It is the position of the Kenyan Sign Language Interpreters Association (KSLIA) that the provision of quality and professional interpretation services is a right to all Deaf Kenyan community. Interpreters – trained, untrained, freelance and employed or working in various settings throughout Kenya are leaders in delivering a very important service of interpretation in professional and community settings, including advocating for funding, and inclusion of these services in programs, projects and policy initiatives at local, regional, national and international levels. In addition, all interpreters as members of KSLIA are leaders in facilitating and participating in research, training and documentation the field of interpretation profession in Kenya. KSLIA considers it vitally important that this information be disseminated to all Interpreters, Deaf Leaders, Sign Language Trainers, and Teachers of the Deaf, Government and its Agencies, NGOs working with and for the Deaf in Kenya. It is understood that the strategies and training model outlined in this paper are starting points based on our current understanding of Interpretation. As the knowledge base and experience in addressing Interpretation evolves, future modifications and refinements of the current strategies will necessarily be required.

and experience the message in a way that is as close as possible to the experience of those who understand the original. an interpreter may interpret from one sign language into an alternate sign language. coordination of efforts to prevention wastage of resources. the deaf interpreter could be hired to copy those signs into a deaf-blind person's hand plus include visual information. Skilled sign language interpreters will position themselves in a room or space that allows them both to be seen by deaf participants and heard by hearing participants clearly and to see and hear participants clearly.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 2 Purpose The purpose of this position paper is to provide: 1. or signing. which is sometimes referred to as voice interpreting. Interpreters must convey not only all elements of meaning. the word interpreting is commonly used in the profession and in the translation studies field in avoiding the other meanings of the word interpretation. the end result is an intermediate stage of spoken communication. source language. either simultaneously or consecutively. guidance to Interpreters regarding the vision of KSLIA and to differentiate KSLIA from all other projects. Interpreting or interpretation is the intellectual activity that consists of facilitating oral or sign language communication. which aims to allowing target language listeners to hear. when a person is signing visually. perceive. Note that the words interpreting and interpretation both can be used to refer to this activity. They also relay information from one form of language to another . Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . source language speaker. They team with hearing counterparts to provide interpretation for deaf individuals who may not share the standard sign language used in that country. The word interpreter refers to the practitioner who orally translates for parties conversing in different languages or in sign language. perspectives on the development of Interpretation profession in Kenya in order to facilitate policy decision-making 2. In fact. an interpreter will render the meaning expressed in the signs into the spoken language for the hearing party. When a deaf person signs. In some circumstances. an interpreter will render the speaker's meaning into the sign language used by the deaf party. between two or among three or more speakers who are not speaking. initiative or organizations involved in the Interpreting field in Kenya and 3. measures of effectiveness and management of the destiny of interpretation profession in Kenya. the same language. Guidance to Interpreters on the implementation plans of the KSLIA vision. This may be performed either as simultaneous or consecutive interpreting. What is Interpreting? Who is an Interpreter? When hearing person speaks. Deaf people also work as interpreters. but also the intentions and feelings of the original.for example.

e. in addition to that KSDC was also offering in-services-training program for the teachers for the deaf. however. communication and education is that every Kenyan has the inalienable right. by the general public. i. Robert Hoffmeister. A common misconception. where there are reportedly several hundred Deaf adults. "translation" refers to the transference of meaning from text to text —usually written. and.i The numbers of deaf people are known to be large in Nairobi and while in Nairobi. by lay. and Ben Bahan paid visit to Kenya and had to say this on Kenya deaf community in their book. More recent pioneers in the area include Ingrid Kurz (1985). In the late 1960s’ and early 70s’ Deaf people from Nyangoma and Mumias who were believed to be first generation of educated Deaf people in the Deaf schools came to Nairobi to look for jobs and better life. no matter his or her socio-economic status. they vary greatly in meaning. who documented the traces of interpreters in historical and classical texts. interpreting usually occurs "on the spot". This misconception usually is held by monolingual speakers. The truth. glossaries. they went to Kenya Society for the Deaf Children (KSDC) for services. to basic education. however. Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . or sign language— with time and access to resources such as dictionaries. occasionally. though the source language may be a text. graduates of the schools have been mingling for some three decades now in cities such as Nairobi. Kenyan Interpretation Scene 1960s to 2000 Little information exists about the Kenyan Deaf community prior to 1960. Interpreter statistics is no different. (1995) who labored through historical documents in different Western countries. Kenya is not alone in Africa in struggling to provide access to a quality education. On the other hand. is that interpreters must deliver "verbatim". Both referring to the transference of meaning between two languages. KSDC was the only organization for the Deaf though it’s aim was to focus on improving education of deaf children by establishing schools and looking for donors to sponsor needy Deaf children. with the clients present. recorded. et cetera. since there was no national association of the deaf to cater for their rights that time. the end result usually would be unintelligible. It is however known that in 1958 concerned hearing Kenyans established the Kenya Society for Deaf Children (KSDC). dealing with utterances. and Margareta Bowen et al. regardless of the listener's understanding. There has been very minimal documentation on the existence and/or the work of Interpreters in Kenya.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 3 Although the terms translation and interpretation are used interchangeably in everyday speech. This is justified when Alan Lane. There is a very high standard of accuracy demanded for translation. word-by-word renditions of what is said in the source language in order to be accurate. Interpreting is as old as humanity. one of the government's guiding philosophies for information. if one were to attempt a "word-by-word" translation of a sentence. There are two modes of interpretation: Simultaneous (while the utterance is spoken) and Consecutive (immediately after the utterance is spoken). self-described bilingual persons. but not to advocate and serve the deaf adults who by then were facing serious discrimination at employments and other institutions due to their deafness. equal access to information for all its population. is that. In addition. to cite the presence and influence of interpreters.

