Contents CHAPTER ONE 6 1.0 Introduction 6 1.1 Problem Background 6 1.2 STANDARD CHARTERED BANK GHANA 8 1.2.1 Products and Services 9 1.2.

2 Stanchart’s Commitment to Human Resource Development 10 1.3 Statement of the Problem 10 1.4 The Rationale 11 1.5 The Objectives 12 1.6 Usefulness of the Study 13 1.7 Scope of the Study 14 1.8 Statements of Hypothesis 14 1.9 The Research Questions 15 1.10 Arrangement of Research 15 CHAPTER TWO 17 2.0 CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW 17 2.1 Human Resource Training and Development 18 2.2 Learning Concepts and Methods 30 2.3 The Process of Training Needs Evaluation 33 2.4 Critical Evaluation of Some Commonly Used Training Methods 34 2.6 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 39 2.6.1 Conceptual Abstract 41 CHAPTER THREE 42 3.0 INTRODUCTION 42 3.1 THE RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY 42 3.2.1 Research Approach and Design 43 3.2.2 The Research Strategy 45 3.3 SAMPLING 47 3.4 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION 50 3.4.1 Primary data 50 3.4.2 Secondary data 52 3.5 RESEARCH CREDIBILITY 53 CHAPTER FOUR 54 4.1 INTRODUCTION 55 4.2 Questionnaire Distribution 55 4.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 56 4.4 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE FEEDBACK 59 4.4.1 Section A: Managers Questionnaire 59 4.4.2 Section B: Analysis of Staff Questionnaire 69 4.4 TESTING OF HYPOTHESES 81 CHAPTER FIVE 88 5.0 INTRODUCTION 88 5.1 DISCUSSIONS 89 5.1.1 Analysis of the research objectives 89 5.2 Appraisal of Research Methodology 92 5.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF HRD TO GHANA’S BANKING SECTOR 93 5.3.1 Training 95 5.3.2 Learning 96 5.4 T&D AT STANDARD CHARTERED BANK GHANA 97 5.4.1 Career Development 97 5.4.2 The Process of Training and Development at Standard Chartered Bank Ghana 98 5.4.3 T&D and Performance 99 5.4.4 Benefit of T&D to Standard Chartered Bank Ghana 100 5.5 Summary of Research Findings 101 CHAPTER SIX 103 6.0 Conclusions 103 6.1 Recommendations 104 6.2 Limitations 105

6.3 Suggestion for Future Studies 106 6.4 Reflection on Learning 106 APPENDICES 111 Appendix 1: Questionnaires 111 Appendix 1a: Managers Questionnaire 111 Appendix 1b: Staff Questionnaire 118 Appendix 1c: Comments by Questionnaire Respondents Appendix 3: Interview 126 Appendix 3a: Objectives of Interview Questions 126 Appendix 3b: Interview Request Letter 129 Appendix 3c: interview excerpts 130 Appendix 4: The Chi - Square Test 132 Appendix 6: Gant Chart 134

125

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Table 2.1 the most important job offer component to employees. 23 Figure 2.1 the balanced scorecard, sourced from Kaplan and Norton. 24 Figure 2.2 Kolb s learning axis 33 Figure 2.3 conceptual abstract from conceptual framework 41 Table 3.1 pros and cons of a survey. 47 Table 3.2 comparisons between questionnaires and interviews. 51 Table 3.3 pros and cons of a survey of secondary data. 52 Table 4.1 Distribution of respondents by status or position 56 Table 4.2 Distribution of respondents by sex 57 Table 4.3 Length of service of respondents 57 Table 4.4 Departmental distribution of respondents 58 Table 5.1 the basic differences between development and training 97 Figure 5.1 the process of improving performance at Stanchart using T&D. 98 BIBLIOGRAPHY 135

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction Training and development (T&D) has clear motivational, performance and financial benefits for organisations. Yet, most organisations find it difficult to fully appreciate those benefits because it is linked to an organisations core processe s that create mission-related products, and is not seen as a goal on its own (Sw anson, 2001). According to Sims (1998), where training and development initiativ es are considered as a capital investment, the returns on the investment can be hugely rewarding. Unfortunately, as Beardwell and Holden (1994) pointed out, some organizations st ill do not realize the full benefit of their training and development investment s. in view of Beardwell and Holden’s comments, this research developed a conceptua l framework from a critical evaluation of relevant theories, models and concepts and applied it to Standard Chartered Bank Ghana, which has a reputation for bes t practice in human resource development (HRD); in order to establish useful fi ndings on the importance of HRD. 1.1 Problem Background Ghana gained independence from Britain in 1957, and quickly realised the importa

 

nce of human resource as a key facilitator of national growth and development. C onsequently, the Ghana National Vocational Training Institute (GNVTI) Act of 196 9 was enacted to: Equip the people with skills that would enable them maximise her vast na tural resources; Use training to enhance human capabilities and improve their entrepreneu rial skills; and Supply both private and public sectors with skilled labour force. As at 2007, there were 6 public universities, 32 private universities, 10 polyte chnics, 2 professional institutes, 38 post-secondary teacher training colleges a nd a rising figure for private tertiary education (UNESCO, 2007). According to U NESCO (2007), 44% of Ghanaians have secondary and 9.8% at least a first degree o r Higher National Diploma (HND) qualifications. It would appear from this statis tics that Ghana has acquired enough educated labour force to supply both the pub lic and private sectors of her economy in the 21st century. Today, many in Ghana still perceive training and development as an exercise int ended for those without higher or formal education. This view reflects the outlo ok at the establishment of the GNTVI in 1965, and has no regard to the metamorph osis the country has gone through since independence. In spite of this general misconception, Standard Chartered Bank of Ghana, with e xperience in harnessing human potential to achieve optimum performance, gained t hrough working with diverse cultures in different countries stands out as one of the few exceptional companies in Ghana, where training and development is used as the key differentiator to gain competitive edge. This research primarily focuses on the service sector and Standard Chartered Ban k (Stanchart) of Ghana in particular. The study is centred on the bank’s training and employee development schemes and how those initiatives contribute to the ban k achieving long term growth and competitive advantage; and therefore how this c an benefit other Ghanaian companies who have not realised their full potential. 1.2 STANDARD CHARTERED BANK GHANA

Established in 1896, The Bank of British West Africa, now Standard Chartered, is Ghana’s oldest bank. It trades on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE), with 80% owners hip by Standard Chartered PLC, while the remaining 20% locally traded on the GSE . Consistently ranked among the top three, Standard Chartered has a reputation a s one of Ghana’s best banks (http://www.standardchartered.com/gh/about-us/en/, acc essed on 13/07/09 at 20:32 hours). Stanchart provides complete trade finance, cash management services and foreign exchange products to consumers, institutions and corporations. With over 729 emp loyees, Stanchart has 19 fully computerised and networked branches and two agenc ies across Ghana. Consumer banking is provided at all the 19 branches, however, the Bank’s corporate and institutional banking operations are limited to Ghana’s thr ee main commercial cities of Accra, Kumasi and Takoradi (http://www.standardchar tered.com/gh/about-us/en/, accessed on 13/07/09 at 20:32 hours). 1.2.1 Products and Services There are two main banking activities, wholesale and consumer banking. Services offered under its consumer banking are: Call centres Transactional banking Personal loans Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Wholesale banking serves corporate and institutional clients, with particular em phasis on relationship banking tailored to individual needs. These include: Access to conventional as well as structured products such as lending, t rade finance, cash management and treasury, foreign exchange, as well as cross-b order payments, transaction banking and custodial services. Provision of an extensive knowledge on international markets, currencies , interest rates and risk management to clients. Stanchart has won many prestigious awards, in recognition for its outstanding ac

hievements, notably: Best Bank Ghana, Euromoney Excellence Awards 2007. Best Bank of the Year, 2006, Ghana @50 Golden Jubilee Business & Financi al Services Excellence. Despite fierce competition, Standard Chartered Bank continues to outperform most of its rivals, and remain one of the most prominent and successful bank where p rospective job seekers aspire to work. 1.2.2 Stanchart’s Commitment to Human Resource Development “We strive to make Standard Chartered a great place to work by creating an engagi ng, inclusive and safe environment that rewards success and encourages employees to take control of their personal development” (www.standardchartered.com/gh). Th is statement is a manifestation of employee development culture created by the b ank to serve as the foundation for growth exhibited through increased productivi ty and performance. Stanchart was selected this research because, unlike most organisations in Ghana , the bank understands that developing and enhancing their employees’ natural apti tude present the best way to move ahead of competitors. Such commitments to deve loping human talent earned the bank recognition by the highly regarded Harvard B usiness Review’s November issue of ‘Wining the Talent Race in Emerging Markets’ (HBR, 2008). 1.3 Statement of the Problem Human resource development has been defined by Wilson (2005) as processes design ed to improve the capabilities of people, so that they may be able to provide me aningful support to the attainment of organisational objectives and personal goa ls. Sadly, most Ghanaian organisations recognize training development more as pr ofit draining expenditure than a key component to meet their strategic objective s (Budhwar and Debrah, 2001). The International Labour Organisation (1998) encourages organisations to relate T&D to their structures and strategic capabilities, if strategic objectives are to be met. Nevertheless, some institutions in Ghana struggle to establish a tang ible relationship between human resources development and performance (in terms of revenue and meeting strategic objectives). Stewart and McGoldwick (1996) pointed to the fact that training and development must be made to fit into the overall organisational agenda. However, there are s ome training programmes that do not satisfy organisations needs and therefore do not improve productivity. Sims and Sims (1995) concluded that even well meaning T&D programmes have failed to yield the desired results because individual need s and learning styles were not factored into training plans. This questions the methods, monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of training programmes a dministered to employees. 1.4 The Rationale There is evidence to suggest that training and development are indeed considered as an expense because, during difficult economic times when businesses are stru ggling, T&D remains one of the first programmes whose funding are cut or suspend ed. Several organisations seem to view employee development initiatives as more optional than essential; a view that can be costly to both short-term profits an d long-term growth (Beardwell, and Holden, 1994). In difficult times organisations require the flexibility, skills and knowledge t hat can be attained through training and development to steer clear to safety. I t is believed that organisations that cut employee development programmes in dif ficult times stand to lose rather than gain. This research aims to explore the r elationship between T&D and performance; how financial benefits may be derived f rom effective training and development programmes, and why it is critical for or ganisations to embrace training and development as part of their business strate gies if they aim for competitive advantage and sustainable growth. Globalisation and technological advance have seen the banking sector become incr edibly competitive, so banks must outperform their competitors in order to achie ve significant growth. In this research, the rationale was to find out how Stand ard Chartered Bank Ghana’s training and human resources development initiatives en

courage an enabling environment for growth. 1.5 The Objectives In view of the issues outlined in sections 1.4 and 1.5, the research aimed to: Find out if a relationship exists between development and organisational performance; as well as establish the relationship between development and perf ormance at Standard Chartered Bank, Ghana. Establish why some T&D initiatives are more successful than others; and examine why Stanchart has been successful in such initiatives. Determine why T&D should be a strategic issue; and verify why Stanchart considers T&D as strategic. Identify the beneficiaries of T&D, and to scrutinize who gains from T&D initiatives at Stanchart. 1.6 Usefulness of the Study Johnson et al (2008) argue that the strategic strength of an organisation to pur sue stated objectives depends on its resource capability. Wilson (2005) highligh ts the fact that the most valuable resources at the disposal of an organisation are its people. This implies that organisations must create an enabling environm ent to develop and enhance the abilities of its people in order to successfully meet their targets. Hitherto, the process of matching an organisation’s employment policies to its str ategies defined human resource management (HRM). These days, HRM includes such a ctivities as motivation, reward systems, personnel planning, promotion, personne l development, performance appraisal, employee relations, etc (Hendry, 1995). Te chnological innovation and globalisation call for the need to train and develop employees so that they can survive a fiercely competitive and multifaceted busin ess world. This research will strengthen calls for organisations in Ghana to attach maximum attention to human resource development. It will further help to alter the mind set of those who still find it difficult to understand why training and developm ent should be part of the overall strategic planning. Additionally, individuals who fail to give their full commitment to training ini tiatives because of misconceptions will be enlightened, while the research will also provide a good source of knowledge and a reference point for those who wish to widen their understanding on T&D. The researcher had an opportunity to gain invaluable knowledge on the subject to advance his ambition of becoming a human resource development consultant in Gha na. Furthermore, as a prospective MBA graduate, it would be expected of the author t o demonstrate high level self-determination, discipline and competency to succes sfully manage projects and business portfolios. This study is a demonstration of the researcher’s ability to identify and solve a practical business problem withi n a limited time frame and constrained resources. 1.7 Scope of the Study This research was confined to a detailed examination of the effectiveness and be nefits associated with human resources training and development; and how such in itiatives can improve employee productivity. Throughout this research, training and development were, at times indistinguishable terms used to denote related me anings. Additionally, it must be noted that Stanchart was used on occasions to d enote Standard Chartered Bank Ghana. 1.8 Statements of Hypothesis H0: That human resource development will improve staff productivity H1: That human resource development will not improve staff productivity H0: That human resource development will motivate employees to give their best H1: That human resources development will not motivate employees to give their b est HO: That training and development is a strategic issue. H1: That training and development is not a strategic issue. HO: That human resource development will contribute to make staff receptive to c hange. H1: That human resource development will not contribute to make staff receptive

