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Table of Contents Introduction to Computers .................................................................................................. 1 Microsoft Word ................................................................................................................. 11 Microsoft PowerPoint ....................................................................................................... 32 Microsoft Excel ................................................................................................................. 40 Microsoft Access .............................................................................................................. 59 The Internet Technology ................................................................................................... 67
Introduction to Computers What is a computer? A computer is an electronic device that operates under the control of a set of instructions that is stored in its memory unit. A computer accepts data from an input device and processes it into useful information, which it displays on its output device. Actually, a computer is a collection of hardware and software components that help you accomplish many different tasks. Hardware consists of the computer itself, and any equipment connected to it. Software is the set of instructions that the computer follows in performing a task. Some Basic Terms Hardware: The physical parts of the Computer. Software: The programs (instructions) that tell the computer what to do Data: What the user inputs into the computer through the input devices. Information: Data, which has been processed i.e. meaningful data Default: Settings built-in by the manufacturer to make sure their programs work properly, and can be changed by the user. Soft copy; An electronic copy of a document, as opposed to a hard copy Hardcopy: A term often used to denote any document produced on paper A file: Is a collection of letters, numbers and special characters: it may be a program, a database, a dissertation, a reading list, a simple letter etc. A file has a name attached to it. A folder: In graphical user interfaces such as in Windows a folder is an object that can contain multiple documents. Folders are used to organize information. What makes a computer powerful? Speed: A computer can do billions of actions per second Reliability: Failures are usually due to human error, one way or another. Storage: Capability of storing enormous amounts of data that must be located and retrieved very quickly. Accuracy: Humans, not computers, cause Errors In addition to the above, computers are programmable as well as productivite. Types of Computers Today's computers are of three main types: mainframes, supercomputers, and microcomputers. They differ in size, speed of operation, amount of data that can be stored, and the number of simultaneous users. Mainframes allow many simultaneous users, handle typically huge databases, and can perform complex mathematical operations. We find them mainly in industry, research, and university computing centers.
2 The microcomputer is essentially a personal or desktop computer. These desktop PCs, which dwarf the capabilities of the huge early computers, are used extensively in the home (entertainment, communication, personal databases, and spreadsheets) and in all types of businesses (word processing, accounting, inventory control, research) Supercomputers: They are the most powerful, the most expensive, and the fastest. They are capable of processing trillions of instructions per second. Examples of users of these computers are governmental agencies, the National Weather Service, and the National Defense Agency. Also, they are used in the making of movies, space exploration, and the design of many other machines. These are used for jobs that take massive amounts of calculating, like weather forecasting, engineering design and testing, economic forecasting, etc Computer Components A computer system has two basic parts: Hardware and Software. The equipment associated with a computer system is the hardware. Computer hardware is responsible for performing four basic functions: input, processing, output, and storage. Let’s go back to the basic definition of a computer. A computer is an electronic device that is programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it for future use (storage). The processing function is under the control of a set of instructions (software) The four primary components of a computer system are: Input: Input devices send data and instructions to the central processing unit. Processing: Central processing unit executes computer instructions. Memory (RAM) holds data and programs temporarily Output: Output devices make processed data available to the user. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage devices store data and programs permanently In order to function properly, a computer system must have all four types of hardware: input, processing, output, and storage. Input Devices accept data in a form that the computer can utilize. Also, the input devices send the data or instructions to the processing unit to be processed into useful information. There are many examples of input devices, but the most commonly used input devices are; the mouse and keyboard. Others include, touch pads, joystick, scanners Output Devices include Monitor, speakers, printers etc Storage Devices: Permanent storage of information is also referred to as Secondary storage or auxiliary storage. This storage is done on the following media: Hard disk drive, floppy disks, CDs, DVDs, Flash disks, Tapes etc
000. data is lost. Memory keeps the instructions and data for whatever programs you happen to be using at the moment. . works with the CPU to hold instructions and data in order to be processed.000 bytes System unit: Protects the internal parts from physical damage and electromagnetic interferences. Bytes are usually measured in groups of kilobytes.000. Bus . It is also known as the main board or system board. or primary storage. The following chart defines each term. and storage devices. executes instructions in the repetition of machine cycles.000. 2. Computer Memory Memory. Memory is measured in bytes. RAM can be erased or written over at will by the computer program or the computer user.3 The Processor: The CPU (Central Processing System) is the brain of the computer. The amount of RAM has increased dramatically in recent years. but cannot be altered by the user. or symbol. If current is interrupted.000 bytes Roughly 1. digit. The arithmetic/logic unit executes the instruction. A machine cycle consists of four steps: 1. 3.000.000 bytes Roughly 1.000 bytes Roughly 1. Memory is the first place data and instructions are placed after being input.000. A byte is usually made up of 8 bits and represents one character—a letter. It contains programs and data that are permanently recorded when the computer is manufactured.A bus is an electronic line that allows 1s and 0s to move from one place to another. It is very important to know that memory can hold data only temporarily because it requires a continuous flow of electrical current. with the help of memory. Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte KB MB GB TB Roughly 1. it communicates with the input. 4. There are two types of memory: ROM and RAM. Memory is in the form of a semiconductor or silicon chip and is contained inside the computer. The user can access data in RAM memory randomly. It consists of electronic circuits that interpret and execute instructions. processed information is placed in memory to be returned to an output device. The CPU. output. The arithmetic/logic unit stores the result in memory. and terabytes. megabytes. The control unit decodes the instruction. gigabytes. The number of bytes that can be held is a measure of the memory and storage capacity. ROM is read only memory. The control unit fetches an instruction and data associated with it from memory. It is read and used by the processor. Motherboard: Is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. RAM is random access memory.
spreadsheets. it will come with written instructions for installation and use. there may be situations that require a specific type of software that is not available. etc. These instructions used to control hardware and accomplish tasks are called software. floppy drive or CD-ROM drive sits. Other examples include games.A bay is a space inside the computer case where a hard drive. memo. printers. scanners. and digital cameras. Packaged software can be purchased. The most important applications software categories included in office suites are described in the table below: . or always required in principle. or in some cases. Sound Components .4 Expansion Slots . Peripherals: A peripheral is a type of computer hardware that is added to a computer in order to expand its abilities. The author of shareware hopes you will make a voluntary contribution for using the product. and it may be used or altered without fee or restriction. time and configuration information when the power is off (Internal settings of the computer). A word processor is the most widely used example of applications software. They are sockets into which adapters are connected. typing tutor. Software Components As important as hardware devices may be. In other words. Microsoft Office is the most popular office suite for the personal computer today. However. as opposed to hardware that is either demanded.A power supply changes normal household electricity into electricity that a computer can use. When packaged software is purchased. Applications software can be purchased in stores and is called packaged or commercial software. Freeware is software considered to be in the public domain. it is prewritten.Expansions slots appear on the motherboard. Power Supply . Most often. personal computers utilize packaged software. Another form of somewhat free software is shareware.g.A sound card lets a computer play and record high quality sound. These instructions are documentation. E. it is available for no cost. they are useless without the instructions that control them. More specifically the term is used to describe those devices that are optional in nature. Applications software allows you to perform a particular task or solve a specific problem. it can be used to create a letter. CMOS battery: Used to retain the date. or anything else you need to type. Ports and Connectors . Bays .A port is a connector located on the motherboard or on a separate adapter. tax preparation programs. It would then be necessary to design and write a program. this software is called custom software. Software falls into two broad categories— applications and systems software.
easily understood format. Provides access to the Internet through a service provider by using a graphical interface. manipulated. updated. adding graphical elements. retrieved. formatting and printing documents. Spreadsheets Database Management Presentation Graphics Communication Software Internet Browser . Provides the tools for connecting one computer with another to enable sending and receiving information and sharing files and resources. Provides the tools for working with numbers and allows you to create and edit electronic spreadsheets in managing and analyzing information.5 Software Category Word Processor Function Provides the tools for entering and revising text. Provides the tools for creating graphics that represent data in a visual. Data can be stored. Provides the tools for management of a collection of interrelated facts. and reported in a variety of ways.
Another type of software is required operating systems software. filenames and their locations I/o Management: Keeps track of which devices are connected to the system Error Detection: Displays error messages to the user incase of a problem .6 As important as applications software may be. Operating Systems software is the set of programs that lies between applications software and the hardware devices. An Operating System. a computer would be useless. Functions of Operating system Provides a GUI through which the user enters commands. Without a computer Operating System. Process Management: How processes are to be executed by the processor Resource Management: Maximum utilization of resources mainly the processor Memory Management: Allocation and de-allocation of memory File management: Keeps track of files. is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. or OS. it is not able to directly communicate with hardware devices.
you give the instruction to the electricity to "wake" up the computer. Therefore. when you press the power button. When Windows starts. asking "Are you OK?". when it comes up. and move items around. Then your computer will beep (possibly a few times). – Booting. it may directly display the desktop or it may ask you to log in POST: Power on Self-Test When your computer first starts. The computer works by receiving and giving instructions. If the BIOS "think" that everything is alright and that the computer can be used. From the upper left to the lower left side of the screen. Pushing it would start the computer. If the BIOS come to a conclusion that this computer is not worth using. before using a computer. Logging in: After the booting process. This process is called the POST: power on self-test. you select it with your keyboard or mouse and a window opens.7 Introduction to windows To use the computer. The desktop is usually different from one computer to another. This instruction causes the computer to start giving its own instructions to internal parts. Some of the most regular icons are: My Computer: Shows the disk drives and the hardware connected to the computer Recycle bin: Stores all deleted jobs. Internet Explorer: Finds and locates information on the Internet My Documents: Contains various documents such as letters. the area you are looking at is called the desktop. The Program Manager is the base window for the Windows program. •Type in the user name and Password and click OK. then the BIOS may interrupt everything. which means it will not respond when the BIOS asks. there are small pictures or images called icons. then it gets the hardware parts ready. you will see the keyboard lights flash. "What about you?” If a certain part that is important doesn't respond (for example if a certain important object such as the keyboard or mouse is not connected. . the login window will be displayed. it is the overall area for you to work in. Desktop: This is similar to the top of your desk at home/work. and hear the floppy and hard drives spin. Windows and Icons. it would display an error and may not let you do anything significant. "Are you OK?"). or it may continue checking. reports etc MyNetworkplaces: Shortcut to network computers There are three main parts to your screen: Desktop. and other items get deleted at will. Introduction to the Desktop After logging in successfully. The BIOS instruction starts checking "everybody". you must first turn it on. One of the instructions is called BIOS. Each one is used to make the computer do something. (Notice that the title of the window is in the title bar). For example. The Microsoft Windows desktop is made of various parts. the Program Manager Window is displayed. "Are you OK?". This is like opening/closing a file folder. You can retrieve or put away items (like placing a file or calculator on your desk). Windows: When you wish to perform a task. This is because some items get added as new programs are installed on a computer. you are using. see the floppy and/or CDROM lights turn on. Depending on the computer. the first thing you should find is the power switch that is used to put the unit on.
