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Designing an EAP Course for students of International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
English Language Centre (ELC) at International Islamic University Islamabad, provides language support to the new students, who will soon join their respective faculties. This centre works independent of the department of English at International Islamic University, but often gets teaching support from the department. ELC runs short EAP and ESP courses. EAP courses organized by this institute are quite popular with students. These courses help students learn skills which they will use through-out their academic careers.
I am a Lecturer at the department of English, International Islamic University. I have been asked by the Director ELC to teach an eight week EAP course to a group of eight learners. Classes will be held for five days a week, and the duration of teaching input for each day will be five hours. The language centre has provided me the profiles of the students who have joined this course. These profiles are based upon the interviews of these students at the time of their admission and their bio-data forms. I know that these profiles are by no means a substitute for a detailed needs analysis (Please see appendix 1 for learners¶ profile).
2 Needs Assessment According to Graves, needs assessment is seeking and interpreting information about students¶ needs so that the course effectively caters to it (Graves, 1996, p.12). It is fundamental to course designing and without assessing the needs of students, it is difficult to imagine a successful course. From the learners¶ profile and the nature of EAP courses it is quite clear that students in my group would like to acquire language skills which will enable them face the rigorous challenges of university life. Generally speaking students are required to have the following academic skills, listening and note-taking, academic writing ( formal writing, using right register) understanding spoken and written instructions, reading skills which include skimming, scanning, predicting, guessing meanings from context, improving reading speed and vocabulary, writing effective paragraphs, descriptive essays, analytical essays, comparison contrast, narrative essays, writing assignments, presentation skills, referencing, writing a
bibliography etc. Some of these skills are outlined by Jordan ( Jordan, 1997, p.7) When we talk about EAP courses in Pakistan, the focus in generally on reading and writing skills. However, there are students in this group who will join faculty of law, journalism, media studies, and business management. For these students, it is of paramount importance to improve their listening and speaking skills along with their reading and writing skills. The assessment system of university is such that in each module, a student is required to give at least one presentation, which has 20% weighting. Hence, only a reading and writing based syllabus will not cater to the needs of my students.
While assessing learning needs of students, it is important to take into account, both objective and subjective needs. Brindley (1979: 70) defines objective needs as ³derivable from different kinds of factual information about learners, their use of language in real life communication situations as well as their current language proficiency and language difficulties, he explains subjective needs as cognitive and affective needs in the learning situation, which can be derived from learners¶ attitudes, personalities or the level of their confidence´ ( cited in Graves, 1996, p.13). For a course to be successful both subjective and objective needs should be assessed. The example of Uvin¶s course for Chinese workers ( Graves, 1996, p. 14) clearly tells us that unless subjective needs are not taken into account, objective needs may not be met.
It is also important to state that this group of learners is quite diverse in terms of their choice of academic disciplines. Therefore, it will be useful to visit the departments, which these students will join, and meet the senior faculty members to assess the academic skills these students may need. Before the course officially starts, I have arranged an informal orientation session. In this session, I will tell my students the objectives of this course and elicit their opinions about it. I understand that sometimes the needs assessment questionnaires may not be successful in seeking the information a teacher is looking for. In such an event, an informal discussion with students helps to extract the required information. According to Graves ( Graves, 1996, p.16) many students are not familiar with
It will help us finish most of our work before noon. and I will carry it through the course. DVDs. Internet etc in the class.(Please see appendix 2 for needs assessment questionnaire) Constraints Physical Constraints Since this course is scheduled in summer. Many a times the initial needs assessment doesn¶t work for the reasons given above. but I still feel that I can manage to use realia. I agree with Graves¶ view.m.4 needs assessment process. It¶s a real shock for international students who are struggling to adjust in a new environment and new culture. they find it hard articulating their needs and it may make the whole learning scenario appear complex for them. There is an acute power-shortage in summers and it does take its toll on education institutions. so we will be fighting frequent powercuts. So it needs to be an ongoing process. when these power-cuts become more frequent and painful because of the soaring temperatures. In the light of my previous teaching experience. so we can start our lessons at 8 a. though it may not be as regular as I would have liked it. Most of my students are living on campus. Other Constraints . With frequent power-cuts it becomes difficult to use multimedia.
