A science park or science and technology park is an area with a collection of buildings dedicated to scientific research on a business footing

. There are many approximate synonyms for "science park", including research park, technology park, technopolis and biomedical park. The appropriate term typically depends on the type of science and research in which the park's entities engage, but many of these developments are named according to which term gives the park the best profitability and naming advantages. Often, science parks are associated with or operated by institutions of higher education (colleges and universities). These parks differ from typical high-technology business districts in that science parks and the like are more organized, planned, and managed. They differ from science centres in being concerned with future developments in science and technology. Typically businesses and organizations in the parks focus on product advancement and innovation as opposed to industrial parks that focus on manufacturing and business parks that focus on administration. Besides building area, these parks offer a number of shared resources, such as uninterruptible power supply, telecommunications hubs, reception and security, management offices, restaurants, bank offices, convention center, parking, internal transportation, entertainment and sports facilities, etc. In this way, the park offers considerable advantages to hosted companies, by reducing overhead costs with these facilities. Science and technology parks are encouraged by local governments, in order to attract new companies to towns, and to expand their tax base and employment opportunities to citizens. Land and other taxes are usually waived off or reduced along a number of years, in order to attract new companies for the science and technological parks.

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1 History 2 Purpose o 2.1 Sharing of ideas o 2.2 Launching new companies 3 Examples 4 Management 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

[edit] History
The world's first science park started in the early 1950s and foreshadowed the community known today as Silicon Valley.[citation needed]

Key features of these mixed-use developments include space for significant future research growth.. Science parks are also being developed to leverage the assets of non-university research and development organizations such as federal laboratories. the mastermind and founder of Sophia Antipolis Science Park in France. specialized facilities. . a typical American science park is located in a suburban community with a population of less than 500. which is strategically planned mixed-use campus expansions.K.He decided to apply the concept in France. the French newspaper Le Monde published an article written by Senator Pierre Laffitte titled "Le Quartier Latin aux Champs. In 1960. philosophical. his theory was that creativity is born through the exchange between industrial. offering companies highvalue sites for accessing researchers. He applied this concept for the creation of Sophia Antipolis science park. and France. and artistic minds. and economic competitiveness. is emerging and involves shared space in which industry and academic researchers can work side by side. They enhance the development.000 and is operated by a university or a university-affiliated non-profit organization. the U. and often unique. major medical research centers and other research organizations can be key drivers of technology-based economic development. The companies in a typical science park are primarily private sector. Pierre Laffitte. multi-tenant facilities to house researchers and companies. Sweden. science parks create environments that foster collaboration and innovation. They embody a commitment by universities to partake in broader activities. universities and private companies cooperate and collaborate. These university-affiliated mixed-use campus developments are not simply real-estate ventures. thus the Sophia Antipolis Science Park. and students. along with other amenities which are attractive to young faculty. but also on a social and cultural level. Science parks are sources of entrepreneurship. talent. A new model. In addition to universities. scientific. "the cross-fertilization of science and the creative arts" not only in terms of economic. and commercialization of technology. facilities and equipment. and are key elements of the infrastructure supporting the growth of today's global knowledge economy. from urban high-rises to suburban or rural locations. transfer. and promoting livework-play environments. and housing. Federal laboratories attract companies that wish to leverage the expertise of the laboratory researchers and to gain access to highly specialized. post-doctoral and graduate students. [edit] Purpose [edit] Sharing of ideas In Europe. but the science park is also home to university and government facilities. It is becoming increasingly common for communities in which a federal laboratory is located to create a science park to leverage laboratory resources to realize economic development." partly inspired by observations made while visiting the United States. described the concept of cross fertilization as the interchange between different cultures or different ways of thinking that is mutually productive and beneficial.While parks vary widely in size and shape. By providing a location in which government.

[edit] Examples Science parks are found all over the world.000 workers in North America work in university research parks. Today more than 300. benefit by exposure to the business world. Hamedan Science & Technology Park in Iran and Daedeok Innopolis in South Korea. nearly 800 firms graduated from park incubators in the past five years. the park itself does not generate significant net revenue. the NASA Research Park at Ames. but are mostly concentrated in developed countries.57 jobs in the economy. pharmaceutical firms. In the 1980s. Universities. According to the AURP-Battelle Technology Practice report. pressure for space at the main North Carolina State University (NCSU) campus in Raleigh led to exploration of nearby options. over 140 are found in North America alone. Starting in the 1980s. while only thirteen percent failed. at heart. Cambridge Science Park and NETpark in County Durham.000 acres (4. Centennial Campus at North Carolina State University is a case in point. Because it is designed as a nonprofit entity. the land was conveyed to NCSU in stages. These sorts of companies provide 45 percent of all science park jobs. Park-provided training in such areas as intellectual property law and business planning help the fledgling businesses to succeed. Prominent examples include the Hsinchu Science Park in Taiwan. The park has an operating budget of less than $1 million a year. knowledge partnerships that foster innovation. Sandia Science and Technology Park. [edit] Launching new companies Science parks provide the launch pad that startup companies need when they are "spun out" from a university or company. or scientific and engineering service providers. released in October 2007. and the connection to the cutting-edge research being conducted outside their walls in industry. and the Tri-Cities Science and Technology Park located close to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are . The typical park provides a range of business startup assistance to its client companies. NanKang Software Park.[1] Science parks are succeeding in incubating and growing companies. England. 750 people work at jobs there. in turn. which are often small startups based on innovative new ideas from university or private sector researchers. Pardis Technology Park.Science parks can also provide a location for start-up companies created to commercialize technology developed in the labs. including substantial holdings by the state mental-health system and the Diocese of Raleigh on 1. primarily at information technology companies. About one-quarter of these graduates remain in their park. and serious planning began with the appointment of a former dean of the university's School of Design to the position of campus coordinator. What all science parks have in common is that they are. every job in a research park generates an average of an additional 2. According to the Battelle report. Fewer than ten percent of the graduates left the region.0 km2) surrounding the old Lake Raleigh Reservoir.

