Chapter 8 : SALTS

A
1.

Synthesizing Salts
Meaning of salts

Salt is an ionic compound formed when the………………….ion, from an acid is replace by a metal ion or an ammonium ion.

Example 1 : HCl → H
+

Na+ + Cl-

NaCl

NH4+ HNO3 → H
+

NH4NO3
-

+

NO3

Example 2 :

Na2SO4
Na+ SO42-

K2SO4
K+ SO42NH4+ SO42-

Sulphuric acid

H

+

SO4

2-

(NH4)2SO4

Cu2+

SO42Al3+ SO42-

Zn2+

SO42-

CuSO4

Al2(SO4)3

ZnSO4

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Chapter 8

Activity 1:1 Complete the diagram below :

K+ Na+
Hydrochloric acid

NH4+

H+ ……..

Cu2+ Al3+

Zn2+

DIAGRAM 1.1

K+ Na+
Nitric acid

NH4+

H+

……..

Cu2+ Al3+

Zn2+

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2

DIAGRAM 1.2 Write down the chemical formula of salts : Sulphate salt (H2SO4) Chloride salt (HCl) Nitrate salt (HNO3) Carbonate salt (H2CO3)

Metal ion Na+ K+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Pb2+ Cu2+ Ag+ Ba2+ NH4+

2.

Uses Of Salts In Our Daily Lives USES OF SALTS

Agriculture

Medicinal Field

Food Industries

Chemical Industries

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Chapter 8

 Type of salt
3.

Soluble and Insoluble Salt
Types of salts : • Soluble salt  salts that can be dissolve in water at room temperature.

• • • • • •

Insoluble salt  salts cannot be dissolve in water at room temperature.

Solubility of salt in water All sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and ammonium (NH4+) salts are soluble. All nitrate salts are soluble. All sulphate salts are soluble except PbSO4 , CaSO4 and BaSO4 All chloride salts are soluble except PbCl2 and AgCl, HgCl All carbonate salts are insoluble except K2CO3, Na2CO3 and (NH4)2CO3.

Attention! All metal oxides and hydroxides are insoluble in water except Na2O, K2O, NaOH and KOH. (Barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide are slightly soluble in water) Activity 2:*Shade the insoluble salts in Activity 1; Question 2.

Activity 3:Classify the salt in the table below : Type of salt Nitrate Soluble Insoluble

Chloride EXCEPT Sulphate

EXCEPT

Carbonate

• • •

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 Potassium carbonate, K2CO3 Ammonium carbonate, (NH3)2CO3

All other carbonate salts

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Chapter 8

4.

The PREPARATION of salt depends on its solubility in water.

Preparation of salt
. Soluble
Method I Method II Method III

Insoluble

K+, Na+, NH4+
Acid + Alkali → Salt + H2O

Other than K+, Na+,
NH4+ salt

Double decomposition reaction [Method : Precipitation]

Acid + metal → Salt + H2 Titration of acid and alkali method using an indicator. Acid + metal oxide/base → Salt + H2O Acid + metal carbonate → Salt + H2O + CO2

Add acid to the alkali until it is neutral with the aid of an indicator. Repeat the procedure without using an indicator.

Add metal/base oxide fillings/excessive metal carbonate to the acid and heat it. Filter to remove excess solid (residue).

Evaporate the filtrated until it becomes a saturated solution. Dip in a glass rod, if crystals are formed immediately, the solution is saturated. Cooled at room temperature Filter and dry by using filter paper.

Mix two solutions containing cations and anions of insoluble salts. Stir with glass rod. Filter using filter funnel. Rinse the residue with distilled water. Dry the residue with filter paper.

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Chapter 8

Activity 4 :Based on your practical book [ page 113] and diagrams given, describe how to prepare the potassium chloride salts in the laboratory. (Method I)

KOH KOH KOH

V cm3

Salt solution (no indicator)

1. 2. 3. 4.

25.0 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 ……………………………………. solution is measured using 25.0 cm3 pipette and transferred into a conical flask. 2 or 3 drops of ……………………………………. are added into the conical flask. [the colourless solution turns pink] A clean burette is filled with 1 mol dm-3 of ……………………………………. The initial reading of the burette is recorded. ……………………………………. from the burette is added slowly into the ……………………………………. solution while shaking the conical flask, until the pink solution turns ……………………………………..