Goals and Objectives . The learners do not belong to one nationality or ethnic group. I would tell them that seeking worldly education is an obligation for a Muslim. He seems to have enrolled reluctantly. to achieve much in this short span of time may not be possible and sometimes these intense courses put immense pressure on students.5 My group of learners is a diverse one. they come from an environment where they don¶t question anything and show complete submission. Hence if a teacher motivates them. different preferences. Another constraint may be the time constraint. as he has to improve his English to survive at university level. Hence all learning targets may not be achieved. they may accept this new environment. which may be a double edge sword for a teacher. Given the fact that some of them are still going through cultural shock. and different cultural backgrounds. they have different learning styles. and when I cited many examples from religious sources. they often fell in line. especially in a short-intensive course. may not help the matters. convinces them. My previous experience tells that students from madrassah background are generally very obedient and hold teachers at a high esteem. since this is an intensive eight week course. One of my students has been studying in a religious school (madrassah) and is not comfortable with the idea of studying English at all. What can be done in practical terms is to measure progress continuously and give encouraging feedback. For example in past while dealing with such students. as they might have in a long course.
p. ability to understand and correct their own mistakes To enable learners use language according to the cultural and social y y y y y . long-term purposes of the course. 1996.6 According to Graves (Graves. it gives a direction to course and helps to µconceptualize course in teachable chunks¶ ( Graves. which includes development in their listening.17). When a teacher breaks down goals. 1998. p.24) that goals provide µrationale for the course¶. listening and speaking To make them creative and critical. Nunan believes ( Nunan. speaking. writing and vocabulary. p.61). goals represent destination and objectives are how this destination will be reached. I believe the main goals of my course should be y To improve EAP skills of learners that includes academic reading. Objectives express the specific ways in which the goals will be achieved´. he asserts that objectives provide a µsharper focus µand tell learners about what they can expect from the course ( Nunan. writing. p. 1988. reading. as both skills are fundamental to their success at university level To motivate learners and give them self-belief To make them confident enough to learn on their own To help them improve their general English ability. 1996. In the light of needs assessment and the learners¶ profile. Nunan also shares the same view. Hence according to Graves. 17) ³goals are general statements of the overall.
and in Stern¶s model Transfer goals take care of this aspect as well. According to Stern. Hence encouraging and motivating them will be pivotal to their learning. I think if both the EAP skills and general English skills are blended together. Transfer goal addresses learner autonomy.75-76) the purpose of including non-EAP component such as social/survival English. p. grammar. vocabulary development etc is threefold. According to Jordan ( Jordan. p. y How to achieve these goals (Conceptualising content/ Activities/ Material) In the light of learners¶ profile. 1996. videos. and lack self-confidence. Some of my learners do not feel motivated to learn English. Hence their proficiency in these skills should be improved. who is good at all four skills. familiarisation with TV news and newspapers. cognitive goals and transfer goal ( cited in Graves. there are four types of goals for language learners. the course may be a success. Learner autonomy is explained in the later part of this assignment. the model I have chosen is the one proposed by Stern(1992). µ to serve as a necessary adjunct to the main study skills. The learners¶ profile indicates that there is hardly a single learner in the group.17). 1997. to fulfil a perceived present or future needs and . and these are proficiency goals.7 context To introduce learners to study skills which they will need at university level While setting these goals. For a student to do well at university level he must learn how to learn on his own. affective goals.
Looking at my learners¶ present language proficiency. (Please see appendix. My previous experience suggests that most of Chinese and Pakistani students have the tendency of using dictionary while they are reading.116). p. hence depriving .3 for detailed course grid) Reading The students in my group have experienced academic reading in their first languages. the most important thing is my learners¶ ability to learn on their own. In short. Students coming from traditional academic backgrounds generally don¶t realize that reading can be of several types. 1996. it should be all encompassing. Instead of it being an academic reading or writing course. and this will be a life-long asset. depending on µones¶ reasons to read¶. and how they can expand their ability to learn independently ( Graves. I intend to design a balanced course which will take into consideration all these factors. To me. but many of them have unsatisfactory reading skills in English. this non-EAP input may help them receive EAP input more confidently and they will make sense of what is happening. Therefore. where her focus was to µteach students how to take responsibility of their own learning¶ and to build their confidence so they can build on what they already know. I will also take a cue from the way Blyth designed and taught an EAP course to the postgraduate students in Ecuador.8 to provide useful variety¶.
9 themselves of the pleasure of reading. Hence. with such µpre-processed texts¶ learners will not try to cope with a difficult passage on their own. first newspapers will be used and then there will be a gradual move towards academic texts. 1997. So right from the outset. sub-skills are also outlined by Jordan ( Jordan. Some teachers teaching reading have a pre-reading session to explain meanings of difficult words. I think if readers are provided such texts. logical and cultural clues to understand the meanings of unknown words. According to Grellet (Grellet. 1991.14) inference is using syntactic. The strategy of not providing a µpre-processed text¶ may pose a challenge as most of my learners come from such backgrounds where they expect teacher to supply them the meanings before they even start reading. distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. pp. Other skills which will be part of my reading syllabus are skimming (reading quickly for the main idea) scanning (reading quickly for specific details). p. which they find interesting and enjoyable. and predicting. my aim will be teaching how to guess the meanings from the context. suffixes. they may feel encouraged to infer meanings from the context. In order to practice skimming and scanning. He adds that it is better not to explain unfamiliar words to learners beforehand. I think that using English newspapers from different .143-144). Students will be taught techniques of using contextual clues such as prefixes. discovering facts. a skill they will need throughout academic and general reading. etc to understand meanings. Some of these skills. critical reading. opinions ideas. negotiating themes of reading passages with students may be a good idea.
