Lehrstuhl für Rechnernetze und Internet

Wilhelm-Schickard-Institut für Informatik Universität Tübingen

UMTS Networks

Leo Petrak, Dr. Christian Hoene und Prof. Georg Carle

Course Overview
Motivation Standardization issues UMTS architecture basics UMTS radio link
Physical layer Signaling

UE, UTRAN, PS Domain, CS Domain Basic functionalities:
Accessing the network Transferring data Detaching from the network Information storage

Mobility QoS Security

IMS Charging UMTS Evolution: from R99 to Rel7 Beyond UMTS

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UMTS Evolution
UMTS Releases Overview From GSM via GPRS to UMTS R99 Rel4 Features Rel5 Features Rel6 Features Outlook Rel7/8

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UMTS Evolution - Literature
TS 23.234 „3GPP System to WLAN Interworking“ TS 23.246 „Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service (MBMS) Supplementary Reading: „Interworking Architecture between 3GPP and WLAN Systems“ K. Ahmavaara et al., IEEE Communication Magazine Nov. 2003

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UMTS Releases Overview (almost) each year, a new Release of the UMTS standard is published
UTMS is evolving first UMTS Release is "R99“, finalized in 2000 (not 1999) subsequently numbered Rel4, Rel5,... Work on Rel7 has started

GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4 Rel5 Features Rel6 Features Outlook Rel7/8

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GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4 I

GSM
CS domain GSM RAN
• initially < 10kb/s, evolved to today (EDGE) 384 kb/s

GPRS
adds PS Domain, in parallel to CS Domain Initially higher transmission rates than GSM (max 115 kb/s)
• can also be used with EDGE

Shared radio channel (DSCH)
=> more efficient usage of radio resources, because bandwidth demands of e.g. web traffic are highly fluctuating (user needs time to read page) and bursty

allows a direct connection to e.g. the Internet charging per data volume possible
• in GSM always charging per time unit

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GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4 II

UMTS R99
GSM RAN replaced by UTRAN
• W-CDMA • Higher bandwidth
– Up to 2Mb/s

• Macrodiversity, soft(er) handover • Functionality differently distributed compared to GSM RAN

Support for QoS classes

UMTS Rel4
Separation of Transport and Control in CS domain CS Domain may also be IP-based

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UMTS Evolution
UMTS Releases Overview GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4 Rel5 Features Rel6 Features Outlook Rel7/8

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Rel5 Features
IMS Layer 2 between RNC and GGSN not necessarily ATM-based Flexible RANs
May attach GSM RAN and GERAN to PS domain (see next slide)
• GERAN = GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

The proper term to refer to a system including GERAN and GSM RAN is „3GPP network“ rather than „UMTS network“
• UMTS network implies UTRAN

Iu Flex
Breaking hierarchical mapping of RNCs to SGSNs (MSCs)

HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access)
„3.5G“ UTRA enhancement to increase downlink packet rate Up to 14 Mb/s Currently being deployed

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Rel5 Features – Flexible RANs
HLR control transport
to SGSN, MSC-S., GMSC-S.

HSS Cx Mw
SIP

Application Server (AS)
to CSCF (SIP), SGSN, MSC-S., GMSC-S.

CSCF
SIP to UE via

CSCF Mr MRF IP Gi IMS

Mm Mg
SIP SIP

GSM Radio

Gb/ A Gb/ Iu ps

connectivity service

Internet Intranet

Go COPS SGSN Gn IP GGSN

CS-GW

GERAN

Gb/A/ Iu cs/ Iu ps A/ Iu cs

PS domain Nc

MSC-S. Mc CS-MGW

GMSC-S. Mc

SGW

PSTN /ISDN

UTRAN

Iu ps/ Iu cs A/ Iu cs

IP or ATM

Nb

MGW

CS domain

GSM / UMTS Core Network
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Rel5 Features – Iu Flex I Up to Rel5, RNC to SGSN relation hierarchical
Each RNC is assigned to exactly one SGSN Each SGSN serves one or more RNCs

RNC SGSN RNC GGSN RNC SGSN RNC

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Rel5 Features – Iu Flex II
Iu Flex allows many-to-many relation of RNCs and SGSNs (and MSCs)
RNCs and SGSNs grouped as belonging to “Pool Areas” A Pool Area is served by one or more SGSNs All the cells controlled by a RNC belong to the same one [or more] Pool Area[s]. UE may roam in Pool Area without need to change the serving SGSN.

