You are on page 1of 9

11.20.

14

Systematic Review Question(s): What is the relationship between low


carbohydrate diets and health?
Search Plan and Results

Table of Contents
• NEL Search Strategy pg 1
• Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria pg 3
• Search Results pg 4
• Included Articles pg 6

Search Strategy
Search Terms and Date(s):

PubMed:

Date(s) Searched: 11/14/2014


Search Terms:

((High protein* OR high carb* OR “low fat” OR low protein* OR low carb* OR “high fat” OR atkin*[tiab] OR
paleo OR paleolith* OR paleodiet* OR “stone age”[tiab] OR hunter gather*[tiab] OR hunter-gather* OR
“south beach”[tiab] OR “zone diet”[tiab] OR Sugar buster*[tiab] OR caveman[tiab] OR “low glycemic”[tiab]
OR” ideal protein” OR primal[tiab]) AND (diet[tiab] OR diets[tiab] OR diet[mh] OR "Diet, Reducing"[Mesh]
OR "Caloric Restriction"[Mesh])) OR "Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted"[Mesh]

AND

"Mortality"[Mesh] OR mortality[tiab] OR "blood pressure"[tiab] OR "blood pressure"[mesh] OR


"cardiovascular diseases"[mh:noexp] OR "Heart Diseases"[Mesh:NoExp] OR Heart Disease*[tiab] OR
"Heart Diseases"[Major] OR cardiovascular disease*[tiab] OR cardiovascular event*[tiab] OR
hypertension[tiab] OR "Myocardial Infarction"[Mesh] OR "Myocardial Infarction"[tiab] OR "Heart
Failure"[Mesh] OR "Heart Arrest"[Mesh] OR "Myocardial Ischemia"[Mesh] OR heart failure*[tiab] OR
"heart arrest"[tiab] OR "Myocardial Ischemia"[tiab] OR hypertension[mh] OR stroke[tiab] OR
"stroke"[Mesh] OR (coronary[tiab] AND disease*[tiab])
OR
"cholesterol/blood"[mh] OR "Cholesterol, Dietary"[Mesh] OR "Cholesterol"[Mesh] OR "Cholesterol,
HDL"[Mesh] OR "Cholesterol, LDL"[Mesh] OR "Cholesterol, VLDL"[Mesh] OR cholesterol[tiab] OR
"Cholesterol, Dietary"[Mesh] OR triglyceride* OR "Lipids/blood"[Mesh] OR hypercholesterolemia[mh] OR
hypercholesterol*[tiab] OR hypercholesterolemia[tiab]
OR
(“insulin resistance”[mh] OR “insulin”[ti] OR inflammation[ti] OR glucose intoleran*[tiab] OR "Glucose
Intolerance"[Mesh] OR diabetes[tiab] OR "Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2"[Mesh] OR "Hemoglobin A,
Glycosylated"[Mesh] OR “hemoglobin A1c “[tiab] OR (“impaired fasting” AND (glucose OR glycemi*)) OR
“onset diabetes” OR “impaired glucose” OR “insulin sensitivity” OR insulin-resist*[tiab] OR insulin
resist*[tiab])
OR

"body size"[tiab] OR body size[mh] OR obesity[tiab] OR obese[tiab] OR overweight[mh] OR obesity[mh]


OR overweight [tiab] OR overnutrition[tiab] OR overnutrition[mh]OR adipos*[tiab] OR adiposity[mh] OR
body composition[mh] OR body fat distribution[mh] OR “body fat”[tiab] OR "body weight"[tiab] OR body
weight[mh] OR weight gain[mh] OR weight loss[mh] OR “body-weight related”[tiab] OR "weight gain"[tiab]
OR weight-gain[tiab] OR weight loss[tiab] OR weight-loss[tiab] OR Body Weights and Measures[mh] OR
weight[ti] OR "Anthropometry"[Mesh:noexp] OR body mass index[mh] OR “body mass index”[tiab] OR
Page 1 of 9
11.20.14