hence it maximises opportunities for learning and µactivates organic learning principle¶. According to Nunan ( Nunan. They may also be asked to read an article and comment on it in a short talk. p.36) recycling helps learners encounter target language items in a range of different environments. An . Some of the reading activities may be recycled into speaking and writing tasks. John and Davies( 1983) maintain that in EAP a text is a µvehicle for information¶. and offer different perspectives. and it is important to adjust reading speed according to the purpose and nature of what one is reading.145).10 countries may help in exposing students to different writing styles. 2004. hence it will be vital to explain students the need to change their approach. For example students may be asked to read a newspaper article on a contentious issue and same can be used in a group discussion task. students must be told that reading a passage quickly shouldn¶t be at the expense of comprehension. 1997. Most of my learners have been studying in such learning environments where the main emphasis is on reading as a µlinguistic object¶. not a linguistic object¶( cited in Jordan. Activities on improving reading speed also figure in the reading syllabus. which may be helpful in grooming them as critical readers. Most of the academic reading is focused upon µreading for information¶. Before moving to reading speed. A learner becomes a good reader when he starts to apply reading skills automatically without conscious efforts. then it can be said that these skills are now part of his academic armoury. p.
a reading text can be analyzed for this activity. discussion. so learners can make clearer decisions about the direction of their writing. priming. peer-feedback. (Iwano. 2009. learners are not involved in brainstorming. writing is viewed as a product and not a process. 167-168) the process approach encourage learners to take responsibility of their own learning by involving them in activities such as drafting. In these lessons. and then they count their words (cited in Nation. 1997. In writing classes. editing. revisions and informed choices. feedback. I don¶t intend to teach grammar explicitly. Hence the process of encouraging reflection and interaction suffers a serious set-back. etc.11 interesting activity is one-minute reading. Some reading activities may be recycled into grammar lessons. Hence it is important to emphasize reading speed at such a point in time when students are aware of other sub-skills and reading strategies.71) the pressure of reading quickly can be source of stress for students. sharing ideas in groups. On the other hand.71). self-correction. the process approach is linked with the principle of learnercenteredness. gathering information. . 2004) in this activity students read for exactly a minute. pp. According to Jordan ( Jordan. 2009. p. casting its shadow on learner¶s communicative competence. Writing In a typical language class in Pakistan. p. According to Nation ( Nation.
2009. and feel that they are in charge of their learning process. For descriptive writing. Learner¶s progress in writing depends upon continuous and specific feedback.139) sources of feedback can be a teacher. specific guidelines should be given to students (cited in Jordan. This will be followed by peer-correction. I intend to include pre-writing activities such as brainstorming. gather information. the use of self-assessment improves metacognitive awareness. This may be an important milestone towards achieving transfer goals mentioned in the course objectives.17). so that their continuous assessment can be done. real life activities (Please see appendix 3 syllabus grid for detailed writing activities). For example. The emphasis in writing syllabus will be on purposeful. I will keep their writing portfolios with me. peers and learner himself. so that they may interact. (Nation. p. p. it will also help me decide when to give feedback on their grammar. students will be shown movie clips for listening and speaking . Learners will be encouraged to work in groups. This will make them feel more confident and relaxed while writing. share experiences. Learners will be asked to prepare first. Zamel ( Zamel. 1985) noted that teachers often put generalized comments on students¶ writing. scaffold. 1997. second and third draft. editing and finally teacher¶s feedback. According to Nation.12 Hence. sharing experiences. discovering new ideas. I will recycle some of the listening and speaking activities into writing tasks. through a collaborative effort. gathering information and organizing ideas. organize ideas.
students will be given list of useful words for describing people and places. where students will defend and argue a position (please see appendix 3 for likely tasks). Students will also be asked to write an assignment and will share their findings in the form of a presentation in class. extracts from novels will be used. along with selected texts from the modern day novels. Novels. As it has already been indicated that one of the aims of this course is to make students critical and creative. usage of figurative language etc. are perhaps the best medium to show a model of narrative and descriptive writing. Using text from abridged classics and modern day novels can provide an interesting mix. but for activities such as analyzing how a writer describes a character. such fiction can be helpful. such as John Grisham¶s µThe Rainmaker¶ or µ The Brethren¶. Finally . One of the reasons to use extracts from Grisham¶s novels is that these novels are suspense thrillers and appeal to the tastes of young audience. and can be linked with activities such as learning new words. Therefore. may be used. in my view. Hence a writing activity will be recycled into a speaking task.13 activities. they may be asked to describe some scenes and characters in their writing tasks. In order to give students practical examples of narrative and descriptive writing. one of the key activities will be argumentative writing. At the end of this activity. For this activity texts from (abridged version) of literary classics such as µ Great Expectations¶. Though one may argue that language of these novels may not be academic.