SGSNs serving Pool Area 1 GGSN

SGSN SGSN

RNC RNC RNC

Pool Area 1

Overlap of Pool Areas 1 and 2

SGSN serving Pool Area 2

SGSN RNC Pool Area 2

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Rel5 Features – Iu Flex III Iu Flex allows
Load balancing between SGSNs in one Pool Area Reducing SGSN relocation
• Reduced signaling • Reduced access to HLR / HSS

Overlap of Pool Areas allows mapping mobility patterns onto Pool Areas
• E.g. Pool Areas may cover certain residential zones plus city center

City center

Residential Zones

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Rel5 Features: HSDPA I HSDPA Features
Introduces new shared downlink transport channel: HS-DSCH (High-Speed Downlink Channel)
• Associated with up- and downlink feedback / control channels • Can be allocated to a single PDP (Packet Data Protocol) context or to multiple PDP contexts of several suscribers

Can accommodate peek-rates up to 14 Mb/s Sustained rates of 1 – 5 Mb/s Coexists with R99 UTRA in same frequency band Existing Node Bs can be upgraded (theoretically) to support HSDPA

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Rel5 Features: HSDPA II Technical Realisation
16QAM modulation
• Codes 4 bits per phase/amplitude shift

Node B based scheduling
• Reduces delay
– E.g. retransmissions handled more quickly

Node B based adaptation of data rate
• Depending on currently necessary and possible throughput adapt code rate and modulation scheme
– Without HDSPA data rate fixed per session

⇒ optimize throughput − Hybrid ARQ (Automatic Repeat-reQuest )
− Upon detection of frame errors, receiver requests retransmission (normal ARQ) − Information encoded redundantly in each transmission. Retransmission doesn’t resend complete information, but only some more redundancy, complementing the redundant data that has already been sent (Hybrid ARQ)

− Turbo Codes for FEC
− Powerful error correcting / encoding scheme suited for low signal-noise ratios

Usage of MIMO
• Multiple antennas in UE and Node B / spacial multiplexing

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Rel5 Features: HSDPA III
Codes 4 bites by amplitude-phase shift using 16QAM

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UMTS Evolution
UMTS Releases Overview GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4 Rel5 Features Rel6 Features Outlook Rel7/8

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Rel6 Features – Overview Flow-based Charging (see slide set on charging) Network Sharing
Allow cost efficient sharing of network resources
•Scenario 1: Multiple core networks sharing common radio access network (already in R99) •Scenario 2: Geographically split networks sharing •Scenario 3: Common Network Sharing •Scenario 4: Common spectrum network sharing •Scenario 5: Multiple radio access networks sharing common core network

IMS Services
These are services (mostly) supporting actual user applications Partly standardized by OMA (Open Mobile Alliance)
•E.g. Push-to-Talk

MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service) WLAN interworking
use WLAN as access network for IMS instead of PS Domain

and many more…

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Rel6 Features – IMS Services I IMS Presence Service
What is it?
• User defined visibility to others
– E.g. reachable for everybody by any communication means when online. Except when in a meeting. Then only reachable by email. Unless it is the boss, then also available by phone

• User can find out presence of others • Other services can use this service
– Push services, push-to-talk,…

Supported via…
• Presence Agent
– Provides information on user presence – Obtained from UE or network

• Presence Server
– A SIP Application Server – Stores all presence information

• Watcher Application / Proxy
– Request specific presence information from Presence Server » Upon-request („pull“) » By subscription („push“) (e.g. alert when user becomes available)

• Standardized Format for presence information, access rules

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Rel6 Features – IMS Services II
Push Service
Pushing of information from network to UE
• • • • • • • • • • E.g. notification that mail has arrived, charging information,… Can only push when user is present Need to find current IP address of user network cannot activate PDP context Application Server notifies Proxy AS a Push Message is available for a certain Push Subscriber Proxy AS finds out about subscriber presence and IP address from AR
– Stores message until user is available