5.

The final reading of the burette is recorded. Volume of hydrochloric acid added to the sodium hydroxide solution is calculated and recorded. Step 1 to 5 are repeated without the using phenolphthalein, using the volume of hydrochloric acid obtained

6.
7.

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Chapter 8

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

The salt solution in the conical flask is poured into an evaporating dish. The solution is heated until it becomes ……………………………………. The hot saturated solution is ……………………………………. to room temperature for crystallisation to occur. The contents are ……………………………………. to obtain the potassium chloride, KCl crystals. The crystals are pressed between two pieces of filter paper to be dried. The chemical equation : NaOH + HCl → ___________ + H2O

Activity 5 :1 Diagram below shows the method of preparing a soluble salt. Complete the diagram by drawing the set-up of apparatus used to obtain the salt crystals in the space provided.

Metal oxide powder Excess metal oxide Salt solution 50 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 acid Salt solution Heat

The solution is allowed to cool

Filter papers
Chapter 8

Dry salt crystals are obtained

Salts

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Chapter 8

(a)

State two steps that are required to speed up the reaction betwen metal oxide and acid. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

(b)

Based on the diagram, state two substances that are used to prepare zinc chloride salt. ........................................................................................................................................

2

Diagram below shows the method of preparing an insoluble salt.

Solution X

Solution Y Salt Salt

Mixing two solution

Filter and rinse

Dry

(a)

Based on the diagram, state two suitable substances that are used to prepare lead(II) iodide salt. ........................................................................................................................................

(b)

State the type of reaction in (a). ........................................................................................................................................

(c)

Write the ionic equation for the reaction. ........................................................................................................................................

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3

Complete the table below with the suitable substances : Solution X Solution Y Sodium sulphate Salt Z Lead(II) sulphate Calcium sulphate Barium sulphate Silver chloride Lead(II) chloride Zinc carbonate Calcium carbonate

Calcium chloride

Potassium ……………………

5.  

PURIFICATION of soluble salts : Soluble salt purified through …………………………….. process. Diagram : Impure salt Stir Impurities Salt solution Distilled water Salt solution Heat

Dry pure salt crystals
Chapter 8

The solution is allowed to cool Salts

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Chapter 8

Activity 5 :Write √ for soluble salts and X for insoluble salts. Write all the possible chemical equations to prepare the soluble salts Write chemical equation and ionic equation for insoluble salts. Salt Zinc chloride

√/X
Zn + HCl →

Equation ZnO + HCl → ZnCO3 + HCl →

Sodium nitrate

Silver chloride

X

Copper(II) sulphate

Lead(II) sulphate

Aluminium nitrate

Lead(II) chloride

Magnesium nitrate

Potassium chloride

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Chapter 8

Lead(II) nitrate

Barium sulphate

Activity 6 :1 Salt is prepared by following methods :

 

Method A : reaction between metal oxide and acid. Method B : double decomposition involving two solutions of salts.

You are required to prepare lead(II) sulphate and copper(II) sulphate salts. (a) Based on the method above, select suitable method to prepare each salt. (b) State the chemical substances needed for preparing each salt. (c) Write a chemical equation to prepare each salt. (d) Describe an experiment to prepare each salt.

2

(a)

The following are three examples of chloride salts that can be prepared in the laboratory. • • • (i) Sodium chloride Lead(II) chloride Copper(II) chloride

From these examples, identify the soluble salt and insoluble salt. State the reactants for the preparation of the insoluble salt in (a) (i).

(ii)
(b)

You are required to prepare magnesium nitrate salt from the chemical substances provided below.

• Magnesium oxide
• Dilute nitric acid Your answer should include the chemical equations involved in the reactions.

3

Magnesium sulphate is a soluble salt Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare a dry magnesium sulphate. In your description, include the chemical equation involved.

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Chapter 8

4

Diagram below shows the reactions involved in the preparation of soluble salts. Potassium salts Ammonium salts Sodium salts

Asid + alkali → salt + water

Soluble salts

Reaction X

Other salts

Reaction Y Reaction Z

(a) (b)

Sodium, potassium and ammonium salts can be prepared using reaction between acid and alkali. State the reaction X, Y and Z. By choosing one of the reactions in (a) (i), suggest example of reactants used and products formed. Write the chemical equation for the reaction based on your suggestion.

