This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
a high-voltage AC electrical switch whose main contacts are located in a space filled with mineral (transformer) oil. Upon interruption of the electric circuit, an electric arc forms between the contacts of the circuit breaker. Because of the high temperature of the arc the oil is evaporated rapidly and oil vapors are partially decomposed, liberating ethylene, methane, and other gases. A gas bubble is formed in the arcing zone; the pressure in the bubble may be as high as several dozen meganewtons per sq m. The arc is then extinguished, both because of its elongation upon parting of contacts and because of intensive cooling by the gases and oil vapor. In an oil circuit breaker with simple interruption under oil, the duration of arcing is 0.02-0.05 sec. To extinguish the arc more efficiently, arc-quenching chambers are used. In a longitudinal blast chamber the vapors and gases evolved travel upward along the arc, thus cooling it. In addition, the arc is in contact with the cold oil that fills the annular slots of the chamber, which also accelerates cooling of the arc. In a transverse blast chamber a drastic pressure increase within the gas bubble causes a stream of oil and gases to flow across the arc, thus accelerating the cooling process. In terms of design, a distinction is made between tank-type oil circuit breakers and oil-minimum, or lowoil-capacity, circuit breakers. In the first type, the main contacts and the arc-quenching devices are located in a grounded metal tank; in the second type they are in an insulating or ungrounded metal enclosure filled with oil. Tank-type oil circuit breakers are inferior to other types of high-voltage breakers in many regards. However, their low cost and high reliability have led to their continued use in the USSR, the USA, and Canada. In the USSR, tank-type oil circuit breakers are manufactured for voltages from 6 to 220 kilovolts (kV); maximum rated current, 3.2 kiloamperes (kA); breaking current, 50 kA. For voltages of 10 kV or less and breaking currents of 15 kA or less, all three poles of the oil circuit breaker are located in the same tank. For higher voltages and breaking currents, each pole is located in a separate tank. Oil-minimum circuit breakers are used in the USSR, the Federal Republic of Germany, and France. They are manufactured for 3 to 420 kV; since the late 1960¶s they have also been manufactured for higher voltages.
Workscope: Oil Circuit Breaker Basic Preventive Maintenance
Before work can begin, a PCB oil sample must be taken to ensure the unit is not PCB contaminated - The customer is responsible for supplying GE with an oil sample report verifying the level of PCB contamination within the OCB. - If so desired, GE can take the sample and send it to the oil test lab for analysis. - A comprehensive analysis can also be completed on the condition of the circuit breaker oil.
The circuit breaker will be inspected for worn, damaged and missing components A visual inspection of the entire circuit breaker will be completed. The breaker anchorage, alignment and grounding will be inspected. All gasketed covers and seals will be checked for weather tight condition. Any item found damaged will be recorded and a suitable replacement identified.
The frame and mechanism will be cleaned and inspected - The frame will be inspected for signs of rust and deterioration. - The mechanism will be inspected for proper operation and binding. - Any item found damaged will be recorded and a suitable replacement identified.
Mechanical adjustments will be checked
. and the protective relays will be used to simulate a fault trip signal.000-volt megger will be used to determine the condition of the circuit breaker's insulation to the ground and across phases. adjustments will be made as required. .Measure and record primary and secondary wipe and gap. the circuit breaker primary bushings will be power factor tested and the results compared to industry standards of acceptability.Perform mechanical operation and contact alignment tests on breaker and mechanism.High potential tests (optional) . mechanical and electrical. the circuit breaker opening and closing time and speed will be verified and compared with the manufacturer's specifications. y y Interlocks.Any item found damaged will be recorded and a suitable replacement identified. . y Test data will be included as part of the final customer report.The circuit breaker auxiliary cabinets will be inspected for worn or missing components.If requested. .Power factor test (optional) . as applicable . The test report will be shipped with the equipment. will be checked for proper operation Breaker electrical accessory devices will be tested for proper operation (if applicable). .1 HV circuit-breakers are among the most important equipment in power systems.Contact resistance tests .If requested.The breaker will be operated manually and electrically to verify proper operation. It is . Fundamentals of HV Circuit-Breakers 2 Functions and Components of HV Circuit-Breakers 2.If requested. . the circuit breaker will be high potential tested according to manufacturer's specifications.Time motion analysis (optional) . .Functional operational tests (electrical and manual) . . High resistance in the contact structure can cause excessive heat in the breaker and prematurely dry out the lubrication.A digital low resistance ohmmeter will be used to record the contact resistance and compare it to the manufacturer's specifications.All test data received will be included with the circuit breaker test report. .The circuit breaker will be inspected for proper operation.A 1. y The switchgear will be inspected for worn and missing parts.The circuit breaker will be isolated from the distribution system (if applicable).Adjustments will be made as necessary Under voltage device Shunt trip Close coil Auxiliary switch Other devices y Each circuit breaker will be electrically operated using system control power to assure proper operation (if applicable) .. They are designed to use as interrupting devices both in normal operation and during faults.Insulation resistance tests . . y Final electrical tests will be performed.