Renaming a file/Folder Right click on the file/folder you wish to rename and choose rename.g. about a specific client or destination. Each file must have a name.doc meaning an Ms Word document. for example. You will be prompted to confirm the action. Task bar: The task bar is the bar at the bottom of your screen that displays the start menu. Folders are used to organize information Creating a folder e. Note: When jobs are restored. A new folder will be created with a default name such as “New folder”. Clicking on the item. Type the new name and press the enter key. they return to their original locations before being deleted Moving a file to a folder Dragging: Click on the file to be moved. then on the file menu and choose restore. right click on the file or folder and choose delete from the popup.It sometimes displays the time. . Deleted items are sent to the recycle bin. From the popup menu choose new and then click on folder. Alternatively. then file menu and choosing restore performs the same action. Icons will vary depending on what they are intended to represent. They represent programs and documents that are not currently open. perhaps a few icons next to the start menu on what is called the Quick Launch Toolbar. Files and folders File: A collection of related information. Click on the file/folder to be restored. which opens a window. Choose OK to confirm. xls meaning Excel Folders: In graphical user interfaces such as Windows a folder is an object that can contain multiple documents. and choose restore. Two files of the same name cannot be stored on the same location. Files have file extension representing the application in which they were created e. press down the left mouse button and drag until the file is positioned on top of the destination folder and release the button.8 Icons: The items within the window are called icons.g on a Desktop: Right click on the desktop. Type the name of your choice and press the enter key. because they are picture representations of something else. . Open the recycle bin. right click on the file/folder you wish to restore and choose restore from the popup. To restore deleted jobs. Alternatively. Restoring deleted files and folders. You can also restore the deleted item by double clicking the file/folder. Deleting a file or folder Click on the file/folder to be deleted which highlights it and then press the delete key on your keyboard. Opening a file/Folder Double click the file/folder to be opened or right click the file/folder and choose open from the popup menu.
Then right click on the destination folder and choose paste. When you click on a menu item on the menu bar. and font. but only one can be worked with at any given time (hence the active window).9 Cutting and Pasting: Right click the file to be copied and choose cut. with a series of options. Microsoft uses many of these same buttons in other applications. This will terminate the program you are using or close a document depending on the type of window your in. The Standard toolbar: Contains buttons for the standard (most often used) commands. Formatting tool Bar One of the greatest advantages of computer word processing is the ability to change the format of your text and document at any time. open. left and right. it becomes the active window. You can move up. Most of these commands are easy to understand and use. and print items along with quitting the application. You can have many windows on your desktop at one time. Menu Bar: One of the nicest things about working with windows is the menu bar. Scroll Items: These are located along the bottom and right hand edge of your window. For example. Other software programs use very similar buttons for the same types of commands. Close: This exits/ closes the open window. down. size. Once maximized the maximize button becomes a restore box. an menu opens up. Applications that are written for the Windows program all have menu bars and they all have almost the same labels and the menus that appear under the labels have similar functions. It also indicates the active window. There are so many choices! . By clicking the mouse on a window. the File menu bar item has a menu associated with it that allows you to save. They allow you to navigate through a window whose contents are too large to fit on the screen. like its color. application or document appears here. Minimize and Maximize and close Buttons Minimize: The window becomes an Icon at the bottom of the screen (Task bar) Maximize: The window encompasses the entire desktop. The Formatting Bar contains buttons and drop lists for the things people change the most about the look of their text. Window Properties Title Bar: The name of the window.
There are three ways to use the mouse button to perform a task: single clicking. Double clicking is simply clicking the left mouse button twice in a row. and icons. In order to perform a drag. Dragging: Dragging is a technique used to move windows and icons to different locations. and while keeping the mouse button depressed. While single clicking only tells the computer that the item clicked on is the one we want to use. and tells it to perform a task. Double Clicking: Double clicking is s technique used to perform many tasks. without moving the mouse. move the cursor (and the item will automatically follow) to the desired location. you need simply to place to cursor on the item you want to move or resize. Triple clicking highlights an entire line or paragraph. You can think of this like a heartbeat. Let's use this dragging technique to move the entire Program Manager window around the screen: . any type of button. should notice that the black arrow on the screen moves in the same direction that you move the mouse. Single Clicking: Single clicking is used to select an item. or to tell the computer the item you want to work with. and all are independent of one another. Items that you would normally single click on are the menu bar. then hold down the left mouse button. double clicking. Each has a specific use. and to reshape windows. where two beats occur in succession Triple clicking: This is achieved by clicking the left mouse button thrice. When moving the mouse.10 Using the Mouse The standard PC mouse has two buttons (Left and Right). and dragging. or mouse pointer. double clicking tells the computer that this is the item we want to use. This black arrow is called a cursor.
. Point with your mouse to a menu option and click the left mouse button to open a drop-down menu. At the top of your screen. Tools. learning activities. brochures. You use the menus to give instructions to the software. View. You can now use the left and right arrow keys on your keyboard to move left and right across the Menu bar options. The Menu bar displays the menu. To begin. Insert. open Microsoft Word from start ->programs->Microsoft Word. The Menu bar begins with the word File and continues with Edit. The Title Bar The Title bar is located at the very top of the screen. On the Title bar. tests. You can use the up and down arrow keys to move up and down the dropdown menu. Format. Your screen will look like the one shown here.11 Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a popular word-processing program used for creating documents such as letters. Table. Window. and Help. Microsoft Word displays the name of the document on which you are currently working. The Menu Bar The Menu bar is generally found directly below the Title bar. you should see "Microsoft Word . There are many powerful features available in Microsoft Word to make it easier to learn for students. quizzes and students' homework assignments.Document1" or a similar name.
If both Standard and Formatting have heck marks next to them. if you select that menu item. Click View on the Menu bar. 4. 7. An ellipse or a right arrow after a menu item signifies additional options.are available. Click Close to close the dialog box. Standard and formatting should have check marks next to them. a dialog box appears. . 6. Follow these steps to add them.12 The most frequently used menu options appear on the menu list. Click the chevron to display additional menu options. 3. 2. Note: You turn the check mark on and off by clicking the left mouse button. Point to the box next to the unchecked option and click the left mouse button to make a check mark appear. A chevron appears at the bottom of the list. Click the Toolbars tab. click the option or use the arrow keys to move to the option on the dropdown menu and press Enter. Always make sure the toolbars you will use such as standard and formatting -. press Esc three times to close the menu. To select an option. 1. click Customize. 5. Toolbars are generally located just below the Menu bar. Items in gray are not available. Highlight Toolbars. Toolbars The Standard Toolbar The Formatting Toolbar Toolbars provide shortcuts to menu commands. If they do not both have check marks.
The option Ruler should have a check mark next to it. The horizontal line next to the cursor marks the end of the document. Reading Layout. font. continue to the next step. Print Layout: The Print Layout view shows the document. The ruler now appears below the toolbars. As you type. Document View: In Word. Normal View: Normal view is the most often used and shows formatting such as line spacing. Web Layout. press Esc to close the menu. Word displays multiple-column text in one continuous column. . your work shows at the cursor location. It marks the insertion point. To display the ruler: 1. Outline view: Outline view displays the document in outline form. 3. and italics. Web Layout: Web layout view enables you to view your document. you can display your document in one of five views: Normal. The blinking vertical line in the upper left corner of the text area is the cursor. or Online Layout. as it will look when it is printed. point size. Text Area Just below the ruler is a large area called the "text area. Print Layout. Reading Layout: Reading Layout view formats your screen to make reading your document more comfortable. Click View on the Menu bar. Headings can be displayed without the text." You type your document in the text area. If it has a check mark next to it. 2.13 The Ruler The ruler is generally found below the main toolbars. If it does not have a check mark next to it. Click Ruler. the accompanying text moves with it. If you move a heading. as it would appear in a browser such as Internet Explorer. The ruler is used to change the format of your document quickly.
you must first highlight the text by clicking and dragging the mouse over it. 2. among other things. Place the cursor before or after the text you wish to highlight and click the left mouse button. The Vertical scroll bar is located along the right side of the screen. click and drag the Horizontal scroll bar. Highlighting Text To make any changes in the text appearance.14 Horizontal and Vertical Scroll Bars The Horizontal and Vertical scroll bars. enable you to move up and down or across the window simply by pressing the icons located on the scroll bars. click and drag the Vertical scroll bar up and down. . and the vertical and horizontal position of the cursor. The left-most side of the status bar shows the page number. in addition to offering functionality. To move up and down your document. Status bar At the very bottom of the Word window is the status bar. The Horizontal scroll bar is located above the Status bar.. To move back and forth across your document. section number. Task bar The taskbar is a desktop toolbar application that lets you perform tasks such as switching between open windows and starting new applications. Press the appropriate arrow key (left arrow to move to the left or right arrow to move to the right) until the text is highlighted. To highlight text. if turned on. Press Esc to remove the anchor. The taskbar is usually associated with the Microsoft Windows interface. you can use either of the following methods: Highlighting by Using the Arrow Keys 1. This feature of the window provides important information about the cursor’s position in the document. You can use the up or down arrow key to highlight one line at a time.
2. double click on it with the mouse. . 2. To select a paragraph move the mouse anywhere over the paragraph you want to select and then quickly press the left mouse button three times (triple clicking). hold down the Shift key while typing the letter. The Delete Key: You can also delete text by using the Delete key. Place the cursor before or after the text you wish to highlight. right. Click File. click Yes. To capitalize. you do not need to press a key to move to a new line as you do when typing with a typewriter. highlight the text you wish to delete. Otherwise. Press Enter to start a new paragraph. Tripple clicking in the sentence also highlights it. First. you will be prompted: "Do you want to save changes to Document1?" To save your changes. Name your file by typing the name of your choice in the File Name field. press Ctrl on the keyboard and hold it down while you click the mouse anywhere within the sentence. 4. You do not need to press Enter to start a new line -. simply type just as you would if you were using a typewriter. 5. Starting a New Paragraph When you type in Microsoft Word. you would save your work before exiting. Selecting Text 1. 2. 3.15 Highlighting by Using the Mouse 1. click No. To select a sentence. Hold down the left mouse button. Click Exit. 3. To exit Word: 1. Move the mouse left. Exiting Word Typically. You place the cursor by moving the cursor to the specified location and pressing the left mouse button or by using the arrow keys to move to the specified location. then press the Delete key. Typing and Using the Backspace Key To enter text. Placing the Cursor You will often be asked to place the cursor at a specific location on the screen. press the Enter key. Specify the correct folder in the Save In box. If you have entered text. or down until the text is highlighted. To select a word.Microsoft Word automatically wraps at the end of the line. which can be found at the bottom of the drop-down menu. 3. 6. up. Use the Backspace key to delete text. To start a new paragraph. Click Save.