BMI[tiab] OR “weight status”[tiab] OR adipose tissue [mh] OR "healthy weight"[tiab] OR waist


circumference[mh] OR “body mass”[ti] OR “body fat mass”[tiab] OR body weight changes[mh] OR “waist
circumference”[tiab] OR ideal body weight[mh] OR waist-hip ratio[mh] OR waist-hip ratio[tiab] OR waist
hip ratio[tiab] OR “body height”[tiab] OR "body fat"[tiab] OR waist[ti]

OR
"Colorectal Neoplasms"[mesh] OR "polyps"[MeSH Terms] OR "lung neoplasms"[MeSH Terms] OR
"Prostatic Neoplasms"[Mesh] OR "Breast Neoplasms"[Mesh] OR ((cancer[tiab] OR cancers[tiab] OR
cancerous[tiab] OR neoplasm*[tiab] OR carcinogen*[tiab] OR "Carcinogens"[Mesh] OR tumor[tiab] OR
tumors[tiab] OR tumour*[tiab] OR carcinoma*[tiab] OR adenocarcinoma*[tiab] OR sarcoma*[tiab] OR
metastasis[tiab] OR metastases[tiab] OR polyp*[ti]) AND (colonic*[tiab] OR colon[tiab] OR colorect*[tiab]
Or rectal OR rectum OR breast*[tiab] OR mammary[tiab] OR prostate*[tiab] OR prostatic[tiab] OR
lung[tiab]))

OR
("Neural Tube Defects"[Mesh] OR (Neural Tube* AND Defect*[tiab]) OR NTDs[tiab] OR "Spinal
Dysraphism"[tiab] or "Anencephaly"[tiab] OR "Anencephaly"[Mesh]) OR "Heart Defects,
Congenital"[Mesh] OR Congenital Heart Defect*[tiab] OR "Congenital Abnormalities"[Mesh] OR
“Tetralogy of Fallot”[tiab] OR "Encephalocele"[Mesh] OR "Encephalocele"[tiab] OR Truncus Arteriosus
OR Transposition of great arteries OR Atrioventricular septal defect OR Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
OR (congenital[tiab] AND heart[tiab] AND (defect*[tiab] OR abnormal*[tiab])) OR ("Cleft Palate"[Mesh]
OR "Cleft Lip"[Mesh] OR cleft palate*[tiab] OR cleft lip*[tiab])

OR
("Bone Density"[Mesh] OR "Fractures, Bone"[Mesh] OR "Bone Diseases"[Mesh] OR osteoporosis[tiab]
OR (bone[tiab] AND fracture*[tiab]) OR “bone density”[tiab] OR "Rickets"[Mesh] OR ricket*[tiab] OR bone
mineral*[tiab] OR “bone mass”[tiab] OR ((bone[ti] OR bones[ti]) AND health*[ti]) OR bone health*[tiab] OR
"Bone Demineralization, Pathologic"[Mesh] OR bone mineral*[tiab] OR bone demineral*[tiab])

OR
depressi*[ti] OR depression[mh] OR "Alzheimer Disease"[Mesh] OR dementia[tiab] OR dementia[mh] OR
Alzheimer*[tiab] OR senility[tiab] OR senile[tiab] OR presenile[tiab] OR "Mild Cognitive Impairment"[Mesh]
OR cognitive decline[tiab] OR cognitive impairment*[tiab] OR depressive disorder[mh:noexp] OR
depressive disorder, major[mh] OR depressive disorder, treatment-resistant[mh] OR "Cognition
Disorders"[Mesh:noexp] OR "Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders"[Mesh:noexp] OR
cognitive function*[tiab] OR cognitive disorder*[tiab] OR cognition function*[tiab] OR (("Mental
Processes"[Mesh] OR "Cognition"[Mesh] OR cogniti*[tiab]) AND ("Longevity"[Mesh] OR longevity[ti] OR
aging[ti] OR "Aging"[Mesh] OR ageing[tiab] OR "Mortality"[Mesh] OR mortality[ti]) OR (cognitiv* AND
impair*))

limiters:

("Study Characteristics" [Publication Type] OR “clinical trial”[ptyp] OR "Epidemiologic Studies"[Mesh] OR