Problems

Support via

When user is available, Proxy AS contacts NA in GGSN GGSN performs network-requested PDP context activation Push Message is delivered Send SMS

Related problem: alert user that MMS has arrived

AR

UMTS PLMN
NA Packet Domain Network GGSN Gi Operator Specific PDN

Proxy AS

AR: Address Resolver AS: Application Server
Firewall
External IP Network

UE

AS

NA: Notification Agent

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Rel6 Features – IMS Services III IMS Group Management
Setting up and maintaining user groups
• Uses Presence Service

Supporting service for other services
• Multiparty conferencing • Push-to-talk • Etc.

Standardization in progress

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Rel6 Features – IMS Services IV Push-to-talk over Cellular (PoC)
What is it?
• Multicast of speech to predetermined list of parties („CB Funk“)
– Pick participants from „buddy list“ » They are alerted and accept by pressing a button

• „Half duplex“: only one person can speak at a time
– Whoever pushes the button first

No dialing necessary, just „push“
– Uses „always-on“ functionality – volume-based charging advantageous

Supported via…
• PoC Server (SIP Application Server)
– Session handling, media distribution, accounting

• PoC Client on UE • Presence Service, Group Management, Multiparty Conferencing

Also possible using GSM conference call
– More overhead (call establishment) and more expensive – Inefficient use of air interface

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Rel6 Features – IMS Services V
IMS Messaging
SIP-based messaging Instant messaging, „Chat room“, and deferred messaging (equivalent to MMS) Interworks with Presence Service to determine whether addressee is available

Multiparty-multimedia conferencing service in IMS
utilizing MRF (Media Ressource Function) Supported by Group Management Service

Location-based services in IMS
UE indicates it wishes to use local service. S-CSCF routes request back to visited network Mechanism for UE to retrieve / receive information about locally available services

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Rel6 Features – MBMS I
MBMS - Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service Enables resource and cost efficient data transfer to many users in parallel Applications
Multicast of e.g. sport events Broadcast of emergency information Download of software (games) Multiparty conferencing Push-to-talk

“streaming type reception”: present data as it is received “download type reception”: store data and replay later

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Rel6 Features – MBMS II
How does it work
Application server submits multicast / broadcast data via Gi interface
• May be BMCS (Broadcast Multicast Service Center), or e.g. MRF • Multicast effective especially on air interface

Control channel via Gmb interface
• Authorisation, sending encryption keys,… • Network resource configuration

In multicast mode, data is transmitted only to cells with UEs that joined the service

MBMS Application UE MBMS Bearer Service

MBMS User Service

Application Server e.g.BMSC

MBMS bearer service control

R A N

S G S N

G G S N

Gmb (AAA protocol)

Gi (IP multicast)

MBMS data distribution tree

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Rel6 Features: WLAN interworking I
Use WLAN as access network WLAN operated either by 3GPP operator or by 3rd party 6 scenarios are defined:
Scenario 1: Common billing and customer care
• Receive only one bill

Scenario 2: Common access control (authentication and authorisation) using a (U)SIM based solution and charging Scenario 3: Access to all 3GPP packet-switched services (e.g., IMS, Push etc.) and services like SMS or MMS Scenario 4: Service continuity between different accesses like WLAN and UTRAN (i.e. service must not be set-up again, if access technology is changed) Scenario 5: Seamless mobility between WLAN and 3GPP access networks Scenario 6: Seamless handover even for CS services

In Rel6, only scenarios 1-3 are supported

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Rel6 Features: WLAN interworking II
Architecture for supporting authentication, authorization and charging (scenarios 1 and 2)
AAA Server is an IETF-standardized entity doing “authentication, authorization, accounting” AAA Server receives data from HSS / HLR WLAN UEs
• multi-homed with WLAN and 3GPP access capability • Contain USIM

USIM in WLAN UE allows using 3GPP subscription

3GPP Home Network
Intranet / Internet

HSS / HLR

USIM
WLAN UE Ww Wa WLAN Access Network 3GPP AAA Server Charging

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Rel6 Features: WLAN interworking III
Architecture for supporting access to 3GPP packet-switched services (Scenario 3)