Click Bold in the Font Style box. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.Using the Menu 1. You also can combine these features -. Underline. Choose Edit > Cut from the menu. 4. Click Underline in the Font Style box.Using the Menu 1. Pasting the cut text . place the cursor before the letter "B" on the formatting bar. 3. and Italicize You can bold. pressing the Ctrl +B bolds the text. N. 5. place the cursor before the letter "U" on the formatting bar. Choose Format > Font from the menu. you can bold. underline. 2. Choose Edit > Paste from the menu. You can paste Clipboard information as often as you like. Click OK to close the dialog box. You have bolded the word bold. 8. Highlight the text you wish to cut. Italics can be removed following the same procedure) Cut and Paste In Microsoft Word. Bold . OR 7. Cut . You can also copy text. you replace the old information on the Clipboard with whatever you just cut or copied. Underline. When you cut text. 9. Underling text. 2. Place the cursor where you wish to paste the text. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting. Click OK to close the dialog box. and italicize a single piece of text. The Font Dialog box opens.If text is highlighted.16 Bold.Using the Menu 1. 10. Highlight the text you wish to bold. it is also stored on the Clipboard. 6. Each time you execute Cut or Copy. Information stored on the Clipboard stays there until new information is either cut or copied.in other words. All the above formats (Bold. . pressing the Ctrl +U bolds the text. Choose Format > Font from the menu.If text is highlighted. you can cut (delete) text from one area of a document and save that text so it can be pasted elsewhere in the document. or italicize when using Word. The Font Dialog box opens. OR 2.B . You have underlined the word bold. When you copy text. underline. it is stored on the Clipboard. N. The cut item will be pasted.B . Highlight the text you wish to underline.
Using the Menu 1. Paste . 2. The text will be pasted. Click the Cut icon . Place the cursor where you wish to paste. As with cut data. 3. 3. Highlight the text you wish to cut 2. 2. Press Ctrl-x Paste by Using Keys 1. The text will be pasted. Pasting the cut text by using the Icon 1. Click the Copy icon . 2.17 Cut by Using the Icon 1. Highlight the text you wish to copy.Using the Menu 1. Choose Edit > Copy from the menu. Highlight the text you wish to cut 2. Cut by Using Keys 1. Highlight what you wish to copy. Copy by Using the Icon 1. Copy and Paste In Microsoft Word. 3. Choose Edit > Paste from the menu. copied data is stored on the Clipboard. 2. Click the Paste icon . you can copy text from one area of the document and place that text elsewhere in the document. . Copy . Place the cursor where you wish to paste. 2. Press Ctrl-v. Place the cursor where you wish to paste. The text will be pasted.
Do you want to search the remainder of the document?" 5. After you have found the word or piece of text you are searching for. Procedure: 1. Spell Check Word checks your spelling and grammar as you type.18 Paste by Using the Icon 1. If you want to search the entire document. Click Find Next. Click the Paste icon Copy by Using Keys 1. 2. Highlight the text you wish to copy. or choose Tools > Spelling and Grammar from the menu. it is highlighted. Find by Using Keys . Then press F7 and click the spelling icon Find and Replace If you need to find a particular word or piece of text. . you can use the Find command. If you want to spell check part of your document. highlight that area and then execute the Find command. 4. Click Cancel. Choose Edit > Find from the menu. . If you want to limit your search to a selected area. or choose Tools > Spelling and Grammar from the menu. Paste by Using Keys 1. Click No. Click Find Next. 2. Press Ctrl-c. you can replace it with new text by executing the Replace command. 3. Place the cursor where you wish to paste. Place the cursor the cursor where you wish to paste. highlight the area you want to spell check. Type the word you wish to find in the Find What field. press F7 and click the spelling icon . Spelling errors display with a red wavy line under the word. Press Ctrl-v. Note that wherever that word appears. The following message should appear: "Word has finished searching the selection. simply execute the Find command. If you want to spell check your entire document. 2. 2.
4. Change Font Size by Using the Toolbar 1. you can change the size of your font (text). 6. type 8.19 1. Press Ctrl-spacebar to set the formatting back to the default. Fonts In Microsoft Word. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 5. In the Font Size box 4. Click next until the following message is displayed. Press Enter. Click Close."Word has finished searching the selection”. type the word you wish to replace the existing with. Replace by Using Keys 1. Change Font Size . Click Find Next. 2. Do you want to search the remainder of the document?" 7. 2. The following message will appear: "Word has finished searching the selection. Replace . 5. Click No. In the Replace With box. Type in the Size field a size of your choice such as 8 in the box below the Size field. 2. 2. Highlight the text whose size you wish to change. Click OK. 4. 8.Using the Menu 1. Follow the steps above Font Size In Microsoft Word. Choose the Font tab. . 3. 3. Choose Edit > Replace from the menu. Click Replace. 3. Highlight the text whose font you wish to change. Type the text to find in the Find What box. on the toolbar. 2. Press Ctrl-H.Using the Menu 1. Press Ctrl-F.. you can change the font (the "family" of type you use for your text).
3. For double-spaced lines. Highlight the text whose font you wish to change. At the right end of the Formatting Toolbar click the down arrow beside the letter A and select the desired font color. . the line spacing is set to two times the single-space amount. 2. Procedure 1. Press Ctrl-spacebar. 4. the Line Spacing is set to one-and-a-half times the single-space amount. Placing the cursor anywhere in the paragraph enables you to format it. Click to open the Font pull-down menu 4. 2. there will appear to be extra space between lines where the smaller fonts are located. The spacing for each line is set to accommodate the largest font on that line. Change the Font by Using the Formatting Toolbar 1. Click to open the drop-down menu on the Line Spacing field. Click on the font of your choice. Highlight the paragraph you wish to change the spacing. Working with Paragraphs There are various ways to format a paragraph. on the Formatting toolbar. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 5. Changing Font Color 1." Click OK.20 Change the Font . After you set a paragraph format. Highlight desired text.g"Arial. At 1. Single spacing is the default. 2. When you are formatting a paragraph. Ctrl-spacebar sets the formatting back to the default.5 lines. 3.Using the Menu 1. Highlight the text whose font you wish to change. you do not need to highlight the entire paragraph. 2. click and choose the font of your choice e. In the box below the Font field. If there are smaller fonts on the line. Line Spacing Line Spacing sets the amount of space between lines within a paragraph. Choose Format > Paragraph from the menu. 4. Choose the Font tab. Choose the Indents and Spacing tab. 3. subsequent paragraphs will have the same format unless you change their format.
3. Highlight the paragraph you wish to indent. To select a shaded color. left to align left. Click 1. A line will show you the new indent position. Left-justified text is aligned on the left side. 3. Click OK. Decrease Indent and Increase Indent buttons. Alignment by Using Keys 1. On the left top ruler line are symbols that let you indent the left edge of a paragraph. Highlight the paragraph. There are two buttons on the Formatting Toolbar to help you quickly indent a paragraph. It is the default setting.5. 6. 3. Choose Format > Paragraph from the menu. Indent all lines 2. center or justify. Ctrl-L for left alignment. 5.5 Lines. Click right to align right. 6. Click the indent symbol and drag it to the desire position. 2. Indenting Paragraphs 1. 2. . Alignment Microsoft Word gives you a choice of several types of alignment. 4. Text alignment Procedure Right-Justify 1.21 5. click the last button in the dialog box. Click to open the Alignment pull-down menu. Ctrl-E for center alignment and Ctrl-J for justify. 4. Press Ctrl-R for right alignment. 2. The shading will appear. Highlight the text. Your line spacing for the paragraph is now 1. Choose the Indents and Spacing tab. 4. Click OK. Release the mouse button and Word will indent the paragraph you selected. Highlight the area you want shaded. Add Shading 1. Click the Tables and Borders button on the Standard Toolbar beside the Globes.
The text is now centered. 2.Bulleting Bulleting and numbering procedure 1.22 Alignment using icons Right-Justify by Using the Icon 1. 3. Examples -. . Highlight the words you wish to bullet/number. Highlight the text. 4. . 2. Click the style you want to use. The text is now justified. . Click the Align Right icon Left-Justify by Using the Icon 1. Justify and Center by Using the Icon 1. Click the Justify icon Bullets and Numbering In Microsoft Word. you can easily create bulleted or numbered lists of items. 2. Several styles are available to you. Click the Align Left icon . Examples -. Choose the Numbered or bulleted tab. The paragraph is now left aligned. 2. Highlight the text. The paragraph is now right aligned. You select the one you wish to use. Highlight the text. Choose Format > Bullets and Numbering from the menu.Numbering . as shown in the examples. Click the Center icon 3. Several bulleting and numbering styles are available.
Adding Page Numbers 1. again. which appear at the top (for a header) or bottom (for a footer) of every page of your document. 2.Numbering by Using the Icon. on the Formatting toolbar. click the Switch Between Header and Footer button in the Header and Footer toolbar. 2. such as page numbering. 2. 2. To create footer. Click the Bullets icon To remove the bulleting: 1. They are used for a variety of purposes. Highlight the list again. 2. company names and so on.23 5. 2. Display your document in the Page Layout view by clicking View. Click OK. Adding Headers and Footers 1. Highlight the words. Highlight the list you typed. document titles. Click the Bullets icon Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are text (and/or graphics). 4. Click None. select the location of the page number. Your list is now numbered or bulleted To remove the numbering: 1. copyright notices. Page Numbers. Click OK. Page Layout. Alternate Method -. Highlight the list you typed. 3. Your list is no longer numbered or bulleted. Your list is now bulleted. Click Insert. Click View. Your list is now numbered. 3. 4. 3. Header and Footer. Display your document in the Page Layout view by clicking View. Your list is no longer bulleted. In the dialog box. Page Layout. . Type the header in the text box and format as you would any other text. the alignment. on the Formatting toolbar. and check to show the number on the first page. 1. Choose Format > Bullets and Numbering from the menu. Click the Numbering icon Bulleting by Using the Icon 1.
click on it with the mouse and press the delete key on the keyboard. 3. click OK. 4. 5. formatted. formatted. . Click Insert to place the image into the document. Graphics. Symbol. Click Auto Shapes and select the shape you desire. Click the Drawing button on the Standard toolbar. Then choose from Clip Art… or From File… If you are using a Clip Art picture follow these directions: Select the clip art image you desire and click Insert. You can also insert a section break using the same procedure. 2. If you are using a picture From File click the location of the image and then its name. Click the mouse inside your document where you wish to add the shape. Click Close. or moved on the screen. click the mouse where you want to add a graphic. Click Insert. Insert. 3. Click the Wrap tab. Click Picture. The image can then be resized. or Pictures In the document. Inserting Symbols 1. The shape can then be resized. In the Symbol dialog box select Font: Symbol. At the bottom of your screen a Drawing toolbar will appear. 3. The image can then be resized. Break 3. Continuous-Creates a new section on the current page. In the Break dialog box choose one of the following options: Next page-Creates a new section on a new page. 2. Click the mouse where you want to start a new page. Inserting Clipart. Click the mouse where you want the symbol inserted in your document. moved. 2. Formatting an Image 1. or moved on the screen.24 Inserting A Page Break 1. Choose Format Picture. To delete an image. Click Insert at the top of the screen. Click Insert. Click the symbol you wish to insert and then click. Right click the mouse on the image. It can also be filled with a color. Inserting Shapes 1. In the Break dialog box. or formatted. 2.
resized. 5. 2. 2. Optional: To use a built-in table format. click and hold on the Insert Table button.25 4. recolored. Release the mouse button. choose options to adjust table size. and slide right to Table. Select the options you want. You can draw a complex table — for example. 4. Select the word art effect you desire and click. 2. 4. Click OK. 2. . Click where you want to create the table. 3. 1. o A grid appears below the button. Microsoft Word offers a number of ways to make a table. On the Standard toolbar. click AutoFormat. 1. Under Table size. 5. Click the desired text wrap effect and then click OK. Use the Insert Table toolbar button Use this procedure to make choices about the table dimensions ONLY before the table is inserted into a document. click the Insert Word Art button. select the number of columns and rows. and on how simple or complex the table needs to be. choose Draw Table. The Word Art can then be moved. Click where you want to create a table. or formatted. Optional: Under AutoFit behavior. 3. Working with Tables Using tables in Word can be a very convenient way to easily display and organize information in a document. Position the cursor where you want to create a table. From the Table menu. Display the drawing toolbar by clicking the drawing button on the Standard toolbar. Word Art 1. one that contains cells of different heights or a varying number of columns per row. The best way depends on how you like to work. Click OK. 4. 6. From the Table menu choose Insert. 7. Use the Insert Table Command Use this procedure to make choices about the table dimensions and format before the table is inserted into a document. On the drawing toolbar at the bottom of your screen. 1. 3. Drag over the grid until you've selected the number of rows and columns you want.
o o Note: Hold down CTRL to automatically apply text wrapping while you draw the table.26 The Tables and Borders toolbar appears. 2. The pointer changes to a pencil. . and drag to define the outer table boundaries. Click. 5. click a cell and start typing or insert a graphic. 4. To erase a line or block of lines: 1. hold. o You would want to draw a rectangle. 3. Click the line you want to erase. Click Eraser on the Tables and Borders toolbar. When you finish creating the table. Draw the column and row lines inside the rectangle.
