TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT [TQM

]
What do you mean by ‘Quality’ ?
1. 'Quality’ is the on-going process of building and sustaining relationships

by assessing, anticipating, and fulfilling stated and implied needs.' 2. Quality is the customers' perception of the value of the suppliers' work output.
3. All your actions aimed at the translation, transformation and realization of

customer

expectations,

converting

them

to

requirements,

both

qualitatively and quantitatively and measuring your process performance during and after the realization of these expectations and requirements . 4. "Quality" is to satisfy the ever-changing needs of our customers, vendors and employees, with value added products and services emphasizing a continuous commitment to satisfaction through an ongoing process of education, communication, evaluation and constant improvement. 5. "Quality is the extent to which products, services, processes, and relationships are free from add value for customers." defects, constraints, and items which do not

MR. ARMAND FEIGENBAUM – An expert in TQM says:
“Total Quality Control” should be used as systematic approach in all functions of the organization and not just manufacturing only”. - Mr. Armand Feigenbaum had only originated the Concept of Total Quality Control [TQC].

They are: 1.Quality Improvement is the Single Most Important Force for Organisational Growth and Success.Thus Quality is to be built in the early stage and QC System and should improve gradually in each and every stage. Its application either in an organization or in a factory which are involved in offering a service or producing a finished product. and 6.Mr. . . and [b] Management needs thorough grasping of Total Quality Strategy. Preparation 4.. WHAT IS TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT? - You can call it a Concept or you call it a philosophy. . quality in all its respect is drastically improved. . Feigenbaum suggested SIX STEPS for improving Quality. an organization also requires : [a] Clear Understanding of International Markets.Total Quality Processes are the Single Most Powerful Change Agent for the Companies/Organisation today.To manage Quality System. Deployment 2. Awareness 5. . Implementation. Planning 3. Continuous Improvement.

According to this concept every employee irrespective of his or her position in the organization is regarded as equally important. meeting the customer needs and other organizational objectives. and production. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a Management Philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions (marketing.) to focus on. NASA).g.At the same time they are buyers also. In particular..They sell their talent. . including small companies. TQM is no more . their ideas to the factory/organisation. A great range of organisations have deployed TQM. TQM empowers an entire organization. their skills. . large companies. with the responsibility of ensuring quality in their processes. .. .They all have "We Feelings".They don't say "This is not my problem". . car will not run.Every employee is a seller and a buyer at the same time. engineering. . - They buy their salaries in lieu of their work. in response they are fairly compensated in salaries. etc.And car will not run also without one of them. Thus. . and government departments (e. from the most junior employee to the CEO. the lower employee is not felt as "unwanted child" and the corporate management doesn't think themselves as "most wise decision makers". finance. .Do not think engine is the most important part and the belt is least important. .Both are equally important because if the belt stops transferring the engine power to the wheels.Everyone is important just like parts in a vehicle. TQM provides management with the ability to ensure quality through more streamlined and effective process-improvement channels. customer service. design.

imposing standardization and statistical control. Edwards Deming. and other aspects of business or production processes. Based on concepts developed by Statistician and Management Theorist W. “Total Quality Management (TQM) is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of products and services through on-going refinements in response to continuous feedback. services. TQM includes techniques for achieving efficiency. involves everyone in the organization. this term has now taken on several meanings and includes: . on the contrary. 4. etc. .relevant to any one type of organization than any other. and encompasses distribution. It aims to radically transform the organization through progressive changes in the attitudes. and the culture in which they work. communications. planning. DEFINITION OF TQM: 1. products. “Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach that aims for long-term success by focusing on customer satisfaction.” 2.” 3. housekeeping.Coined by the US Naval Air Systems Command in early 1980s. it is a philosophy appropriate to any situation in which quality assurance is important. TQM transcends the 'product quality' approach. marketing. solving problems. 5. practices. manufacturing. structures. TQM is based on the participation of all members of an organization in improving processes. and regulating design. Holistic approach to long-term success that views continuous improvement in all aspects of an organization as a journey and not as a short-term destination. training. its every function administration. and systems.

As a current focus of e-business. and (7) instituting flexible programs for training and education. and stakeholders.TQM requirements may be defined separately for a particular organization or may be in adherence to established standards. highway maintenance. and churches. and satisfying them in a cost effective manner. . and monitoring of results. (6) eliminating barriers between people and departments so that they work as teams to achieve common objectives.(1) commitment and direct involvement of highest-level executives in setting quality goals and policies. (4) understanding of the changing needs of the internal and external customers. . allocation of resources. hotel manufacturing sector and has since been adapted for use in almost every type of organization management. and providing meaningful measures of performance that guide the self-improvement efforts of everyone involved. . TQM can be applied to any type of organization. thereby continually reducing total cost. TQM is based on quality management from the customer's point of view. including schools. (2) realization that transforming an organization means fundamental changes in basic beliefs and practices and that this transformation is everyone's job. such as the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 series. (5) instituting leadership in place of mere supervision so that every individual performs in the best possible manner to improve quality and productivity. it originated in the imaginable. (3) building quality into products and practices right from the beginning doing things right the first time.