During the same time there was a little of television interpreting in Kenya. In these meetings and events there were hearing individuals friends of the Deaf. it does reflect the increasingly focused efforts of researchers. Uldis discovered more information about the Deaf in Kenya. Kenya National Association of the Deaf (KNAD) a national non-governmental organization was formed and managed by Deaf people in 1986 and registered in 1987 under the Societies Act. social workers etc who learnt Kenyan Sign Language and aided the Deaf in their communications with the rest of the world. So it made it easier to reach deaf community. She is one of the first Western researchers to have shown interest in Chinese interpreting history. These trainings recorded in curriculum vitas/resumes of the longest serving interpreters in Kenya were the foundational trainings shaping the profession in Kenya. KNAD is an ordinary member of the World Federation of the Deaf. Solomon led Uldis on a fact finding mission to deaf schools in Kenya. Uldis Ozolins from SDR came to Kenya and met Solomon Kayia through the Association of Nairobi Deaf Sports. Malawi and culminating in Kenya in the late 1998. She then enlisted SDR’s assistance into investigating the new social crisis of the Deaf in Kenya. workshops and trainings organized by KNAD with support from SHIA to a variety of hearing people interested in Sign Language and in Interpretation (KNAD KSL Workshop Report 1994) these were indeed the very first recordings of interpretation and interpreter training in Kenya. Tanzania. KSDC agreed to serve as a bridge between Sweden Deaf and Kenya Deaf regarding communication. and they are not easily located or organized. As a political analyst.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 4 Bowen and his colleagues documented the development of interpreting from piecemeal records in ancient Greece and Egypt to the sophisticated profession of today by studying diplomatic archives. Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . Zambia. Armed with the information. family members. Some Deaf people attend athletic tournaments to play. Deaf people were more interested in sporting activities as that was the only social events that was available apart from deaf clubs. but they and many more are there for another reason: to be with other members of the DEAFWORLD (frequently impossible during the work day) and to see old friends who have become separated after graduation or marriage or a move to a new job. As a seminal paper on interpreting history. Uldis returned to Sweden and met with the board of SDR showed the board his experiences and information he got from Kenya about Kenya Deaf Community. Although the information presented in the aforementioned literature is somewhat fragmented and scattered. The board in turn met with KSDC on the findings and resolutions. Ruth Roland (1999) adopted an interdisciplinary approach in order to explore the diplomatic roles of interpreters both East and West. of course. with special reference to a few prominent interpreters in Western history. their work spells out unresolved obstacles to this kind of research. The interest generated amid hard work reveals the allure and obstacles in researching into the history of interpreting. The evidence put forward consists of personal diaries and anecdotes in histories. These trainings were later followed up by a series of regional trainings happening in Uganda. Ann Oginga (the former KSDC director) flew to Sweden and met with the Swedish Federation of the Deaf (SDR) regarding Kenyan issues and brought to the SDR’s attention to the current plight of Deaf adults in their post-primary life.ii Between 1988-1995 there were seminars. With Solomon’s assistance.