Apply the Heading 2 style to sub-headings. Click on the Table of Contents tab. . To set up columns. tell Word to insert the Table of Contents. Step 1: Identify the text that you want to appear in the Table of Contents In your document. you can then customize it in several ways. there is need to update the table of contents. click within the first major heading that you want to appear in the Table of Contents. In earlier versions of Word.27 Creating a table of contents in Microsoft Word Creating a table of contents in a Microsoft Word document is a two-step process. Click OK. First. to suit your needs. You should see the dialog box below. In other words. choose Insert > Reference > Index and Tables. Apply the Heading 1 style to that paragraph. choose Insert > Index and Tables. Click on the Table of Contents tab. apply the Heading 1 style to other major headings in your document. or they can be used in only one section. Right click in the table of contents. In Microsoft Word 2002 and 2003. you can set up multiple columns formatting for just the center section. if you are typing a document. Updating the table of contents In case of changes made to your document. In the same way. Step 2: Create the Table of Contents Click where you want your Table of Contents to appear. Second. identify the text that you want to appear in the Table of Contents. Having created your Table of Contents. Creating Columns Columns can be set up for an entire document. from the popup menu choose update field and then choose update entire table and click OK. The easiest way to apply the Heading 1 style is to click the Style box on the Formatting toolbar and choose Heading 1. which has ‘normal’ formatting at the beginning and end and columns in the middle. Heading 3 style to sub-sub-headings etc. go to the Format menu and choose Columns or click on the Columns icon.
Mail Merging in Ms Word 1. In the graphic we have chosen to format the Whole document If you want to format only one section. you should add a line between columns to enhance readability as shown in the graphic. If you shrink the spacing between columns. or to the Whole document. Go to the Insert menu and choose Break… You’ll notice that there are many types of Section breaks to choose from. you need to explicitly create separate sections. . The other types of section breaks force the text onto the next page. Once you have more than one section. you can format each with whatever column formatting you like. Be careful with too many columns as the space between columns can eat up a lot of space on the page. Launch Word and open a new blank document. the next even page. The most common is continuous. This means that no visible break is seen in the finished document. or the next odd page.28 Here you can set your document to have the number of columns you want. This is done in a Word document by adding section breaks. Also note that here is where you choose to apply the column formatting to one particular section.
In this dropdown list. you will select "active window". This box will show you a list of fields that will be used by default. your Mail Merge Helper window has two more buttons available to you. You should now have a line in your document. Now. 13. Fill in the information for the first person you want to add to your database. 9. If the letter was already typed. and Catalogs.. 10. Mailing Labels. When you are done. Now. Under the heading. Use Address Book. Open Data Source. your fields will be empty and you can add the second person. 3. 6. go back up to your Mail Merge toolbar and click on the button that says. Notice that this inserts the field into your document (It looks like <<Title>>) and your mouse pointer is blinking just to the right of this field. Envelopes. clicking "Add New" after each one. 15. click on the field you want e.since you have a blank document on your screen. you see the Data Form box. Go to the Tools Menu and select "MailMerge". 7. you are returned to your blank document and you will notice a new toolbar at the top of your screen. You can add or remove fields. you would choose "Edit main document". Continue adding people. "Main Document".. until you have all of the people in your database. click on the "Add New" button. or Access. you would choose "Open Data Source" and browse to find that file. Excel. and Header Options. .g Title. To add your own field names. 16.) Otherwise you will click on the button that says "Edit Data Source". (If you already have a database of addresses that you created previously in Word. which includes a button that says "Insert Merge Field". select "Form Letters". Now. Click on "Save". When the Merge box comes up. In this dropdown list. which asks you if you want to use the active window or a new main document.. Click on OK and you will see the Save As dialog box. To remove fields. Under the heading. click on the "Create" button. Then click on the button below it that says "Add field name". Now the new field name e. Name your address database file with a name you will remember and recognize and save it in a location where you can find it when you want to use it again in the future for another mail merge.g a Amount will be added to the list and you know how to both add and remove fields in your list. 5. simply highlight them in the list on the right and click on the "Remove field name" button on the left. now.29 2. Put your flashing cursor where you wish to insert the field and click on the button that says "Insert Merge Field". Once you have all the info filled in for the first person. leave the settings as they are and click on the button that says. 12. Now. Now.. 14. From this dropdown list.for this tutorial. (If you were using a data source that was already complete. "Merge". 8. You will see a box. click on the button that says "Get Data". you will see four choices again: Create Data Source. "Merge". (Note: DO NOT click on the OK button as this will tell Word that you are finished creating your database and it will close this box. which looks like this: <<Title>> <<FirstName>> <<LastName>>. then go back and insert the LastName field. 11. 4. click on "OK". you see a new box asking if you want to edit your data source or your main document. you will see four choices: Form Letters. go back to the "Insert Merge Field" button and select the FirstName field. hit your space bar again. After you click on the "Add New" button. "Data Source".
When you are finished printing it. and you MUST save your database of addresses if you ever want to use this database with a different form letter or envelopes or mailing labels. Ctrl + [ Ctrl + Shift + * Ctrl + <left arrow> Ctrl + <right arrow> Ctrl + E Ctrl + R Ctrl + <up Moves to the beginning . Decrease selected font 1pts. in case you want to send this same letter to another group of people in the future. Undo last action. Aligns the line or selected text to the center of the screen. Aligns the line or selected text to the left of the screen. Copy selected text. but you SHOULD save the letter with the merge fields in it. Increase selected font +1pts up to 12pt and then increases font +2pts. Change the font. Open the print window.30 17. Decrease selected font 1pts if 12pt or lower. Increase selected font +1pts. 19. Use your scrollbar and scroll down and you will see an individual letter for each person in your database with individual information filled in wherever you put fields. Moves one word to the right. Now you will see a new document with the information filled in for the first person in your database. Open find box. Bold highlighted selection. View or hide non printing characters. Microsoft Word short-cut keys Below are some of the most commonly used short cut keys. Underline highlighted selection. Indent the paragraph. Italic highlighted selection. Insert link. 18. Paste. Ctrl + A Ctrl + B Ctrl + C Ctrl + X Ctrl + P Ctrl + F Ctrl + I Ctrl + K Ctrl + U Ctrl + V Ctrl + Y Ctrl + Z Ctrl + L Select all contents of the page. if above 12 decreases font by +2pt. you can close all of these files and save the ones you want. Redo the last action performed. Moves one word to the left. Cut selected text. Aligns the line or Ctrl + Shift + < Ctrl + ] Ctrl + Shift + > Ctrl + M Ctrl + Shift + F selected text to the right of the screen. You probably will not want to save the individual letters with the personalized info in them. Your mail merge is now complete and all you need to do is print it.
Insert the current time. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the document. Display the print preview. Save. F12 Shift + F12 Ctrl + Shift + F12 Alt + Shift + D Alt + Shift + T Save as. F5 Opens to another open Ctrl + Microsoft Word Shift + F6 document. Prints the document.5-line spacing. Moves to the end of the paragraph. Open the Task Pane. Double-space lines. Ctrl + End Ctrl + Home Ctrl + Spacebar Ctrl + 1 Ctrl + 2 Ctrl + 5 Ctrl + Alt +1 Ctrl + Alt +2 Ctrl + Alt +3 Ctrl + F1 F1 Alt + Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F2 Moves the cursor to the end of the document. Reset highlighted text to the default font. Open Help. Repeat the last action performed (Word 2000+) Open the find. Ctrl + Deletes word to left of Backspace cursor. Single-space lines. Runs a Thesaurus Shift + F7 check on the word highlighted. F7 Spell and grammar check selected text and/or document. replace. 1.31 arrow> Ctrl + <down arrow> Ctrl + Del of the line or paragraph. Insert the current date. and go to window in Microsoft Word. Changes text to heading 3. Deletes word to right of cursor. Open new document. Changes text to heading 2. Paste. Shift + Insert F4 Microsoft Word from upper to lower case or a capital letter at the beginning of every word. Shift + F3 Change the text in . Changes text to heading 1.
g. handouts. AutoContent Wizard: Creates a new presentation by prompting you for information about content.32 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT Microsoft PowerPoint is a powerful tool to create professional looking presentations and slide shows. style. The new presentation contains sample text that you can replace with your own information. Simply follow the directions and prompts that are given by Microsoft PowerPoint e. designing a certificate. and output. purpose. a screen pops up asking if you would like to create a New Presentation or Open an Existing Presentation. PowerPoint allows you to construct presentations from scratch or by using the easy to use wizard. . Starting Microsoft PowerPoint Click on Start --> Programs --> Microsoft PowerPoint Creating & Opening a Presentation After you open up Microsoft PowerPoint.
then you can still insert what you want in throughout your Presentation anytime you desire.33 Design Template: Creates a new presentation based on one of the PowerPoint design templates supplied by Microsoft. Formatting a Slide Background You can format your slide to make it look whatever you would like. The next step will show you how to apply a Design Template. select More Files and hit OK. 2. whether it is a background color. Locate you existing Presentation and hit the Open button Create a Blank Presentation After you select Blank Presentation a window pops up asking you to select the layout of the first slide NOTE: If you already know what you want in your next slide. or a design template built into Microsoft PowerPoint. However if you do not. but the other items mentioned above can be accomplished the same way. blank presentation using the default settings for text and colors Opening an Existing Presentation 1. Use what Microsoft PowerPoint already supplies and change the information to your own. Slide Manipulation Inserting a New Slide • Click Insert at top of screen (Menu bar) • Select New Slide or press • CTRL+M on your keyboard. . it is a very good idea to choose one of the pre-designed layouts from above. 4. Just choose Blank Slide and insert items as you see fit. Select Open An Existing Presentation from the picture above Click on your presentation in the white box below step 1 If you do not see your presentation in the white box. Blank Presentation: Creates a new. 3. picture.