5

Diagram below shows a series of reactions for the production of copper(II) nitrate and substance B with coper(II) carbonate as the initial reactant.

CuCO3

+ HCl Stage I

Solution A + CO2 + Water

+ Pb(NO3)2 Stage II

Cu(NO3)2
+ Substance B

(a)

State the name of the

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Solution A :

Chapter 8

(i)

..………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Substance B : ..………………………………………………………………………………… (b) In Stage I, 20 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is reacted with excess copper(II) carbonate powder. (i) Write the chemical equation for this reaction. ..………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Calculate the maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas that can be produced at room condition. [The molar volume of any gas is 24 dm3 mol-1 at room condition]

(c)

(i)

Name the type of reaction that takes place in Stage II. ..…………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)

State how to separate substance B from the mixture. ..………………………………………………………………………………………

6

Diagram below shows the set up of apparatus for the preparation of copper(II) sulphate. Copper (II) oxide powder is added into acid X until in excess. Stir Excess copper(II) oxide powder Acid X xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Chapter 8

Salts

Heat

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Chapter 8

(a)

State the colour of copper(II) sulphate solution. ...................................................................................................................................

(b)

Based on the diagram, state the name the of acid X used to prepare copper(II) sulphate. ..............…………………………………………………………………………….

(c)

Write the chemical equation for the preparation of copper (II) sulphate.

................................................................................................................................... (d) State the reason why copper(II) oxide powder is added until in excess. ..............……………………………………………………………………………. 7 Which of the following salts can be prepared by a precipitation method? A B C D Sodium sulphate Copper(II) chloride Lead(II) chloride Potassium carbonate

8

Which of the following reactions does not produce magnesium chloride? A B C D Magnesium oxide and hydrochloric acid Magnesium powder and hydrochloric acid Magnesium nitrate and hydrochloric acid Magnesium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

9

A white precipitate formed when sodium sulphate solution is added to solution Z. Which of the following solutions is most probably solution Z?

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Chapter 8

A B C D

Zinc nitrate Silver nitrate Calcium nitrate Magnesium nitrate

B

Qualitative Analysis of Salt  Identification of ions [Qualitative Analysis]
The qualitative analysis involves three important steps : I Physical properties II Thermal effect

III I

Confirmatory tests for cations and anions

Physical Properties
(a) Physical state at room conditions :

• Most of salts exist as solid  ionic compound • If the salt exist as an aqueous solution  it must be a soluble salt.
(b) Colour Solid Aqueous solution Salts / Metal oxide

White Green Light Green Blue Brown Black Yellow when hot White when cold Brown when hot Yellow when cold

Colourless

K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, Zn2+, Pb2+, NH4+ salt CuCO3

Light Green Blue Brown

Fe2+ salt  FeSO4, FeCl2, Fe(NO3)2 CuSO4, Cu(NO3)2, CuCl2 Fe3+ salt  Fe2(SO4)3 FeCl3, Fe(NO3)3 CuO ZnO

PbO

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Chapter 8

II Thermal Effect Metal oxide (residue identification refers to specific cation only) Gas (gas identification refers to specific anion only)

Salt

+

Gas Nitrogen dioxide Oxygen Carbon dioxide

Test / Observation

Anion

NO2 Brown gas/fumes is liberated. O2
Colourless gas, rekindles glowing wooden splinter

NO3-

CO2 Lime water turns chalky

CO32 -

 Test For Gases
PROCEDURE / TEST Lower a glowing wooden splinter into the test tube. Bring a lighted wooden splinter to the mouth of the test tube. Bubble/flow the gas produced into lime water. Bring a piece of moist red litmus paper to the mouth of the test tube. Bubble the gas produced through acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution. OBSERVATION Glowing wooden splinter is rekindled. A colourless gas that explodes with a ‘pop’ sound. Lime water turns milky/chalky // White precipitate is formed. Moist red litmus paper turns blue. INFERENCE The gas liberated is oxygen, O2 The gas liberated is hydrogen, H2 The gas liberated is carbon dioxide, CO2 The gas liberated is alkaline, it is ammonia, NH3 The gas liberated is sulphur dioxide, SO2

Purple colour of the
acidified KMnO4 solution is decolourises.

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A brown gas is liberated Moist blue litmus paper turns red. A greenish-yellow gas is liberated. Moist blue litmus paper turns red. Moist blue litmus paper turns red.

