Student ID: 11452282 Student Name: Claudia Cardenas Lecturer Name: Chandana Penatiyana Withanage Sydney Australia April – 2010

Figure 1 Circuit Switching from Kozierok 2005 In contrast packet switched networks works a bit different. N.D. In Packed Switching unlike circuit switching there is not a specific route or path for the entire connection.2005). only one route will be used from the beginning to the end of the connection. This path is decided by taking into account different elements such as algorithms which are used for optimizing the use of resources. . It is also called as a datagram or segment (Uruth. however. Once the packets have arrived to the destination nodes.2005). also it is need to know how they works. then each packet is routed by different paths in order to achieve its destination node. In circuit switched the connection between the sender and receiver is set up in advance as well as the path (Uruth. Each of these units of data contains information about its destination.ASSIGNMENT 1 Question 1: Discuss Why packet switched networks communication instead of circuit switched. it is need to know what circuit and packet switched are. are used for data In order to note what are the advantages that packet switched offers to data communication and circuit switched not. There could be more than one possible path. One of these resources could be bandwidth ( Kozierok. header. In addition the original data is fragmented in one or more units (packets).D.). and sequence numbers. N. the reassembly process takes place (Kozierok. First it is need to understand the meaning of a packet.).

Even though circuit switching is more reliable. packet switching uses the functionalities of different protocols such as TCP to makes it more reliable.Figure 2 Packet Switching from Kozierok 2005 Packet Switching More modern Less reliability Multiple paths Circuit Switching Old and expensive More reliability One path The connection is set up before the begginning of the communication After reading the above paragraphs it is possible to conclude that packet switching is more suitable for data communications because it is less expensive.0.0. however. Question 2: Given an IP address of 17.212.111 and that each subnet has been designed to accommodate 700 hosts. therefore the channels can be shared for more than one connection.89. However we need to accommodate at least 700 hosts for each subnet.0 because it is class A. it is not need to have dedicated circuits for each connection. Packet switching is less expensive and simple. So the custom subnet mask is: . a) What is the subnet mask in dotted decimal notation and slash notation? The default subnet mask is: 255. therefore we need to borrow 7 bits.

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 .212. there are two addresses that are designated for the network address and broadcast address. however.254. address Question 3: Consider the diagram below.91.0.89. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The IP address 17. Which of the two central routers (R1) and (R2) is more critical for network operations and why? .111 belongs to the network 17. 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 .252. and its broadcast address is Slash Notation. 17.88. so the number of usable hosts is 1022 per subnet.89. 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 . it is because 28=1024. 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . c) What is the network and the broadcast address of the subnet the specific host belongs to? 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 .111/22 b) How many usable hosts are there per subnet? The total number of host addresses per subnet is 1024.212. 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 .Dotted decimal Notation: 255.

Donahue. This is one of the reasons because the reassembly is done at the destination. However. therefore it will be impossible to carry out the reassembly process inside the network. Other problem could be the loss of certain data. N2 can be reached by using router B. N4. 2001) (Martin. In addition it is need to highlight that the packets do not arrive in the correct order. N5 and N6. in terms of accessibility the router R1 is more critical than R2. 2007). However a protocol such as TCP/IP takes care of this concern. N5 can be reached by using router E and N6 can be reached by using router F. they are reassembled (Hampton. N3 can be reached by using router C. The reason is because through R1 and R2 any hot that is located inside the network is able to reach other host in the networks N1. Question 5: Compare and Contrast DHCP and the ICMP messages that were previously used for startup configuration. 2002)). Castanho. This problem affects more to voice or video than other kinds of data such as e-mails (NetworkWorld. N3. It is because in packet switching not all the packets use the same route. 2001). The other reason is related to packet switching. However this means that the packets may arrive to the destination node in different order than they suppose to be assembled. however through R2 N3 can be reached by using routers E and C. Once all the packets are arrived to the destination. What are the problems with reassembling at the destination? According to Uruth the packets could choose different routes or paths in order to get the destination node in the most efficient way. 2007). What are the advantages of DHCP that caused to be the popular solution? . N4 can be reached by using router D and N5 can be reached by using routers C and E. we should consider both routers as critical to perform routing operations such as task to determinate the best path to send an incoming packet based on a routing table that contains the mapping from the network and host address that is made using routing algorithms (Fairhust.Based in the diagram. N4 can be reached by using router D. This process could happen more than once depends on the routers and their capacities. So. N2. neither would they arrive at the same time (NetworkWorld. through R1 any packet is able to access more networks such as N1 can be reached by using router A. Question 4: Why is reassembly done at the ultimate destination instead of inside the network? As it was explained in the question one the packets are fragmented in order to make the packets more manageable.