or until you go to the next slide. 3. Choose when clicked if you want time to speak before you play it.Movies and Sounds . Select Design you wish to apply Click Apply Button Inserting Clipart & Pictures • • • • • • • • Display the slide you want to add a picture to. select the slide or slides you want to add a transition to.Movie from File. In slide or slide sorter view. click the Close button on the Clip Gallery title bar Inserting a video file Assuming you have a video file that PowerPoint will accept. If you leave it alone. Copy your chosen video file(s) into the same folder as your PowerPoint presentation. . here is how to insert it: 1. Adding Transitions to a Slide Show You can add customized transitions to your slide show that will make it come alive and become appealing to your audience. 2.34 • • • Click Format at the top of the screen. Click Insert. it will play until it ends. Select Apply Design Template or Background. Choose automatically if you want your movie to play as soon as you open that slide. (Not strictly necessary. you can click on it to make it pause. and locate your clip (which should now be in the same folder as your slideshow). depending on which option you chose). and click it again to restart it. Click Insert at the top of the screen Select Picture Select Clip Art Click the category you want Click the picture you want Click Insert Clip on the shortcut menu When you are finished using the Clip Gallery. Your movie will now play in your slideshow! After it starts (either automatically or when clicked. Go to >Insert . but you’ll thank yourself later because this makes it a lot easier to move or copy your presentation). Follow these steps when adding Slide Transitions.
click the transition you want. You can individually animate the various slide objects (the slide title. click Apply. order and timing of the appearance of each object on a slide. the bulleted points. charts. a text box.35 1. In the Effect box. and graphics). you will see listed all of the objects in the slide. Custom Animations Rather than having the entire contents of a slide appear all at once. How do I create custom animations? To assign custom animations to a slide.) Check the items you wish to . click Slide Transition 2. sound. 5. 3. (In the example above. follow these steps: 1) Go to the slide that you want to animate. on the Slide Show menu. tables. The following dialog box will appear: 3) In the Check to animate slide objects box. click Apply to All. To apply the transition to all the slides. To view the transitions. 4. This allows you to skillfully direct your audience’s attention while adding interest to your presentation. Repeat the process for each slide you want to add a transition to. and then select any other options you want To apply the transition to the selected slide. On the Slide Show menu at the top of the screen. click Animation Preview. with custom animation you have a great deal of fine control over the manner. and a chart. there is a slide title. 2) Pull down the Slide Show menu and select Custom Animation. 6.
click the Effects tab: To specify the type of motion and sound animation effects you wish to use for your text and graphic objects. Creating speaker notes When you give your presentation. click the Effects tab: Select each object one at a time in the Check to animate slide objects box and do the following: 1) Set the motion. Pull down the Motion menu and select the desired motion: How can I preview all of my animations? When you are done setting up your animations for a slide.) You will use the Custom Animation dialog to set all aspects of your custom animations. or to remind you to mention some detail. The next four pages will give an overview of each of the tabs: • • • • Order & Timing — order & timing of all animations Effects — animation effects for text and graphic objects Chart Effects — animation effects for chart and graph objects Multimedia Effects — animation effects for sound and video clip objects How do I set animation effects for text and graphics? To specify the type of motion and sound animation effects you wish to use for your text and graphic objects. (Any un-checked items will be shown on the slide when it first appears.36 animate. click OK. In PowerPoint. Simply go to Note Page View and write your notes for the . When you are satisfied. you may need to refer to notes to elaborate on a slide's material. you can click the Preview button to see a small-scale demonstration in the Custom Animation dialog box of what your slide will look like. Make any necessary changes. you can write your speaker's notes while you work on your slides.
37 slide in the text box provided. right click->screen>Erase Pen. Having a pen tablet as you present your PowerPoint is a vast improvement on PowerPoint alone and allows for interactive presentations. right click->Pointer Options->Pen Color. To view the speaker notes. they can only be seen in Note Page View. On the Slide Show menu. right click in your slide and choose speaker notes. To choose the pen and arrow pointer options. To erase the drawings. They will not be displayed during the Slide Show. To choose the pen color. click View Show. Viewing the Slide Show You can view your slide show by any of the following ways: • • • Click Slide Show at the lower left of the PowerPoint window. click Slide Show or Press F5 on the keyboard Introducing a Pen Pointer In a presentation PowerPoint offers a little known pen tool. during the presentation. Once you've written these notes. On the View menu. right click in the slide ->Pointer Options->Pen. which can be used to write over existing PowerPoint slides or on a blank (black) screen. Navigating While In Your Slide Show Forward Navigation: Simply click on the left Mouse Button or hit the Enter Button on your keyboard Reverse Navigation: Hit the Backspace on the keyboard Exiting the show: Hit the Esc Button on the keyboard . By choosing a contrasting color you can suspend mouse functions of the PC and use the pen to draw and write on the screen.
Presentations created with the AutoContent Wizard include suggestions on where to put different kinds of information and how to organize it into an effective presentation format. click on View from the menu bar and then click on Task Pane. Use AutoContent Wizard 1. To hide a slide: • • • • • Click on the View menu in the toolbar. o if the Task Pane is not visible.38 Hiding slides in PowerPoint. Printing Slides . 3. Sometimes when you create a PowerPoint presentation you might not want to show all slides to all of the audiences. the wizard uses the information you provide to help you create a presentation. 4. Click on Slide Sorter.finish the presentation by filling in the slides with text and images. If you hid a slide in your PowerPoint presentation. 2. Then click on Slide Show in the toolbar Click on Hide Slide. You willl replace the text with your own words. Click on from AutoContent Wizard in the Task Pane. Showing a hidden slide during a PowerPoint presentation. After you choose the type of presentation you want to crate. Follow the instructions in the wizard and make your choices or provide information when asked. Click on the slide that you want to hide. When the wizard is completed . you can display it to an audience by: Clicking on the large asterisk that appears in the lower right hand corner of the slide when there is a hidden one after it. You may have to move the mouse to see the asterisk Using AutoContent Wizard in PowerPoint PowerPoint has an AutoContent Wizard that can help you create your presentation. Open PowerPoint.
click Print Preview. and pictures. When you change the orientation of slides to print in a different page orientation. in the Print What box. if a particular shape or object doesn't look good in grayscale mode. 2. OR Click the Save button on the toolbar.) or other items on the slide master (slide master: The slide that stores information about the design template applied. tables. and then make the changes. To see what your slides will look like when they print.) so that they are better suited for the new orientation. click Landscape or Portrait. placeholder sizes and positions. try changing it to just black and white by pointing to Color/Grayscale on the Options menu and then clicking Pure Black and White. All slides in a presentation must be set to one orientation. you might want to change the shape or placement of text placeholders (placeholders: Boxes with dotted or hatchmarked borders that are part of most slide layouts. If you click Custom. click Print Saving a Presentation To save a presentation. On the Print Preview toolbar. Navigate to the directory in which you want to save your presentation. background design. click Options. For example. In the Slides sized for list. Type a name for your presentation in the File name field. To change how the slides will look when printed. . including font styles. click Slides. do the following: Set the slide size for printing: On the File menu. but you can choose a different orientation for notes pages. type or select the measurements you want in the Width and Height boxes. handouts. and color schemes. click the size of paper to which you will be printing. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. 3. Click Save. and the outline. click Page Setup. on the File menu. . 1. Open the File menu and select save. On the Print Preview toolbar.39 To print your presentation slides. To set the page orientation for the slides. 4. on the Print Preview toolbar.
Microsoft Excel identifies each one of its documents with a name that starts with Book. statistical analysis. displays. The File menu allows you to create either a new empty document or a document based on one of the templates that ship . there is a small picture called the application icon or the system icon. maximize. The main menu of Microsoft Excel allows you to request various tasks. the name of the program. Therefore.40 Microsoft Excel Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet application used to perform financial calculations. and close Microsoft Excel. if you create or initialize more than one document in Microsoft Excel. from the Taskbar. resize. and other related operations. in this case. restore. in this case Book1. This icon allows you to minimize. which means you can open more that one document inside the application. click Start -> (All) Programs -> Microsoft Office -> Microsoft Office Excel On the left side of the title bar. BookX. move. you would click the icon and this would display a menu: On the right side of the application icon. Microsoft Excel. Starting Microsoft Excel To start Microsoft Excel. To perform any of these actions. Microsoft Excel is a Multiple Document Interface (MDI). The application's name is followed by the file name. subsequent documents would be called Book2. Book3.
Under the Name Box and the Formula bar. etc: There are 255 of columns. that small box is called the Name Box On the right side of the Name box. you can position your mouse on it. That fx button is called the Edit Formula button. On the right side of the Edit Formula button is a long empty white box or section called the Formula Bar. you see the columns. so that instead of going through the menu to save a document. there are gray boxes called rows. C. On the right side of the Standard toolbar. Since there are various buttons and sometimes they are unpredictable. Under the toolbars. A small yellowish box would appear to let you know what that particular button is used for. On the left side of the main window. Besides other buttons. only faster... there is a gray box with an fx button. then 2. to know what a particular button is used for. and so on: . Each row is labeled with a number.41 with the application. starting at 1 on top. you can just use the Save button. and each combo box can display an appropriate tool tip. A toolbar provides the same actions you would perform from the main menu. or to configure or initialize printing. to close the current file. the Formatting toolbar is equipped with combo boxes. You can also use the File menu to save the current document. the Standard toolbar provides some of the most regularly used actions performed on the main menu. The columns are labeled A.). This second toolbar offers some formatting features that we will use as we move on. there is another toolbar called the Formatting toolbar. Its buttons also provide tool tips. there is a white box displaying a name like A1 (it may not display A1. Under the menu bar. that small box is called a tool tip: You can also use context sensitive help in some cases to get information about an item. B.
To do this. Microsoft Excel appends the name of a row to the name of a column to identify a cell. By default. A cell is the intersection of a column and a row: A cell is identified by its name and every cell has a name. If you want.42 The main area of Microsoft Excel is made of cells. you can narrow or enlarge it. On the right side of the cells area. there are the worksheet tabs: . there is a horizontal scroll bar that allows you to scroll left and right if your worksheet has more items than can be displayed all at once: Sometimes the horizontal scroll bar will appear too long or too narrow for you. find the cell that intersects a column and a row. To see different cells names. click and drag the button on the left side of the horizontal scroll bar: On the left side of the horizontal scrollbar. You can check the name of the cell in the Name Box. there is a vertical scroll bar that allows you to scroll up and down in case your document cannot display everything at a time: On the lower right section of the main window. the top-left cell is named A1. Therefore.
.. which will result in some worksheets hidden under the horizontal scroll bar. the Status Bar provides a lot of information about the job that is going on. . You can also insert a new worksheet by right clicking on the worksheet name and choosing Insert.On the left side of the worksheet tabs. You can choose Worksheet and then click OK. This will insert a worksheet in front of the current worksheet..43 By default. Inserting Worksheets There are a number of ways to insert a worksheet into an Excel workbook. Insert->Worksheet. Microsoft Excel provides three worksheets to start with. This will give you a pop up window asking what you want to insert. You can work with any of them and switch to another at any time by clicking its tab. Under the navigation buttons and the worksheet tabs. but the fastest is to go through the menu. there are four navigation buttons: If you happen to use a lot of worksheets or the worksheet names are using a lot of space. you can use the navigation buttons to move from one worksheet to another.