In order to prevent such failures. Moreover. to ground or across the opening poles resulting in major repair or replacement. For example. Do not generate overvoltages during switching. it is expected that they must be ready to be operated at anytime. the quantity of insulating medium must be continuously monitored. Change from the closed to open position in a short period of time. they are required to fulfil the physical requirements as follows: Behave as a good conductor during a closed position and as a good isolator during an open position.expected that HV circuit-breakers must be operated in any applications without problems. Components of HV circuit-breakers regarding basic functions can be divided into five groups : Insulation: 1. even after a long period of non-operating time. the insulation must be maintained and monitored. liquid and solid dielectric materials.  and . More details of HV circuit-breaker functions and requirements under special conditions can be reviewed in . The failure of insulation can lead to severe damage such as flashover between phases. the quality of insulation has to be checked by diagnostic techniques periodically and the . The main functions of HV circuit-breakers can be categorized into four functions: Switching-off operating currents Switching-on operating currents Short-circuit current interruption Secure open and closed position Apart from the main functions.The electric insulation of HV circuit-breakers is provided by a combination of gaseous. Keep high reliability during operation.
Contact travel characteristics are the most widely used parameters in periodic testing in order to investigate the contact movement. Practically. breakdown of shafts.insulation distance should be monitored by using position transducers and visual inspection. Operating mechanism: The operating mechanism is a part used to move contacts from open to closed position or inversely. they are subject to electrical. rods and springs could lead to serious failures resulting in the . load current and content of gas decomposition. It is however found that it takes several years until the contact degradation process reaches the final states. temperature of contacts. It is required that they should be able to make and break large amount of power without causing failures. 4. On the other hand. The current carrying parts are significant components that assure the flowing of current in the closed position. 3. Current carrying: 2. Switching: During operation of HV circuit-breakers. The parameters used to monitor and diagnose switching are composed of position of primary contacts. pole discrepancy in operating times. leakage of oil and gas in the hydraulic and pneumatic systems is very common but it can be handled without system interruption. contact travel characteristics. the most contact problems can be prevented by using periodic diagnostic testing. thermal and mechanical stresses. arcing time and arcing contact wear. The failure of these parts can lead to catastrophic events such as contact welding and severe deterioration of the insulation system. The techniques of current carrying testing can be accomplished by monitoring or diagnostic testing of contact resistance. The operating mechanism failures account for a large proportion of total failures of HV circuit-breakers. operating time. For example.
interruption of systems. As a result. The control and auxiliary parts. the connecting surface is very small. For oil circuit-breakers. circuit continuity and the environment of the control cabinet are the parameters relating to control and auxiliary systems which must be monitored. air or sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). composed of electrical circuits and latches or values. 2. During the contact separation. Typical failures in these parts are failing to close or open on demand as well as delays in the operation. since it is the element that is able to change from the conducting to non-conducting state. voltages. The . Control and auxiliary functions: 5. the current can still flow through the arc at this moment. thus generating gases. After that. In principle. At the moment the contacts are going to be apart. The electrical arc is in the form of metal vapour and hot air in case of air circuit-breakers. the high current density at that point can melt the contact material. these gases and metal vapour are ionized. Control and auxiliary components are the parts controlled by 110-220 volts d. are exposed to failures relatively frequently according to reliability surveys. Then. heat within the arc will decompose some oil. increasing the length and splitting it into a number of arcs in series. Coil current. A burning arc is established between the breaker contacts surrounded by extinguishing medium such as oil. The signal is sent to the coil to move a latch or open a valve leading to energy release of a mechanical drive. status of auxiliary switches.2 Arc Interruption The switching arc plays a significant role in the interruption process.c. the melting contact is exploded thus leading to the gas discharge. the arc interruption can be carried out by cooling the arc.