to change. 1.9 The Research Questions The following questions were asked to help address the hypothetical issues raise d above and to direct the study to the appropriate literature: Why should organisations engage in human resource development? How do training and development initiatives affect staff motivation and performance? How important is human resource development to achieving strategic objec tives? To what extent do methods of administering training programmes affect th eir outcome? To what extent will lack of effective human resource planning hinder initiating and sustaining training programmes? 1.10 Arrangement of Research Chapter One – Introduction Chapter Two – Critical literature review Chapter Three – Research methodology Chapter Four – Data analysis Chapter Five – Discussion of analysed data and findings Chapter Six – Conclusion, recommendations and reflection on learning It had been anticipated that given the importance Stanchart attaches to T&D, acc ess to certain data on the subject that the bank deemed ‘strictly confidential’, mig ht be denied. Although Stanchart is regarded as one of the companies in Ghana with excellent t raining record (Budhwar and Debrah, 2001), situations where employees were unabl e to effectively appraise their own performances, and therefore provide response s to questionnaire were expected. Although assurances were given to safeguard th eir identities, some employees were concerned about respondent confidentiality, which somewhat affected the number of questionnaire feedbacks received. There were proximity issues, too. Conducting the research from the UK presented a considerable challenge in terms of administering and collection of questionnai res.

CHAPTER TWO 2.0 CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW

Hart (2001) described literature review as an important process through which a deeper understanding of a research topic and the various issues associated with it are identified. This chapter assessed the theoretical or conceptual framework for this research, through a comprehensive analysis of published literature by previous and contem porary authors on human resource training and development. Although there are ma ny theories and concepts on the topic, of greater interest in this chapter were: To highlight and deliberate any gaps in the available facts on training and development. To conduct an extensive assessment of the available literature, to estab lish potential areas relevant to this research that had been identified by previ ous authors, but had not been fully explored. To identify other sources of useful secondary data other than those to b e obtained from Stanchart.

To seek any significant debate relating to human resource development. To identify any pertinent issues or problems encountered by earlier rese archers on human resource development that are likely to affect this study. 2.1 Human Resource Training and Development Human resource development is the process of improving people’s abilities through training, education and development so that they can significantly contribute to the realisation of their personal, organisational and societal goals (Wilson, 2 005). Organisations that adequately develop human capacity and engage them in po licy making have a consciousness that developing employees instils greater respo nsibility in them to allow them a more active role in organisational development and growth. Nevertheless, some organisations would ignore human resource development and emp loyee engagement altogether, if they were not either obliged by government legis lation or trade unions to involve workers in certain decision making processes ( Beardwell and Holden, 1994). For such organisations, Kanter’s (1983) implication t hat people are the most valuable assets available to an organisation is a hollow argument. Considering the benefits to be had, it begs the question why certain organisations take such an unenthusiastic view on T&D. Wilson (2001) seemed to suggest that a lack of proper differentiation between th e components of human resources development (HRD) and that of human resource man agement (HRM) could be part of the reasons why some organisation fail to notice the importance of T&D. While HRM and HRD are considered by many as associated te rms, there is a clear distinction between them. HRM concerns managing the human resources of an organisation, including providing adequate staffing, employee re lations, remuneration and other related issues; while HRD is concerned with acti vities aimed at improving the skills and abilities of the people in the organisa tion (Bratton and Gold, 2001). As the business world continues to be driven by information and knowledge, Goad (1997) argues that the subject of training and development in an organisational context could not have come at a more critical time; given the need to bring up to date employees skills in dealing with workplace diversity, technological adva ncements, and improved productivity, etc. As many local and international organi sations compete for limited best available talents (Smith, 1995), it is reasonab le for them to develop their own employees and local talents to meet their strat egic needs, instead of engaging in competition for ‘already made’ external talents. The need to develop employees must not only be restricted to avoiding competitio n for the best available talent, as Smith (1995) pointed out. This is because, o rganisations and existing employees need to be abreast of changes around them an d be prepared to face up to these changes in order to survive and compete effici ently. According to Garvin (2000), it is imperative for organisations to develop the intelligence, knowledge, and creative potential of human beings at every le vel of the organisation. This will ensure that only the people who are skilled a nd have had their potential fully developed occupy key places in the organisatio n. Hitherto, the strategy of the so called ‘big’ banks such as Barclays, Cal Merchant B ank and Stanchart were mostly concentrated in the regional capitals of Ghana. Ho wever, the arrival of rural banks and other financial institutions such as Zenit h (one of Africa’s biggest banks) into the Ghanaian banking sector have required t he ‘big’ banks to re-think this strategy and expand into other areas. But, simply re locating staff to ‘take care of business’ in different geographical locations will n ot be sufficient to achieve competitive advantage, unless they are provided with adequate local knowledge through training to understand cultural, diversity and other related issues, in order to serve customers well. Contributing to the discussion, Harrison (1992) argued that T&D must be inclusiv e such that, organisations and individuals can, with time, acquire ample experie nce and knowledge to achieve growth. While Harrison made a sound observation, it is understood that time is not the sole contributor to gaining adequate knowled ge and experience to achieve sustainable growth. The development process has to be well planned and suitably integrated into the organisation, if real growth at individual and organisational levels is to be achieved and sustained.

Reading (1997) stressed that learning attained by organisations through T&D help s in determining its capability to transform itself for fast, fundamental change . Reading opines that a company is a learning organisation to the extent that it must intentionally build its capacity to learn as a whole and weave that capaci ty into all of its aspects, i.e. vision and strategy, leadership and management, culture, structure, systems and processes which would culminate to superior per formance. Adding to the deliberations, Stewart and McGoldwick (1996) emphasised that it is not enough for organisations simply to employ people to work for them and expec t to achieve sustainable growth. This is because, even though the people employe d might have gained a wealth of general knowledge and experience in their previo us endeavours, such broad knowledge by employees and managers may not be suffici ent to bring success to the business, unless organisations train and develop the m to meet the business’ specific needs. Stewart and McGoldwick support the idea of employees being considered as related to a firms raw materials, which must be ‘pr ocessed’ to improve their capabilities through training, to enable them to efficie ntly fit into the organisation’s culture. Reichheld and Teal (1996) caution that organisations face the prospect of losing the loyalty, motivation and commitment of both management and workforce if ther e is a lack of personnel training and development. This is even more so compelli ng, considering the cost of recruiting and training new employees to replace new ones, in addition to the loss of productivity when new and inexperienced worker s replace old hands. Despite these facts, some organisations consider T&D as a c ost that should be avoided rather than a means to achieving good results. If organisations fail to develop their managers, the benefits of development pro grammes may not be fully realised. Most companies set themselves the strategic o bjectives of improving return on investment (ROI) and, according to Posner (2006 ) companies that dedicate a considerable amount of time and money on training th eir managers enjoy a better ROI. Posner’s analysis on management training demonstr ates that no matter how well organisations train their staff, they will still re quire competent and vibrant leaders to steer their employees to achieve strategi c objectives. The importance of management development cannot be overemphasized because; the effectiveness of management in an organisation is deemed to be one of the critical success factors (Mullins, 2007). Organisations are expected to make profits and improve earnings per share (EPS) for shareholders through the provision of goods and services that satisfy societ al needs. That purpose can only be realised when people (customers) patronise th ose services rendered by the organisation, which makes customers some of the fir m’s most important stakeholders (Jobber, 2002). Pivotal to this objectives realisa tion are employees, who must find the most efficient ways to provide good qualit y products and services. They must have the skills to anticipate awkward circums tances and deal with them in a manner that put smiles on customers’ face (Kemin, 2 006). The question though is how can employees put smiles on customers’ faces when they wear frowns on their own faces? Flannes and Levin (2005) reason that some managers contribute to staff despondency, due to lack of the necessary people’s sk ill needed in modern business management. They advocate that the training and de velopment to should be two fold, to include managers so as for them to acquire a mong other qualities, good interpersonal skills in order that they can relate to their subordinates in a manner that will raise their enthusiasm and motivation. The Corporate Leadership Council’s (2002) research on the relationship between per formance management and retention provided strong evidence that most employees l ooked up to their managers for inspiration, support and leadership. The report s howed that good manager/employee relations are a key motivational and loyalty en hancement tool. It stressed that most people would be prepared to work extra har der if they enjoyed good relationships with their mangers. It drew parallels bet ween companies with high employee turnover and lack of good employee/management relationships, as illustrated in table 2.1. (www.corporateleadershipcouncil.com) Table 2.1 the most important job offer component to employees (The Corporate Lea

dership Board, 2002). Kirkpatrick (2006), contributing to a discussion on why one cannot establish a t angible relationship between T&D and performance, declared that, before employee s are hired to carryout tasks, corporate goals must be plainly defined to set th e basis for managers to eloquently communicate expectations to employees. Bailey (1982, cited in Kazanas and Rothwell, 2003) suggested that performance is relat ed to results as a consequence of a series of activities carried out to meet org anisational objectives within a laid down benchmark. Breaking down Bailey’s sugges tion underlines three fundamental elements: the person undertaking the activity the nature of activity the circumstances in which the activity is carried out. These provide a clear indication of the positive relationship between training a nd performance because, while training does not change the composition of a job description, it does alter the competencies, abilities and the inclination of th e individuals involved (Rothwell and Kazanas, 2003). The balanced scorecard is a business planning and management tool, intended by K aplan and Norton (1996) to bring business activities in line with vision and tac tics, and provides a platform for monitoring performance against strategic goals (Figure 2.1). Figure 2.1 the balanced scorecard, sourced from Kaplan and Norton, 1996. The figure features learning and growth, and the principles behind it are that t raining can give knowledge to improve an individual’s performance which thus affec ts organisational success. There is a general consensus among business, government and financial analysts t hat the banking sector was the most severely affected by the 2008 global financi al meltdown. At the height of the 2008 global recession, many organisations soug ht refuge in unplanned redundancies and staff downsizing. Whereas the need to su rvive might give some credence and sympathies for such spontaneous and, in some instances drastic actions, the significant issue of lack of strategic human reso urce planning on the part of most organisations cannot be overemphasised. Had th ere been proper human resource planning, perhaps those organisations might have been able to forecast with some degree of certainty that the global economic boo m was bound to end on or around 2008, given the history of the world economy whi ch seems to suggest a cyclical period of growth and downturn. This would have gi ven them the opportunity to institute measures to train and develop their member s of staff before being compelled to do so. Human resource planning was originally intended to predict labour shortage and o r avoid problems associated with costly redundancies caused by overstaffing. How ever, the process of measuring labour requirement in line with the potential sup ply and those steps put in place to make sure that the human capital available i s equal to all of the organisation’s key skills or job categories makes human reso urce planning more dynamic in practice (Harris et al., 2003). To be able to asse ss the current level of employee expertise and envisage the skills that would be needed to meet the organisation’s future strategic objectives require meticulous planning. This is a critical statement that opens up the debate as to why most companies f ail to include training in their human resource activities; which is especially the case in Ghanaian companies. According to Budhwar and Debrah (2001), lack of openness in recruitment and selection affects human resource planning because, m ost employment offers in Ghana are mainly given to ‘whom you know’ or through nepoti sm. Hence, although T&D more normally done as part of performance evaluation, th e opportunity to assess the future training and development needs of an individu al that would have become clear during the normal course of recruitment and sele ction is eliminated. The culture of involuntary training and development approac h as opposed to proactively planning for organisations’ future needs of its human resources also makes it difficult to set up any long term training and developme nt programmes in most companies. Furthermore, Boxall (1992, cited in Budhwar and Debrah, 2001) acknowledges that

