4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 6

C

Analysing Voltaic Cell // Chemical Cell
A chemical cell that produces electrical energy when chemical reactions occur in it.

(I) Simple cell 1. Produced when two different metals are immersed in an electrolyte and are connected by an
external circuit.

2. The voltage of chemical cell depends on the distance between the two metals in the
Electrochemical Series :  the further the distance between them, the higher is the voltage.

Negative terminal : More electropositive metal. Metal atom will release electrons that will flow through the external circuit. Metal atom becomes metallic ion (becomes thinner).

v
+

Electrical current produced is detected by the voltmeter/galvanometer [Chemical energy → Electrical energy]

Positive terminal : Less electropositive metal. The electrons that flow from the external circuit are received by the positive ion in the electrolyte through this terminal. Metallic ion becomes metal atom (becomes thicker).

Example : Simple cell using magnesium and copper strips as electrodes and copper(II) sulphate solution as electrolyte.

Electron flow Magnesium

Electron flow Copper

Copper(II) sulphate solution
Position of magnesium is higher than copper in the Electrochemistry Series. A magnesium atom release electrons more easily than a copper atom. At the copper electrode, the electrons are accepted by the Cu2+ ions.

Cu2+ + 2e → Cu
The copper atoms are formed. Brown solid is deposited at cathode. Cathode becomes thicker. The size of the cathode becomes bigger. The mass of the cathode increases.

Mg → Mg2+ + 2e
The Mg ions are released into the CuSO4 solution while the electrons that are released flow through the external circuit toward the copper plate. Chapter 6
2 +

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Chapter 6

Activity 15 :(a) For all voltaic cells / chemical cells below : (i)

(ii)

mark the positive and negative terminal. draw arrows () to show the direction of the electrons flow.

V1
Silver plate Magnesium ribbon Silver plate

V2

Zinc plate

Silver nitrate solution

Cell A

Cell B

V3

V4

Copper plate

Magnesium ribbon

Copper plate

Zinc plate

Copper(II) sulphate solution

Cell C

Cell D

V5
Copper plate Silver plate

V6

Magnesium ribbon

Zinc plate

?

?

Cell E (b) Which cell produced the highest voltage value? Explain why.

Cell F

……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Chapter 6

(II) Daniell cell
(a) Zn Zn2+

Cu2+ Cu cell

Copper

Zinc

Copper(II) sulphate solution

Dilute sulphuric acid

Zinc sulphate solution

(a) Zinc electrode : (i)
(ii) (iii) …………… terminal because …………………………………………………………….. Equation : ………………………………………………………………………………. Observation : ………………………………………………………………………………

(b) Copper electrode : (i)
(ii) (iii) …………… terminal because ……………………………………………………………. Equation : ……………………………………………………………………………….. Observation : ………………………………………………………………………………

 

If the zinc metal is replaced with a magnesium metal, the voltage reading increases because magnesium is further from copper in the Electrochemical Series. OR If the copper metal is replaced with a silver metal, the voltage reading increases because silver is further from zinc in the Electrochemical Series. Voltage / V Mg Zn

V2 V1 V2 V3

……. …….

V1 V1

V3
Cu Ag

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Chapter 6

Activity 16 :State the advantages and disadvantages of the cell in the table given below. Types of cell 1. Lead – acid accumulator Advantages Disadvantages

2. Dry cell

3. Mercury cell

4. Alkaline cell

5. Nickel- cadminium cell

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Chapter 6

Activity 17 :-

1 (a) Draw a labelled diagram to show the similarities and differences between an electrolytic and a voltaic cell.
[Using copper plates, magnesium ribbon, copper(II) sulphate solution as materials]

Electrolytic cell

Voltaic cell

(b) The similarities between an electrolytic cell and a voltaic cell. (i) They consist of an ……………………………………….. each.

(ii) They consist of two ………………………………………. each. (iii) The process of donation of electrons occurs at the ………………………………………
while the process of acceptance of electrons occurs at the ………………………………

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Chapter 6

An Electrolytic cell

A Voltaic cell

Differences

Convert electrical energy to …………………..  Electrical energy produces chemical reaction. Current supply into the cell (a) The anode is ………………….. charged. (b) The cathode is ………………….. charged.

Energy conversion

Convert chemical energy to …………………..  Chemical reactions produce electrical energy.

Current Charge of :
(a) anode (b) cathode

Current produced by the cell (a) The anode is ………………….. charged. (b) The cathode is ………………….. charged.

Electrons flow from the ………………….. to the ………………….. through the external circuit. (a) ………………….. of electrons. (Oxidation)  Anion gives out electrons to anode. (b) ………………….. of electrons. (Reduction)  Cation accept electrons from negative terminal. Pair of carbon (graphite), platinum or pair of ………………… metals.

Electrons flow

Electrons flow from the ………………….. to the ………………….. through the external circuit. (a) ………………….. of electrons. (Reduction)  Electrons receive by positive terminal. (b) ………………….. of electrons. (Oxidation)  Electrons given out from negative terminal.

Types of reaction that takes place at the : (a) positive terminal (b) negative terminal

Types of electrodes

Two of ……………… metals.

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Chapter 6

Activity 18 :The diagram below shows two types of cell. .

Copper plate

P

Q

Copper plate

R

S

Magnesium ribbon

Copper(II) sulphate solution Cell X Compare and contrast cell X and cell Y. Cell Y

Answer : Cell X Type of cell Conversion of energy ………………….. cell. ………………….. energy to ………………….. energy. Positive terminal/Anode : Type of electrodes ………………….. Negative terminal/Cathode : ………………….. Ions in electrolyte Cation : ………………….. Anion : ………………….. Cell Y ………………….. cell. ………………….. energy to ………………….. energy. Positive terminal/ Cathode : ………………….. Negative terminal/ Anode : ………………….. Cation : ………………….. Anion : …………………..

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Chapter 6

Positive terminal/Anode : ……………………………………….. ……………………………………….. Observations Negative terminal/Cathode : ……………………………………….. ……………………………………….. Positive terminal/Anode : …………………………… Half equations Negative terminal/Cathode : ……………………………

Positive terminal/ Cathode : ………………………………………. ……………………………………….. Negative terminal/Anode : ……………………………………….. ……………………………………….. Positive terminal/ Cathode : …………………………… Negative terminal/Anode : ……………………………

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Electrochemistry

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