2 Contraction zone Contraction zone Cathode Ie (electrons) Arc column Anode Space charge zone I+ (ions) Space charge zone Figure 2.1: The plasma channel of electric arc  Voltage Uanode U column U arc U cathode Gap length Figure 2.2: The potential distribution along an arc channel  The voltage drop near the cathode region is normally around 10-25 volts. the magnitude of arc current and the length of column .3 Circuit-Breaker Classification According to many criteria. while the voltage drop near anode is around 5-10 volts.1 and the temperature distribution is depicted in Fig. 2. 2. The voltage drop in the arc column depends on the types of gases.plasma channel of the electric arc can be represented in Fig. 2. circuit-breakers can be classified into many groups as follows: . gas pressure.
as shown in Fig.4. The technology of air and oil interrupting mediums for circuit-breakers was first developed 100 years ago. Canada) Figure 2. These types of circuit-breakers are still in operation but there is no further development. The second group.4: Live tank circuit-breaker (Source: ABB AG. Practically. Vacuum circuit- . 2. Switzerland) Circuit-breaker types by interrupting medium: The interrupting mediums are the main factors in designing circuit-breakers. the only differences between those two types are the packaging and the enclosures. high voltage circuitbreakers. Dead tank circuit-breakers are the circuit-breakers of which the enclosures and interrupters are grounded and located at ground level. Their interrupters have the potential. since they cannot fulfil the higher ratings of power systems nowadays. Figure 2. 2. Circuit-breaker types by external design: Outdoor circuit-breakers can be classified with respect to structure design into two types: dead and live tank types. there are issues as environmental problems and as to relatively low reliability. as shown in Fig.3. Circuit-breaker types by installation: Circuit-breakers can be classified in terms of installation into two types: indoor and outdoor installations.3: Dead tank circuit-breaker (Source: Manitoba. The new generation of interrupting mediums is focused on vacuum and sulfurhexafluoride (SF6).Circuit-breaker types by voltage class: The classification of circuit-breakers regarding voltage class can be divided into two groups: low voltage circuit-breakers with rated voltages up to 1000 volts and high voltage circuitbreakers with rated voltages of 1000 volts and above. can be further subdivided into two groups: circuit-breakers with rated 50 kV and below and those with rated 123 kV and above. Live tank circuit-breakers are circuit-breakers equipped with the interrupters above the ground level. In addition. This type of circuit-breaker is widely used in the United States.
1 Oil circuit-breakers are the most fundamental circuit-breakers which were first developed in 1900s.4.Capacitance switching: capacitor banks and unloaded cable switching . hydrogen cannot be used as interrupting medium. Kelman in the United States. Circuit-breaker types by operation: The main purpose of HV circuit-breakers is interrupting abnormal conditions. The interrupting technique of oil circuit-breakers is called ³self-extinguishing´. arc can be cooled down by the gas produced proportional to arc energy. During the arc interruption. However.Transformer switching . whereas SF6 circuit-breakers are widely used in high voltage levels.4 Circuit-breakers can be classified according to interrupting mediums into four categories: Oil Circuit-Breakers 2. In other words.Line closing: overhead transmission line switching . Oil circuit-breakers can be divided .Shunt reactor switching .breakers are predominant in medium voltage levels. It is found that arc burning in hydrogen gas can be extinguished faster than other types of gases. different applications of HV circuit-breakers must be taken into account. as it is not practical to handle. The first oil circuit-breaker was developed and patented by J. The applications of HV circuit-breakers can be classified as follows: . since the oil can produce a high pressure gas when it is exposed to heat resulting from arc. N.Generator switching Types of Circuit-Breakers 2. the oil forms a bubble comprising mainly hydrogen. Oil has an excellent dielectric strength which enables itself not only to be used as an interrupting medium but also as insulation within the live parts. Nevertheless.