3GPP Visited Network

Intranet / Internet
Wa

3GPP AAA Proxy
Wg

Charging

WLAN Ww UE

WLAN Access Network

Wn

WAG Wd

Scenario 3

Wp

Wu

Wm Packet Data Gateway Wi

3GPP AAA Server

Charging

HSS / HLR 3GPP Home Network

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Rel6 Features: WLAN interworking IV UE is authenticated by Proxy AAA Server in visited network relaying data to AAA Server in home network PDG (Packet Data Gateway)
A tunnel is established between UE and PDG PDG provides access to 3GPP services (e.g. IMS) PDG acts as Policy Enforcement Point for Service Bases Local Policy (similar to GGSN)

WAG (WLAN Access Gateway)
Gateway to WLAN, i.e. all packets to/from WLAN routed via WAG Enforces routing of packets to PDG

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UMTS Evolution
UMTS Releases Overview GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4 Rel5 Features Rel6 Features Outlook Rel7/8

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Outlook Rel7/8 UTRA/UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE)
LTE results in eUTRAN (evolved UTRAN) for packet-optimized radio-access technology Goals
Decrease user-plane latency
• <5ms for small packets in unloaded condition

Decrease control-plane latency Increase User throughput
• about 3 times compared to Rel6

Increased Peak Data Rate (100Mb/s downlink, 50Mb/s uplink) Handover to and from UTRAN and GERAN …

Agreements
Simplification of protocol architecture and actual protocols No dedicated channels No macrodiversity in downlink, no inter-Node-B macrodiversity OFDM on downlink, SC.FDMA on uplink Packet-based

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Outlook Rel7/8 System Architecture Evolution (SAE) I
Goals
Support of multiple (incl non-3GPP) access networks
• Incl. Inter-access mobility • Streamline architecture

Accommodate results of LTE work Accommodate results of AIPN work

Focus on PS Domain
Assume voice services are supported by PS Domain

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Outlook Rel7/8 System Architecture Evolution (SAE) II
Evolved Architecture
MME (Mobility Management Entity)
• Manages and stores UE information • Generates temporary identities and allocates them to UEs • Authentication and Authorization of UEs

UPE (User Plane Entity)
• terminates downlink path for idle state UEs • triggers/initiates paging when downlink data arrive for the UE • manages and stores UE contexts
GERAN
Gb Iu

GPRS Core
S7 S3 S4

PCRF
Rx+

UTRAN

HSS
S6 S1

Evolved RAN

MME UPE

S5

Inter AS Anchor

Gi

Inter AS Anchor:

Evolved Packet Core
S2

Op. IP Serv. (IMS, PSS, etc…)

• User plane anchor for mobility between different access systems. S2 • Supports handover between different access systems.
non 3GPP IP Access

WLAN 3GPP IP Access

* Color coding: red indicates new functional element / interface

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Outlook Rel7/8 (All IP Network)
• WiMAX integration
– Along the lines of WLAN integration

• Integration of Personal Area Networks and Personal Networks
– Per location only one device has USIM (subscription) – Other devices route traffic through subscribed device » Subscribed device authenticates and authorizes on behalf of all others

AIPN

Access System

Access System
Subscription

Mobile Terminal
PAN

Device

Device

Device Personal Network (PN)

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Outlook Rel7/8 - AIPN
3GPP SA1 feasibility study and service requirements on evolution towards All IP Networks (AIPN)
• TR22.978, TS22.258

Scenarios in TR22.978
• Integration of heterogeneous access technologies and heterogeneous network types
– Personal Network, Personal Area Network, Ad-hoc Network, Mobile Networks, Sensor Networks – E.g. mobility management can be solved locally (not in AIPN)

Ubiquitous Service

All-IP Network (AIPN)

Bob’s Home-WLAN

City Hotspot Service

AIPN

Change of point of attachment

Change of point of attachment

Cellular access system connection

Sensor

Bob's PAN

Bob's PAN
Bob moves

Bob's PAN

TS22.978 Scenarios

PAN, Moving Network

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Summary
UMTS R99 (compared to GPRS)
GSM RAN replaced by UTRAN Support for QoS classes