effective human resource planning hardly exist amongst Ghanaian companies due to a lack of sufficiently qualified statisticians in most human resource departmen ts to translate statistical data into long term planning. Planning ensures effic ient recording of staff behaviours and performance before and after undergoing t raining. So without such planning, it would be difficult to establish any notice able changes or improvements in employees. Rothwell and Kazanas (2002) summarised the discussion by emphasising that traini ng and development must be a direct corollary of rational human resource plannin g, including: Recruitment strategy, with an assessment of current and a projected futu re human resources levels so that the organization will be able to escape unfore seen shortages of staff; Training and development programmes to develop and enhance the skills of employees to avoid skills shortages; Develop managers to avoid management shortages; A reconciliation of organizational goals and HR needs; and Industrial relations plans to avoid disparity in quality and quantity of employees so as to avoid industrial unrests such as strikes. Beardwell and Holden (1994) call attention to the idea that technology has reduc ed the demand for people in certain industries including finance and banking to the extent that, those who are employed are expected to possess particular skill s to compliment the use of technology. Human resource strategy, according Grundy and Brown (2003) plays an invaluable role in the pursuit of an organisations qu est for competitive advantage through an effective development of people to meet strategic goals and objectives. This requires long term planning, culminating i n the marketing of the organisation to potential employees and may involve the i dentification, attraction and selection of the right calibre of people, while br idging their interests to those of organisational goals. While there are many benefits to be derived from training and development initia tives, there can be little doubt of the fact that employees equally gain from su ch ventures. This raises some rather controversial questions in terms of who act ually benefits from the development most; and who should bear the costs of such endeavours. Organisations invest resources to train and develop their human reso urces, with the view that their employees will in turn become more productive an d gain a consciousness to better adapt to their environment. However, training a nd developing an organisation’s human resource also increase employability. Even w hen training is done in line with the firm’s explicit needs rather than transferab le knowledge, it might still provide employees some technical know-how that migh t be of interest to competitors and they may leave if offered better employment conditions. On that basis, why would it not be appropriate to expect employees t o contribute to their personal development, instead of some organisations using such excuse as a justification not to investing in employees’ development? Penny Rose (www.entrepreneur.com, accessed on 17/08/09, at 1555 hours) suggests that rather than using defection by trained employees as an excuse not to traini ng and develop, organisations can institute measures such as written agreements between employers and employees to the extent that employees who receive a signi ficant career and professional training at the organisation’s expense will have to work for a period of time agreed by both parties (it is possible, however, that such agreements might not be legally enforceable). But while T&D improve effici ency and productivity resulting better returns or profits, it must equally serve as a catalyst for promotion or resulting in better pay and enhanced all round c ondition. In this way, it may be more difficult for them to be poached by other organisations since their efforts and inputs are being recognised and rewarded. Sims and Sims’ (1995) argument that many well meaning development and training pro grammes fail to yield the desired results because, the majority of those program mes are designed for employees without taking factors such as individual learnin g styles into account raises two issues. Firstly, it queries the extent to which processes and techniques of administering T&D programmes affect their outcome. Although interchangeable, Kaplan and Norton (1996) advocate the need to distingu ish between the terms ‘learning’ and ‘training’. By so doing, it becomes possible to cho

ose the right approach for training. Otherwise, well meaning T&D initiatives in which organisations have invested time, financial and physical resources may not be as effective as expected. Secondly, Rainbird and Maguire (1993, cited in Beardwell and Holden, 1994) menti oned that organisations, apprehensive of losing key employees, offer training th at is specifically designed to improve the organisation rather than the individu al, causing some employees to lose commitment to training programmes. It suggest s that some employees might think of such programmes as neither contributing to their personal development, nor giving transferable knowledge. But if employee a re not trained to be more flexible in dealing with various situations, they then become too mechanical and that could well affect their all round effectiveness. There is a somewhat doubtful assumption that if people with the requisite skills , expertise and experience were employed to carry out relevant tasks, then train ing and development is not so vital. In such instances, those organisations who share this assumption tend to use money as incentive through head hunters, to at tract trained and developed employees in whom huge resources have been invested from direct competitors. This is perhaps one of the reasons why certain organisa tions do not feel so enthusiastic about training and development. After all, why spend time, energy and resources to train and develop employees, if you can ‘plun der’ from a direct competitor? Yet no two companies are the same because, companies differ in size, strategy, c ulture, structure and vision. Despite the fact that there are probable similarit ies in services provided by competing companies, when employees are trained and developed to meet one company’s specific needs, such training would have been prov ided factoring in such issues as organisational culture, strategy and goals. The refore, poaching them for the sole reason of experience without training them to conform to one’s explicit needs might reduce their effectiveness. Even if such ta ctics are beneficial, it is not practically feasible in Ghana, as most firms can not afford such expensive ‘clandestine’ operations. What s more, even if such an exe rcise was affordable, it would be more beneficial and economical to train and de velop ones own employees. 2.2 Learning Concepts and Methods Russ-eft, et al (1997) warn against organisations engaging in training and devel opment without clearly defining training objectives, examining the behavioural m odels applicable to improving training and development and considering how the r ole of tutors and trainers ultimately influence the outcome of the learning proc ess. It is said that children are extremely curious and asked too many questions. But why are they so curious? The Illinois Early Learning Project, IELP (http://illi noisearlylearning.org/tipsheets/curiouschild.htm, accessed on 14/08/09 at 22:46 hours), sheds light on the possible reason for children’s extreme curiosity. It ex plains that children crave knowledge and seek information about things around th em. They assume older people know everything and must therefore be able to give answers to their questions. This need to know presumably explains or gives cause to a child’s curiosity but, what about their incessant questioning? According to the IELP, three vital factors, i.e. asking questions, listening and the manner i n which questions are answered greatly influence the way a child learns. It impl ies that if answers do not or only partially satisfy the question, the child’s nee ds to know are not fulfilled and further questions may be asked. If the child is silenced for asking too many questions, there is a natural propensity that thei r curiosity might be stifled, hampering the child’s development in the process. In an organisational training and development process, learners must be seen as ha ving the same objectives as those of children, and therefore their need to know must be satisfied using the appropriate tools and techniques. According to Davis (2009) some students have a natural flair for learning while others require some encouragement, a challenge to stimulate them or an inspirati on from someone. In organisational context, however, the desire for efficiency a nd better employee productivity encourages organisations to train their staff. Unlike a child’s curiosity, employees may be compelled to undergo training, and mi

 

ght require a stimulant to give their full commitments to such programs. Therefo re, an instructor’s teaching style has an important role to play when passing on k nowledge to trainees. His or her general approach could be a source of immense m otivation, but could also destroy the fragile enthusiasm of those who feel compe lled to learn. Knowles, (1970, cited in Billings and Halstead, 2005) suggests th at organisations can adopt an andragogical approach, which allows adults to take responsibility for learning and use of resources; instead of a pedagogically tu ned environment that only allow a passive participation of the learner; as this could reduce training effectiveness. Advancing the argument, Brooks (2006) suggested that it matters little to invest so much into training programmes without taking individual learning styles and a significant evaluation of the methods used in administering them into the plan ning and administration of such programmes or initiatives. The idea of a ‘one size fits all’ approach in organisational learning must give way to one with a critica l examination of the trainees’ preferred learning style. This makes sure that the individual not only understands what is being thought but actually enjoys the pr ocess, which would ultimately reflect in their performance and general attitude. Contributing to the discussion, Kolb (1984) suggested that it is important to se riously consider the ways in which training is administered because diverse peop le by nature favour diverse and distinct learning styles and that several elemen ts affect one’s favoured method or style. Conspicuously elaborated in his experien tial learning theory model (ELT), Kolb provided three phases of human developmen t, and proposed that the human tendency to resolve and effectively integrate the four dissimilar learning styles and get better as people go through their devel opment period. Kolb identified the following development phases: Acquisition: from birth through to adolescence - development of fundamental capa bilities and cognitive structures Specialization: taking the form of schooling, early work and individual experien ces of adulthood - the development of a particular specialized learning style formed by social, educational, and organizational socialization Integration: during a person’s mid-career to later on in life - expression of nondominant learning style in work and personal life. Regardless of what informs the selection of a particular learning style, Kolb be lieves that the preferred style is a combination of two pairs of variables as se en below: Concrete Experience - CE (feeling) – V – Abstract Conceptualization – AC (thinking) Active Experimentation - AE (doing) – V – Reflective Observation – RO (watching) Kolb characterised the east – west axis continuum as the Processing Continuum, whi ch implies how people approach assignments. The north – south axis continuum was r eferred to as the Perception Continuum, which signifies people’s emotional reactio n: how they feel or think about things. A feature of Kolb s continuums (illustrated in figure 2.2) is that the east-west axis is called the Processing Continuum (how we approach a task), and the north -south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how w e reflect or feel about it). This concretizes his assertion that each learning s tyle is a combination of two variables. Figure 2.2 Kolb s learning axis (www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles, acces sed on 16/08/09 at 05:16 hours) 2.3 The Process of Training Needs Evaluation Actions or courses intended to impact on skills or know-how in order to undertak e specific tasks are termed training (Hackett, 2003). In order for it to achieve its set goals, Hackett argues that a training development plan must be set up t o contain: An identification of training and development needs, taking into account the strategic objectives of the organisations and individual differences; The realisation of individual differences calls for proper examination o f individuals skills levels, and planning of training to meet individual conditi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ona; Establish the most appropriate methods for individuals and possibly grou ps; Design, deliver and evaluate the effectiveness of the training programme . 2.4 Critical Evaluation of Some Commonly Used Training Methods On-the-job Training Massie (1995) pronounced that on-the-job training is seen by many as perhaps the most commonly used training technique. He suggested that although it can be use d as simply engaging trainees in observing and copying from their trainers, it c an as well take the form of a well structured, highly sophisticated approach tha t can be built into seminars, office practice or workshops. The serenity of a cl assroom and its ability to give many people similar information and knowledge at the same time makes it advantageous for lecturing but, the impact or effectiven ess of training someone in the classroom for practical purposes is questionable. On-the-job training offers the advantage of imparting knowledge and skill on the job, as trainees can watch and replicate tasks. Because such training is usuall y informal, concentration can, at times on the part of both the trainer and trai nees be reduced. This is due mainly to the fact that the trainer might not be su re what the learner needs to know or how to monitor his/her progress. The novice , on the other hand might tend to lose focus because of an unstructured format. Mentoring Herman and Mandell (2004:1): imply that mentors are those people whose occupatio n or responsibility it is to ask the following questions: What do you desire to learn? Why would you like to learn these things? How do you wish to learn them? What do you think you have already learned? How do you conclude that you have done so? In this training technique, a senior or an experienced member of staff usually a ssumes the role of training and developing new member(s) of staff, by providing advice, encouragement and guidance to the new employee or trainee to acquire the necessary skill and knowledge. A mentor has to be ready to listen and be objec tive and exhibit great sensitivity to diverse issues such as cultural and gender . Mentoring has the advantage of helping new staff settle into their new work rout ines easily, understand the organisational culture and also provides assistance on career development; but by the same token, mentoring has the disadvantage of not being effective if there is conflict or there are personal differences betwe en mentor and mentee (Klasen and Clutterbuck, 2001). Job rotation Job rotation takes the form of moving employees from one job to another. However , in his opinion, Karwowski (2001) implied that job rotation is not seen by many as a training mechanism, but a means by which employers reduce repetitiveness a nd dullness that usually characterize people doing the same work over a long per iod of time. This is a sound suggestion, but there may as well be other reasons that compel organisations to engage in job rotation. For instance, in a factory where only one employee is capable of operating an important piece of equipment, there will undoubtedly be serious repercussions if on any grounds that person w as unable to work for any number of days, or he or she begins to make unreasonab le demands. Nevertheless, Karwowski (2001) concedes that in most white-collar establishments , job rotation presents a platform for training and grooming managers and leader s. Other benefits connected to job rotation include: Improve innovation and creativity and generate excitement at having new challenges Work related stress can be brought to a minimum Equip employees with the ability to accept change Reduced non-attendance or absenteeism