people define the problem to be addressed. as has been segmented in stages and given below: In the Planning phase. . People Process Quality Process: • Who the Customer is. and methods to achieve goals. 2. * PDCA Cycle generates numerous opportunities for further policies. implementation. and ascertain the problem's root cause. objectives. people develop and implement a solution. • What his needs are • How these needs can be satisfied The above said 3 steps provide complete satisfaction to customers. and decide upon a measurement to gauge its effectiveness. Continuous Improvement: * PLAN. taking appropriate actions and preventing recurrence. CHECK. DO. Quality Process. and 3. checking causes for low quality. collect relevant data. education and training to employees. 2.TQM PROCESS: TQM comprises THREE Process. and ACT (the PDCA Cycle). In the Doing phase. Continuous Improvement. They are: 1.

Systematic Training at all levels . * Attitudinal Barriers → Impediment to TQM ↓ • These problems can be solved by: - Developing proper climate .e.Empowerment of Employees . inform others about process changes. people document their results. as given below: [i] Intellectual Honesty. 3.Improving Quality . and make recommendations for the problem to be addressed in the next PDCA cycle. only when there is Management Support [i. * TQM can face success at Shop Floor Level. Middle Level and Lower Level]. People Process: * * Initiating and maintaining TQM Involvement of all employees on the basis of 3 Values. people confirm the results through before-and-after data comparison.In the Checking phase. [ii] Self-Control [iii] Respect for others. In the Acting phase.Participation of Employees . Top Level.

Provision of On-going Education and Training to Employees.Emphasis on prevention rather than detection and correction. . Kirloskar Ltd. . 10.Sowing the Seed of Quality in ABC Stage. Ford Motor Company Ltd.Use of Statistical Methods throughout the Organisation . INDIAN COMPANIES WITH TQM PHILOSOPHY: 1.Widespread Employee Empowerment and Team Building . COMPANIES IMPLEMENTED TQM [MNCs] IN THE BEGINNING: 1. Toyota 5. Proctor & Gamble 9. General Motors 8.Co-operation and Involvement of all functions within the organization. . .Great Emphasis on Customer Satisfaction.Focus on Continuous Improvement . Xerox 4. .Respect for Employees and their Knowledge . make “QUALITY AS A WAY OF LIFE” – The Culture.Bench-marking . Sundaram Clayton 4. Sundaram Fasteners 2. 6. Wadia India Limited 5. Crompton Greeves Ltd. Godrej 3.Treatment of Vendors as Long-Term Partners. - In all. Motorala 2. . Cadillac 3.Top Management Leadership of Quality Improvement Process .Customer-First orientation – . . IBM 6.COMMON PRINCIPLES OF TQM: What are the Common Principles of TQM? .Quality Circles / Quality Council / Quality Control in all Stages. Baxter Healthcare etc. Carning Glass Works 7.

7.Awareness should be made by way of communications – especially written communications to everyone . [ii] Conduct of Training and [iii] Assigning Respnsibilities. .Deployment should consist of [i] Organisational Teams. BEL 10. Preparation 2. Implementation. They are: 1. . Awareness 4. . Continuous Improvement.to become familiar with the TQM Philosophy. and 6. Planning 3. Deployment 5. direction and approach developed by Quality Management Team to capture heart and minds of people. Steps of Total Quality System: ARMAND FEIGENBAUM has classified the Total Quality System into SIX Major Steps. MECON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO HRM TQM involves – * Collection of Data * Multi-Functional Teams *Brain-Storming * Advance Experimental Methods * Group Based Rewards & Recognition.Planning by the Top Management necessitates setting broad goals and objectives for improving Quality. BHEL 9.Here. . . all the preparatory work and home work are to be done by Top Management only. Bharat Bijlee 8.

o Selection o Training & Development o Career Development o Performance Management o Pay Systems o Industrial Relations o Communications. EDWARD DEMING believes that • “Workers fear the Bosses” . PRODUCT ↔ PROCESS . • The following HR Practices can have a significant impact on Quality Performance. Talking about HR. W. • With the emphasis on TQM. Collaborative Work. it is insisted that fear should be driven out of Workers and Workplace. This fear distracts from High Quality. the current TQM Practices need to be reviewed. . an expert in TQM/HRM says – “Human Resources should be the Architect of Corporate Culture” Why? Because. only HR Departments build values and Practices supporting Continues improvement in Quality throughout the Organisation. It comprises of Continuous Assessing and Rewarding Progress. • Hence. 2.Continuous Improvement is a Never Ending Process. Goals and Conducting On-Going Training. TQM EXPERTS/GURUS & HR 1. • HR Should expand its role by supporting TQM throughout the Organisation. Resetting Improvement PHILIP CROSBY. • He further reiterated that the HR Department should take oath to learn “Quality” As a way of life.- In the Implementation Stage – The Development takes place actually.