KSLRP was founded to work under the auspices of the University of Nairobi Linguistics department to carryout research in Kenyan Sign language. Around this time the US Peace Corps revived it’s Deaf Education program. There were 15 interpreters who attended the training. Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . which was offered mainly in English with Kiswahili and other local languages taught depending on the regional distribution of the volunteers. secondly it was to be a place for correcting way ward interpreters enforcing a mutually agreed code of ethics and finally an avenue for continued professional development through peer education and role modeling. Kenyan Sign Language or a mix of both. KSLIA Formation and Development September 2000 during the one week workshop sponsored by the Peace Corps. The Deaf Education program placed American Deaf Education specialists in Kenyan rural schools for the Deaf with two main aims. The Peace Corps program relied heavily on interpreters to carryout it’s pre service training. The project also teachers KSL. In the months following this there were a series of meetings dedicated to the formation of a Kenyan Interpreters Association.iii The Naivasha Declaration. motivate and work with the Kenyan Teachers to learn KSL use it in the classroom and eventually sustain the use of KSL as mode of classroom instruction language. various churches in the city were offering interpreted services mainly in Signed Exact English. This brought about the evolution of interpretation learning and training of several hearing people who later become interpreters. Kenya Sign Language Research Project began almost in the same era.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 5 Religious programs were the very first consumers of interpretation service. First they hoped that the Deaf Education volunteers would model KSL to the students thus encouraging them to use and own KSL. some interpretation and Deaf culture. Due to lack of professional interpreters in Kenya the Peace Corps program invested in one or two interpreters from the US to work with the local interpreters to build their capacity and later be able to give better interpretation services to the Deaf volunteers. In 1999 there was a strong group of Deaf volunteers who advocated for funding to fund activities to build the capacity of local interpreters. These meetings focused in the drafting of the constitution. The Kenya Sign Language Research Project enlisted interested hearing people to learn KSL the course mainly meant for Sign Language had and still has a component or unit on interpretation. Interpreters where needed to facilitate the communication between the instructors and the Deaf volunteers. These processes and the outcome of the one week training and late night meetings are what become to be known in Kenyan Interpreter community as the Naivasha declaration. This group of volunteers lobbied and finally secured funding to conduct a one-week workshop for the local interpreters. code of ethics and contact list of available or practicing interpreters countrywide. the Kenyan Interpreters were challenged to form an association that would be responsible for three things – First be a social outlet for interpreters to meet and interact informally. KSLRP was founded by KNAD with funding from SHIA.

Working with KIE. KISE and MoE to develop a digital library for Deaf Education resources Noble prospects and ideas for the future. fund raising whether in money or otherwise from both members and non members. KRITD Project a process outlined in the KRITD White Paper 2004 2.At present. have no code of ethics and are offering substandard services to the Deaf in Kenya. commissions and payments. contribution.vi Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . KSLIA’s biggest contention is with their goal number one. f) To maintain and administer a register of S. subscription. The White paper reports . which was registered in December of 2000 under the Societies Act. Karen Model School –With a resource center for Deaf Students and their parents 3. the profession of interpreter/Transliterator in Kenya is more a vocation than a profession. gifts or donations. The KRITD process the Kenya Registry of Interpreters and Transliterators for the Deaf Project. iv Emergence of Deaf Aid and the KRITD Process Deaf AID is said to have been formed by a Sign Language Interpreter 6 or 7 years ago.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 6 The Naivasha Declaration states that: We the Kenyan Interpreters practicing in various fields agree to: a) To secure official recognition by the Government of Interpreters profession b) Encourage and promote initiatives in improving the standards of SL interpreting and interpreter training and pay scale of interpreters depending with their level and skills of interpretation through certification.L Interpreters in Kenya. It is Norwegian and working in Mali. These later become the objectives of the Kenyan Sign Language Association. Research and Census on Deaf and issues of Deafness 4. Interpreters through publication of information materials e) To collect and raise funds for the achievement of goals and objectives through membership fee. Development of IEC materials for Deaf people 5. c) Cooperation with other recognized bodies concerned in the welfare of the deaf and in provision of Interpreters throughout the world. Uganda and Kenya. In the infamous KRITD white paper Deaf AID reports that the Interpreters in Kenya are artisans without credential. (IDCS 2006) NORAD funded an in-depth feasibility study that led to the development of a 3-year country strategy that has the following aims: • Awareness creation • Academic research to influence policy esp. Ethiopia. d) Awareness creation on Deafness and SL.v It further suggest that a Kenyan Interpreters’ slot will be added in the process to join an elaborate list of stakeholders .Two (2) Certified Interpreters nominated by the board on a public call for application. in education • Prevention of deafness Deaf Aid plans to achieve these by being involved in activities such as:1.