Despite such fabulous advantages that come with job rotation, it has received cr iticism from Wyatt et al (2001, cited in Karwowski, 2001) that most job rotation exercises have not been effective because of the speedy rate at which some mana gers move people around to do different jobs. Technology-Based Learning Marquardt et al (1998) articulated that this learning technique employs technolo gy to administer training programmes or courses, this include: Fundamental PC-based programmes Interactive multimedia - using a PC-based CD-ROM Interactive video - using a computer in combination with a VCR Web-based instruction programmes This form of training is considered as having limitless usage and has the additi onal advantage of being efficient and cost effective, especially in developed co untries. In addition, it is perceived that trainers attract the full engagement of participants compared to other training programmes organised in other setting s. Another benefit of this training method is that participants are able to lear n at their own pace to meet their personal circumstances. In most Ghanaian establishments, however, computers are not networked and multim edia facilities are not as readily available as transpires in say, the UK and th e United States. Therefore, even if this method of delivering training was deeme d appropriate, the initial set up cost may give constraining reason to abandon i t. Orientation The first few days of new employees are crucial to their survival. Job orientati on seeks to enrich new employees with: The organisations culture, mission and vision Introduction to the most influential members of the organisation Introduction to departmental heads Rules and regulations of the organisation and for individuals Different approaches are used to conduct orientation, including verbal, written and one-on-one. The one draw back of this last method which far outweighs the be nefits is that if the person orienting fails to make good impression on the new starters regarding the company’s values and culture, they may not want to stay lon ger with the firm; particularly if there is a pending offer elsewhere. Instructor led lectures This form of training can be taken in classrooms, lecture halls, auditorium, con ference rooms and so forth, regardless of the size of the room or the number of participants. Lectures are particularly useful where participants or trainees ha ve to be introduced to new work or subject, where a background briefing would se t the basis for the trainee’s understanding of the subject matter. Other advantage s of lectures are: Training can literally take place anywhere, regardless of the setting. On site training can be arranged even if the companies involved do not h ave their own training facilities. Cost effective and not complicated, and may be used as a supplementary t echnique to provide additional information. Very effective for conferences and seminars where the application of pub lic address systems make lecturing a convenient way to reach more trainees at th e same time. In spite of its benefits, there are a number of flaws associated with this metho d, notably: Lectures can be ineffective for new beginners, particularly as new start ers tend to prefer a more hands on approach. Lectures might not be as effective in certain types of job training, for instance one that is meant to impart practical skills. They do not encourage group work to allow interaction amongst participan ts. Some trainees might be willing to let the lecturer do all the talking wi thout their involvement, which can reduce effectiveness of the programme.

2.6

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Research question: Why should organisations engage in human resource development ? RELEVANT THEORIES FROM LITERATURE REVIEW: According to Garvin (2000), organisations should develop the intelligence to hav e the astuteness and flexibility to adapt to new challenges. Smith (1995) suggested that globalisation has contributed to making recruitment expensive, so organisations would gain more economically if they were to develop their own employees and local. Goad (1997) said that training brings up to date employees skills to deal with w orkplace diversity, technology, and improved productivity, etc. Research question: How important is human resource development to achieving stra tegic objectives? RELEVANT THEORIES FROM LITERATURE REVIEW: Stewart and McGoldwick (1996) emphasised that unless trained, the general knowle dge acquired elsewhere by employees and managers may not be sufficient to bring success to the business. Posner (2006) implied that companies that dedicate a considerable amount of time and money on training their managers enjoy a better ROI. Flannes and Levin (2005) advocate for managers to be trained together with their subordinates to appreciate each others views. Research question: How does training and developing increase motivation and impr ove employee’s performance? RELEVANT THEORIES FROM LITERATURE REVIEW: Kazanas and Rothwell (2003) suggested that there is a positive relationship betw een training and performance because it alters the competencies and motivates in dividuals to carry out their jobs, which will result in higher productivity. Stewart and McGoldwick (1996) argued that employees can be related to firm’s raw m aterials, and must be ‘processed’ to enhance and improve their human capabilities th rough training. Reading (1997) opines that a company is a learning organisation to the extent th at it must intentionally build its capacity to learn as a whole and weave that c apacity into all of its vision and strategy. Research question: To what extent do methods of administering training programme s affect their outcome? RELEVANT THEORIES FROM LITERATURE REVIEW: Russ-eft et al (1997) encourage examination of the behavioural models applicable to improving training and development, and how the role of tutors and trainers ultimately influence the outcome of the learning process. Brooks (2006) suggested the idea of ‘one fits all’ approach in organisational learni ng must give way to one with a critical examination of the trainees’ preferred lea rning style in order to make training effective. Kolb (1984) suggested that it is important to seriously consider the ways in whi ch training is administered because, diverse people by nature favour a distinct learning style, and that several elements affect one’s favoured method or style

2.6.1 Conceptual Abstract A conceptual abstract, deduced from the conceptual framework (section 2.6), in r elation to the HRD processes at Standchart is illustrated in figure 2.3. It show s how the four research questions overlap, and how when correctly answered and a pplied, they could result in improved individual and organisational performance.

Figure 2.3 conceptual abstract from conceptual framework D – Training needs must be identified through recognition of organisational requir ements and individual performance ability gap. C – By providing relevant training programmes, employees will benefits from renewe d confidence and motivation that comes with greater ability to perform. B – Training initiatives must be presented taking into account individuals preferr ed learning styles and the most appropriate medium administering training progra mmes. These will trainees wholly understand the skills and knowledge being impar ted to them. A – Well trained employees will become great assets to the business because he or she will fully acknowledge what is required. A properly application of the train ing programmes by employees would result in employee development and better perf ormance. CHAPTER THREE 3.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter is a justification and analysis of all the methods and processes by which theoretical and practical data and information were obtained for this dis sertation. It evaluates associated ethical issues, sampling, testing, research s trategy, the reliability and generalisability of the methods and processes emplo yed to collect and analyse data. 3.1 THE RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY The study has both hypothesis and research questions that needed to be tested an d answered respectively (see section 1.9). That quest led to drawing on the inte rpretivism research philosophy, which took into account the multifaceted nature of business management, and submitted that the flexibilities associated with cra fted social lives of groups and individuals require equal flexibility in observa tion and explanation if groups or individual actions were to be properly underst ood and interpreted effectively (Saunders et al, 2003). Although interpretivism is applicable in both physical and social science researches, it contradicts the positivists’ philosophy which conforms to rigid laws and rules. The fact that the business world continue to change presupposes that the subjects within the busi ness arena go through similar metamorphosis. This fundamental distinction betwee n interpretivist approach and positivist approaches was especially significant i n this research, given that it concentrated on a business related problem. To fully comprehend the reasons behind the actions undertaken by management and staff of Stanchart in relation to their human resource development programmes, t he interpretivist approach allowed for the use of what Saunders et al. (2003:84) referred to as “constructionism or social constructionism”, which made it “necessary to explore the subjective meanings motivating people’s actions” (Saunders et al. 200 3:84). In view of the fact that human actions within social systems are complex by natu re, the interpretivism philosophy was combined with the realism philosophy. The realism philosophy, according to Sayer (2000) allowed the researcher to carefull y conceptualize and abstract the various factors that influenced managers and HR practitioners. Sayer continued that it also offered author the chance to identi fy the relevance of the social make up of the people involved, and, in this part icular study, enable author to over look personal preferences of certain manager s and employees at Stanchart, who might have had certain biasness towards traini ng and development. 3.2.1 Research Approach and Design Data was collected and analysed using an inductive research approach to explain and establish or fathom why Stanchart undertake training and development initiat ives, and led to the researcher drawing meaningful conclusions and recommendatio ns. Hakim (2000), argues that a research design is analogous to the architectural de sign of a construction project. He opined that prior to the start of a major con

struction project, an architect’s design fundamentally highlights the aims, uses a nd purposes, intentions and plans within a practical constraints of time, financ ial implications or requirements, location, availability of staff and style of t he project. This analogy of the architect’s vision and purpose of designing the st ructure may be related to this project because, a research design may be likened to a thread that fastens the research project in one piece. It is the process of structuring the research to illustrate or explain all the key areas; i.e. the samples, measures, programs, etc that work to answer the main questions of this dissertation. The decision to select one particular research design over another is more often than not informed by the characteristics of the project and the associated rese arch questions. The research objectives direct directed the author to take up mu ltiple approaches. This study has two key points of interest: Why has the management of Stanchart made human resource development such a cardinal strategic issue? What impact has training and development on employees and on Stanchart’s c orporate performance? To gain an understanding of what informed Standard Chartered Bank’s decisions to e ngage in human resource development, a qualitative approach was used to gather d ata. Primarily, a qualitative research seeks a discovery of, or investigates act ions and practice or experiences; hence the use of techniques such as interviews . It looks for the opinion of target groups or contributors that are important i n establishing the objective of the research (Maxwell, 2005). The Human Resource Relationship manager at Stanchart was interviewed to seek explanations, from a manager’s perspective, the reasons why T&D is so strategic at Stanchart. This appr oach enabled the collection of primary data in an unstructured and flexible mann er. Trustworthiness Furthermore, a relationship between the empirical work by previous and contempor ary authors that were observed in the literature reviewed of this study, and the mathematical values that were obtained from questionnaires were accomplished qu antitatively. Basically, a quantitative research creates statistics through surv eys, employing methods that include questionnaires and prepared interviews (Brym an and bell, 2007). A quantitative method is normally experimental, quasi-experi mental, correlational or descriptive. This permit the researcher to test a theor y or proposition using explicit hypothesis generated from theory and are then te sted by the experiment (Swanson and Holton, 2005). Unlike the qualitative approach, the quantitative approach would granted the opp ortunity to administer questionnaires to sizeable ‘population’ of Stanchart’s employee s to seek their opinions on the impact of T&D on their individual careers and ov erall performances. It must, however, be emphasize that this study was constrained by the time by wh ich it must conclude. As a result, this research is what Saunders et al. (2003) call cross-sectional time horizon studies, using the methods discussed in the re search strategy. 3.2.2 The Research Strategy Creswell (2003) suggested that a research strategy is arrangement of actions tha t provide focus and direction for the research, allowing it to be methodically c onducted rather than illogically. Such a logical or systematic approach, he cont inued, is helpful in preventing or reducing frustrations resulting from lack of proper organization. The author believed the best way to answer the research que stions in section 1.9 was to seek information from people most knowledgeable in the topic under study, hence the decision to use survey as the principal researc h strategy. A survey made it possible for several techniques or avenues such as interviews a nd questionnaires to “collect information from or by people to describe, compare, or explain their knowledge, feeling, values and behaviour” (Fink, 2005:1). Fink we nt on to suggest that, by using a survey, the researcher may be able to assemble data from a sampled group and or individuals that can be used to make policies or reveal unforeseen facts. More generally, surveys are applicable in researches where the emphasis is placed on opinions or factual information through the adm

inistration of semi-questionnaires and interviews. As in any research strategy, a survey has its pros and cons, as illustrated in table 3.1 Advantages It is a resourceful means of data collection from a sizable sample. Research validity and reliability may be estimated through statistical methods. Attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviours can be flexibly examined. Reduces errors caused by misunderstanding of questions as they are standardized. Comparatively easy and more affordable to administer. Allowed questions that are directly related to this research to be asked. Disadvantages Lack of response from target group due to lack of motivation. Respondents’ views may be influenced by others, such as colleagues and friends. Respondents may be tempted to give biased answers to questions. The validity may be questionable if structured surveys are open/closed questions . Regardless of whether random samples are used or not, non-response error may occ ur because, the selected samples might have different characteristics to those w ho are not selected. Table 3.1 pros and cons of a survey. 3.3 SAMPLING According Swanson (2004), sampling is the process of selecting people or objects from a ‘population’ or a group for the purposes of examining or testing them for in formation that characteristically resembles the whole population. Considering th e time constrains of this research, sampling is a cost effective means of obtain ing information in a timely manner, in relation to the inevitably high cost and lengthy time it would otherwise taken to conduct a census of the entire ‘populatio n’ This section thus discusses the complex issue of obtaining a manageable employee ‘population’ from Stanchart, drawn from various departments, and who have received or engaged in T&D. Their expressed views were used in as a general representatio n of Stanchart’s trained workforce. There are various elements regarding sampling. In this research however, due to resource and time constrains, the issues consi dered were limited to: The sample size that is as representative of the entire population as po ssible, Evaluate the various sampling types available; and Analyze the problems and defects associated with sampling that I envisag e to encounter. Sample Size A structured questionnaire was distributed randomly to a selected one eighty (80 ) people from the following departments: Accounts/finance Customer services Marketing/ Sales Business development Human resource Engineering/IT/maintenance Teller Facilities management It was decided that a sample size of eighty was manageable, in view of the diffi culties associated with distribution, collection and the general monitoring proc ess, if a larger sample size were used. In spite of this, the figure was believe

d to be representative enough to significantly give a general overview of the en tire ‘population’. The sample ‘population’ included managers and members of staff (of va rying length of service). The Sample Type Burns, et al (2005) suggest that samples are characterized by the way in which t heir primary units are selected, and may be grouped into three categories, namel y: The convenience sampling: this sampling category is said to have taken p lace when the likely or more convenient or suitable primary or units are selecte d from a population for observation. The judgment sampling: the judgment sampling occurs when a person who is aware of the relevant characteristics of the population exercises his or her di scretion in the sample selection. The random sample: this type of sampling may be likened to the lottery o r raffles scenarios. If the numbers picked at will match a particular ticket, th e owner of the ticket becomes the winner. Sometimes also known as the probabilit y sample, the random sample shall be the preferred sampling method of this study because, it guarantees the probability that every member of staff at the chosen Stanchart branches and departments have a fair chance of being chosen as a part icipant in my questionnaire. Random sampling is further categorized into simple, systematic and stratified ra ndom samples. Once again the type of random sampling method or type employed in this research is stratified random sampling. A stratified sampling allows for the ‘population’ to be sub-grouped and then a rando m sample is selected from the group (Fink, 2003). In this research, the sample p opulation was sub-divided into groups of years of service, i.e. employees with 0 – 5 years were put into one group, and those with experience of 5 – 10 years were i nto another group. Supposing that the expected sample size is 120; if 25% is sel ected from group 1 and 2 with 120 and 360 employees respectively, there would be a fair and equitable selection of the 30 and 90 to give 120.