the Current Focus should be on TQM. • The Training should cover - o o o o o o a] Problem Solving Techniques b] Problem Analysis c] Statistical Process Control d] Quality Measurement e] Group Process f] Group Decision Making All these training activities lead to development in specific Job Skill and beyond. • Ability Testing should be based on Problem-Solving and Good at Teamwork. to bring a New Dimension into Planning.SELECTION: • As per the Traditional Practice. . TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT: • Training and Development are the major features of TQM. Therefore. CAREER DEVELOPMENT o Most organization support Linear Careers (Ladder Systems of Hierarchy). • Selection should identify only the candidates who are good in Group Setting. Various Selection Devices were adopted to find out Candidates’ performance on the Job both in Productivity and Quality. • But. HR Department should ADD MORE VALUE to the focus on Customer Satisfaction/Customer Service during Training. during Selection.

different focus required. Deming argues that too much focus on individual would lead to counterHence. o System o strongly on Development Skills and Abilities to perform well and directly support collective responsibility. o It is used to determine: o o o o o o o Reward Levels To validate various Performance Tasks To aid Career Development To improve Communication To Facilitate Understanding of Job Duties. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: o Performance Appraisal is the basis of HRM. Most Quality Gurus opine against Individual Appraisal Practices. PAY SYSTEMS: . o Function of Management as Open Book.o But. o Giving more Teeth o Decision-Making Powers/Authority in the hand of the individuals at Lower Levels. for TQM. o What are they? o The Emphasis should gain/have: o Expertise in particular function o Also Cross/Multi-Functional Experience is required. he wanted to scrap the Individual Performance Appraisal He underlines that “An ideal Performance Appraisal System can focus production combined with Poor Quality.

TQM recognizes Union as Partners of Organisation Success. but no alternatives suggested so far. TQM regards Union as “Critical Players”. there are direct and strong conflicts among the above said Traditional Practices.Most Pay Systems focus only on individuals..Merit Rating reflects as to How well the individual has done the job. • • But. TQM emphasizes on . • - If the Agreement between the Trade Union and the Management revolves on Contract Mentality. . Quality Management Programmes do not favour: Individual based merit – increase system. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS: • The concept and experience of Industrial Relations has witnessed just the opposite of the Concept of Shared Responsibility to produce High Quality Products and Services.Horizontal Relationship .Horizontal Learning Hence. That is • Industrial Relations X Shared Responsibility. lest the Management is accountable for all the problems and happenings. thus producing Weaker Solutions in the long run. more care should be taken to assign specified Job. . Indeed.Collective Responsibility . . .Job Description says as to what an individual is to do. • This also results in little participation of Workers in Management and in solving the problems. Therefore. besides paving unnecessary ways for Elaborate Grievance Procedures.Job Evluation mentions as to How much the Job is Worth.

Partnership Mode should be maintained with the Trade Union to succeed all TQM efforts by the Management by making considerable changes in the activities of Collective Bargaining. • These factors create a Conducive Climate to employees to participate in important discussions. • Open Flow of Information about Quality is to be shared throughout the organization. It is very much essential for the employees to possess necessary Communication Skills to receive the information. Grievances Handling etc. • Therefore.• TQM gives way to Union to assume responsibility for Quality Improvement. • Feedback about “Quality & Information” is a critical point to all Quality Improvement Programmes. contrary to the prevailing practice of Secret Information about:.Major Changes in the Organisation etc. • Information and TQM are interlined or intertwined. Commitment & Rewards . COMMUNICATION: • It is known to everyone that there is no communication without information.Performance Results . understand and Participate in Problem Solving Activities. Shared Responsibility [Philosophy] 2. • Indeed “Information” is a versatile Commodity. SUM-UP: 1. • Making Information Flow within the Organisation gives a Complex and difficult task.Business Plans .

3. both Managers and Workers. Productivity and Customer Satisfaction 4.PART .No.2 to 4 . All the employees. Information on Profits.No.Employees’ Full Involvement in TQM. Capital Spending Plans [ Sl.6 and 7 . or parts of your own with one another to test as to how you stand and to see whether any change is needed.II GEMBA KAIZEN • In Japanese Words. Increased Quality. ‘GEMBA’ means ‘Work Place’ – the place where real action occurs [OR] the place where products and services are formed. ‘Kaizen’ means ‘Continuous Improvement which involves everyone’ – i. both the Words are Most Popular. Stockholders – Major Constituents of the Company. Extensive [within and between] levels and functions . WHAT IS BENCH-MARKING? Benchmarking is simply the systematic process of comparing your business with others. • • In the Japan Industrial arena.Quality As a Way of Life 10. Employees’ Satisfaction and Loyalty. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT [TQM] . 9. Quality. Open Book/Shared Book 7. Costs. Productivity. Total Quality System with Continuous Improvement and across every level.e.Business Objectives] 5. [Sl. . [Quality Objectives] 6.Business Information Sharing] 8. Cutomers.

and to Satisfy Today’s Demanding Customers. to Reduce Cost.• Managers at all levels can co-operate with the employees in the Gemba to Improve Quality. .

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