UMTS Rel4
No major changes to packet-based part

UMTS Rel5
IMS HSDPA Iu Flex

UMTS Rel6
WLAN interworking Flow-based charging IMS Services

UMTS Rel7 / 8
Re-thinking 3GPP architecture, protocols and radio technology Moves towards All-IP networks Integration of heterogeneous network types Integration of heterogeneous access technologies

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Course Overview
Motivation Standardization issues UMTS architecture basics UMTS radio link
Physical layer Signaling

UE, UTRAN, PS Domain, CS Domain Basic functionalities:
Accessing the network Transferring data Detaching from the network Information storage

Mobility QoS Security

IMS Charging UMTS Evolution: from R99 to Rel7 Beyond UMTS

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Where can we go from today? What new services? What new technology? What is 4G?

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Outline
What is 4G?
Evolution from 1G to 4G Services Technology

Current 4G Activities
WWI Activities
• Ambient Networks

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Evolution from 1G to 4G:
Generations of mobile communication systems

1st Generation (1G)
Timeframe Technology 50s - mid 90s NMT, AMPS,...

2nd Generation (2G)
90s – 2020? GSM (worldwide), IS-95 (Americas, Asia), PDC (Japan),...

3rd Generation (3G)
2001 - ...? IMT 2000 , e.g. UMTS, CDMA2000

Beyond 3G / 4G
in 10 to 15 years? ?
One “umbrella” standard integrating heterogeneous technologies?

Standards

proprietary, domestic

A number of international Few, open standards standards Initially < 10kbps, evolves to 384 kbps up to 2 Mbps Digital Circuit and packet switched Meters to kms

Bandwidth A/D CS/PS Cell radius Mobility Services
Analogue radio, analogue /digital network

Yet more Digital All-IP? cm to kms?

Digital Circuit switched kilometers Advanced (continental scope) Speech, some data (MMS, SMS, WAP)

Circuit switched Up to 150 km Basic (national scope) Speech

Global (within same Global, technology) intertechnology Speech, data, multimedia All services, AmI, networking of networks, ubiquity,…
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UMTS Networks and Internet Telephony – Sommersemester 2006

What is 4G?
3.5G ?
HSDPA (HSUPA) / more bandwidth

There is not yet a universally agreed-upon definition of 4G
for some bandwidth > 2Mb/s is 4G (outdated) for some seamless integration of 3G and WLAN / WiMAX /… (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) access is 4G
• Already being specified into UMTS standard

Korea: “WiBro”
• WiMAX plus simple architecture with mobility support • Currently in pilot phase

for some, only a qualitative step forward in technology and services becomes 4G
• See next slides

When will 4G be available?
(depending on definition) may be 2010… or earlier...or later…

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What is 4G? - Services I Often cited service features of 4G include
"translate desktop experience to mobile world“
• Particularly regarding bandwidth

“always best connected”
• Universal coverage • Connectivity provided by “best” available radio technology

Self-configured networking of all user-owned electronic devices
• Among themselves • With the rest of the world

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What is 4G? – Services II Often cited service features of 4G include
"Ambient Intelligence"
• multitude of embedded, networked devices in the environment ("ubiquitous computing") • they interact with the person and personalize the surroundings
– learning and adaptive environment – location-aware, context-aware, person-aware – raises interesting security issues » what information is spread and stored where » user needs to stay in control ("off-button" must exist) – e.g. "milk-ordering fridge", "perfect toast", "always the same favorite meal"...

empowerment of user to act as service provider
• movement away from provider-centric paradigm towards a decentralized peerto-peer paradigm

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What is 4G? – Technology I Often cited technology features of 4G include
=> Smooth evolution path from 3G / integration of 3G
• In order to protect existing investment • In order to allow localized deployment

"translate desktop experience to mobile world“
• Particularly regarding bandwidth

=> Lower cost/bit (than 3G) => Bandwidth on air interface >> 2Mb/s
• New radio technologies • What spectrum?

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What is 4G? – Technology II
Often cited technology features of 4G include
“always best connected”
• Universal coverage • Connectivity provided by “best” available radio technology

=> “All-IP”
• Integration of “network controlled” technologies such as UMTS possible
– as “lower-layer”? – By gatewaying?

