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4.1 Decimals and Fractions 1. A decimal is a fraction with a denominator of 10 or a power of 10. 2. To convert a fraction into a decimal, divide the numerator by the denominator. 3. To change a decimal into a fraction. Divide it by the power of 10 such as 10, 100, 1 000,.. Example: i)

2 = 0.4 5

2. The decimal places are the places occupied by the digit after the decimal point. Example: i) 7.9 1 digit to the right of the decimal point Therefore, 7.9 has 1 decimal point. ii) 7.94 2 digits to the right of the decimal point Therefore, 7.94 has 2 decimal points. iii) 7.948 3 digits to the right of the decimal point Therefore, 7.948 has 3 decimal points. 4.1 Addition and Subtraction of Decimals ii)

4.2

Multiplication and Division of Decimals To multiply decimals (a) Multiply the decimals in the same way as whole numbers. (b) The number of decimal places in the answer is equal to the sum of decimal places in the individual decimals. Example : i) 3.45 x 1.7 = 5.865 3.45 ( 2 d.p.) x 1.7 ( 1 d.p.) 2415 345 5.865 ( 3 d.p.) 6.9 ÷ 0.03 =

6.9 690 = 0.03 3

**0.4 is read as zero point four ii)
**

3.08 = 3 + 8 100

3.08 is read as three point zero eight 4.1 Place Value and Digit Value tenth s 4 hundredth s 5 1. Tens units Decima l point 1 2 .

12.45 = 10 + 2 + 0.4 +0.05 = 10 + 2 + 4 5 + 10 100

To add or subtract decimals, arrange the digits of the same place value in the same vertical column. Example: 27.064 +1.3 + 0.91 = 29.274 27 . 064 1. 3 + 0 . 91 29 . 274

= 230 4.1 Combined Operations In performing the combined operations of decimals, we follow the same rule as those for whole nuir (a) Work out the expressions in brackets. (b) Do multiplication and division from left to right.

Example: 0. divide by 100%. Example:1.(c) Do addition and subtraction from left to right. commission. To find the percentage increase or decrease Percentage change = 5. I n change in value x 100% c original value r e ase may be dividend. Example: 6x ( 4.2 Perform computations 1. To change a decimal into a percentage. change into fraction and multiply by the quantity. To change a percentage into a decimal.16 50 10 x 100 5. Example: 16% = Example: Given 10% of a number = 50 1% of a number 50 = 16 100 The number = = 0.8 = 6 x 1. Example : 300 is increased by 20 % Value of increase = . simple interest or Increase profit. form a fraction and multiply by 100% Example: = 3 of 10 x 100% 30 1+ 100 = 3 10 = 30% 3 1 10 3.88 / 0.1 – 2. Example: = 30% of 400 x 400 50 10 = 500 4. To find the percentage of a quantity. Example: x 100% = 75% 5. 2. multiply it by 100%. Change a fraction into a percentage.85 Chapter 5 PERCENTAGES (%) 5. = % increase x original value Final value = Original value + increase 3 4 3.29 x 100% = 29% 4.8 = 11.12 ) ÷ 0. To find the percentage one number is of another. To find a number given the percentage.98 ÷ 0. divide by 100% and reduce to its lowest terms.8 = 14. change both quantities to the same unit. multiply by 100%.30% = 30 100 = 120 2. Percentage is a fraction out of 100.1 Percentages 1. To change a percentage into fraction. first find the value of 1 % then find the value of 100% of the number.

= 60 20 x300 100 Final value = 300 +60 = 360 Decrease = % decrease x original value Final value = Original value . Decrease may be discount or loss.decrease 6. Example: Selling price = RM 500 Discount = 30% Decrease = 30 xRM 500 100 = RM 150 Selling price = 500 – 150 =RM 350 .

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