artisans and vocational workers. The people consulted during the feasibility studies knew little or nothing about the field of interpretation thus level of comprehensive representation was compromised. Ignoring the results of the mini survey conducted during the April 2007 workshop is a clear show of Deaf AID’s lack of commitment to participatory approach to solution finding and progress. Since then Deaf Aid has not budged in its stand. agencies that have been antagonists of Deaf Education in Kenya over the years. Rush to fulfill deadlines and not meeting the current needs on the ground. we see ourselves as Interpreters not Transliteraters. Citing one instance – Kenya has more interpreters rarely do we see transliteration happening in the Kenyan context. Lack of inclusion of KSLIA as an equal partner in the process thus denying the practicing interpreters a voice in shaping their profession. KSLIA would like all these processes to be synchronized and phased to develop a clearer framework and prioritization of the needs and future activities. 6. Lack of data to support the basis and fundamental of establishing a KRITD Process. interpretation is more than certification. 7. Following pressure from the Deaf and interpreter community Deaf AID constituted an Advisory board comprising of Deaf leaders and its barrage of stakeholders. The process has rubbished the existence of interpreters by calling them quakes. 2. how will the same opposes of KSL be the same supporters of interpretation of a language they do not recognize or know exist?viii 4. There should have been a needs assessment. Lack of recognition of the Kenyan Interpreter as the essence and object of any interpreter training or program. Lack of a certification process is but one lack in Kenya. vii The KRITD White Paper. KSLIA is the official representative body for Interpreters in Kenya. aspirations and experiences. Other Interpreter Associations and the Politics The inadequacies of the KRITD White Paper and Process are in a nutshell: 1.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 7 The KRITD white paper generated a lot of pressure for Deaf AID to substantiate its motives. Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . 3. Deaf AID has declined to sign a drafted memorandum of understanding outlining the KSLIA – Deaf AID relationship. wider consultation and negotiation. The Kenyan Interpreters are the sole custodians of the Interpretation expertise. (KSLIA Members Oct 2006) 5. its lack of involvement of local practicing interpreters in the research and purported implementation of the recommendations in the paper. Particularly the just concluded curriculum development workshop. Long list of stakeholders comprise of individuals. Deaf AID has invited KSLIA to be a stakeholder in the KRITD process contrary to KSLIA’s demand of being an equal partner with a higher voice and status as the body representing the Interpreter community in Kenya. Interpreters have been angered and disgusted by these inferences and would like to be recognized as the professionals in this field with or without certificates.

KSLIA has established and can confirm that there are NO Other Interpreter Associations present in Kenya. 8. Certification – Issuing and Maintenance. 6. Enforcing of a strict code of conduct for the various fields of Interpretation. Participation in the two World Association of Sign Language Interpreters (WASLI) Congresses – South Africa 2004. Spain 2007 5.kslia. 10. April 2007 and Jan 2008 7. Official website created with information on Interpretation – www. vibrant professional body focusing on:1. The development of a Certification Process – Research. Pursuing memorandums of understanding with organizations interested in developing Sign Language Interpretation in Kenya – working progress with Global Deaf Connection and Deaf Aid. Treasurer and Regional Representatives (Central. Collectively as a body of Interpreters in Kenya KSLIA has made several strides in the professional development of interpretation in Kenya. 9.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 8 There were reports and rumors of other associations for Interpreters in Kenya (ISDC 2006 website which has since been updated). Training. These include:1. Examination. best practices and implementation of latest developments informed by scientific findings and evidence based programming. Opening of bank account with the Kenya Commercial Bank 3. Circulation of information on how to work with interpreters in various settings. Participation in Interpreter Training workshops – August 2006. settling of conflicts and complaints from consumers.com regular email updates and short message services to members. Secretary. individual interpreters have been actively involved in the core business of providing Interpretation and informally interacting with each other. There could be small businesses registered to work with Interpreters BUT not associations. Coast. Drafting of an official Code of Ethics namely the Machakos Draft 2006ix 4. 3. indigenous and authentic Sign Language Interpreter Association in Kenya registered under the Societies Act and a member of WASLI. Election of officials Including Chair. settling disputes and conflict resolution. continuing professional development 2. Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . Rift Valley and Western Regions) 2. KSLIA Official Position and Suggested Way Forward Despite the lack of funding and perceived inactivity. Creation and Distribution of a Registry of Interpreters to various organizations working with Interpreters.blogspot. KSLIA would like all to know that KSLIA is the only legitimate. Become a member of WASLI (World Association of Sign Language Interpreters) Starting July 2007 Looking forward KSLIA would like to see itself evolve from a dormant bundle of prospects to a dynamic. Continuing Education for the professional interpreter incorporating new thinking.