"Support of Research"[ptyp] OR cohort[tiab] OR observational[tiab] OR retrospective[tiab] OR
longitudinal[tiab]) NOT (editorial[ptyp] OR comment[ptyp] OR news[ptyp] OR letter[ptyp] OR review[ptyp]
OR systematic[sb])

Page 2 of 9
11.20.14

Inclusion/ Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion criteria for the dietary patterns-cancer systematic reviews included the following:

• Human subjects
• Subject populations from countries with high or very high human development, according to the
2012 Human Development Index
• Children, adolescents, and adults aged 2 years and older
• Subjects who were healthy or at elevated chronic disease risk
• Randomized or non-randomized controlled trial, prospective cohort study, or a nested case-
control study
• Intervention studies with a dropout rate ≤20% and a differential dropout rate of ≤15% between
groups
• Intervnetion studies with a sample size of ≥30 subjects per study arm
• The intervention or exposure was adherence to a low carbohydrate diet (<45% energy from
carbohydrate)
• The comparator was adherence to a diet with different macronutrient proportion (including diets
>45% energy from carbohydrate)
• The outcomes were:
o Body Weight: BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference, weight change, % body fat mass,
weight-for-age, length/stature-for-age, weight for stature, BMI-for-age, incidence of
healthy weight, overweight, obesity
o Cardiovascular Disease: LDL-C, HDL-C (including TC:HDL and LDL:HDL ratios),
triglycerides , blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), and incidence of hypertension,
myocardial infarction, stroke, CHD, CVD-related mortality
o Type 2 Diabetes: Fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C, glucose tolerance/insulin
resistance, incidence of T2D
o Cancer: Incidence of breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer
o Bone Health: Bone mass, bone mineral density/content, osteoporosis, rickets, risk of
fracture
o Neuro-Psych Illness: Depression, Cognitive impairment/ Dementia/ Alzheimer’s Disease
o Congenital Abnormalities: Risk of neural tube defects, congenital heart defects, cleft
lip/cleft palate

In addition, articles were included if they were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal between
January 2000 and October 2014. If an author is included on more than one primary research article that is
similar in content, the paper with the most pertinent data/endpoints was included. If data/endpoints from
both papers are appropriate, it was made clear that results are from the same intervention.

Exclusion criteria for the dietary patterns systematic reviews included:

• Animals and in vitro models


• Subject populations from countries with medium or low human development, according to the
Human Development Index
• Children under the age of 2 years
• Subjects who were hospitalized, diagnosed with disease, and/or receiving medical treatment

Page 3 of 9
11.20.14

• Systematic review, meta-analysis, narrative review, before and after, uncontrolled, cross-
sectional, case-control, ecological designs

Articles were excluded if they were not published in English, or were published before January 2000.
Articles, abstracts, and presentations not published in peer-reviewed journals (e.g., websites, magazine
articles, Federal reports) were also excluded. Finally, if an author was included on more than one review
article or primary research article that is similar in content, the paper with the most pertinent
data/endpoints was included, and others were excluded.

Search Results

Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes

Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Body Weight

Page 4 of 9
11.20.14

Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Cancer

Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Bone Health, Neuro-Psych Illnesses, Congenital Abnormalities

Page 5 of 9
11.20.14

Included Articles
The following articles have been determined to be relevant for inclusion in the body of evidence used for
the systematic review question(s): What is the relationship between low carbohydrate diets and health?

Cardiovascular Disease
1. Gulseth HL,Gjelstad IM,Tierney AC,Shaw DI,Helal O,Hees AM,Delgado-Lista J,Leszczynska-Golabek
I,Karlstrom B,Lovegrove J,Defoort C,Blaak EE,Lopez-Miranda J,Dembinska-Kiec A,Riserus U,Roche
HM,Birkeland KI,Drevon CA. Dietary fat modifications and blood pressure in subjects with the
metabolic syndrome in the LIPGENE dietary intervention study. Br J Nutr. 2010;104(2):160-3.
PMID:20202290.