Chapter 8

Bring a piece of moist blue litmus paper to the mouth of the test tube. Bring a piece of moist blue litmus paper to the mouth of the test tube. Bring a piece of moist blue litmus paper to the mouth of the test tube.

The gas liberated is nitrogen dioxide, NO2 The gas liberated is acidic, it is chlorine, Cl2 The gas liberated is acidic and it is hydrogen chloride, HCl

1.

Thermal effect on nitrate and carbonate salts. Nitrate salt Metal oxide

+

NO2

+

O2

Except : Potassium, sodium and ammonium salt.

Carbonate salt

Metal oxide

+

CO2

Activity 6 :Write down the chemical equations for the reactions that occur. Cation (i) K+ Na+ (ii) Ca2+ Mg2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Fe3+ Decompose into metal oxide, NO2 gas and O2 gas Decompose into metal oxide and CO2 gas Nitrate (NO3 ) Decompose into metal nitrite and O2 gas
-

Carbonate (CO3 ) Is not decomposed by heat

2-

…..KNO3 → ……KNO2 + O2

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

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Chapter 8

Pb2+ Cu2+

…Cu(NO3)2 → …CuO + …NO2 + …O2

• •

Sulphate salts usually do not decompose. Chloride salts do not decompose except NH4Cl.
NH3(g) + HCl(g) [ sublimation process ]

NH4Cl(s) Activity 7 :1

Table below shows the incomplete observation for an experiment : Experiment Procedure 1. Copper(II) carbonate is heated and the gas produced is passed through lime water. Observation Green solid turns

………………………… 2. The lime water turns …………………………

Heat

(a) (b)

Complete the observation on the table above. Based on the observation, name the products in the experiment and write the chemical equation for the reaction occured. Products : ………………………………………………………………………………….. Chemical equation : …………………………………………………………………

2

Diagram below shows the decomposition of compound X to form lead(II) oxide, and gas Q. Compound X Gas Y is a brown gas. Based on the diagram above, (i) state the name of the gas Y. ................................................................................................................................................ (ii) state the colour of lead(II) oxide when it is hot and cold. Lead(II) oxide + Gas Y + Gas Z

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Chapter 8

................................................................................................................................................ (iii) write the formula of compound X. ................................................................................................................................................ (iv) write the chemical equation for the reaction. ................................................................................................................................................

2.

Confirmatory Tests for Cations and Anions
(a) Chemical tests should be conducted for the confirmation of anions and cations in aqueous form.

(b) Cation confirmation  It is done by adding a small amount of sodium hydroxide solution,
NaOH(aq) / aqueous ammonia solution, NH3(aq) followed by excess sodium hydroxide / aqueous ammonia solution.

(i)

Reaction with sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH(aq)

Cation

Sodium hydroxide

+ NaOH(aq)
Solution with cation

No

Precipitate formed?

Yes

NH4+

Colour of precipitate

White

+ excess NaOH(aq)

Blue

Green

Brown No

Cu2+

Fe2+

Fe3+

Precipitate dissolve?

Yes

Chapter 8

Mg2+

Ca2+ Zn2+ Al3+

Salts

Pb2+

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Chapter 8

(ii) Reaction with ammonia solution, NH3(aq)

Cation
+ NH3(aq)

Ammonia solution

Solution with cation

No

Precipitate formed?

Yes

NH4+

Ca2+

Colour of precipitate

White

+ excess NH3(aq)
Blue Green Brown No

Cu2+

Fe2+

Fe3+

Precipitate dissolve?

Yes

+ excess NH3(aq)

Precipitate dissolve in excess NH3 (aq) to form blue solution
Chapter 8

Mg

2 +

Al

3 +

Pb

2 +

Zn2+

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Chapter 8

3.