seminars. decisions and change laws in consideration of the legacy. 6. KSLIA should be the advocate of interpreter issues working hand in hand with other organizations. aspirations and ambitions of the Kenyan Interpreters and the Deaf community they serve. conferences etc where Interpretation is being discussed. expertise and man power to grow strong and vibrant as a professional body. Conducting a formative assessment to ascertain the correct situation of the interpreting profession in Kenya. 3. KSLIA proposes to be the long-term avenue for this purpose. inclusion and capacity building) Infrastructure (climate. KSLIA continues to seek members to join and contribute finance. KSLIA will continue to pursue relationships with like-minded organizations locally and abroad to further it’s vision for the development of interpretation profession in Kenya. Programs and Projects will never replace the vibrant. there needs to be coordination of efforts. commitment and priority in light with the above statement and make policy. To impact policy change. Though it is important to involve various government agencies in the formation of policy regarding interpretation or sign language. 9. political goodwill) . Recognition and elevation of KSLIA as the true voice of the Kenyan Interpreters 2. past experiences show that it is lengthy. 5. history.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 9 For the sustainability of the programs supporting the development of Interpretation initiatives. evolving local knowledge and power broking dynamics that characterize the Deaf and Interpreter community in Kenya. priorities)x 7. KSLIA will seek dialogue to foster cooperation and team spirit however KSLIA may also seek legal redress where it feels it’s rights and constitutional mandate has been violated. Inclusion of KSLIA in forums. expensive and futile to involve them without proper representation for instance if a departmental head is involved without the blessing of the superiors it is futile because they are not the ultimate decision makers.Coordination of Resources (personnel. 4. KSLIA to be involved as a key stakeholder. Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . KSLIA is therefore calling all practicing interpreters to join and pay up their membership to make KSLIA a strong professional association. KSLIA is appealing to the stakeholders in the KRITD Process to reevaluate their support. committee. finance. The key priorities at present in the Deaf and Interpreter community are:Empowerment (role modeling. 10. 8. policy. KSLIA proposes the following recommendations as the official position as far as Interpretation Field is concerned: 1.

consumer organizations. ethics and guidelines to strengthen the profession. clubs or networks regionally. nationally Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . no programs that prepare these interpreter educators to teach the interpreting process and the skill of interpreting. distribute and monitor information. and other appropriate entities with whom the Regional Interpreter Training Center will have Memoranda of Understanding or other recognized mechanisms for the provision of educational activities for interpreters at all skill levels. a certification framework and a certification maintenance mechanism. service providers. organizations. rehabilitation counselors for the Deaf. education and communication materials for interpreter training d) Develop and implementation of Interpretation standards. There are. The objectives of the project will be to:a) Train interpreters – Training of Trainers. c) Develop. and agencies including consumers. To address these issues and to contribute toward the education and training of a sufficient number of qualified interpreters to meet the communications needs of individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and individuals who are Deaf-blind. community resources. f) Provide opportunities for interpreters to raise their level of competence through regional networking and collaboration. continuous testing and certification for quality assurance. however. Kenyan Sign Language Interpreters Association (KSLIA) proposes to establish priorities for a National Interpreter Education Center and a coordinated Regional Interpreter Training Centers working with and through Local Partner Networks (LPN) a formal network of individuals. Mentors and Interpreters in various fields and settings. b) Develop and implement a national curriculum.xi The goal of this initiative is to improve the quality of interpreters in the field by providing quality educational opportunities with consumer involvement throughout the process and with a specific focus on interpreters working with a variety of consumers in Kenya.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 10 Our aspirations and ambition as key stakeholders and practicing Interpreters is to provide affordable professional interpretation services to the Deaf community in order to do this we demand inclusion. comprehensive policy backing and coordination of the scarce resources available for the sustained development of the field of interpretation in Kenya. interpreter educators (seasoned Interpreters and Deaf individuals) must be sufficient in number and be knowledgeable of current best practices. Establishment of the National Interpreter Education Center In order to train qualified interpreters to better meet the demand from consumers and consumer organizations. g) Strengthen capacity of interpreter associations. e) Ensure the maintenance of the skills of interpreters through continuing education. empowerment.