To create a copy of the worksheet.. two things happen..44 Moving and Copying Worksheets Worksheets can be moved using Window's Click and Drag Feature. The window that comes up will allow you to choose which workbook you would like to move this sheet to. As with Inserting Worksheets you can right click on the sheet name to move your sheet.. If you hold down the control (Ctrl) key while moving the worksheet. (Remember to let go of the mouse before letting go of the keyboard). you can create a duplicate worksheet. from the short-cut list. That is you can click on the sheet you want to move. and two a little black arrow will appear above the sheets. When you are holding on to a sheet. one your mouse cursor is carrying a sheet of paper. This window also allows you to move the worksheet before any of the current sheets or to the end.. and drag the new worksheet left or right to the new location. click the check box at the bottom of this window. including an option to create a (new book).. You can also find this option under Edit->Move or Copy Worksheet. instead of moving it. this black triangle/arrow will show you where the new sheet is going to be placed. don't let go. . There are more options when using Move or Copy.
or you can choose Delete Sheet from the Edit menu. you will get a warning message: Click OK to delete the worksheet. .45 Deleting Worksheets The fastest way to completely remove a worksheet from your workbook is to right click on the name of the worksheet and choose Delete from the worksheet menu. Either way.
I will have all three sheets selected. Linking Worksheets Linking worksheets is much easier than you might imagine. The text will turn black. press enter to accept your new value. . To drop the selection. To select a range of worksheets use the shift key. When you have multiple worksheets selected. press the equal sign (=) on the keyboard and then use your mouse to click on the worksheet (or workbook!) that has the original data. You can also choose Rename from the right click menu and from Format->Sheet->Rename. These methods will behave exactly as double clicking does. and click on the second worksheet . no matter if you are working with file names. and click on the last worksheet If I click on 1st Qtr and shift-click on 3rd Qtr. click one time on the correct cell and press Enter on the keyboard to accept it. click on each worksheet you would like to select If I click on 1st Qtr and control-click on 3rd Qtr. Type the new name for your worksheet and press enter to accept it. To select specific worksheets use the control key. indicating that it is highlighted.Hold down the control key on the keyboard. I will have just those two sheets selected.Hold down the shift key on the keyboard. This is a great way to ensure a consistency of formats between your worksheets. . especially for the Page Setup options. anything you type on the current worksheet will appear on every worksheet that is selected. click on a worksheet and then Shift-Click on the same worksheet again. cells of a worksheet or even the entire worksheets themselves. Don't forget. . Click in the cell where you want the result to be. Selecting Multiple Worksheets The shift and control keys on the keyboard allow you to work with multiple selections throughout windows. it will highlight the name of the worksheet to allow you to write in the new name.Click on the first worksheet you would like .Click on the first worksheet you would like .46 Renaming Worksheets The fastest way to rename a worksheet is to double click on the name of that worksheet.Keeping the control key pressed.
You can bring up the Format Cells dialog box by right clicking on the cell you want to format.Things that can be entered into a cell: • • • • • Numbers Words Equations.47 Entering and Editing Data Cell data .Move to the cell where you want to enter data and enter words or numbers. make sure the cell you want to format is selected and go to the Format menu.Once information has been entered into a cell. To do that.. From the following pop-up box select Format Cells. The number I entered repeats infinitely.. formulas or functions Fill color Images (although they are actually on top of a cell. If data is already in the cell it will be replaced without you having to cut or delete the previous data. but I only need 2 decimal places.. Select Cells. .. Format data . not in it) Entering data . you might want to change something about the way the information is displayed.
48 Using formatting buttons - There are several toolbar buttons, which allow one-click formatting. To illustrate I entered the same number in four cells, with the formatting I plan to use for each cell.
With cell A1 selected I clicked once on the Currency button In cell B1 I selected the Percent button I selected the Increase Decimal button for cell C1 The Decrease Decimal button was used to format cell D1 These four actions produced the following result:
As you can see, the Percent button simply multiples by 100 and attaches the % sign. Care must be exercised in using this button properly. Other formatting options - The Format toolbar includes several formatting options, which can be applied to information entered into a cell.
Editing entered data - If incorrect information has been entered into a cell, one easy way to edit that is to click on the cell and enter the correct information. You do not need to highlight or delete. Typing replaces whatever is in the cell. If you do not want to replace the data, but simply need to correct some part of it, move your cursor into the Formula bar
When your cursor turns into an I-Beam, click and edit within the formula bar. Freeze Panes Freeze Panes helps to keep row and column labels visible as you scroll on the worksheet 1) To keep row and column labels or other data visible as you scroll through a sheet, you can "freeze" the top rows and/or left columns. The frozen rows and columns don't scroll but remain visible as you move through the rest of the worksheet. 2) To freeze the top horizontal pane, select the row below where you want the split to appear. 3) Go to the Window menu, select Freeze Panes To freeze the left vertical pane, select the column to the right of where you want the split to appear. First we must unfreeze the previous freezing of the panes by going to the Windows menu and selecting Unfreeze Panes Go to Windows and Freeze Panes 4) To freeze both the upper and left panes, click the cell below and to the right of where you want the split to appear. First unfreeze the previous freezing of the panes When you are done experimenting with Freeze Panes go to the Windows Menu and select Unfreeze Panes.
Split Screen Split a worksheet to view two parts of a sheet at the same. To view and scroll independently in different parts of a worksheet, you can split a worksheet horizontally and vertically into separate panes. Splitting a worksheet into panes allows you to view different parts of the same worksheet side by side and is useful, for example, when you want to paste data between different areas of a large worksheet. To restore a window split into two scrollable areas, double-click any part of the split bar that divides the panes.
Hide Columns and Rows
50 When you hide parts of a workbook, the data is removed from view but is not deleted from the workbook. If you save and close the workbook, the hidden data remains hidden the next time the workbook is opened. If you print the workbook, Microsoft Excel does not print the hidden parts. You can hide workbooks and sheets to reduce the number of windows and sheets on the screen and to prevent unwanted changes. For example, you can hide sheets that contain sensitive data. You can also hide selected rows and columns of data that you aren't using or that you don't want others to see. To prevent others from displaying hidden sheets, rows, or columns, you can protect the workbook or sheet with a password. You can hide most window elements in order to use as much of your screen as possible to display worksheet data. These window elements include the Windows taskbar and the Excel title bar, toolbars, formula bar, and status bar. These elements remain hidden only as long as the workbook is open; they are redisplayed when you close the workbook and open it again.
To hide a row or column1) To hide a worksheet you will select the worksheet you want to hide i) Go to the Format menu then down to Sheet then Hide ii) If you select multiple sheets you can hide them all at one time b) To hide a row or a column i) On the Format menu, point to either Row or Column, and then click Hide c) To unhide the hidden rows or columns i) Select the rows or columns on either side of the hidden rows and columns the go to the Format menu and unhide them Filtering Filtering is a quick and easy way to find and work with a subset of data in a list. A filtered list displays only the rows that meet the criteria you specify for a column. Microsoft Excel has a number of features that make it easy to manage and analyze data in a list. To take advantage of these features, enter data in a list according to the following guidelines. • Put similar items in one column. Design the list so that all rows have similar items in the same column. • Keep the list separate. Leave at least one blank column and one blank row between the list and other data on the worksheet. Excel can then more easily detect and select the list when you sort, filter, or insert automatic subtotals. • Show rows and columns. Make sure any hidden rows or columns are displayed before making changes to the list. When rows and columns in a list are not showing, data can be deleted inadvertently. • Use formatted column labels. Create column labels in the first row of the list. Excel uses the labels to create reports and to find and organize data. Use a font, alignment, format, pattern, border, or capitalization style for column labels that is different from the format
use cell borders not blank rows or dashed lines to insert lines below the labels. which includes filter by selection. Filtering temporarily hides rows you do not want displayed. When you want to separate labels from data. click the comparison operator you want to use in the first box under Show rows where. you can quickly view the largest values in the list by clicking the Top 10 item in the AutoFilter list. visible items in the column. By selecting an item from a list for a specific column. point to Filter on the Data menu. chart. filtering does not rearrange a list. . Use the Border shortcut to create borders. format. you can instantly hide all rows that don't contain the selected value. and then enter the value you want to match in the box immediately to the right of the comparison operator. for more complex criteria Unlike sorting. Clicking an AutoFilter arrow displays a list of all unique.51 you assign to the data in the list. Custom AutoFilter 1) To find specific values in rows in a list by using one or two comparison criteria for the same column. Format the cells as text before you type the column labels. click AutoFilter. 2) To match one criterion. for simple criteria • Advanced Filter. indent the text within the cell. If you are filtering a list of numbers. AutoFilter arrows appear to the right of the column labels in the filtered list. and then click Custom. To resume viewing everything in the column. It is on the formatting toolbar and looks like this• Avoid blank rows and columns. • Don't type leading or trailing spaces. including blanks (all spaces) and nonblank. When Excel filters rows. • Auto Filter Go to Data on the menu bar then down to Filter then select Auto Filter When you use the AutoFilter command. Use cell borders. Extra spaces at the beginning or end of a cell affect sorting and searching. Microsoft Excel provides two commands for filtering lists: • AutoFilter. click All. click the arrow in the column that contains the data you want to compare. and print your list subset without rearranging or moving it. Avoid putting blank rows and columns in the list so that Excel can more easily detect and select the list. Instead of typing spaces. you can edit.
etc. Other examples include filling for the months of the year and hours of the day. Excel will fill the following cells with Monday. Filling Cells: Menu Option This option copies (repeats) the information from one cell to another. NOTE: If Excel recognizes a pattern in the information you entered. The Fill Command Rather than using copy and paste. Type the information (cell contents or formula) in the first cell of the group 2. and then click the And button. and then click the Or button. enter the comparison operator and value you want. If the first cell contains a formula. Monetary Amount 2) Go down to Custom 3) The Custom Filter dialog box pops up 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Click on the drop down arrow to the right of the word equal (default) Select a condition e. if the first cell contains the day Sunday. 1. select Fill » Down or Right Filling Cells: Mouse Option . If the first cell contains text. enter the operator and value you want. “Is greater than” In the box to the left enter any figure of your choice such as 1000 Click OK You should now see only the records that had a value of more than 1000. you can use the Fill command to repeat information to contiguous cells. select the group of cells to be filled 3. enter the comparison operator and value you want. For example. 4) To display rows that meet either one condition or another condition. the text will be repeated in the additional cells.52 3) To display rows that meet two conditions. From the Edit menu. In the second comparison operator and value boxes. the additional cells will contain the next item in the pattern.g. enter the operator and value you want. Tuesday. In the second comparison operator and value boxes. the formula will be repeated in the additional cells.g. Starting with the cell containing the contents to be copied. Using Custom AutoFilter 1) Select the drop down arrow to the right of the column header e.