giving practice in oral presentations of reports.151). The objectives of group discussion listed by Beard and Hartley ( 1984) are promoting critical and logical thinking.14 students will be given samples of well-written assignments. The reason is that most of the learners have been studying through Grammar Translation Method. These activities will be introduced in the third week of the course. useful words and phrases. 2009. the huge emphasis on accuracy was the main hurdle in gaining fluency as it was thought that a learner¶s first aim was to achieve accuracy through mastering grammar. which are used in introduction. as by that time learners will hopefully have settled and feeling relaxed. Listening and Speaking Learners¶ profile indicates that some of them are hesitant and shy in spoken communication and have high µaffective filters¶. will be given. 1992: 358) the processing of language in real time when learners take-part in meaning focussed activity (cited in Nation and Newton. Speaking didn¶t figure in their syllabi. Another activity of the first week will be group discussion. problem solving. So it is vital to have meaning-focused activities and exposing learners to µreal-time communication pressures. They didn¶t get opportunities and motivation to speak English. at the end of this activity. Impromptu speaking activities create a µreal-time communication pressure¶. and will be taught how to reference in a proper academic way. Fluency is defined as (Schimidt. widening of . p. or even if it did. The first activity will be introducing oneself.
making sure that all learners get a chance to speak. this activity may have aroused students¶ interests and they have some general idea about the clips. I will integrate group discussion with a listening task. unwillingness to begin. JFK and Al-Gore¶s documentary. translating a poorly worded statement into a clear one. After watching a clip. Jordan believes ( Jordan. lust of power (Lion King). lack of knowledge etc. So in order to ward-off these problems. freedom (The Spirit) etc. lack of self-confidence. some new vocabulary items may be highlighted. harmonizing learners by reducing tension and getting them to explore their differences. The Inconvenient Truth. 1997. instead of giving a topic for discussion straightaway. which is due to shyness.15 interests. Hence introducing group discussion through this step by step approach may help students settle their nerves and feel confident during discussion. these themes could be threat of global warming (Inconvenient Truth). 1997. The success of a discussion activity also depends upon the role of teacher. Students will be shown a selection of movie clips taken from The Spirit. 1997. for a listening task.12) that some likely roles of teachers during such activities are. Jordan maintains ( Jordan. p. elaborating with examples. p. By this stage. students will be asked to share their general responses. p.10).11) that the main problem in group discussion is students¶ lack of participation. changing attitudes and importantly µ to obtain more intimate and personal contact with students than is possible in lectures¶ ( cited in Jordan. The Lion King. . This will be followed by a group discussion based on themes taken from the clips.
I will adopt analytic scoring plan for assessing . an examiner has to take into account variety of factors. are used. stress and intonation. paraphrasing. while analytic scoring method is seldom used. Express News (both are Pakistani news channels) will be used to expose learners to spoken grammar that includes heads. Variety of channels are chosen to expose students to variety of accents and speaking styles. p.16 Video-clips and clips from talk-shows selected from CNN. Their body language will be closely monitored when they give class presentations (Please see appendix 3 for speaking and listening tasks) Assessment and sample assessment tasks In Pakistan. Dawn News. In analytic scoring subjectivity of examiner may not largely impact the scoring. discourse markers etc. p. Thornbury (2005. SKY NEWS. and forming a general impression may have too much of subjectivity. formulaic language.127)) explains that µgiving a single score on the basis of an overall impression is holistic scoring while giving a separate score for different aspects of the task is analytic scoring. as one answer may invoke different reactions. appealing for help. and hence could be fairer. BBC. These clips may also help students to see how communication strategies such as. such scoring may be µfairer and more reliable¶. the most prevalent way of assessing learners¶ language abilities is through holistic scoring. tails.127) also agrees that in analytic scoring. and if properly chosen. Thornbury( 2005. It is clear from the above explanation that holistic scoring can be unfair. Students will also be told how to make the effective use of their nonverbal language.
this will give an idea about the progress and will help me give feedback to students individually.321).114-115) in analytic scoring such features as content. Hence. for example it enables learners to display a wide range of writing activities and affords learners the opportunity to self-assess and reflect (cited in Weigle. grammar or mechanics are taken into account while marking scripts. and observation are key parts of formative assessment. p. I will introduce writing as a process. 2003. Formative assessment will mainly be carried out through viewing writing portfolios. According to Weigle (2002. organization. pp. For example while teaching writing. speaking and study skills. writing. which entails introducing students to different steps and processes involved in writing. One reason for doing so is explained above i.e analytic scoring is more reliable and fairer. 2002). Hamp-Lyons and Condon ( 2000) believe that using portfolio assessment helps in many ways. so it provides more detailed information about a learner¶s performance at different stages. and secondly the course objectives and the way these objectives will be realized. The assessment of writing will be formative as well as summative. cohesion. Formative assessment is an ongoing achievement. assessment should not be carried out on the basis of general impression. register. demand analytic scoring. listening. . vocabulary.17 reading. the purpose is to improve the learning process and providing feedback to learners ( Brindley. Monitoring learners¶ progress in class. but on seeing how well students have followed different steps of the way.