Unlike ICM messages which are used to report different kind of errors in the process of the datagram.DHCP as well called as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is based on the Bootstrap protocol BOOTP with an additional capability such as dynamic allocation of network addresses that can be reusable (Droms. this report is carried out between the router/host source (sender) and router/host destination (receiver). 1981). This communication is possible by using the IP support (Postel. 1997). The figure 3 and 4 show that ICMP message is much simple and has less number of fields than DHCP message. In the same way DHCP needs the services of ICMP messages in order to know if the assigned IP addresses are working correctly or not. Figure 3DHCP Message Format from Corner . It is possible to note that the main purpose of these two protocols are totally different however they need each other. because ICMP could not be able to send any error message to any host if it does not have a valid IP address.

2010). These errors will be show in the following figure Figure 5 ICMP Error Messages from Streve and Perkins It is need to note that ICMP also has vulnerabilities. . These vulnerabilities are: The ICMP message could be used to produce a Denial of Service attack and Man in the Middle attack.Figure 4 ICMP Error Message from Postel There are different types of error messages. This is because to the lack of authentication field in the message format (Streve and Perkins.

However DHCP also has few disadvantages such as: • • Increase the network traffic. DHCP provides more functionalities and options configurations than BOOTP. DHCP servers are able to decide which workstations can use dynamic addresses according with their MAC addresses. This could help to prevent issues related to IP addresses duplication. Reduce wasted addresses. Increase the start up time for establishing the connection. The pools of available range of addresses can be defined by the administrator A complete list of leasing addresses and available addresses is maintained in a central location. . 2010 ). Easy transition from BOOTP networks to DHCP. On the other hand DHCP as well hast its own advantages such as • • • • • • • The management of Internet Protocol addresses is done automatically.A fake error message reply could cause problems in the network by not providing the services to the “unreachable address” (Streve and Perkins.

2010. Microsoft Corporation. Donahue.networkworld. The TCP/IP Guide. TCP/IP from a Security Viewpoint. Retrieved March 26. Network Working Kozierok.aspx m Martin R. Circuit Switching and Packet Switching Networks. Request for Comments 792.txt Streve. 2010 from: Postel. Castanho. Retrieved March 26. 2010 from: http://technet. 2010 from: http://www. 2010. Retrieved Segmentation and Reassembly of Packets.abdn. Bucknell University.tcpipguide. R. 2010. 2007 Packet Switching Retrieved March http://www. 2010. 2010 from: About.html Hampton. ISI. Retrieved March 26.pdf 2010 from: http://www. Retrieved March 24. M.rutgers. Circuit Switching Vs. 2005. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. From http://remus. Perkins. Retrieved March 26. Request for Comments 2131. 2010 from: http://voip. Cisco Systems. Packet Switching. D. From N.ietf.D. M. Rutgers University.REFERENCES 25.html Droms. C.txt Faihust G. 2010. N.arl. Retrieved March Retrieved March 25. One Byte at a Time: Bootstrapping with BOOTP and Over IP.htm . 2010 from: http://www. 1997. 2001. Operation of a Router.C. Retrieved March 25. From: http://www. Internet Control Message Protocol. R. J. University of Aberdeen. Network Working Group. Internet Technology Routing.

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