according to methods of arc interruption into two types: bulk oil and minimum oil types. In comparison to the bulk oil type.4.1. the multi-break type is then applied with a combination of resistors and capacitors. An example of a bulk oil circuit-breaker and its components is represented in Fig. It is therefore limited to the low voltage level. due to requirement to reduce utilized space and cost of oil. which is made of porcelain or solid insulating material. arc control device 8. 2.5. vent 4. This type of circuit-breaker contains a large amount of oil and requires a large space. Figure 2. These resistors and capacitors are applied in order to provide .1. It could cause environmental problems after an explosion. oil level indicator 3. since the arc is freely interrupted in oil.4. Single-break minimum oil circuit-breakers are used in the voltage levels of 33-132 kV. Plain-break circuit-breakers are considered as bulk oil type.2 Minimum oil type This type of oil circuit-breaker was developed in Europe. bushing 2. The other difference from the bulk oil type is the insulation. resistor 9. plunger guide 7.5: Bulk oil circuit-breaker (Source: Allis Chalmers Ltd. for the minimum oil type the volume of oil is reduced and used only in an explosion chamber. 2. plunger bar 2.) 1. When higher ratings are required. dashpot 6.1 Bulk oil type The main contacts and live parts are immersed in oil which serves as an interrupting medium and insulates the live parts. current transformer 5.
the arc is cooled down in an axial direction until the ionisation is brought down to zero level. The current is then interrupted at this point. the cross type will compress the air and blow into an arc-chute compartment. the nozzle diameter and the interrupting current. The advantages of air-blast circuitbreakers can be listed as follows : Cheap interrupting medium Chemical stability of air Reduction of erosion of contacts from frequent switching operations Operation at high speed Short arcing time .4. Contact Gas flow direction Contact (a) Gas flow direction Contact Contact Gas flow direction (b) Figure 2.6: Air blast direction: (a) axial direction. 2. (b) cross direction The performance of air-blast circuit-breakers depends on many factors.2 Air-Blast Circuit-Breakers The arc interruption of air-blast circuit-breakers is carried out by introducing the highpressure air flow in axial or cross directions as shown in Fig. operating pressure.uniformity to the voltage distribution. 2.6. In contrast to the axial type. for example. In axial type.
2.4 SF6 Circuit-Breakers . An example of air-blast circuit-breaker is represented in Fig. The vacuum arc can be only cooled down by using a magnetic field which can move the arc over the contact surfaces.4. The interrupting technique of vacuum circuit-breakers is different from other types of circuit-breakers. since the velocity and pressure of air-blast circuit-breakers are independent of interrupted current. They are also considered as maintenance-free circuit-breakers due to their simple and reliable design.7. UK) 2.Being able to be operated in fire hazard locations Reduction of maintenance frequency Consistent breaking time The disadvantages of air-blast circuit-breakers are the high-level noise during the operation and the requirement for the air to remain dried. Lanarkshire. 2. In order to do so. vacuum circuit-breakers are predominant in medium voltage levels. resistors and capacitors are needed when air-blast circuit-breakers are used in very high voltage levels. Figure 2. Hence. This technique can also prevent contact erosion. In other words.4. the power to open and close contacts can be significantly reduced compared with other types of circuit-breakers. The arc extinguishing process is governed by a metal surface phenomenon during their contacts part. Similar to oil circuit-breakers. Figure 2. the arc is not extinguished by an interrupting medium but by the metal vapour.3 Vacuum Circuit-Breakers The dielectric strength of vacuum is considerably higher than other interrupting mediums. The serious problem which could occur during small current interruption is a chopping current. a contact separation of around 1 cm is enough to withstand high voltages.8. In addition. Nowadays. the rate of dielectric recovery of vacuum is much faster than that of air. Consequently. the contacts are manufactured with spiral segments as shown in Fig.7: Air-blast circuit-breaker (Source: Strathaven substation.8: Contacts of vacuum circuit-breaker  2.