The likely topics will be decided towards the end of course. for assessing speaking skill. argumentative writing ability. richness of vocabulary etc. These presentations will be followed by a question and answer session. building an argument and defending it. footnotes. a written assignment will be given to students. bibliography) using a library and web-recourses. (Please see appendix 4 for writing assessment grid) As syllabus grid shows that most of the tasks are integrated. etc. fluency. referencing and researching abilities (quotations. It is important to choose topics which are appealing to students. creative and critical writing skills. ability to research.18 For summative assessment. Second part of summative assessment will be an impromptu speaking activity. overall structure and layout. confidence. on the pattern of what they may expect in their faculties. motivation level. students may be asked to give a presentation on their written assignments. This writing project will test students¶ academic writing skills and their general study skills. For example. gather. Therefore. each individual will be given . which will test how confidently and convincingly a learner responds. if assessment also follows the same pattern. with special focus on persuasive speaking abilities. ability to use academic language. organize and present information. so they feel comfortable while researching and writing on them. besides testing their grammar. Study skills which may be tested through this activity will be. This task will test their general speaking skills. using non-verbal factors of communication. using multimedia. comparing and contrasting. it will be in sync with the overall structure.
Besides in the view of Thornbury ( Thornbury. As during the course students will have done peer assessment in many tasks.125) students often underperform in interviewtype conditions. In addition to summative assessment. as students often repeat memorized answers. . p. and it is difficult to eliminate the effects of the interviewer.318) comments that the main advantage of basing assessment on course objectives is that both are closely linked and this allows teachers. Brindley ( Brindley. 2005. and continuous feedback will be given to each individual. spoken language. hence this will fall in the overall pattern and corresponds with the learning objective of enabling them learn on their own through self and peer-correction. learners and external parties to see to what extent the intended course objectives are met. The problem with this task is that it may lack reliability. This task will test their ability to handle a µreal time communication pressure¶. Buck ( 2001) comments that listening test should be designed in such a way that the ability to process extended samples of realistic.19 a topic to speak for 3-5 minutes. interviews are often used as an assessment task. but I have not opted for this activity. In Pakistani institutes. p. 2003. students will be assessed throughout the course through different speaking activities mentioned in syllabus grid. The activity will be peer assessed. his questioning style and if he is assessor too then judging the speaker¶s abilities and maintaining the flow of the talk at the same time could be hard.
Questions will be designed to test the ability to infer meanings through the context (body language. These questions will test their ability to understand the specific details. understanding the examples which lecturer has given to explain concepts. drawing inferences etc. Students will be asked multiple-choice questions based on the clip. intonation etc) and understanding the gist of the massage. Students will be allowed 20 min to read each passage and then answer the questions. three reading passages will be given. Speaking syllabus contains many such activities which expose students to realistic spoken language. followed by ten multiple-choice questions based on this video. taken from a novel. the theme of the lecture. skimming and scanning . These three tasks are taken from three different sources and represent different situations. stress. and the third one will be a narrative. One passage will be academic. In listening assessment the first task will be a video clip from a talk show taken from a local English news channel. I have tried to test students listening abilities by exposing them to different speaking accents and variety of situations. In the third assessment task students will be shown clips from BBC documentary Planet Earth followed by multiplechoice questions based on it. each taken from a different source. In second listening activity. students will be shown a ten minutes video of a lecture. it will be selected from a text book. In these assessment tasks. In Reading assessment.20 automatically and in real time is tested. The second one will be taken from a newspaper. The questions will be set in a way to test the ability to guess the meanings from the context.
drawing conclusions. His interest in law was ignited by the lawyers¶ movement in .Com). and understanding figurative language.21 skills. ability to read and understand a passage in a short time. He has done his graduation in Commerce (B. He is aspiring to become a lawyer. (Please see appendix 5 for course evaluation questionnaire) (WORD COUNT=4971) APPENDIX 1 LEARNERS¶ PROFILES Ahmad Ahmad is 20.
the fiery speeches of lawyers and their massive rallies fuelled his passion to become a lawyer. When he went to college. He is 24. Omar . which brought about what can be termed as a mini-revolution. He is quite good at speaking English. He reads newspapers regularly and occasionally watches English movies.22 Pakistan. which had a dampening effect on his motivation. Ahmad followed this movement keenly. He struggles with academic writing. He likes playing computer games. he is tongue-tied. he tends to use slangs in his writing. but when it comes to speaking. his vocabulary is not a refined one. He likes to get involved in speaking and listening activities but his written expression is quite poor. which is mainly due to the fact that he did his matriculation from a private school. He understands that if he wants to be a good lawyer his communication abilities in English must be very good. He has taken admission in Faculty of Law and will join the faculty soon after this course. he can write English with considerable ease. He has been studying English since his childhood. watching movies and going out with friends. where lot of emphasis was laid upon encouraging students to communicate in English. he had to negotiate with the traditional method of English language teaching. Hasan Hasan has taken admission in faculty of Economics.