3.4 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Both primary and secondary data were collected to test and answer the research h ypothesis and questions respectively. 3.4.1 Primary data Booth et al. (2008) described primary data as the unprocessed data that is first collect to test a research hypothesis, and may as well be used to support any c laim made in research findings. Firstly, questionnaires were used as one of two primary data collection methods. Although it had the potential disadvantage of l ow response rate, questionnaires offered the opportunity to directly tailor ques tions and receive feedback from managers, staff and human resource development p ractitioners. Predictably, most or the entire questionnaire target had received some form of training or personal development from the Stanchart. Secondly, a one-on-one interview, which gave the opportunity to communicate dire ctly with the person involved, and helped to minimize potential unresponsiveness , was utilized; although the interview could have led to the researcher’s or inter viewer’s bias (Kumar, 2005). Again, the distance between the UK and Ghana dictated that the interview be telephone based. Telephone interview was convenient and t ime saving, given the alternative of travelling to Ghana. Table 3.2 summarizes s ome of the advantages and disadvantages of primary data collection methods. Questionnaires Interviews Advantages: Less costly Offer respondents a shield of anonymity Structured questions may be asked Disadvantages:

Can only be administered to literates Potential for low response rate Inability for issues to be clarified Opportunity for involuntary response is lost Response may be influenced by consultation Advantages: Opportunity for both interviewer and interviewee to clarify issues Better chance to ask detailed questions Open to anyone i.e. children, adults, literates, illiterates, etc. Disadvantages: Comparatively time consuming More expensive to organize interviewer may consciously or unconsciously influence interviewees Table 3.2 comparisons between questionnaires and interviews (Kumar, 2005). 3.4.2 Secondary data According to Booth et al. (2008) secondary data are scholarly and professional m aterials or data sources that researchers use to gain in depth understanding of their research field, in addition to using such data to shape their own problems by disputing or questioning earlier researchers’ findings or processes. In this s tudy, the secondary data collection was done by using books, journals, and other related library materials and the World Wide Web (internet).As in the primary d ata, there are advantages and disadvantages of using secondary sources or data; some of which are listed in table 3.3 below. Advantages Disadvantages It reduces data search time because, the data may already be available It is usually considered less expensive in comparison to primary data. If on a tight or limited budget or schedule, it can give access to infor mation or data may otherwise be unavailable. Reduced control over data collection method, which could cast doubt on c redibility due to biasness. Data may me too general and not limited or specifically address the ques tions of the research. The data may have lost its relevance due to obsolesce. Table 3.3 pros and cons of a survey of secondary data (http://answers.yahoo.com/ question/index?qid=20080412074445AA5nWzC, accessed on 02/09/09 at 17:11). 3.5 RESEARCH CREDIBILITY Research credibility, as suggested by Saunders et al (2003), refers to the objec tivity or neutrality and believability of a source, and the generalisability, va lidity and reliability of the message or findings of the research. Validity generally questions whether variables are being measured or observed. I n his opinion, O’Leary (2004) implied that validity plays a major role in establis hing the credibility of a research project because; it demonstrates how close th e research is to reality or hollowness. He suggested that care must be taken to ensure the research’s outcome is valid, neutral and authentic; if it is to be reco gnized as credible. Otherwise, it risks being rejected as a piece of work that m akes no meaningful contribution to wider knowledge. This view is also shared by writers such as Pellissier (2008) and Saunders et al (2002). Those views were co nstantly considered when conducting this research. Particular care was taken to ensure that the study would not only follow acceptable procedure, but also be of quality and meet generally acceptable level of dependability and credibility. Reliability may be seen as the consistency at which an instrument or process of measurement achieves the same results under the same conditions with the same va riables. In other words, it is the dependability of one’s measurements. Swanson (2 004) put forward that reliability measurement or estimation is considered consis tent or reliable if a test performed on more than one occasion produces the same

results. Test/retest and internal consistency constitute the two ways in which reliabilit y may be estimated. The prime distinction involving test/retest and internal con sistency estimates of reliability is that, test/retest uses two administrations of the measurement instrument, but the internal consistency method entails just one administration of that instrument (http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tuto rial/Colosi/lcolosi2.htm, accessed on 03/09/09 at 09:20). Generalisability adds to the credibility research findings (Swanson, 2004). Alth ough the emphasis in this research is on Stanchart, it is believe the underlinin g principle and outcome would be applicable to all manner of sectors and organiz ations. For instance, if the research’s findings establish that human resource dev elopment is actually an investment with the potential to reap handsome returns, by contributing to organizations returns on investment (ROI) as pointed out by P osner (2006); and that the fundamental reason most human resources development i nitiatives fail is tied to the techniques in which they are delivered, then it c ould create a considerable awareness for organizations to invest in HRD or revie w their methods of T&D delivery as the case may be. Ethical issues such as ensuring respondent confidentiality equally underscore a researcher’s own credibility. The researcher undertook to ensure that contributors to this research knew what it is about, and that their consents were fully gran ted. Among other things, assurances were given to protect the privacy and anonym ity of participants of the research questionnaires and other involvements. Sensi tive and personal details such as date of birth marital, status and so on that h ave no bearing on the research were avoided to eliminate potential victimization of workers by superiors who might not have thought kindly to views expressed by respondents.

CHAPTER FOUR 4.1 INTRODUCTION

Discovering and deducing patterns in data, categorizing those patterns and simpl ifying the results underscores the essence of data analysis (Lewis-Beck, 1995). In this chapter, the primary data obtained from the questionnaires were evaluate d to outline their meanings. Specific questions and feedback from the questionna ire were been used to test the research hypotheses; which led to confirming or r efuting the researcher’s belief that, human resource training and development is a n important component in achieving competitive advantage and sustainable organis ational growth. 4.2 Questionnaire Distribution Eighty questionnaires were administered to the two target groups of Stanchart’s em ployees (members of staff and managers drawn from different departments). Out of this, 30 and 50 questionnaires were administered to mangers and members of staf f respectively. The characteristics of the questionnaire’s distribution are illust rated in table 4.1 to 4.4. It is worth stressing that, certain personal information such as date of birth a nd marital status were deem immaterial to the research findings; as such, questi ons that sought such data were not asked. 4.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS size 77 84 81.25 Sample response Response rate (%) -

Position Sample Manager 30 23 Staff 50 42 Job placement* National service* Rejected Total 80 65

-

Table 4.1 Distribution of respondents by status or position It can be seen from table 4.1 that out of 30 questionnaires sent out to managers , 23 (77%) responses were received, while 42 (84%) out of 50 to staff questionna ires were returned. This implies that a total of 65 questionnaires, which repres ents 81.25% out of a possible 80 were received. * No Samples taken.

Sex Sample size Rate of response (%) Male 22 33.85 Female 43 66.16 Total 65 100 Table 4.2 Distribution of respondents by sex Table 4.1 shows that 33.85% male and 66.15% female denote 1:2 sexual orientation s of the respondents. Years Sample size Rate of response (%) 0 – 5 38 58.46 5 or more 27 41.54 Total 65 100 Table 4.3 Length of service of respondents The length of service by employees were divided into two categories – employees wh o have been with the Stanchart for less than five (5) years and employees who ha ve been with the company for more than five (5) years. Table 4.3 illustrates tha t 58.46% of respondents have worked at the bank for less than five years; while 41.54% of the respondents having more than five years work experience with the b ank.

Department Response Rate of response (%) Marketing/sales 7 11 Customer services 24 36.95 Accounting/finance 2 3.1 Business development 9 13.85 Human resource 21 32.3 Engineering 1 1.4 Teller 1 1.4 Facilities management Total 65 100 Table 4.4 Departmental distribution of respondents To get a balanced response from all employees, questionnaires were sent to vario us departments. With the exception of facilities management, feedbacks were rece ived from all other departments. With 36.95%, the highest response rate came fr om the customer services department, which was closely followed by human resourc es with 32.3%. The lowest response rates were jointly received from teller and e ngineering. Table 4.4 shows the response rate by departments.

4.4

ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE FEEDBACK

In view of the fact questionnaire questionnaires were separately designed for ma ngers and staff, the following analysis is grouped into two sections. Section ‘A’ an alysed the response received from managers, whereas section ‘B’ examines the feedbac

k from staff. 4.4.1 Section A: Managers Questionnaire

Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 8 34.8 Agree 15 65.2 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.5 Training and developing managers enable them to better understand thei r subordinate’s views: Out of the 23 samples received, 34.8% strongly agree that undergoing management training has helped them to appreciate the subordinates’ point of view. An overwhe lming 65.2 majority agree that management training has enhanced their ability to better understand the subordinates’ views. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 5 21.7 Agree 18 78.3 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.6 Training and developing mangers’ skills enable them to become more flexi ble in their approach to management: Table 4.6 illustrates that undergoing management training has enabled most Stanc hart managers to adopt a ‘softer’ management approach, as opposed to a rigid managem ent style. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 21 91.3 Agree 2 8.4 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.7 Training and development may be used to motivate managers: It can be seen from figure 4.7 that an emphatic 91.3% of the managers sampled be lieve in training as a strong motivational tool. In addition, 8.4% equally accep t that training could motivate them. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 17 74 Agree 6 26 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.8 Management training has enhanced my own performance: In table 4.8, 74% of the 23 managers sampled strongly agree; while 26% as well a gree that the training they have received has enhanced their managerial performa nces. This satisfies one of the objectives of this study that, a tangible relati onship exit between training, development and performance. Response Response rate Strongly agree 20 87 Agree 3 13 Percentage (%)

Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.9 Training and development has enhanced my managerial capabilities: Table 4.9 clearly demonstrates that training and development may be used to enha nced mangers’ capabilities. This is because 20 out of 23 managers sampled strongly agreed that training and development has improved their individual capabilities ; while the remaining 3 managers sampled concede that their managerial abilities have improved after undergoing training programmes organised by the Stanchart. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 11 48 Agree 6 26 Disagree 6 26 Total 23 100 Table 4.10 Stanchart uses training and development to facilitate sustainable gro wth and achieve competitive advantage: Organisations must survive, grow and provide handsome returns for their owners a nd a great deal of efforts and resources are committed to achieve this objective . Despite the fact that 26% disagree, the 26% agree and 48% strongly agree respo nses (table 4.10) demonstrate that, a well trained and developed human resource could facilitate the realization of sustainable growth and achieving competitive advantage. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 19 82.6 Agree 4 17.4 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.11 Employees are Stanchart’s most important strategic asset: In table 4.14, 19 of the 23 respondents strongly agree this to be the case with a further 4 managers agreeing to the assertion that employees are in fact the mo st important assets to the Stanchart. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 23 100 Agree Not sure -Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.12 Training and development is an important strategic investment: Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 23 100 Agree Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.13 Training and development is an additional expenditure: 23 (100%) out of the 23 responses received agree strongly that human resource tr aining and development is an important strategic investment. However, the same n umbers of respondents strongly agree that training and development increase the company’s expenditure, as shown in tables 4.12 and 4.13 respectively.

Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 23 23 Agree Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.14 There are positive relationships between training, development and pe rformance: From table 4.14, 23 out of 23 managers who participated in this questionnaire st rongly agree that a positive relationship exists between training and performanc e. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 19 82.6 Agree 2 8.7 Not sure 2 8.7 Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.15 Training and development motivates and brings the best out of Stancha rt’s employee: Even though 2 managers were not sure as to the influence training and developmen t has on motivating and bringing the best out of employees, 19 respondents stron gly agree, while a further 2 simply agree to that statement. (See table 4.33). Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 19 82.6 Agree 4 17.4 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.16 Training and development enables employees to better understand Stanc hart’s culture and vision: The consequence of training and development on how staff understand Stanchart’s vi sion and culture is epitomized by the 82.6% of the 23 sampled managers (table 4. 16) strongly agreeing that training can make the workforce have a wider comprehe nsion of the business’ culture and vision. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 19 82.6 Agree 4 17.4 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.17 Human resources development aids personal development and career prog ression at Stanchart: In table 4.17, 19 of a possible 23 Stanchart managers sampled strongly agree, wi th the remaining 4 sampled managers agreeing to training and development as a to ol to aid and enhance personal development and career progression Response Response rate Strongly agree Agree 2 8.6 Not sure Disagree 19 82.6 Strongly disagree 2 Total 23 100 Percentage (%)

8.6

Table 4.18 Stanchart’s employee should be rewarded to commensurate the knowledge a nd skills they have acquired through training: Table 4.18 exemplify the point that training and development in itself does not constitute an achievement and should not be rewarded for simply attending such p rogrammes. Rather, employees should be rewarded based on performance achieved th rough the correct application of the knowledge and skills acquired, and not mere ly the attainment of knowledge and skills. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 19 82.6 Agree 3 13 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree 1 4.4 Total 23 100 Table 4.20 Human resource recruitment plays an important role in employee develo pment: In table 4.20, 19 (82.6%) of the managers at Stanchart strongly agree, 3 (13%) m anagers agree and 1 (4.4%) strongly disagree that recruitment play an important role in employee development. Despite one of the 23 responded managers’ strong di sagreement, the general consensus is that recruitment play an important role in employees’ development. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 3 13 Agree 19 82.6 Not sure 1 4.4 Disagree Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.21 it is important to consider employees preferred method of learning wh en planning training course: The data in table 4.21 implies that managers generally agree with Brooks (2006), who suggested that it matters little to invest so much into training programmes without taking individual preferred learning styles into consideration.. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 1 4.4 Agree Not sure 2 8.6 Disagree 20 87 Strongly disagree Total 23 100 Table 4.22 Stanchart considers individual learning styles when administering tra ining programmes: Most managers seem to accept that training and development could be most effecti vely administered if individual learning styles were considered (table 4.21), th is appears not to be the case at Stanchart. It may be deduced from table 4.12 th at while Stanchart takes training and development initiatives seriously and actu ally consider it strategic, the bank does not consider employees’ learning style w hen administering training programmes. 4.4.2 Section B: Analysis of Staff Questionnaire Percentage (%)

Response Response rate Strongly agree 22 52.4 Agree 16 38 Not sure Disagree 2 4.78 Strongly disagree 2

4.78

Total 42 100 Table 4.24 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I feel more appreciated and valued at Stanchart now than before: From table 4.24, it can be seen that 52.4% of the 42 respondents strongly agree, and a further 38% agree that they felt more appreciated by Stanchart after unde rgoing training. Despite 4.78% of staff strongly disagreeing and a further 4.78% respondents disagreeing, the overall agreement was that staff felt more valued and appreciated because the company had valued them enough to have invested in t heir development. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 27 64.3 Agree 15 35.7 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.25 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I have improved my awareness and knowledge of the business environment: Out of 42 staff respondents, 64.3% and 35.7% strongly agree and agree respective ly that, as a result of the training and development received by Stanchart, they have become more aware of the business environment in which the operate (table 4.25). Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 31 73.8 Agree 9 21.4 Not sure Disagree 2 4.8 Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.26 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I have improved my efficiency and productivity: 31 of 42 sampled staff strongly agree, and an additional 9 staff agree that thei r overall efficiency and productivity have been improved since receiving trainin g from the bank. In spite of the fact that 2 of the respondents disagree that th ey have noticed any improvements in their performances (table 4.26), the general concurrence is that training helps in enhancing employees abilities to deliver outstanding performance. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 21 50 Agree 16 38 Disagree 5 12 Total 42 100 Table 4.27 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I have acquired the flexibility to cope with any organisational change(s): Responses in table 4.27 show that Stanchart’s use of training and development as a tool to aid the bank’s employees’ receptiveness to change is being appreciated by t he staff. Response Response rate Strongly agree 32 76.2 Agree 10 23.8 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Percentage (%)

-

Table 4.28 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I am better able to accept and handle work place diversity: According to the data on table 4.28, 78% and 23.8% of the 42 respondents strongl y agree and agree correspondingly that, based on the training given, they are be tter able to accept and handle work place diversity. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 30 71.4 Agree 12 28.6 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.29 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I am much more aware of the use of technology to enhance business performan ce: From table 4.29, it is obvious that training and development has made Stanchart’s employees more capable to apply technology for superior performance and maximise productivity. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 28 66.7 Agree 14 33.3 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.30 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I understand Stanchart’s strategic objectives better now that before: Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 40 95.2 Agree 2 4.8 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.31 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I am more knowledgeable in how to help Stanchart achieve its strategic goal s now than before: Response Strongly agree Agree 13 Disagree Total 42 Response rate 23 55 31 6 14 100 Percentage (%)

Table 4.32 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I have acquired the essential skills to evaluate my contribution to Stancha rt’s strategic objective: The objective of the question on table 4.30 was to establish if training has hel ped Stanchart’s to meet its strategic objectives. With 66.7% strongly agree and 33 .3% agree feedback respectively, respondents agreed overwhelmingly that training has helped them to understand Stanchart’s strategic objective. The follow up questions and responses on table 4.31 and 4.32 further strengthens the notion that training and development has enabled respondents to contribute to the attainment of the bank’s strategic objectives. Response Response rate Strongly agree 31 74 Percentage (%)

Agree 7 16.7 Not sure 1 2.4 Disagree 3 7 Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.33 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I am much more appreciative of customers’ perceptions now than before: Out of the 42 respondents received for the question on table 4.33, 3 (7%) respon dents disagree that training has helped them to better appreciate their customer s, while 1 (2.4%) respondent was not sure about how training has affected the wa y customer are related to. Nevertheless, 31 (74%) strongly agree that training h as made them more appreciative of their customers views, and a further 7 (16.7%) agree that training has impacted positively on how customers views are apprecia ted. This suggests that training facilitates customer’s satisfaction by understand ing their needs and being able to serve them well. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 30 71.4 Agree 12 28.6 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.34 based on the training and development courses I have received or atte nded, I have acquired the necessary skills to effectively appraise my own perfor mance: Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 15 36 Agree 21 50 Disagree 6 14 Total 42 100 Table 4.35 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, my overall performance and productivity have improved. The question on table 4.34 was designed to find out if training and development presents the platform for employees to gain the necessary skill to appraise thei r own outputs. The response on table 4.34 suggests that training gives staffs the ability to as sess their own performances and work on areas of their work that require improve ment. The result illustrated on table 4.35, shows that respondents overwhelmingl y agree that training has contributed to improving their performances. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 18 43 Agree 19 45 Disagree 5 12 Total 42 100 Table 4.36 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I am motivated and more committed to carry out my work: Organisations invest in the development of their people to offer them additional skills and knowledge to help them carry out their duties efficiently. But since the organisation has valued them enough to invest in their development, there i s an added benefit because the employee feels a renewed sense of belonging and c ommitment to the organisation (Garvin, 2000). Table 4.36 evidently confirm that when employees are trained by their organisations, it motivates them to go the e xtra mile to meet their individual work challenges. Response Response rate Strongly agree 9 21.4 Agree 5 12 Percentage (%)

Not sure Disagree 28 66.6 Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.37 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I have become more loyal to Stanchart: The majority of Stanchart’s staff disagree that their loyalty to the company has i ncreased as a result of the training they have received. In table 4.37, 66.6% of the questionnaire’s respondents believed they have not become more loyal to the c ompany; while there were 21.4% and 12% strongly agree and agree responses respec tively. The response could mean that employees’ loyalty does not depend on just me rely providing them with training and development facilities. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 37 88.1 Agree 5 11.9 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.38 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I have become multi-skilled and flexible to undertake various roles: Should an ‘important’ employee who is the only knowledgeable or skill person to carr y out a particular task is lost for whatever reason, over any stretch of time, t his could result in a loss of productivity and revenue. Ultimately, the company’s profit may be affected and thus affect its financial performance. The objective of table 4.38 was to answer the research question of what relationship exist bet ween training and organisational performance. The responses in table 4.38 imply that there is a positive relationship between training and performance. Flexibil ity provides the skills for other employees to cover their colleague’s absences an d curtail the loss of productivity.

Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 27 64.3 Agree 15 35.7 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.39 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I can differentiate between individual and organisational performances: Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 40 95.2 Agree 2 4.8 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.40 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I found the training or course content very relevant to my job: The 27 (64.3%) strongly agree and 15 (35.7%) agree responses received table 4.39 demonstrates once more how training helps organisations achieve their aim. Response Response rate Strongly agree 6 14.3 Percentage (%)

Agree 3 7.1 Not sure 8 19 Disagree 4 9.5 Strongly disagree 21 50 Total 42 100 Table 4.42 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I feel my preferred learning style was factored into the planning of the pr ogramme: Half of the 42 employees who were sampled (table 4.42) strongly disagree that th eir preferred learning styles were considered when training programmes were bein g planned. 6 members of staff strongly agree that their individual learning styl es were a factor in the planning process, but 8 respondents were not sure. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 10 23.8 Agree 32 76.2 Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.43 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I believe the actions and the general conduct of the tutor or trainer great ly affected my contribution: Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 33 78.6 Agree 7 16.6 Not sure 2 4.76 Disagree Strongly disagree Total 42 100 Table 4.44 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I feel I respond well to a particular teaching technique: Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 18 43 Agree 11 26.2 Not sure 4 9.4 Disagree 6 14.2 Strongly disagree 3 7.13 Total 42 100 Table 4.45 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I feel more comfortable with an external trainer: Table 4.43 shows that 76.2 % of respondents agree that instructors play a vital role in delivering a training course. A further 23.8% strongly agree that an ins tructor’s actions or otherwise could affect the outcome of the effect the training initiative will have on the trainees. The responses confirm that if trainees ar e comfortable with their trainer, it makes it easy for them to participate or co ntribute to discussions, and are more likely to understand the lectured better. Table 4.44 demonstrates that different people respond to different training tech nique because, 78.6% of the respondents strongly agree that they have a preferen ce to particular teaching technique. Although 4.76% were not sure, a further 16. 6% agree that they prefer one teaching technique to another. Table 4.45 is evidence that most employees do consider the issue of whether to u se an internal or external trainer of less importance compared to that the train ers teaching technique and general demeanour. In comparison to the data on table s 4.44 and 4.45, the response in table 4.45 is more divided. There was 43% stron gly agree, 26.2% agree, 9.4% not sure, 14.2% disagree and 7.13% strongly disagre e responses to the question of whether trainees felt more comfortable with exter

nal trainers. 4.4 TESTING OF HYPOTHESES The statement of hypothesis, which can be found in chapter one of this study has been extensively examined through the questions asked and the data received fro m the research questionnaire. The chi-square (x2) method (appendix 4) was used to test the following hypothese s at 95% in order to assist the researcher in the final analysis and conclusion (Saunders et al., 2003). Hypothesis 1 The following hypothesis is analysed using the question and data on table 4.35. H0: That human resource development will improve staff productivity. H1: That human resource development will not improve staff productivity. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 15 36 Agree 21 50 Disagree 6 14 Total 42 100 Table 4.35 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, my overall performance and productivity have improved. Response E Strongly agree Agree 21 Disagree Total 42 Observed (O) 15 14 6 42 Expected (E) 0.07 4.6 8.14 (O - E)2 (O - E)2