So whilst we may have a spreadsheet that looks very pretty and is formatted to make it look a million dollars. verify that the pointer changes into crosshairs.53 Using this option will extend the data in the series to the selected cells. or the nuts and bolts. Drag the crosshairs in the direction you want the information to be copied 5. How Excel Calculates One of the fundamental things that you must know about Formulas and Functions is the method in which Excel performs calculations. This document has been designed to examine the usage of formulas as well as provide some existing formulas to make working with your workbook and worksheets faster. The main function of Excel is obviously the number crunching side of things and a good spreadsheet is one that returns accurate results 100% of the time. and divide to find the average. so you do not need to type in all of the commands to find an average. text. not the visual appeal. Release the mouse button Performing Calculations in Your Workbook Excel performs its calculations through formulas and functions (a function is a prewritten formula). use the following arithmetic operators. combine numbers. It tells the computer what it needs to do to find the average of the numbers. Arithmetic operators To perform basic mathematical operations such as addition. Microsoft Excel includes four different types of calculation operators: arithmetic. Arithmetic operator Meaning Example . count them. which are shortcuts for working with your document. or multiplication. that make it either a workable spreadsheet or an unworkable spreadsheet. you can just use the Average function. In this cell. 1. 3. and produce numeric results. it is the guts of the spreadsheet. For example. and reference. rather than writing a formula to add numbers. moves your pointer over the fill corner so your pointer changes into crosshairs NOTE: Before filling. comparison. Type the information (cell contents or formula) in the first cell of the group 2. When your pointer changes into crosshairs. subtraction. click and hold the crosshairs 4. Calculation operators in formulas Operators specify the type of calculation that you want to perform on the elements of a formula.
concatenates. When using these operators compares two values. D5:D15) . (comma) Meaning Meaning Example Example Connects. Reference operators Text Reference operator operator :& (colon) (ampersand) . either TRUE or FALSE. or which produces one reference to Range operator. Comparison operator = (equal sign) (greater than sign) < (less than sign) Meaning Equal to Greater than Less than Example A1=B1 A1>B1 A1<B1 or A1>=B1 >= (greater than or Greater than equal to sign) equal to <= (less than or equal Less than or equal A1<=B1 to sign) to <> (not equal to sign) Not equal to A1<>B1 Text concatenation operator Use the ampersand (&) to join. including the two references text value Union operator. which combines multiple references into SUM one reference (B5:B15. or concatenate. one or more text strings to produce a single piece of text.54 + (plus sign) – (minus sign) * (asterisk) / (forward slash) % (percent sign) ^ (caret) Addition SubtractionNegation Multiplication Division Percent Exponentiation 3+3 3–1–1 3*3 3/3 20% 3^2 (the same as 3*3) Comparison operators You can compare two values with the following operators. the result is a logical value. two "North" & all"wind" produce the B5:B15 values to produce one continuous "Northwind" cells between two references.
We can change the order in which Excel does its calculations by closing the relative function in parenthesis. Making Charts in Microsoft Excel Charts are visually appealing and make it easy for users to see comparisons. cutting and pasting of cell contents It will not prevent: Copying data from the worksheet to another worksheet program Deletion or renaming of the protected sheet Unprotect worksheets Follow the same procedure as above (protecting a worksheet) the “protect sheet” submenu will have changed into “unprotect sheet”. If we then used =(1010)*10 the result would be 0 (zero). Let's say we had the formula =10-10*10 the result would be -90 (negative 90). you can see at a glance whether sales are falling or rising over quarterly periods. simply by placing the parenthesis in the appropriate places. rather than having to analyze several columns of worksheet numbers. To create a chart.55 Combine ranges of cells for calculations with the following operators. Then select that data and use the Chart Wizard to step through the process of . Excel is quite happy to do this. The same would apply for subtraction and addition. you must first enter the data for the chart on the worksheet. patterns. Some examples of this would be: =5+5*5+5+5 would result in 40 =(5+5)*5+5+5 would result in 60 =(5+5)*(5+5)+5 would result in 105 So as you can see. we can manipulate any formula to calculate in the order we want. Excel Worksheet Protection How to protect a Worksheet Click on Tools-Protection-Protect Sheet – enter password (optional) By default this will: Protect all cell contents from changes or overwriting Prevent addition and deletion of columns and rows Prevent sorting. or how the actual sales compare to the projected sales. and trends in data. In other words we have forced Excel to change its natural order of calculation. You can create a chart on its own sheet or as an embedded object on a worksheet. When Excel performs a calculation it does so in the following order: Exponentiation Multiplication and Division Subtraction and Addition If a formula contained both a multiplication and a division operator Excel would calculate them from left to right. For instance. You can also publish a chart on a Web page.
A chart is linked to the worksheet data it's created from and is updated automatically when you change the worksheet data. or use the Chart toolbar to create a basic chart that you can format later.56 choosing the chart type and the various chart options. .
Page Tab: The page tab has the standard options found in most page setup dialogue boxes: paper size. Right. title of the spreadsheet and more. landscape). One of the more useful features. The percentage of scaling it used will appear in the Adjust To percentage box. At the top you can choose your Print Area. More useful are the Custom Header and Custom Footer buttons. allowing you to set Left. is the Fit To option. You simply tell Excel how many pages wide you’d like your spreadsheet to be. is Scaling. which allow you to customize you headers and footers. Even more useful. At the bottom of the dialogue box is a very useful set of checkboxes allowing you to center your spreadsheet either Horizontally and/or Vertically on the page. center and right). The Adjust To option allows you to scale down the spreadsheet as a percentage of its normal size. Header/Footer. and orientation (portrait vs. time. manipulating elements until you get the desired result. You can also set the margins between the Header and Footer and the body of your text here. This is useful if you are trying to scale up or scale down a spreadsheet to fit on one page. Margin tab: Most of the options here are pretty standard as well. center. and Bottom margins. date. The customize option divides the header/footer into three section boxes (left. either by typing in the range of cells you’d like to print or by minimizing the dialogue box by hitting the minimize button (just to the right of the Print . The trick to nicely formatted Excel spreadsheets is to use the Page Setup command in combination with Print Preview to explore all your options before you print. and how many pages long. Top. allowing you to choose a component for each (or leave it blank). for future reference. and Excel will scale your spreadsheet up or down to fit your needs. date and time. filename. and Sheets. Header/Footer tab: There is a pulldown menu for both the header and the footer that features pre-formatted headers and footers based on page number. The Page Setup command is in the File menu in Excel. Think of it as a dialogue between the two. or sheet name on the document. You can also type in your own text by pacing your insertion point directly into the left. however. Sheet tab: There are lots of useful options available on the Sheet tab. You can then go back and forth between Print Preview and Page Setup. however. print quality.57 Printing Excel Sheets Printing Excel spreadsheets can be a haphazard process in that what you see on your screen in not necessarily what you will get (or want) when you hit the Print command. there is a Page Setup button in the print preview that allows you to return directly to the Page Setup dialogue box. or right section box and typing the text yo would like to appear. Use the Print Preview button to preview you scaled spreadsheet before printing. Each of the pages these tabs lead to has a Print Preview button near the upper right corner. After you view the Print Preview. Margin. There are buttons to help you place page numbers. There are four tabs in the page setup dialogue box: Page.
and then maximize (again. Be aware that not all the options in the Sheet tab are available while you are in Print Preview mode. Down. and print Row and Column Headings (the letters identifying columns and the numbers identifying rows). Just below are four checkboxes that allow you to Print Gridlines. and there is a Page Setup button in the print preview that allows you to return directly to the Page Setup dialogue box. pick your row or column. Deselect the cell or range. you can choose how your printed pages are ordered. just to the right of the now minimized Print Area box) to continue. either where they occur or listed at the end of the sheet. print in only Black and White. The is also a drop down menu that allows you to print comments you’ve imbedded into the spreadsheet. Click on the Borders drop-down arrow on formatting toolbar. You must choose “Show Comment” on cells that have comments imbedded before this feature will work (right-click on the cell and choose Show Comment). Finally. at the bottom of the sheet. 3.58 Area box: Then left-click and drag to choose you Print area and maximize the dialogue box (again. o Observe the borders palette. each of the pages these tabs lead to has a Print Preview button near the upper right corner. Use the minimize button (right side of the box). right side of the box). manipulating elements until you get the desired result. How To Add Borders: 1. 2. you will need to return to worksheet view (by closing Print Preview) to set print areas or rows and columns to repeat. Select the type of border you want to apply. Then Over or Over. Again. Select the cell or range of cells you want to apply a border. then Down. . Just below are two boxes that allow you to choose Rows Repeated At Top (such as column headings) and/or Columns Repeated At Left (such as row titles) across all your pages. You can then go back and forth between Print Preview and Page Setup. print Draft Quality.
A record occupies a single row of a table. or thing (e. Student Last Name. displaying. It may be saved to the hard-drive or floppy disk. Gender.59 Microsoft Access Microsoft Access is a computer application used to create and manage computer-based databases. The purpose of the foreign key is to ensure referential integrity of the data. only values that are supposed to appear in the database are permitted Starting Microsoft Access Click on Start --> Programs --> Microsoft Access . reports. E. Class etc. Microsoft Access can be used for personal information management (PIM). queries. Data types: Data types are the properties of each field. A primary key is used to relate a table to foreign keys in other tables. place. Reports: Summarizes and formats data in the "look" that you want for either table or query data. E. A record is one complete set of fields (your entry in the telephone book is a record) Entity: Something whose information is being stored in a database. Database File: This is the main file that encompasses the entire database. macros. Tables usually contain multiple fields. which is organized in a manner that can be easily retrieved. Query: A Database object that asks specific questions about the data in the database. Primary Key :One or more fields (columns) whose value or values uniquely identify each record in a table.g. tables. in a small business to organize and manage all data. A database is a collection of data.. & modules).g. Cell: Where one row and one column intersect on a table. E.g. A primary key does not allow Null values and must always have a unique value. Students details). StudentDatabase. Fieldname Last Name is of data type Text.mdb Table: A table is a collection of data about a specific thing (entity) such as students or contacts. There can be multiple tables in a database. A field only has 1 data type.g. Field: Fields are the different categories within a Table. forms. Object: Components that make up a database (i. Record: A collection of all fields relating to one person. and searching data. In other words.e. Forms: A method of entering. A foreign key is a field (or fields) that points to the primary key of another table.
When Microsoft Access first starts up. Create a new database 1.60 Creating New. If this dialog box is displayed. Specify a name and location for the database and click Create. (Below is the screen that shows up following this step) . and Opening Existing Databases The above picture gives you the option to: • • • • Create a New Database from scratch Use the wizard to create a New Database Open an existing database The white box gives you the most recent databases you have used. If you have already opened a database or closed the dialog box that displays when Microsoft Access starts up. If you do not see the one you had created. click Blank Access Database. Otherwise choose the database you had previously used and click OK. a dialog box is automatically displayed with options to create a new database or open an existing one. 2. and then click OK. click New Database on the toolbar. and then double-click the Blank Database icon on the General tab. choose the More Files option and hit OK.
such as students or contacts. and reduces data-entry errors. which makes your database more efficient. If you haven't already done so. Double-Click on "Create table in Design view". switch to the Database Window You can press F11 to switch to the Database window from any other window. Using a separate table for each topic means that you store that data only once. 2. (Design View) . Create a Table from scratch in Design view 1.61 Tables A table is a collection of data about a specific topic. Tables organize data into columns (called fields) and rows (called records).