He wants to be a religious scholar and thinks that English will not be of any use to him. Omar learnt Arabic in madrassh but can only understand Quranic Arabic. He knows grammar quite well and is good at translating sentences from Urdu to English. Ma Chao Ma Chao (21) is from China. but he couldn¶t have any real exposure to listening and speaking. His written expression is quite average as the range of his vocabulary is limited. he received formal education from a government school. Coming from a typical madrassh background. essay writing and translation from Urdu to English. He is very introvert. He likes football and basketball. he has an aversion to English language and doesn¶t feel motivated to learn English. where he learnt English grammar. He will join Faculty of Usuludin( Religious Studies). He is good at grammar while his listening skill is quite unsatisfactory. The whole academic environment is very new to him and he is going through the process of settling down in a new culture. He reads religious books only. These institutions use very traditional rather outdated learning approaches and are known for their overdrive in maintaining strict discipline. Before joining madrassah. He is set to join Arabic Faculty.23 Omar(28) has received his education from a religious school (madrassah) . He appears motivated which is a good sign. Nasir Shah . He finds speaking tasks difficult but enjoys reading.
His written ability is reasonably good. His spoken English is also not fluent. as the career path he has chosen for himself requires him to be very good at communicating his ideas freely. His makes mistakes while speaking English but seems open to learning new concepts. which means that there is every likelihood that he can further improve his listening skills. His listening skill is above average. Due to some family issues he had to discontinue his studies for more than three years. He looks a confident individual who seems to be all geared up for getting the maximum out of this new opportunity. He doesn¶t feel shy in speaking but isn¶t inclined towards reading. His knowledge of grammar can be termed as satisfactory. He has joined Faculty of Engineering and Technology.A in Journalism and has taken admission in MA in Media Studies. but still there is room for improvement. Shamaas Shamaas (19) is from Islamabad. He likes communicative way . he likes to watch English news channels. He struggles to communicate his ideas freely due to lack of vocabulary and foreign language anxiety. He likes reading but is not comfortable with writing. in a teacher-centred environment and through grammar based activities. Mustafa Buraq Mustafa (18) is from Turkey. He has done his B.24 Nasir (28) is from Somalia and will join BBA( Hons). He is an ardent football fan. He is keen to improve his written and spoken skills. He has learnt English. He cites lack of vocabulary for this tendency. like most of Pakistanis.
He is quite good at formal writing. APPENDIX. so his exposure to academic life in a university is quite limited. which skills you were taught? . He is also doing job in a telecom company. He has never been a full time student after his matriculation. He learnt English grammar at school. He realises that doing MA English will be a challenging task. He has taken admission in MA English.2 Needs Analysis Questionnaire 1. He has done his BA through distance learning. makes many mistakes in speaking. and needs to improve his listening skill as well. His writing skill needs improvement. and exhibits limited range of vocabulary. His writing lacks organization and coherence. His BA is in Arts.25 of teaching and is never comfortable with a teacher-centred environment. This will be his first opportunity to be a full-time student as his employer has granted him a study leave for a year. He has joined this course because he is concerned that his EAP skills are far from being satisfactory. Describe your previous experience of learning English. Junaid Junaid is 29. where he is made to play a passive role. His listening skills are much better as he is used to watching English news channels and movies.
Which specific skill or area you would like to improve during this course? 10. What expectations do you have from this course and how do you think this course could help you in your future studies? 11. this could be an experience inside or outside class? 5. Have you ever given presentations in class? 16. What was usually the size of your class? 4. Were you given tasks which you had to complete through pair-work or was it only lecture-based? 3. Do you think you can speak English with considerable ease without making too many mistakes? 13. if yes could you give reasons. Describe how you were taught English. Which skill you don¶t enjoy at all? 8. Which skill you enjoy the most? 7. Do you feel shy or hesitant while speaking English. Have you ever done group-discussion in class? 15. Do you feel encouraged and motivated to learn English? 12. reading or writing? 6. Do you struggle to find words when you write or speak English? 17.26 2. why? 14. Which skill you think you are good at. listening. Can you describe a language learning experience which you found most helpful and enjoyable. What is the main reason behind your joining this EAP course? 9. speaking. was it a teacher-centred class? (a learning environment where you seldom got opportunities to speak and share your experiences). What is your method of learning new words? .