14 1 49 3.5 14 64 X2 calculated

Decision rule: X2 has been observed at 2 degree of freedom and 5% level of significant + 5.991. Decision Rule: Since X2 calculated is greater than X2 observe, the alternative hypothesis H1 is rejected. It is therefore concluded that training facilitate th e improvement of performance and productivity. Hypothesis 2 The following hypothesis is analysed using the question and data on table 4.36. H0: That human resource development will motivate employees to give their best. H1: That human resources development will not motivate employees to give their b est. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 18 43 Agree 19 45 Disagree 5 12 Total 42 100 Table 4.36 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I am motivated and more committed to carry out my work. Response E Strongly agree Agree 19 Disagree Total 42 Observed (O) 18 14 5 Expected (E) 1.14 5.8 8.74 (O - E)2 (O - E)2

14 16 25 1.8 14 81 X2 calculated

Decision rule: X2 is observed at 2 degree of freedom and 5% level of significant + 5.991. Decis ion Rule: Since X2 calculated is greater than X2 observe, the alternative hypoth esis H1 has been rejected. Finding is that training facilitates the improvement

of employee performance and productivity. Hypothesis 3 The following hypothesis is analysed using the question and data on table 4.32. HO: That training and development is a strategic issue. H1: That training and development is not a strategic issue. Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 23 55 Agree 13 31 Disagree 6 14 Total 42 100 Table 4.32 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I have acquired the essential skills to evaluate my contribution to Stancha rt’s strategic objective: Response E Strongly agree Agree 13 Disagree Total 42 Observed (O) 23 14 6 Expected (E) 5.78 4.57 10.42 (O - E)2 (O - E)2

14 81 1 0.07 14 64 X2 calculated

Findings: With X2 observed at 2 degree of freedom and 5% level of significant + 5.991. Dec ision Rule: Since X2 calculated is greater than X2 observe, the alternative hypo thesis H1 has been rejected. This test shows that training and development shoul d be considered a strategic issue, since it creates the enabling environment for employees to work efficiently towards the achievement of strategic goals. Hypothesis 4 The following hypothesis is analysed using the question and data on table 4.27. HO: That human resource development will contribute to make staff receptive to c hange H1: That human resource development will not contribute to make staff receptive to change Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 21 50 Agree 16 38 Disagree 5 12 Total 42 100 Table 4.27 Based on the training and development courses I have receive or atten ded, I have acquired the flexibility to cope with any organisational change(s): Response E Strongly agree Agree 16 Disagree Total 42 Observed (O) 21 14 5 Expected (E) 3.5 5.8 9.6 (O - E)2 (O - E)2

14 49 4 0.3 14 81 X2 calculated

Findings: With X2 observed at 2 degree of freedom, and 5% level of significant + 5.991. Decision Rule: because X2 calculated is greater than X2 observe, the alternative hypothesis (H1) has been rejected. This test confirms that training and develop ment can indeed make people receptive to change. Hypothesis 5 The following hypothesis is analysed using the question and data on table 4.10. HO: That human resource development does not facilitates the attainment of compe titive advantage H1: That human resource development facilitates the attainment of competitive ad

vantage Response Response rate Percentage (%) Strongly agree 11 48 Agree 6 26.1 Disagree 6 26 Total 23 100 Table 4.10 Stanchart uses training and development to facilitate sustainable gro wth and achieve competitive advantage: Response E Strongly agree Agree 6 Disagree Total 23 Observed (O) 11 7.66 6 Expected (E) 1.45 0.36 2.17 (O - E)2 (O - E)2

7.66 11.15 2.75 0.36 7.66 2.75 X2 calculated

Findings: X2 is observed at 2 degree of freedom, and 5% level of significant + 5.991. Decision Rule: in view of the fact that X2 calculated is less than X2 observe, t he alternative hypothesis (H1) has been accepted. This test corroborates that tr aining and development actually facilitates the achievement of competitive advan tage. CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter involves a discussion of the analysis, surveys and interviews to fi nd out if the research objectives (section) have been met or not. It also consid ers the implications of training and development at Stanchart, analysis of quest ionnaires responses (based on the theoretical framework) and produced findings t o demonstrate whether the research objectives were met. Finally, conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the research’s findings; limitations and potentia l areas for further research were suggested. 5.1 DISCUSSIONS 5.1.1 Analysis of the research objectives The research objectives (section) were analysed using the feedback received from questionnaire respondents, literature review (section) and the human resource d evelopment practices at Stanchart. Observations made are summarised as follow: 1. What relationship exists between development and organisational performa nce? An organisational performance is a measure of the organisation’s actual results, c ompared with its stated objectives or targets. In order for the organisation to realise its objectives, the various departments and individuals within the busin ess must together produce results that meet the overall objective(s) of the comp any. Managers and staffs were asked if their performances have improved upon rec eiving training. Table 4.8 and 4.35 clearly shows a positive link between traini ng and performance. They illustrate that with increased productivity achieved th rough training, organisations can increase their turn over and profitability. As Bailey (1982 cited in Kazanas and Rothwell, 2003) suggested in the critical l iterature review and the theoretical framework of this research, performance is achieved as a result of a series of activities carried out to meet organisationa l objectives within a laid down yardstick. Through the provision of training and development, employees get well endowed with knowledge on the activities they m ust undertake to produce results that improves organisational performance. It st resses the constructive relationship between training and performance because, a lthough training does not change one’s job requirements, it does positively affect the way in which the details of the job description are taken up. 2. Why some training initiatives are more successful than others?

Often, the training and development programmes administered to employees do no m ake the intended difference in the employees themselves nor their performance on the business. It appears from table 4.40 that one of the main reasons why emplo yees at Stanchart are able to relate the training received to their performance is because they found the training programmes relevant to their jobs. Unless tra ining objectives are determined according to the business’ specific needs, their b enefits, such as those being experienced by Stanchart might not be realised. Equ ally, poor training project management such as evaluation of feedbacks of traine es on issues such as programme contents and trainers’ methods or teaching style co uld result in lack of realisation of T&D objectives. As observed in the theoreti cal framework of this study, Knowles, (1970, cited in Billings and Halstead, 200 5) implied that by adopting an andragogical approach, trainees would be allowed to take responsibility for learning and use of resources to suit their way of le arning and understanding; instead of a pedagogical situation that only allow a s ubmissive and refrain the learner from participating in the course, which is bel ieved to reduce training effectiveness. 3. Should training and development be considered as a strategic issue? Johnson, et al (2008) defined strategy as the direction and scope of an organisa tion over the long-term, which achieves advantage for the organisation through i ts configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the need s of markets and to fulfil stakeholder expectations. In a viciously competitive world of business, firms must strive to differentiate from their competitors bot h in terms of core products and service delivery. As Stewart and McGoldwick (199 6) pointed out, it is not enough for organisations to simply employ people to wo rk for them and expect to achieve sustainable growth. This is because, the gener al knowledge and experience by employees and managers may not be sufficient to b ring success to the business. With employees being considered the most important strategic assets, their development must be seen as a strategic issue. This vie w is shared by Posner (2006), who inferred that companies that human resource d evelopment as strategic and dedicate a considerable amount of time and money on training their employees enjoy a better return on investment (ROI).

4. Who are the beneficiaries of training and development initiatives? Throughout this study is has been seen that both organisations and employees ben efit from training initiatives. Sample responses on table 4.36 indicate that tra ining received by employees motivate them to perform even better, which helps th em to meet their strategic obligations. Garvin (2000) mentioned that it is crucial for organisations to increase the int elligence, knowledge, and creative potential of human beings at every level of t he organisation, so that they can be motivated to savour change and have the shr ewdness and flexibility to adapt to new challenges and strategic needs of the or ganisation. Individuals who undergo training and use it to full effect can look forward to a career progression, improve themselves and increase their employabi lity. 5.2 Appraisal of Research Methodology An interpretivism research philosophy was employed while conducting this researc h because, it allowed for flexibility in observation and explanation of the acti ons of the sampled group of this study. As a social science research, it afforde d the researcher an understanding of the human elements of the sampled group and the people involved in this research. In carrying out this study, it became apparent that the interpretivism approach made it possible to grasp grounds behind most responses provided by managers and staff of Stanchart in relation to their human resource development programmes, and those that had been attended. This is what Saunders et al. (2003:84) had ref erred to as “constructionism or social constructionism” in the research methodology (section). Data were collected using a survey of questionnaire and an interview. The consis

tencies of the responses made for comparatively easy analysis, given the researc her’s limited statistical knowledge. Using relevant areas of the theoretical frame work (section), drawn from the critically reviewed literature, the questions had been designed to obtain answers to justify the research objectives and to agree d or refute the research hypothesis. While this was a straight forward approach, the opportunity for respondents to a s clarify questions was lost. Furthermore, the lack of standardization of the de sign of the processes involved reduces the research reliability. The method of s ampling, administering questionnaires, number of respondents and technique for t esting the hypotheses were dealt with on chapters three and four respectively. 5.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF HRD TO GHANA’S BANKING SECTOR Human resource development is an integral process and instrument for motivating and boosting employees’ performance, and helps organisations to meet their strateg ic aims, the study has observed. In Ghana, the foundation of training institutions and training legislation by th e government illustrates the fact that training is just as important in the publ ic sector, as it is in the private sector. The establishment of secondary techni cal institutions such as Sunyani Technical Institute, Accra Technical Training C entre, Kumasi Training Institute, amongst others underscores how the government sees training as a facilitator of skills and knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, various private and public polytechnics and universities provide generic traini ng and education to satisfy the aspirations of Ghana, since independence in 1957 (see section 1.1). Nevertheless, the generic training provided by schools and training institutions in Ghana should be seen as the starting point, because, it falls short of givin g the expertise gained through on-the-job and other training required to push fo r organisational success. The fact that Stanchart have their own training centre to give ‘tailored’ training, including induction, shadowing and job rotation, etc. is a testament of this observation. The analyses of chapter four, and in particu lar, Standard Chartered Bank Ghana show that organisations must provide further training to their new employees regardless of their educational background; and continue to develop the talents of existing staffs in order to get the best out of them. Werner and DeSimon (2008) suggested that human resources development is the plat form that provides the basis for training and schooling to take place. It involv es a series of activities and process with clearly defined outcome and targets. HRD give rise to employee or personal development with the prospect of helping t o achieve organisational goals. The study has clearly highlighted that both the organisation and the employee are beneficiaries to HRD. As the economy continues to grow, conditions and standards of livelihood in Ghan a would be expected to rise, too. The existing predominant mode of cash transact ions is expected to be augmented by a more sophisticated means of paying for goo ds and services. The desire for a range of financial services by people in both urban and rural communities and businesses has encouraged rapid growth in the ba nking sector. Likewise, the recent establishment of various financial institutio ns in Ghana to provide customers with the variety of financial products they cra ve has equally increased competition. As with many ‘developing’ countries, most fina ncial institutions in Ghana continue to revamp their systems and operations to b e Information Technology (IT) efficient. These suggest that Ghana has a vibrant banking sector, with immeasurable growth opportunities and challenges. Therefore, by developing their human resources, or ganisations would have elevated their human resources capacity to: Fully appreciate customers’ needs and demands; Be more aware of the business’ environment, so that any opportunities may be realised and seized, and Provide better and efficient services than their business’ competitors. The researcher believes that two factors, training and learning, must be present in order for effective human resource development to occur. 5.3.1 Training The study concurs with Hackett (2003) that training is a method of education tha

t includes gaining knowledge, skills honing, ideas and perceptions, systems and conventions that put employees through behavioural metamorphosis. The intention, in an organisational perspective such as those prevailing at Standard Chartered Ghana is to induce business environment consciousness and better performance. From the analyses on chapter four, it is believed that training is an action th at results in promoting organisational growth, gain competitive advantage and ac complishment of strategic objectives because: It a good starting point to decide strategic objective and goals and mak e resources available specifically for the business to reach its goals. However, it is only well trained employees that can put such resource to judicious use, provide the required expertise to help the business reach those objectives. Organisational leaders provide the strategic directives to show what tar get the organisation must meet. Yet, while it is important to know what target o rganisations must strive to achieve, it may be argued that it is even more impor tant to know how to reach that target. It has been shown that, when employees ar e properly trained, they get a deep understand of organisational culture, values , goals and targets; that allow them to find efficient ways to reach those targe ts. To be able to fly one must first learn how to take off. Otherwise, one can d etermine how high above to fly, but that would remain a fallacy until the requir ed flying skills and techniques are learnt and mastered. This is analogous to th e relationship between setting strategic targets and providing the required skil ls and knowledge through training to meet them. 5.3.2 Learning “Learning is the process within the organism which results in the capacity got cha nged performance which can be related to experience rather than maturation” (Ribea ux and Poppleton (1998), cited in Beardwell and Holden, 1994:285). Learning may take place in many forms including habituation or through a series of activities such as role playing with or without the learner’s consciousness. Pe ople learn or are compelled to learn for various reasons. From an organisational perspective, learning may be goal oriented or in the case of an employee the de sire to acquire new set of skills to improve employability. Training and development have been interchangeably used throughout this research . But from the discussions above, it has become necessary to distinguish between training, development and learning. Table 5.1 shows the basic differences betwe en development and training. Development Purpose A series of organised activities that set the stage for training and lea rning to take place. Designed to hone the skills, ides, perceptions, etc. Criteria for selection An exhibition of certain talents would suggest that further development would harness those abilities. For instance a person who shows leadership qualit ies would potentially undergo a management development programme. Specific training offered to bridge the gap between employees’ current and required abilit ies to deliver targeted performance. Extent Deals with intricate assignments, such as instilling a sense of responsi bility, and leadership in a person. Provide tailored training for individual s to be able to carry out stated duties. Table 5.1 the basic differences between development and training 5.4 5.4.1 T&D AT STANDARD CHARTERED BANK GHANA Career Development Training