=> Transparent integration of heterogeneous access technologies
• Any fixed access and RAN technology (UTRAN von UMTS, WLAN, Bluetooth,...)
– integrated by means of IP-layer

• IP-based core network

=> Seamless mobility across heterogeneous access technologies => Reconfigurable multi-mode multiband terminals
• terminals can be adapted to local RAN technology by downloading appropriate software (SDR - Software Defined Radio)

=> Policy-based decision making

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What is 4G? – Technology III Often cited technology features of 4G include
Self-configured networking of all user-owned electronic devices
• Among themselves • With the rest of the world

=> As on previous slide plus… => Support for dynamic interworking of networks such as
• moving networks
– a network moves as a whole, thereby changing its point of attachment – e.g. passengers using train networks as access network

• Ad-hoc networks
– wireless devices communicating without infrastructure – all nodes can act as routers – autoconfiguration » Devices must recognize when to form an Ad-hoc network – e.g.PANs, BANs, HANs, VANs, WSNs etc.

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What is 4G? – Technology IV Often cited technology features of 4G include
"Ambient Intelligence"
• multitude of embedded, networked devices in the environment ("ubiquitous computing") • they interact with the person and personalize the surroundings
– learning and adaptive environment – location-aware, context-aware, person-aware – raises interesting security issues » what information is spread and stored where » user needs to stay in control ("off-button" must exist) – e.g. "milk-ordering fridge", "perfect toast", "always the same favorite meal"...

=> Intelligent Agent technology
• Software agents acting on behalf of the user

=> speech / gesture recognition? => Artificial Intelligence?

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What is 4G? – Technology V Often cited technology features of 4G include
empowerment (Ermächtigung!) of user to act as service provider
• movement away from provider-centric paradigm towards a decentralized peer-topeer paradigm

=> Distributed, flexible management and control
• Fixed, hierarchical management structures unfeasible for dynamic, ubiquitous networks

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Outline
Background
Evolution from 1G to 3G Comparison UMTS and „mobile Internet“

What is 4G?
Technology Services

Current 4G Activities
WWI Activities
• Ambient Networks

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Current 4G Activities - Overview
"Ambient Intelligence" scenarios defined by EU ISTAG (IST Advisory Group)
http://www.cordis.lu/ist/istag.htm

Vision of the future wireless world ("Book of Visions") by WWRF (Wireless World Research Forum)
www.wireless-world-research.org/ founded in 2001 over 150 members from industry and academia

EU 6th Framework IST Programme funds large-scale 4G research project
Previously funded 3G projects, preceeding standardization WWRF initiated a group of research projects funded in this programme under the umbrella of „WWI“ (Wireless World Initiative)

Several industry-funded 4G research institutes many more activities...

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Current 4G Activities – WWI
EU 6th Framework Projects, currently running under WWI framework
„WINNER“
• • • • New radio interface technologies Radio topologies for facilitating ubiquitous coverage Cooperation of heterogeneous radio technologies Efficient spectrum use and spectrum sharing

„E2R“ (End-to-end Reconfigurability) • Reconfiguration of network nodes by downloading code and executing it
– E.g. for adaptation to local radio technology – Other uses …

Ambient Networks
• Network issues

MobiLife
• Service issues
– Automatic (self)configuration of communication means, view and use of shared items – Service lifecycle (creation, packaging, configuration, provisiojn..)

Most major european players (manufacturers / operators / research institutes / universities) are involved
Facilitating later standardization

Each project employing 100 or more person-years / year Duration 2 – 6 years

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Ambient Networks - Overview
Ambient Network researches dynamic interworking of networks
Interworking on both user plane and control plane Need network configuration mechanism that is flexible and autonomous
• Need uniform dynamic method for creating, extending and merging networks: “Networks Composition”

The difference between end-system and network disappears
Users own networks that they attach to other networks NNI = UNI: an Ambient Network always shows the same interface, independent of its internal structure (single terminal or composed network) When Ambient Networks compose, the result is again an Ambient Network (!)