2. Jansen S,Lopez-Miranda J,Castro P,Lopez-Segura F,Marin C,Ordovas JM,Paz E,Jimenez-Pereperez


J,Fuentes F,Perez-Jimenez F. Low-fat and high-monounsaturated fatty acid diets decrease plasma
cholesterol ester transfer protein concentrations in young, healthy, normolipemic men. Am J Clin Nutr.
2000;72(1):36-41. PMID:10871558.

3. Lagiou P,Sandin S,Weiderpass E,Lagiou A,Mucci L,Trichopoulos D,Adami HO. Low carbohydrate-
high protein diet and mortality in a cohort of Swedish women. J Intern Med. 2007;261(4):366-74.
PMID:17391111.

4. Nakamura Y,Okuda N,Okamura T,Kadota A,Miyagawa N,Hayakawa T,Kita Y,Fujiyoshi A,Nagai


M,Takashima N,Ohkubo T,Miura K,Okayama A,Ueshima H. Low-carbohydrate diets and
cardiovascular and total mortality in Japanese: a 29-year follow-up of NIPPON DATA80. Br J Nutr.
2014;112(6):916-24. PMID:25201302.

5. Nilsson LM,Winkvist A,Eliasson M,Jansson JH,Hallmans G,Johansson I,Lindahl B,Lenner P,Van


Guelpen B. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-
based cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(6):694-700. PMID:22333874.

6. Roussell MA,Hill AM,Gaugler TL,West SG,Ulbrecht JS,Vanden Heuvel JP,Gillies PJ,Kris-Etherton


PM. Effects of a DASH-like diet containing lean beef on vascular health. J Hum Hypertens.
2014;28(10):600-5. PMID:24943285.

7. Sjogren P,Becker W,Warensjo E,Olsson E,Byberg L,Gustafsson IB,Karlstrom B,Cederholm T.


Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in
Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(4):967-74. PMID:20826627.

Type 2 Diabetes
No articles identified.

Body Weight
1. Ankarfeldt MZ,Angquist L,Stocks T,Jakobsen MU,Overvad K,Halkjaer J,Saris WH,Astrup A,Sorensen
TI. Body composition, dietary protein and body weight regulation. Reconciling conflicting results from
intervention and observational studies?. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e101134. PMID:24992329.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24992329

2. Archer WR,Lamarche B,St-Pierre AC,Mauger JF,Deriaz O,Landry N,Corneau L,Despres JP,Bergeron


J,Couture P,Bergeron N. High carbohydrate and high monounsaturated fatty acid diets similarly affect
LDL electrophoretic characteristics in men who are losing weight. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3124-9.
PMID:14519795. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14519795

3. Azadbakht L,Izadi V,Surkan PJ,Esmaillzadeh A. Effect of a High Protein Weight Loss Diet on Weight,
High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk among Overweight and Obese Women:
A Parallel Clinical Trial. Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013(#number#):971724. PMID:23986778.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23986778

Page 6 of 9
11.20.14

4. Bazzano LA,Hu T,Reynolds K,Yao L,Bunol C,Liu Y,Chen CS,Klag MJ,Whelton PK,He J. Effects of
low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(5):309-18.
PMID:25178568. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25178568

5. Bray GA,Smith SR,DeJonge L,de Souza R,Rood J,Champagne CM,Laranjo N,Carey V,Obarzanek
E,Loria CM,Anton SD,Ryan DH,Greenway FL,Williamson D,Sacks FM. Effect of diet composition on
energy expenditure during weight loss: the POUNDS LOST Study. Int J Obes (Lond).
2012;36(3):448-55. PMID:21946707. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21946707

6. de Jonge L,Bray GA,Smith SR,Ryan DH,de Souza RJ,Loria CM,Champagne CM,Williamson


DA,Sacks FM. Effect of diet composition and weight loss on resting energy expenditure in the
POUNDS LOST study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20(12):2384-9. PMID:22627912.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22627912

7. de Luis DA,Aller R,Izaola O,Gonzalez Sagrado M,Bellioo D,Conde R. Effects of a low-fat versus a
low-carbohydrate diet on adipocytokines in obese adults. Horm Res. 2007;67(6):296-300.
PMID:17284923. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284923