1. 4. Consider the example below: Primary Key: One or more fields (columns) whose value or values uniquely identify each record in a table.62 3. enter the text that describes what you field is. Under the Description column. Number data type fields store numerical data that will be used in mathematical calculations. 2. 5. in a Microsoft Access database. the Text and Memo field data types allow the field to store either text or numbers. Define each of the fields in your table Under the Field Name column. (This field is optional). A primary key is used to relate a table to foreign keys in other tables. enter the categories of your table. The attribute of a variable or field that determines what kind of data it can hold. For example. Yes/No. Use the Currency data type to display or calculate currency values. enter the type you want for you categories. A primary key does not allow Null values and must always have a unique value. Auto Number. 6. but the Number data type will allow the field to store numbers only. Under Data Type column. . Other data types are Date/Time. and OLE object (Picture).
you can create queries. by clicking on them and selecting the Add Button . Select the Tables you want to link together. follow these steps for creating relationships between tables. Design View Displays the view. A relationship works by matching data in key fields . click on Tools ---> Relationships 2. and change its data with what you want Deleting a record: Simply select the entire row and hit the Delete Key on the keyboard Relationships After you've set up multiple tables in your Microsoft Access database.usually a field with the same name in both tables. these matching fields are the primary key from one table. In the database window view. and a foreign key in the other table. 1. After you've done that. after you do this. Having met the criteria above. and descriptions into your database table. forms. To do this. simply click the button in the top-left hand corner of the Access program. data-types. index Number field and select the primary key button got from edit menu. In most cases. Microsoft Access asks you if you would like to create one when you save the table. simply select the field e. and reports to display information from several tables at once.The primary key can also be Manipulating Data Adding a new row: Simply drop down to a new line and enter the information Updating a record: Simply select the record and field you want to update. Datasheet View Displays the view. Save the table . which allows you to enter raw data into your database table. you need a way of telling Access how to bring that information back together again. at the top. teachers can be associated with the students they're responsible for by creating a relationship between the teacher's table and the student's table using the TeacherID fields. The first step in this process is to define relationships between your tables.g.63 NOTE: If you don't define a primary key. which allows you to enter fields. Switching Views To switch views form the datasheet (spreadsheet view) and the design view. For example. which provides a unique identifier for each record.
and drop it into the same field in the Child table (Student in this case. Hence.) 4. 6. and delete records in your table by using a form. deleting a record in the primary table deletes any related records in the related table 7. When the Cascade Update Related Fields check box is set. . they both still manipulate the same information and the same exact data. You can add. This way you can see all the fields in one screen. it will be changed in the table also A form is very good to use when you have numerous fields in a table. Click Create and Save the Relationship Forms A form is nothing more than a graphical representation of a table. changing a primary key value in the primary table automatically updates the matching value in all related records. When the Cascade Delete Related Records check box is set. whereas if you were in the table view (datasheet) you would have to keep scrolling to get the field you desire.64 3. NOTE: Although a form can be named different from a table. Select Enforce Referential Integrity 5. update. if you change a record in a form. Drag the primary key of the Parent table (Teacher in this case).
Select the layout and the paper orientation you desire 9. Click Next 8. You should see your form. Select Finish 12. To adjust the design of your form. 5. You can do this by pressing F11 on the keyboard. Microsoft Access does a very good job of creating a form using the wizard. Select if you would like to group your files. unless you are an advanced user and know what you are doing. Select the style you desire. and select Preview the Report 12.. 3. Microsoft Access does a very good job using the wizard to create reports. Select the style you desire. 7. 2. Click Next 6. Most of the time you would select all of them. and select Open the Form and enter information 11. Because you have control over the size and appearance of everything on a report. 2.. Click Next 10. Click Next 11. The following steps are needed to create a basic form: Switch to the Database Window. Select Finish 1. Click Next 10.65 Create a Form using the Wizard It is a very good idea to create a form using the wizard. Switch to the Database Window.. 4. Click on the Forms button under Objects on the left side of screen Double click on Create Form Using Wizard On the next screen select the fields you want to view on your form. Select the layout you wish 7. it is a very good idea to create a report using the wizard. Click on the Reports button under Objects on the left side of screen Double click on Create Report Using Wizard On the next screen select the fields you want to view on your form. you can display the information the way you want to see it. Click Next 6. You can do this by pressing F11 on the keyboard. Most of the time you would select all of them. Keep repeating this step for as many groupings as you would like. 3. simply hit the design button (same as with the tables). Give you report a name. Give you form a name. 4. 9.. Click Next 8. . unless you are an advanced user. Create a Report using the Wizard As with the Form. and adjust your form accordingly Reports A report is an effective way to present your data in a printed format. 5. 1.
66 13. You can also drag the wild Character * and drop it into the design grid area to include all fields from that table into the query. you can connect these conditions using the or / and operators. forms or data access pages. Unlike filters queries can be saved and used as a data source for other ms access objects such reports.0 (so you can send them a worming email). For example you can write a query that returns all students that have a GPA that is less than 3. You need to select one or more tables from the Show Table dialog box before you can start working with the design view as shown in the figure below. To adjust the design of your report. You should see your report. Once tables are selected you can grap fields from the tables field list and drop it into the grid area and that field will be part of the query. and adjust your report accordingly Queries In MS Access you can use queries to extract information (data) from one (or more) tables (or from other queries). In access queries are database objects that can be used to retrieve a subset of data.0 and Credit hours > 50. . For example you can select all students with GPA <3. The information you retrieve can be limited by the definition of your query. In the Design grid you can specify conditions in the criteria area. Queries are powerful tool because they can be used to retrieve information from multiple tables by joining these tables using common fields Creating Queries in MS Design View When selecting the Query object you can double click on the Create Query in Design View to open the query design grid. simply hit the design button (same as with the tables).
Alltheweb and Answers. linking computers to computers sharing with the aim of enabling the computers share information. Education. Mozilla (fire fox) Web Page: An HTML document on the Web. Because these databases are very large. Search Engines: Websites that enable users to search for information on the Internet based on the keywords that they provide. keywords related to a topic are typed into a search "box. Website: The entire collection of web pages and other information (such as images. Firebird.) that are made available through what appears to users as a single web server Uniform Resource Locator: The Uniform Resource Locator is the address of a resource available on the Internet i. search engines rely on computer programs called spiders or robots to crawl the Web and log the words on each page." The search engine scans its database and returns a file with links to websites containing the word or words specified. it is essential to apply techniques that narrow results and push the most relevant pages to the top of the results list. e. Opera. such as electronic mail. Some examples of search engines are Yahoo. Communication. It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic. Research. To use search engines effectively. Google. graphic images. usually one of many together that make up a Web site. Web Browser: A software application that allows for the browsing of the World Wide Web i. search engines often return thousands of results. academic. business.67 The Internet Technology What is the Internet? The Internet is a network of networks. and video files. Safari. While humans organize and catalog subject directories. It is a part of the Internet designed to allow easier navigation of the network through the use of graphical user interfaces and hypertext links between different addresses. With a search engine. etc. Internet Services offered by the Internet include. The Internet is the transport vehicle for the information stored in files or documents on another computer. sound.e a program used to access the Internet services and resources available through the World Wide Web. Internet Explorer. Netscape.e an address that specifies the location of a file on the Internet Home Page: The page designated as the main point of entry of a Web site (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet Http: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the set of rules for exchanging files (text. which together carry various information and services. Basic Terms Computer Network: A computer network is two or more computers connected together using a telecommunication system for the purpose of communicating and sharing resources World Wide Web (WWW): The "World Wide Web" is a collection of online documents stored on servers around the world that are connected to the Internet. and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. and government networks. sound. Entertainment. file transfer. video. and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. . online chat.g. Electronic Commerce Using the search Engine Search engines are very different from subject directories. Search engines locate and search websites found on the Internet.
2. Click on the Sign up now hyperlink. On the "Compose Message" page. Using your e-mail account Sending an message After successfully logging in. You will then be taken to the "Compose Message" page. Sending a message to an email address in the address book.68 How to open an email account at Yahoo. Fill out the form. click the "Send" button and the message will be sent. simply click the "Compose" button and you will be presented with the "Compose Message" page.com. After composing the message. . You will then see a confirmation that the message has been sent successfully The "Save Draft" button is used when you wish to save a copy of your message so you can go over and edits it again later. the password should be at least 6 characters and cannot be part of your name. under the "Mail To" column. Follow the instructions and click on the appropriate buttons. To send a message to somebody directly from the Address Book. 5. Ensure that the ID is unique. just click on his or her e-mail address. where you can type and send your message. 6.yahoo. Simply enter an e-mail address in the "To:" field and type the message into the "Message:" field. The "Load Draft" button is for retrieving messages saved by using the "Save Draft" button. check the box "Save Outgoing Message" before you send the e-mail message.com 1. At the top of the web page. Go the home page of Yahoo at www. click on the email icon You will see a new page that looks like this: 3.
forward the message along to other friends or just delete the message using the menu bar on top of the page. Click on the Attach files again and wait for the file to be attached. Click on continue to message. Click on inbox and all the messages will be displayed." How do I add an attachment to my message? To add an attachment to your message. How do I reply to a message I received? After reading the incoming message. Click on this button and choose “save . All the recipients of the message will be able to identify all the others that have received the message. Click on the file you wish to attach and click open. How do I view attachments? To view attachments. click on the subject line of the message you wish to read. A pop-up window will appear and you will be asked to select the attachment. click on "Browse. click on "Forward" on the message page. From there. A copy of the original text will also by default appear in the "Message:" field. you will receive a message that the file has been attached. None of the other recipients of the message will be able to detect that the message was sent to another person.” This will display a list of files. Anyone who is addressed in the "Bcc" field will also receive a copy of the message being sent out. How do I read my e-mail messages? To read your e-mail messages. a pop-up window containing your Address Book will appear.69 How do I send a message to more than one recipient? When you click on "To:" "Cc:" or "Bcc:" on the "Compose Message" screen. This will take you to the compose window. Anyone who is addressed in the "CC" field will also receive a copy of the message being sent out. When the process is completed. "Cc" stands for Carbon Copy. click the "Reply" button and the "Compose Message" page will appear with the reply address automatically filled in. click on the "Attach Files" button while composing the message. This will display another window with a message “download attachment”. this will list the folders one of which is inbox. click on the attachment name on the message page. Receiving E-Mail How do I view my e-mail messages? To view your e-mail messages. "Bcc" stands for Blind Carbon Copy. Type in all their addresses manually in either the "Cc:" or the "Bcc:" fields. "Reply" feature except that the "To:" field will include not only the address of the person who sent the original message but also all the others who the message was originally sent to. you can reply to the message. To select an attachment. type in a short message to describe the forwarded message. and then click on "Send. Do the necessary changes and click send. click on check mail. How do I forward a message? To forward a message.
g.70 to disk”. You can now go and open the saved attachment. give it a name or save it with the default name and click save. Choose where to save the downloaded attachment e. . on desktop.