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Ambient Networks - Composition Scenarios

Blue Toot h

WLAN

AN WL

UMTS

WLAN Access Network in a Café

Creation of PAN 1

Cellular Operator Network B

Cellular Operator Network A

Automatic establishment of Roaming Agreements
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Attaching the Access Network to the Cellular Network

PAN 2

Ambient Networks: Types of Composition

Network Integration
Involved networks merge into one common network E.g. creation of a PAN

Control Delegation or Control Sharing
One Ambient Network delegates certain control functions to the other Ambient Network E.g. 3GPP-WLAN interworking: WLAN delegates authentication, authorization and charging to 3GPP network E.g. PANs on a train: PANs delegate mobility management to train network à la nemo

Network Interworking
Cooperation according to the Composition Agreement but no control delegation E.g. dynamic roaming agreements

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Increasing cooperation

Ambient Networks: Comparison to 3GPP AIPN
Both AIPN and Ambient Networks aim to integrate heterogenous access networks and hetergeneous network types Both AIPN and Ambient Networks support control delegation
Network integration not a 3GPP problem Network interworking already possible
• Roaming agreements, SLAs

Difference AIPN and Ambient Networks
Ambient aims to achieve all this by a uniform plug&play procedure (aka composition)

„Network Composition“ is a new study item for 3GPP

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Ambient Networks – Control Plane
Network Composition is facilitated by a modular Control plane
Each network supports different control functionality
• When composing, cannot assume a particular functionality is present

When composing, an Ambient Network must be ready to take on control functionality on behalf of another Ambient Network
• E.g. mobility control as in a moving network • E.g. authentication/authorization as in WLAN/3GPP interworking

A modular control plane
is not monolithic as in UMTS is not a set of (more or less) unrelated ingredients as in IP networks is a set of interworking “Functional Areas” (FAs)
• Can be implemented in a distributed fashion

Ambient Network Interface

Ambient Network Interface

(….)
GANS Mobility FA QoS FA Ambient Ambient Connectivity Connectivity Congestion Control FA

(…)
Security FA Composition FA

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Ambient Networks – abstract addressing
Ambient Network Interface
Composition FA Connectivity FA Authentication Authorisation Other FAs Composition FA Connectivity FA Authentication Authorisation Other FAs

ANI

ANI

FA - Functional Area When two Ambient Networks compose, their Functional Areas need to communicate
E.g. QoS FAs need to establish Service Level Agreement (SLA)

The FA/ node initiating the signaling usually doesn’t know the IP address of the responsible FA/node in the other Ambient Network Need ability to abstractly address FAs, e.g. “QoS FA @ Ambient Network X”
Address a specific service rather than a particular node

This goes beyond HIP addressing

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Ambient Networks – abstract addressing Comparison with HIP
HIP (Host Identity Protocol) studied in HIP Working Group of IETF Basic idea: separate locator and identifier
IP address continues to serve as locator Introduce Host Identifier based on public keys
• A single host can have multiple identifiers

Applications use Host Identfiers to name peer hosts instead of IP addresses

Host Identifiers are resolved into Locators by infrastructure elements
DNS
• • • Define new record to resolve Host Identifier into IP address of HIP Rendezvous Server Hosts register their current IP address there Other hosts can send initial HIP packets there for having them redirected

HIP Rendezvous Server

Allows hosts to authenticate current IP addresses
Using HIP base exchange

Legacy applications can also work with HIP
Can represent Host Identifiers in concise form as HIT (Host Identity Tag) which have the structure of IPv4 / IPv6 addresses

Problems solved with HIP
Dynamic relocation of hosts, dynamic allocation of IP addresses
• Alternative to Mobile IP!

Anonymity Authentication for systems and packets

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Ambient Networks – Approach

Ambient Networks approach (quite generic for such projects)
User scenarios Technical scenarios Requirements Modeling and design (UML)
• Use cases • Object Diagrams, Interaction Diagrams, Sequence Diagrams…

Specification and Proof-of-Concept Implementation Evaluation
• Match against requirements • Scalability • Deployability

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Summary The definition of what is 4G is not stable yet A number of 4G features are being discussed
Higher bandwidth on radio interface All IP Ubiquity Seamless mobility across of heterogeneous access technologies Reconfigurability / Autoconfiguration Flexible networking Ambient Intelligence …

Worldwide research on 4G is in full swing

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