8. Duckworth LC,Gately PJ,Radley D,Cooke CB,King RF,Hill AJ. RCT of a high-protein diet on hunger
motivation and weight-loss in obese children: an extension and replication. Obesity (Silver Spring).
2009;17(9):1808-10. PMID:19343014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19343014

9. Due A,Larsen TM,Mu H,Hermansen K,Stender S,Astrup A. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for
weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: a 6-mo randomized,
controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(5):1232-41. PMID:18996857.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18996857

10. Ebbeling CB,Leidig MM,Feldman HA,Lovesky MM,Ludwig DS. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-
fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. Jama. 2007;297(19):2092-102. PMID:17507345.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17507345

11. Eckel RH,Hernandez TL,Bell ML,Weil KM,Shepard TY,Grunwald GK,Sharp TA,Francis CC,Hill JO.
Carbohydrate balance predicts weight and fat gain in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(4):803-8.
PMID:16600931. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16600931

12. Frisch S,Zittermann A,Berthold HK,Gotting C,Kuhn J,Kleesiek K,Stehle P,Kortke H. A randomized
controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a
telemedically guided weight loss program. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009;8(#number#):36.
PMID:19615091. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19615091

13. Gardner CD,Kiazand A,Alhassan S,Kim S,Stafford RS,Balise RR,Kraemer HC,King AC. Comparison
of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among
overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. Jama.
2007;297(9):969-77. PMID:17341711. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17341711

14. Greenberg I,Stampfer MJ,Schwarzfuchs D,Shai I. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss
diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT). J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(2):159-
68. PMID:19828901. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19828901

15. Heggen E,Klemsdal TO,Haugen F,Holme I,Tonstad S. Effect of a low-fat versus a low-gycemic-load
diet on inflammatory biomarker and adipokine concentrations. Metab Syndr Relat Disord.
2012;10(6):437-42. PMID:22889406. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22889406

16. Keogh JB,Brinkworth GD,Noakes M,Belobrajdic DP,Buckley JD,Clifton PM. Effects of weight loss
from a very-low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular disease risk
in subjects with abdominal obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):567-76. PMID:18326593.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18326593

Page 7 of 9
11.20.14

17. Krauss RM,Blanche PJ,Rawlings RS,Fernstrom HS,Williams PT. Separate effects of reduced
carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(5):1025-
31; quiz 1205. PMID:16685042. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16685042

18. Kreider RB,Rasmussen C,Kerksick CM,Wilborn C,Taylor Lt,Campbell B,Magrans-Courtney T,Fogt


D,Ferreira M,Li R,Galbreath M,Iosia M,Cooke M,Serra M,Gutierrez J,Byrd M,Kresta JY,Simbo
S,Oliver J,Greenwood M. A carbohydrate-restricted diet during resistance training promotes more
favorable changes in body composition and markers of health in obese women with and without
insulin resistance. Phys Sportsmed. 2011;39(2):27-40. PMID:21673483.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21673483

19. McAuley KA,Hopkins CM,Smith KJ,McLay RT,Williams SM,Taylor RW,Mann JI. Comparison of high-
fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women.
Diabetologia. 2005;48(1):8-16. PMID:15616799. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15616799

20. McMillan-Price J,Petocz P,Atkinson F,O'Neill K,Samman S,Steinbeck K,Caterson I,Brand-Miller J.


Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in
overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med.
2006;166(14):1466-75. PMID:16864756. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16864756

21. Noakes M,Keogh JB,Foster PR,Clifton PM. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet
relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional
status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(6):1298-306.
PMID:15941879. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941879

22. Phelan S,Wyatt H,Nassery S,Dibello J,Fava JL,Hill JO,Wing RR. Three-year weight change in
successful weight losers who lost weight on a low-carbohydrate diet. Obesity (Silver Spring).
2007;15(10):2470-7. PMID:17925473. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17925473

23. Sacks FM,Bray GA,Carey VJ,Smith SR,Ryan DH,Anton SD,McManus K,Champagne CM,Bishop
LM,Laranjo N,Leboff MS,Rood JC,de Jonge L,Greenway FL,Loria CM,Obarzanek E,Williamson DA.
Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl
J Med. 2009;360(9):859-73. PMID:19246357. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19246357