Deaf schools. Courts. political and socioeconomic activities or interactions. information and communications access to the Deaf in Kenya. NGOs. The National Interpreter Education Center modelxii proposed by KSLIA: KSLIA National Interpreter Education Center/Program Central Regional Interpreter Training Center Western Regional Interpreter Training Center Coast Regional Interpreter Training Center Eastern Regional Interpreter Training Center Rift Valley Regional Interpreter Training Center Northern Regional Interpreter Training Center Local Partner Networks Local Partner Networks Local Partner Networks Local Partner Networks Local Partner Networks Local Partner Networks The Interpreters’ Target Market include – Deaf individuals. b) Communication between hearing people and the Deaf will be enhanced. and selfemployment opportunities for interpreters after training. education. Interpretation. d) Deaf Kenyans will have qualified and competent interpreters available to give interpretation services in various settings. self-expression. f) Creation of employment opportunities for Deaf individuals as trainers. Churches. e) Deaf people will gain more confidence in the learning process. etc Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . Hospitals. g) Current policies such as the People with Disabilities Act 2003 will be amended to explicitly recognize the role of the interpreters in the education. Deafness and the Deaf community in Kenya.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 11 KSLIA envisions that the project which will be implemented through it’s partnership with KNAD. c) Deaf people will have more or better access to information. Government. KSLIA envisions that these activities will result in the following:a) People will change their attitudes towards Sign Language. KSLRP and any other organization that has the interest in furthering the Interpretation field in Kenya. in communicating with hearing people and in advocating for their rights.

San Diego. reliability.7 vi KRITD white Paper 2005 p.KSLIA Position Paper on the Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya 12 Future Research On 26th of April 2007. viii various documents cite the struggle of KSLRP/KNAD in discussions with KIE/KISE 1991-2006 ix ( http://www.) History of KNAD by Kakiri 2005 iii History of KSLIA by Owiti 2006 (unpublished) iv Proceedings from the Naivasha Interpreters Training September 2000 v KRITD white Paper 2005 p. What new practices have they adopted to cope with the dynamics of Interpreting? There is also a need to get views from Deaf individuals. Deaf AID. Beacon Concept. A journey into the deaf-world. Where do they work primarily? 4. the warranties of merchantability. Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® DISCLAIMER The Kenyan Sign Language Interpreters Association (KSLIA) is providing this position paper on The Development of Sign Language Interpretation Profession in Kenya to inform practitioners. or legality of information contained within the position paper. KSLIA will constantly and consistently raise funds and enter into collaborative agreements with organizations to realize this future goal.. (1996). Deaf Kenyans and other interested parties.htm and KSLIA Code of Ethics 2006) x Halting the masquerading hand of Benevolence: Empowering the Deaf community in Kenya by Owiti 2007 (Unpublished) xi Empowering the Deaf Community through Provision of Quality Interpreting by Irako and Owiti June 2006 (Submitted to the Bid Network Competition 2007) xii Irako E. KSLIA cautions all readers that the strategies described in the position paper are practice parameters or guidelines and may be suitable for every. References: Lane. fitness for a particular purpose. Kampala 2004 i ii Submitted by KSLIA 2007 ® . and non-infringement of proprietary rights. sign language. What issues are they currently affecting their work? 5. technical and official in nature and is intended to set standards of interpreter training and practice. The position paper is informational. deaf culture and basic researchers. without limitation. S. & Bahan. content. Who trained them? How long was the training? 3. operability.. H. including. or any. 4. concepts and ideas expressed herein. Hoffmeister. How many interpreters exist or practice in Kenya 2. R. KSLIA makes no express or implied warranty regarding the accuracy. purpose or application by KSLIA as an indigenous Kenyan entity representing the views and aspirations of the Kenyan Interpreters. CA: DawnSignPress (p192. Deaf individuals and trainers of Interpreters experienced in the field of interpretation. the Global Deaf Connections.wasli. 8 vii Minutes of meeting between KSLIA/KRITD 2006. This survey results indicated that there is need to conduct a nationwide research to ascertain: 1. organizations employing or working with Interpreters to learn their challenges and available lessons they have learnt and applied over their interaction with the interpreters. completeness.org/indexNEW. The position paper is based on a review of the existing literature and the observations of an expert Task Force composed of seasoned interpreters. KSLIA holds all the rights of the content. B. KSLIA and Sign Language Service International (SLSI) developed a survey questionnaire and conducted a mini survey with Interpreters attending a training “Theory to Practice” in Nairobi. In no event shall KSLIA be liable to the user of the position paper or anyone else for any decision made or action taken by him or her in reliance on such information.