285-286) APPENDIX. news channels etc. Do you watch English movies. novels. do you look it up in dictionary or try to guess its meanings form the context? 21.1997. When you come across an unfamiliar word while reading. if yes how often? (Some questions are adapted from Jordan&Mackey (1973) cited in Jordan. Have you ever written an academic assignment. English for Academic Purposes. Do you regularly read newspapers? 22. do you find these assignments difficult? 24.3 SYLLABUS GRID Breakdown Reading of Activities Activities in Weeks Writing Activities Listening & Speaking Activities Study Skills Activities . Have you ever done creative writing? 23. Cambridge University Press. books etc? 20. Do you often consult dictionary while reading? 19. What type of material you enjoy reading. documentaries.27 18.(p. newspapers.
the likely theme may be µ Freedom. gathering information. they will be asked to brainstorm on µ My First Week in EAP class. using their own symbols etc ) . watching movie clips.28 First Week Pre-reading activities. group work (newspaper articles will be used) Pre-writing ( discovering new ideas. Lion King. (if possible I will record some of these discussions and will replay them to give students an idea of how they speak and give them feedback on the choice of words. ( how to jot down main-ideas. organizing ideas. followed by speaking activities on themes taken from movies ( Clips from The Spirit. students will be shown clips from any of the above-mentioned movies followed by an analysis of the spoken grammar. sharing experiences. from JFK the final court scene will be used for class discussion. later they will write on this topic. body language etc. these recordings may serve Lectures and note taking activities ( Videos of lectures will be used. One session will be on analysing spoken grammar. From The Spirit. JFK etc will be used for these activities) the possible themes from Lion King may be µLust for power¶. followed by a question & answer session. students may be asked to narrate the story of the Stallion (The Spirit) to their peers and tell what they find inspirational in the story. or Love. students will be taken to another class and asked to take down notes of lectures. students will be asked to work in groups and draw up a list of topics. their spoken grammar. they will also be told about the basic techniques of notetaking. priming. or Family. brainstorming. or any other theme highlighted by learners. it will not only be an interesting writing activity but will also provide a quick feedback on how they view this EAP course Introducing oneself.
peer correction. mobile phone companies¶ help lines for seeking information Seminars and presentation activities Using library and web recourses . teacher evaluation ( writing as a process) Teacher¶s feedback may also be form focused as some of the learners may desire form focused feedback. syntactical. Interviews. BBC. cultural clues. scanning. Free writing on µ Life in modern age¶ (15 min) Descriptive writing ( describing an object.( The most prized possession of mine) describing scenes of a movie.g CNN. For homework students will be given passages for reading followed by exercises on guessing meanings from context Preparing first. bibliography Third and Fourth Week Skimming.29 as µSpeaking Portfolios¶ Second Week Guessing meanings from context. movie clips which students have seen in first week will be recycled for this activity but the focus this time Exposing students to different speaking accents (Clips from news channels e. second and third drafts. selfcorrection. Express News) followed by a themebased group discussion and listening task. travel brochures. footnotes. reading for understanding the relationship between main ideas and their expansion. impromptu speaking. Fox and Pakistani English News Channels ( Dawn. both national and international short stories. Sky. Panel interviews. sensitizing. editing. given their academic backgrounds. confirming and correcting guesses from dictionaries. using nonverbal factors of communication. Predicting by watching a movie clip without sound Research and referencing activities ( Quotations. annual report of International Islamic university or any other material which Persuasive speaking activities. they will be given a home task to prepare a presentation Calling banks. (newspapers. students will be taught how to give an effective presentation. reading between the lines. looking for contextual.
students will give a short talk on the same topic which has already been used in a writing task (students will also maintain a writing journal).g The issue of Co-education in Pakistan. Writing activities will be recycled into speaking tasks.30 students may find interesting will be used. Drawing conclusions. Argumentative writing. Defend and argue a position e. this activity will be followed by giving students a list of useful words which they may need in describing people and objects) autobiographical accounts ( describing oneself) Narrative writing. how to wardoff anxiety during exam preparation etc) Fifth Week . individual and peer presentations will be arranged by students Test-taking techniques ( how to prepare for an exam. activities from Developing Reading Skills by Grellet ( 1981) will be used in class will be describing scenes and characters. Analysis of academic writing (Hedging Giving presentations on topics negotiated with learners followed by peer review. Comparison and contrast.