24. Shai I,Schwarzfuchs D,Henkin Y,Shahar DR,Witkow S,Greenberg I,Golan R,Fraser D,Bolotin A,Vardi
H,Tangi-Rozental O,Zuk-Ramot R,Sarusi B,Brickner D,Schwartz Z,Sheiner E,Marko R,Katorza
E,Thiery J,Fiedler GM,Bluher M,Stumvoll M,Stampfer MJ. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate,
Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(3):229-41. PMID:18635428.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18635428

25. Soenen S,Bonomi AG,Lemmens SG,Scholte J,Thijssen MA,van Berkum F,Westerterp-Plantenga MS.
Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight
maintenance?. Physiol Behav. 2012;107(3):374-80. PMID:22935440.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22935440

26. Tay J,Brinkworth GD,Noakes M,Keogh J,Clifton PM. Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-
carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(1):59-67. PMID:18174038.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18174038

27. Te Morenga LA,Levers MT,Williams SM,Brown RC,Mann J. Comparison of high protein and high fiber
weight-loss diets in women with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. Nutr J.
2011;10(#number#):40. PMID:21524314. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21524314

28. Tierney AC,McMonagle J,Shaw DI,Gulseth HL,Helal O,Saris WH,Paniagua JA,Golabek-Leszczynska


I,Defoort C,Williams CM,Karsltrom B,Vessby B,Dembinska-Kiec A,Lopez-Miranda J,Blaak EE,Drevon

Page 8 of 9
11.20.14

CA,Gibney MJ,Lovegrove JA,Roche HM. Effects of dietary fat modification on insulin sensitivity and
on other risk factors of the metabolic syndrome--LIPGENE: a European randomized dietary
intervention study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35(6):800-9. PMID:20938439.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20938439

Cancer (Breast, Colorectal, Lung, Prostate)


Breast cancer
1. Fung TT,Hu FB,Hankinson SE,Willett WC,Holmes MD. Low-carbohydrate diets, dietary approaches
to stop hypertension-style diets, and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol.
2011;174(6):652-60. PMID:21832271.

2. Nilsson LM,Winkvist A,Johansson I,Lindahl B,Hallmans G,Lenner P,Van Guelpen B. Low-


carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer; a prospective cohort study. Nutr J.
2013;12(1):58. PMID:23651548.

Colorectal cancer
1. Nilsson LM,Winkvist A,Johansson I,Lindahl B,Hallmans G,Lenner P,Van Guelpen B. Low-
carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer; a prospective cohort study. Nutr J.
2013;12(1):58. PMID:23651548.

Lung cancer
1. Nilsson LM,Winkvist A,Johansson I,Lindahl B,Hallmans G,Lenner P,Van Guelpen B. Low-
carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer; a prospective cohort study. Nutr J.
2013;12(1):58. PMID:23651548.

Prostate cancer
1. Ax E,Garmo H,Grundmark B,Bill-Axelson A,Holmberg L,Becker W,Zethelius B,Cederholm T,Sjogren
P. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk: report from the population based ULSAM cohort study of
Swedish men. Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):77-87. PMID:24325263.

2. Nilsson LM,Winkvist A,Johansson I,Lindahl B,Hallmans G,Lenner P,Van Guelpen B. Low-


carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer; a prospective cohort study. Nutr J.
2013;12(1):58. PMID:23651548.

Bone Health
No articles identified.

Neurological-Psychological Illnesses
1. Olsson E,Karlstrom B,Kilander L,Byberg L,Cederholm T,Sjogren P. Dietary Patterns and Cognitive
Dysfunction in a 12-Year Follow-up Study of 70 Year Old Men. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014.
PMID:25062901. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25062901

2. Roberts RO,Roberts LA,Geda YE,Cha RH,Pankratz VS,O'Connor HM,Knopman DS,Petersen RC.


Relative intake of macronutrients impacts risk of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. J Alzheimers
Dis. 2012;32(2):329-39. PMID:22810099. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22810099

Congenital Abnormalities
No articles identified

Page 9 of 9