This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1 About ALC India, what I know it’s a growing management consulting firm with team of dedicated professionals, As I am working in development sector from past 8 year, what I think about me is that I am good in implementation part somehow I thought I am not good in planning part. It didn’t mean that I don’t have capability, it’s because of I didn’t get opportunity to enhance it. I visited ALC India website and came to know about that there is lot of opportunity to grow. As a nascent organization ALC invested in many products and workshops which I feel is innovative ideas in development sector which not many big organizations are doing. So I think this is the suitable place for me to grow and learn while serving the society. Ans.No.2:A livelihood is the set of capabilities, assets, and activities that furnish the means for people to meet their basic needs and support their well-being. The building of livelihoods reflects and seeks to fulfil both material and experiential needs. Livelihoods are not simply a localized phenomenon, but connected by environmental, economic, political and cultural processes to wider national, regional and global arenas. The sustainability of a livelihood is ascertained by its sensitivity, hardiness and resiliency in the face of short- and long-term challenges. “A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with, and recover from, shocks and stresses and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and into the future, while not undermining the natural resource base” The question of a livelihood’s capacity for sustainability involves evaluating current circumstances and assessing future trends, as well as past conditions and patterns. People are pursuing their livelihoods in a context of vulnerability, including shocks (sudden onset of natural disasters, conflicts, economic traumas, health problems and crop or livestock distress), trends (in population, resources, health problems, the economy or governance) and seasonality (cyclic fluctuations in prices, production, health and employment). This complex array of influences has direct and indirect impacts on people’s livelihoods, including the options available to them. Takes into account the range of tangible and intangible assets necessary to build a livelihood, There are five types of ‘capital’ or core assets. Human capital denotes skills, knowledge, good health and ability to work. Knowledge about the properties, use or location of trees, for example, would fall under this category. Social capital refers to formal and informal social relationships, including their degree of trust, reliability and adaptability. Natural capital consists of natural resources, including their flows and services. Physical capital refers to producer goods and physical infrastructure. Financial capital includes financial resources. As might be expected, those with larger asset portfolios have more livelihood options, as well less vulnerability, than those with fewer assets. The distribution of livelihood assets
while a tree may be regarded as a household’s assets. structures and processes effectively determine access to public and private resources and the terms of trade between different types of livelihood assets. Together. livelihood incomes would generate more income. improved food security. Gender. Livelihood outcomes are the results or ‘outcomes’ of the livelihood strategies. Policies. Structures refer to the key roles of all levels of government and the private sector in shaping livelihoods. but 200 days a year appears to be widely used as a minimum level to create a livelihood. They also influence the returns (economic or otherwise) to livelihood strategies – the ways people combine and use assets to meet their objectives. the number of livelihoods created will be dependent on the proportion of the population available for work. Alternatively. part of a wage labour system or subsistence production. and sustained use of natural resources. People’s control over core assets is also dynamic.in any population – rural or urban – is always uneven. increased wellbeing. For example. laws. The “stocks” of both tangible and intangible assets fluctuate seasonally and through time in response to the contingencies of life. rules and relations for human interaction. “What people can do or be with their entitlements’. relative poverty and inequality can be assessed using Gini coefficient measures. Various measures can be used to develop an absolute ‘poverty line’ measure based on income or consumption levels). age and other social differences may significantly affect access to livelihood assets within the household and other groups. such quantitative assessments of poverty can be used in combination with more qualitative indicators of livelihoods. the outcomes are highly differentiated from the global to the intra-household levels. institutions and related processes give meaning and value to livelihood assets. a concept which encompasses far more than the material concerns of food intake or income. iii) Well-being and capabilities – The notions of ‘well-being’ and ‘capability’ provide a wider definitional scope for the livelihoods concept. production (employment providing a consumable output) and recognition (where employment provides recognition for being engaged in something worthwhile). institutions and culture furnish the everyday framework. In an ideal world. various target levels have been suggested. Such ideas represent more than the human capital which . Gradations of poverty exist even in the poorest communities. reduced vulnerability. Approach to sustainable livelihood analysis calls them transforming structures and processes. Processes determine the way in which structures – and individuals – operate and interact. In terms of the income/production aspects. As per as my perception and experience there is following key strategies to enhance Creation of working days – This relates to the ability of a particular combination of livelihood strategies to create gainful employment for a certain portion of the year4 This may be on or off-farm. Overall. ii) Poverty reduction – The poverty level is a key criterion in the assessment of livelihoods. Policies. There is three aspects of employment – income (a wage for the employed). There are a range of pros and cons for each measure. women’s rights to it may not be the same as men’s. In the real world. as well as some major measurement challenges However.
iv) Livelihood adaptation. may result in different responses. vulnerability and resilience – The ability of a livelihood to be able to cope with and recover from stresses and shocks is central to the definition of sustainable livelihoods. and resistance or tolerance mechanisms. an assessment of whether natural resource change results in ‘effectively permanent declines in useful products or services’). This may result in a range of sustainable livelihood outcome criteria. the ability to recover from disturbance) and livelihood needs (i. including diverse factors such as self-esteem. vegetation cover etc.e. Assessing resilience and the ability to positively adapt or successfully cope requires an analysis of a range of factors. Such resilience in the face of stresses and shocks is key to both livelihood adaptation and coping . v) Natural resource base sustainability – Most rural livelihoods are reliant on the natural resource base at least to some extent. Natural resource base sustainability refers to the ability of a system to maintain productivity when subject to disturbing forces. security.Those who are unable to cope (temporary adjustments in the face of change) or adapt (longer term shifts in livelihood strategies) are inevitably vulnerable and unlikely to achieve sustainable livelihoods. Measuring natural resource sustainability is notoriously difficult. exclusion. Different types of shock or stress. vulnerability. predictable disturbance with a cumulative effect) or a ‘shock’ (a large infrequent. happiness. stress. repartitioning. whether a ‘stress’ (a small.allows people to do things. in turn. including avoidance. unpredictable disturbance with immediate impact). power. but also the intrinsically valued elements of ‘capability’ or ‘well-being’. .e. regular. Argues that such a well-being approach to poverty and livelihood analysis may allow people themselves to define the criteria which are important.)to both the temporal dynamics of system resilience (i. soil fertility levels. including an evaluation of historical experiences of responses to various shocks and stresses.g. as well as more conventionally measured material concerns). as it is critical to link indicators of resource depletion or accumulation (e. This implies avoiding depleting stocks of natural resources to a level which results in an effectively permanent decline in the rate at which the natural resource base yields useful products or services for livelihoods5.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.