long-term plans and good management. its logo or the management discourse. first presented by Regis Cabral as ten points in 1990. such as the University of São Paulo. São José dos Campos and São Carlos. Polis. mostly for budding small high tech companies. particularly Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Begun in 1962. and Purdue. such as the CIATEC I and II. TechnoPark. TechTown. founded in the late 1990s. Industrial Park of Campinas and others. 7. Have a management with established or recognised expertise in financial matters. 9. quite often expressed symbolically. a science park must: 1. Alabama. security or any other means. such as Embraer. as the park's name choice. such as a funding agency. who is perceived by relevant actors in society as embodying the interface between academia and industry. 3. 6. Be able to select or reject which firms enter the park. the state government has sponsored a technology park program for several cities which have a strong high tech base. Federal University of São Carlos. and the Purdue Research Park in West Lafayette. InCamp. Other examples of U. pure and applied research institutes and high technology companies. 4. dynamic and stable economic actors. . such as São Paulo City. Indiana. Several dozens of such parks are now in existence. Have access to qualified research and development personnel in the areas of knowledge in which the park has its identity. and which has presented long term economic development plans. political institution or local university. with power of decision and with high and visible profile. one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in the world. Have the capability to provide marketing expertise and managerial skills to firms. Have the backing of powerful. Campinas also boasts the largest number of high-tech business incubators and industrial parks (a total of eight). According to the management paradigm.000 employees. Cummings today is home to 285 companies which employ over 25. science parks are the Cummings Research Park in Huntsville. Be able to market its high valued products and services. [edit] Management The Cabral Dahab Science Park Management Paradigm. These cities have strong research universities. via patents.[2] Brazil is one of the developing countries which has strongly encouraged the establishment of technology parks and business incubators. Have a clear identity. The firm's business plan is expected to be coherent with the science park identity. 8. Because of this Campinas has been dubbed the Brazilian Silicon Valley.S. lacking such a resource. Softex. is today home to over 140 companies on the main campus alone. State University of Campinas. Be inserted in a society that allows for the protection of product or process secrets. Campinas. 5. In the state of São Paulo. Another example is the East Tennessee Technology Park at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2. Include in its management an active person of vision.examples of research parks that have been developed by or adjacent to federal laboratories. has been influential in the management of science parks around the world and lays down the following conditions for a property development to be considered a science park.

of which include: 1. Alternatively. adequate security arrangements. including joint or cooperative ventures between a privately developed research park and a university. highspeed international data connectivity.10. Karachi. and ample parking space. According to the AURP. A contractual. as well as technical service firms. Include a prominent percentage of consultancy firms. with minimal regulatory overheads and paperwork. the park may be owned by a non-university entity but have a contractual or other formal relationship with a university. assisting in the growth of new ventures and promoting economic development 4. and support services.[3][4] The International Association of Science Parks explains that the purpose of these parks is to promote the economic development and competitiveness of cities and regions by creating new business. formal or operational relationship with one or more science/research institutions of higher education. to its registered companies. the park may be a not-for-profit or for-profit entity owned wholly or partially by a university or a university related entity. 2. defines university research and science parks as a propertybased venture. including laboratories and quality control firms. A role in promoting the university's research and development through industry partnerships. high technology and science based companies. . and Lahore to facilitate the IT and IT-enabled Services (ITeS) companies operating in Pakistan. A role in aiding the transfer of technology and business skills between university and industry teams A role in promoting technology-led economic development for the community or region. These dedicated premises provide a comfortable working environment. adding value to companies. The STPs in all these cities have facilities for conferences/seminars. Master planned property and buildings designed primarily for private/public research and development facilities. Designed with a view to getting business ventures up and running in the shortest possible time. and creating new knowledge-based jobs. The Association of University Research Parks (AURP). and an uninterrupted power supply. business centers. 3. these STPs provide office space with all the modern conveniences in prime business locations in these major cities.[5] SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY PARKS (STPs) PSEB has established Software Technology Parks (STPs) in Islamabad. which has certain characteristics. a non-profit association made up of university-affiliated research parks.

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