Delivering a short talk ordering and sequencing information. Students will be given a miniresearch project for instance Problems faced Listening to lectures followed by speaking activity Timemanagement skills Seventh and Eighth week Activities focused at improving vocabulary through reading with focus on most useful vocabulary first . summarizing and paraphrasing text Creative and critical writing activities (writing a story on a lead) Writing picture story. Formal and informal letters. some of the study skills such as research and referencing . Sending Ecards. overgeneralized language will be given to students. the time duration of this test will be an hour. writing a book review. introducing learners to figurative language through reading texts ( diverse material will be used which may include travel accounts. feelings etc) writing a critique of a newspaper article. biographical accounts. previous years¶ students¶ assignments can be used for this purpose) Sixth Week Matching pictures with text . Resume. recipes. examples of vague and. Speed reading activities from Developing Reading Skills by Grellet Writing job application.31 and vague language. movie reviews. email. writing about emotions. the mini-research project activity which was used in writing class will be recycled into a speaking activity where students will share their findings with their peers in the form of a class presentation Summative assessment of study skills (Students will be asked to write brief answers to questions.
they will interview students and share their findings in the form of a report Writing assignments. McKeown. mood NOTE: Writing portfolios of all students will be maintained WRITING ASSESSMENT LISTENING/SPEAKING ASSESSMENT skills. etc will be tested through tasks designed for assessing writing skill) Questioning the author activities as suggested by Beck.32 book reviews etc) by students living in Hostel. Analyzing a writing text for tone. Hamilton and Kucan (1997)newspapers editorials and passages from books will be used for this activity READING ASSESSMENT APPENDIX 4 ASSESSMENT GRID SKILL: WRITING .
very few references. main ideas stand out. very little evidence of research No critical analysis. thoroughly researched Critical analysis evident in most parts supported by limited range of references. effective complex constructions sustained throughout the assignment . some evidence of research Inadequate critical analysis. redundant and shows no knowledge C D A B C D Critical Analysis and Referencing Skill Depth of critical analysis adequately displayed running through the whole of assignment supported by a wide range of references. B C D A B Content Relevant to the assigned topic.33 Organisation A Organisational skills and development of ideas clearly visible throughout the assignment. flow of ideas fluent and properly sequenced Organisational skills visible though loosely organized. only descriptive. no or minimal evidence of research A GRAMMAR Very few grammatical inaccuracies. major gaps in relevance and development of ideas Bears no resemblance to the assigned topic. logical but not properly sequenced Little organisation of content. knowledgeable and substantive which adequately helps the development of ideas Mostly relevant but there may be some gaps and irrelevant information which limits the development of ideas at some places Limited knowledge of subject. lacks logical sequencing or disconnected ideas in most parts No apparent organisation of content. logical development of ideas missing completely.
inappropriate use of register through out the assignment B C D Some features adapted from Jacob¶s et al.¶s (1981) scoring profile and TEEP writing scales ( Weir. major problems with sentence construction running through the whole assignment VOCABULARY A Appropriate register. Do you think the course achieved its objectives? .34 B C Some grammatical errors. frequent errors of word choice and register Vocabulary inadequate. 1990) cited in Weigle (2002) pp.116-117) A=Excellent B=Good C=Unsatisfactory D=Fail APPENDIX 5 COURSE EVALUATION QUESTIONAIRRE 1. wide range of vocabulary evident through out the assignment Adequate range of vocabulary. effective use of words. effective but simple construction Grammatical errors and problems with construction frequent D Almost no knowledge of grammar evident. occasional error of choice of words and register Limited range of vocabulary. little or no knowledge of word form and using the right words.
What are your comments on the quality of teaching? 7. Which skill you enjoyed doing the most? 5. Has the course lived up to your general expectations? 6. In NUNAN. What changes would you suggest to improve the course? 3.67-86 . Please comment on the teaching material 12. Was there any particular problem you faced during the course? 11. Which skill you improved the most? 4. N. Reading. Do you think the atmosphere in class was interactive? 8. Practical English Language Teaching. Which activity you found the most boring? 10. Please comment on the assessment tasks BIBLIOGRAPHY ANDERSON. Did your teacher answer your queries satisfactorily? 9.pp.ed.2003.D. International Edition: McGrawHill. Please comment on homework 13.35 2.
ed. M. 1997. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .36 BLYTH. 1996. International Edition: McGrawHill. K. F. In NUNAN. pp. K.12-35 GRELLET.ed. G. Classroom-based assessment.ed. pp.119-150. In: GRAVES.1981. Designing an EAP course for postgraduate students in Ecuador. R.ed.D. K. In: GRAVES. 1996. Developing Reading Skills. M. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press FRANCO. Teachers as Course Developers. G. GRAVES. pp. Practical English Language Teaching. Teachers as Course Developers.86-104 BRINDLEY. pp.309-328 BUCK. K. 2003. English for Academic Purposes. Designing a writing component for Teen courses at a Brazilian Educational institute. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2001. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press JORDAN. A Framework of Course Design. In: GRAVES. Teachers as Course Developers. Assessing Listening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1996. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Teaching ESL/EFL Listening & Speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press THORNBURY. Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing.37 NATION.P & NEWTON. 2005.J. Taylor & Francis NUNAN. Taylor & Francis NATION.2002. 2009. S. I. New York: Routledge. Assessing Writing. 2004. Syllabus Design. 1998. Task-based Language Teaching.S. I. D. New York: Routledge.S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .D.P. How to Teach Speaking: Pearson Longman WEIGLE. Oxford: Oxford University Press NUNAN. S. 2009.