odourless and nontoxic. gas heaters must be utilized. During the arc interruption. The development and types of SF6 circuitbreakers can be represented as follows: 2. Scandinavian countries and Russia. activated alumina (dried Al2O3) or molecular sieves. at the temperature over 1000°C.1 Double-pressure SF6 circuit-breakers This type is developed by using principles similar to air-blast circuit-breakers. High thermal conductivity and short thermal time constant (1000 times shorter than air) resulting in better arc quenching. However. For example.4. The properties of SF6 gas are superior to other interrupting mediums as follows: High dielectric withstand characteristic. The moisture can be absorbed by a mixture of soda lime (NaOH + CaO). Although the gas mixture of SF6/N2 can be used in the low ambient temperature. the decomposition products recombine abruptly after arc extinction (when the temperature goes down). SF6 is inert. Fortunately. For example. the SF6 circuitbreakers first came to the market in 1960s. The other solution is the introduction of gas mixtures such as nitrogen (N2). At normal conditions.SF6 gas and its characteristics were discovered in 1920s but the development of SF6 gas as an interrupting medium applied for circuit-breakers began in 1940s. SF6 gas at absolute pressure has twice the dielectric strength of air and at 3 bar it is comparable to oil. the arc is . the short-circuit capacity rating of 50kA is reduced to 40kA. Arc voltage characteristic is low thus resulting in reduced arc-removal energy. non-flammable. However. non-corrosive. The contacts are located inside the compartment filled with SF6 gas. For example. The other problem is the condensation of SF6 at high pressures and low temperatures. In the areas with low ambient temperature such as Canada. The problem of moisture from the decomposition products must be considered. the dielectric withstand capability and arc interruption performance are reduced. SF6 liquefies at 0°C. at a pressure of 14 bars.4. SF6 decomposes to gases including S2F10 which is highly toxic.
the gas pressure in the arcing zone is heated resulting in high pressure. .9. The moving contacts move the piston and thus compressing the gas in the chamber. This reservoir must be equipped with heating equipment to ensure that the SF6 will not liquefy. terminal plate 2.2 Self-blast SF6 circuit-breakers The interrupting chamber of this type of circuit-breaker is divided into two main compartments with the same pressure (around 5 atm). 2. contact carrier 3. However. terminal plate 2.4. During the arc interruption. nozzle 6.9: Arc interruption principle of self-blast circuit-breakers (Source: SIEMENS) 1. Finally. main contact 4. As a result.4. The interruption principle and structure are shown in Fig. Figure 2.3 Puffer-type SF6 circuit-breakers The principle of this type is to generate compressed gas during the opening process.4. contact cylinder 7.cooled down by compressed SF6 from a separate reservoir. arcing contact 5. SF6 gas is pumped back into the reservoir. This type of SF6 circuit-breaker is rarely used in the market nowadays because of its high failure probability. This type of circuit-breaker is normally used in high voltage levels up to 123 kV. the arc is extinguished. failures of heating equipment can result in this type being unable to operate as circuit-breakers. base 8.4. 2. This high pressure gas from the other compartment then blasts into the arcing zone and in the meantime cools the arc column. After the interruption.
different applications of HV circuit-breakers must be taken into account. C. This capacitance affects the shape of the recovery voltage which is established across the circuit-breakers after opening. arcing contact lifetime and the material of the nozzle . the opening speed of circuit-breakers is slowed down because of thermal pressure. 2.5 Switching Transients and Applications of HV Circuit-Breakers Apart from normal load current interruption. 2. SF6 circuit-breakers are predominant in high voltage levels with the high shortcircuit capability up to 63 kA. the other main purpose of HV circuit-breakers is interrupting short-circuit currents. They can be used as dead tank circuit-breakers. The principle of arc interruption of both generations is similar but the improvements of the second generation concentrate on the better design. Since the gas has to be compressed. such as small inductive current interruption. . improvement of short-circuit rating. The stray capacitance of the circuit-breaker bushing is represented by capacitance. At present. The development of puffer-type SF6 circuit-breakers can be divided into two generations: first and second generations. the reliable operating mechanisms dominate the costs of circuit-breakers. Consequently. In addition.the compressed gas flows along the arc channel and thereby extinguishing the arc. live tank circuit-breakers and in gas insulated substation (GIS). The applications of HV circuit-breakers can be summarized as follows: 2. when large current such as three-phase fault is interrupted.5. The operating mechanism should have adequate energy to move the contacts apart. short-line fault interruption and generator protection. the puffer-type SF6 circuit-breaker must have a strong operating mechanism. For example.10. capacitive current interruption.1 Three-Phase Short-Circuit Interruption at Terminal The symmetrical three-phase to ground fault can be represented in an equivalent single-phase diagram as shown in Fig.
L i(t) F e(t) C u(t) Figure 2.10: Single-phase equivalent diagram of symmetrical three-phase to ground short-circuit .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.