Confirmatory Tests For Cations
Cations Ca2+ Test with a small amount of sodium hydroxide solution until in excess white precipitate, insoluble in excess Test with a small amount of ammonia solution until in excess -

Mg2+

white precipitate, insoluble in excess

white precipitate, insoluble in excess

Al3+

white precipitate, soluble in excess

white precipitate, insoluble in excess

Zn2+ Fe2+

white precipitate, soluble in excess

white precipitate, soluble in excess

green precipitate, insoluble in excess

green precipitate, insoluble in excess

Fe3+

brown precipitate, insoluble in excess

brown precipitate, insoluble in excess

Pb2+

white precipitate, soluble in excess

white precipitate, insoluble in excess

Cu2+

blue precipitate, insoluble in excess

blue precipitate, soluble in excess

NH4+

-

-

Confirmatory Tests for ammonium ion, NH4+ (a) Nessler reagent

 

a small amount of Nessler reagent is added into the solution. brown precipitate are formed. Salts

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Chapter 8

(b) Heat  sodium hydroxide solution is added to a small amount of solution contains NH4+  the solution is heated.  A piece of moist red litmus paper is placed. Red moist litmus paper turns blue. NH4+
+ NaOH(aq) heat

4.

To differentiate between Al3+ and Pb2+

Al3+ // Pb2+
+ H2SO4 / Na2SO4 + HCl / NaCl No changes White precipitate No changes White precipitate

+ KI No changes Yellow precipitate

(c)

(a)

(b)

Al3+

Pb2+

Al3+

Pb2+

Al3+

Pb2+

Write the ionic equations for the formation of precipitate : (a) : ………………………………………………………………………. (b) : ………………………………………………………………………. (c) : ……………………………………………………………………….

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Chapter 8

5.

Confirmatory Tests For Anions Anion Tests Conclusion / Ionic equation

CO32-

2 cm3 of dilute HCl / H2SO4 is added to 2 cm3 of aqueous solution of carbonate ions. Effervescence occurs and the gas released turns lime water chalky.

Cl-

Dilute HNO3 is added to 2 cm3 of an aqueous solution of chloride ions followed by 2 cm3 of silver nitrate solution. A white precipitate is formed.

SO42-

Dilute HCl / HNO3 is added to 2 cm3 of an aqueous solution of sulphate ions followed by 2 cm3 barium chloride / barium nitrate solution. A white precipitate is formed.

NO3-

2 cm3 of dilute H2SO4 is added to solution of nitrate ions followed by 2 cm3 of Iron(II) sulphate. The mixture is shaken. The test tube is slanted and held with a test tube holder. A few drops of concentrated H2SO4 acid is dropped along the wall of the test tube and is held upright. A brown ring is formed.

-

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Chapter 8

Activity 8 :1 Table below shows four types of salts. Sodium carbonate Zinc nitrate Lead(II) chloride Copper(II) sulphate With reference to the salts given above, answer the following question : (a) Write the chemical formula of sodium carbonate. .................................................................................................................................. (b) Name the salt which is insoluble in water. .................................................................................................................................. (c) (i) What is observed when zinc nitrate salt is heated. .............................................................................................................................. (ii) Write the chemical equation to represent the reaction. ..................................................................................................................... (d) State the type of reaction in the preparation of lead(II) chloride salt. ........................................................................................................................................ (e) Describe how to verify copper(II) ion and sulphate ion in copper(II) sulphate solution. (i) copper(II) ion : .............................................................................................................................. ..............................................................................................................................

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sulphate ion :

Chapter 8

(ii)

.............................................................................................................................. ..............................................................................................................................

2

Nitric acid reacts with substance Y and produces a gas which changes lime water chalky as one of the products. Which of the following is substance Y? A B C D Mg NaOH CaCO3 Al2O3

3

When potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution is added to solution X, a dark blue precipitate is formed. Then, solution X is added with barium chloride solution in another test tube, a white precipitate is formed. The formula of the solution X is …………….. A B C D FeCl2 FeSO4 Fe(NO3)3 Fe2(SO4)3

4

Which of the following reagent can be used to differentiate iron(II) ion, Fe2+ and iron(III) ion, Fe3+? I II III IV A B C D Ammonia solution Potassium bromide solution Acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution I and II I and IV II and III III and IV

5

A white precipitate formed when sodium sulphate solution is added to solution Z. Which of the following solutions is most probably solution Z?

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Chapter 8

A B C D

Zinc nitrate Silver nitrate Calcium nitrate Magnesium nitrate

6

Figure below shows an incomplete flow chart of cation and anion tests for salts X? Salt X

Cation test

Anion test

Mg2+

NO3-

(ii) Describe the test that you use in the laboratory to confirm that salt X contains magnesium
ions, Mg2+ and nitrate ions, NO3-. Include in your observations. [10 marks]

Chapter 8

Salts

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