According to responses received from both managers and staff of Stanchart, caree r development is a serious and important issue at the bank. Managers and staff w ho wish to progress their careers, or demonstrate exceptional talents are give t he opportunity to sharpen their skills. The bank commits about 35% of the cost o r expenditure of every department into training and development programmes (Ama Lawson, HR Relationship Manager, interviewed on Friday, 23rd October 2009). This suggests the bank makes substantial investments to develop managers and bridge the skills gap of their employees. In return, the bank is rewarded with a highly skilled and enthusiastic workforce who contributes towards the attainment of th eir strategic goals. In addition, the dynamics of the labour market make for a g ood business practice to train and develop one’s own employees, than to engage in expensive competition for the best available external talents. 5.4.2 The Process of Training and Development at Standard Chartered Bank Ghana Sections of this chapter dealt with training and development generically. Howeve r, training and development at Standard Chartered Bank Ghana follows a distinct process. At Stanchart, every employee receives a performance target that they ar e required to meet over a period of time. The bank makes resources available so that employees can meet their targeted performance. The employee would be requir ed to conduct a self appraisal to determine if he or she has the requisite skill to meet those stated obligations. If further knowledge or skills is required, t he employee would then prompt the appropriate quarters so that the necessary ste ps would be taken to arrest the skill gap, as illustrated in figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1 the process of improving performance at Stanchart using T&D. Nonetheless, the head of the employee unit, or business head (as it is referred to at Stanchart) would normally be expected to make a decision as to the kind of training the employee receives. After assessing the individual and the bank’s nee ds, the head of the unit would decide the kind of training required regardless o f what learning and development plan was suggested by the employee. “That decision is influenced by the pace of the business and bench strength requirement on the job at any given time” (Ama Lawson, HR Relationship Manager, interviewed on 25/10 /2009). After furnishing the employee with the required skill level or knowledge, the he or she then applies the newly acquired or additional skill to produce a perform ance that is expected to be excellent (figure 5.1). There are various training a nd development programmes and methods available to employee such on-the-job trai ning. However the particular training given would depend on the kind of skills a nd knowledge required, leading the employee employees to be put on one or more o f the training methods discussed in chapter two (section). 5.4.3 T&D and Performance Based on the responses received from sampled employees of Stanchart, it is possi ble to presume that the bank’s employees perceive delivery of good performances th at consistently meet targets as a prelude to advancing their careers at the bank . Most people see promotion and the associated benefits and challenges as indica tion of career progression. This requires the proper application of skills and k nowledge acquired through training and development programmes. The implications are that, not only is employee development a recipe for good performances, it al so serves as motivation for employees to give off their best. 5.4.4 Benefit of T&D to Standard Chartered Bank Ghana Performance enhancement: correct application of newly acquired skill and

knowledge acquired through training and development lead to higher productivity by staff and managers, resulting in increased profit and high employee morale. Little Supervision: most managers agreed that by virtue of the training and development provided to their subordinates, they have more time to be concen trate on other mission related activities as a result of employees being able to appraise and assess their own performances. Low employee turnover: a survey by the corporate leadership council (tab le 2.1), revealed that most employees consider training and career development a s one of the most important components in employment conditions and would leave for pastures new if they were not offer training and development opportunities a t their current place of work. This means that with Stanchart renowned training and development initiatives they would be spared the expenses of recruitment and loss of productivity if old and experience employees depart. Happy customers: most employees admitted to appreciating customers’ views and understanding their needs better. As one of Stanchart’s most important stakeho lders, customers’ satisfaction is another way of achieving a competitive advantage because, rather than worry about losing existing ones, efforts can be channelle d at attracting new ones. Highly skilled and motivated employees: Employees can go about their dut ies feeling valued and appreciated in view of the fact that they have been highl y thought of and invested in. above all it increases their abilities and confide nce to carry out their duties, while raising their levels of employability. Trai ning allows employees accept change as a necessity rather than a threat, and cre ates the awareness on issues such as flexibility and diversity at the work place , which are all important apparatus for organisational stability. 5.5 Summary of Research Findings Various theories and literatures that shed light on human resource development h ave been analysed in addition to the responses and interview conducted by the re searcher and on that bases, the findings of the study are summarised as follows: There is positive relationship between training and development and empl oyees performances because; it provides them the ability to gain additional know ledge to sharpen their skills. The additional knowledge gained through training contributes to staff efficiency and helps them to appraise their own performance s so that adjustments can be made where necessary. Although this is an area that requires further research, the study finds that some of the reasons why some training initiatives are more successful than others could be attributed to: Lack of a clearly defined training objectives and targets; Training instructor’s style not favoured or receptive by trainees; and Provision of generic training programmes that do not address an individu al or a business’ specific needs. People are the ‘vehicles’ or ‘conduits’ through which organisations can arrive o r achieve their strategic targets and goals. Therefore, organisations must consi der their development as strategic. While improved performances allow organisations to realize their goals, employees gain knowledge and personal development that help them to progress the ir careers. For that reason, the research finds that both the organisation and i ts employees benefit from training and development initiatives. That, although training may be considered expenditure, the rich rewards it provides organisations means that it must be seen in the same light as any ot her organisational investment. The perception by some employers and a section of the Ghanaian public th at training is an exercise for people or employees of lower educational backgrou nd is without basis. That a proper human resource development planning, including the need fo r, and the application of correct recruitment practices helps in identifying and determining adequate training and development requirement of employees.

CHAPTER SIX 6.0 Conclusions

James Baldwin said, "Even if you are on the right track, you ll get run over if you just sit there." (James Baldwin, quoted in Shavinina, 2003: 828). Several elements contribute towards a business’ achievements of its strategic goal s. Yet, from the surveys and interview carried out, it has become copiously clea r through out this research that: People are a business’s most valuable asset, thereby making them the most important critical success factor. Therefore, it is a reasonable conclusion that failing to plan their development is analogous to planning the failure of the o rganisation’s success. Training and developing employees creates a vibrant working environment and provides staff the vitality that drives the business to its pinnacle. Organisations that train and develop their staff gain dual benefits of i mproved performance efficiency and greater staff retention. Training and development endow people with innovative and creative abili ties that, under difficult circumstances, such resourcefulness and creativity at tained through training allow both staff and managers to find new ways to addres s customers’ needs and move the business forward. Training affords employees the ability and skill to use modern equipment s provided through today’s ever changing technological world of business to achiev e optimal performance, improve efficiency and productivity. 6.1 Recommendations As a result of all the potential benefits to be derived from properly organised human resource development programmes or initiatives, it is recommended that: Training and developing employees should be made available to every empl oyee regardless of position or educational background. Organisations in Ghana can take a cue from Stanchart’s mode of determining performance enhancing training requirements, such as by encouraging their membe rs of staff to request additional training, which can be specifically designed t o improve their abilities to deliver better performances. Organisations must look beyond the initial financial outlay for training and development because, as the study has shown, the benefits far outweigh the cost. Organisations must always remember what Elizabeth II, Queen of Great Bri tain, said, "It s all to do with the training: you can do a lot if you re proper ly trained." (http://www.citehr.com/41401-famous-quotes-training-development.htm l, accessed on 29/10/09 at 08:57 hours) 6.2 Limitations The researcher notes the following limitations in line with the general procedures adopted in the research: Research questionnaires only produced few sampled responses. To this end , generalisation of the result to other organisations cannot be concrete.

 

 

 

Among other things, the value of a qualitative research owes much to the exploratory or research skills of the researcher as it is to the materials gath ered. In respect of the researcher’s narrow background in the area of research, th e worth of the study or significance or the results might be reduced. Given the lack of proximity to interviewees and questionnaire sampled gr oup, the want of eye contact and other interpersonal connection could limit the objectivity of the responses received. Interpretation and examination of data requires sufficient time to compl ete. This study has been conducted within a specified time frame, and hence issu es that perhaps would otherwise have come to the attention of the researcher at a later date, and which might potentially have an impact on the study’s outcome ma y be lost. 6.3 Suggestion for Future Studies It was discovered that some respondents were unconsciously aware of their prefer ence to a particular learning style; while other respondents were not so sure th e extent to which their favoured learning styles affected their participation on training programmes. Brooks (2006) had implied in the critical literature revie w that individual learning styles play a significant role in the administration and evaluation of training initiatives; and that, the tradition of ‘one fits all’ ap proach to organisational learning reduces training effectiveness. For this reas on, it is here by suggested that further research into the impact of individual learning style on training and development be considered in future. 6.4 Reflection on Learning Reflection is the process of self-probing that permits a person to realise a ple asing and efficient exercise within a reflexive coil of being and becoming (john s and joiner, 2002). It allows one to look back on what has already transpired a nd assess how that particular experience went. By reflecting, one is able to eva luate whether expectations had been met or whether there is a gap in expectation s. As one of the world’s foremost business degrees, a Masters of Business Administrat ion (MBA) is a generic degree that equips graduates with a comprehension of the main practices of business. In some organisations, the MBA is held in such high esteem that it is a pre-requisite to one’s career progression. For any ambitious i ndividual, who wishes for a successful and progressive career in business manage ment or administration, the MBA must be a top priority. The drive for a career i n business management stimulated the enrolment on the MBA programme in 2008. The objective then was to acquire the knowledge and skills expected of a business l eader in a vibrant international business environment. Having enthusiastically joined the programme, it was discovered that the MBA off ered a thrilling prospect of upgrading my business management skills, meeting an d establishing networks with new people; as well as obtaining the qualification that would pave the way to fulfil my career ambitions. Equally, it was soon real ised that the course presented many great challenges, too. First, the diversity of the composition of the members or course-mates, then the mode of teaching and learning and the level of academic rigour expected, were different from the cul ture and style of education to which I had been accustomed. Once the programme commenced in earnest, however, the lecture and support from m y new colleagues may it easy to settle into the course, and allowed my nervousne ss to be replaced be renewed confidence. This self-assurance made it possible to successfully progress through to the dissertation stage; a phase which brings t o bear all the skills, knowledge and experience obtained on the course. This is a reflection of learning processes undertaken to reach this stage. Reflection ta kes place in everyday life but, in the context of learning it makes possible for one to relate the progress made academically to actual knowledge acquired. In o ther words, it makes it easier for the learner to ask what has been deduced or g ained from the studies. It makes possible to determine one’s learning style and ho w best to study and how to apply the experienced gained in future studies. Kolb (1984) implies that, by nature various people prefer a particular learning style; and suggested four learning sequences that applies to any learner. In his

very elaborate experimental learning theory model (ELT), Kolb provided three ph ases of human improvement or development, and proposed that the human propensity to resolve and apply the four learning styles get better as people go through t heir learning period. On reflection, I realise that my learning method has based on two axis of Kolb’s continuum (figure 20.2). Firstly, I learnt by reflecting on what has been prepared or propounded by other s by using the processing continuum (east-west axis of Kolb’s continuum). This is done after reading and meditating on what took place at lecture halls, and then try to make sense of the comments and contribution made by others to form my own opinion on whatever had been discussed. Subsequently, using what Kolb describes at the emotional response (the perception continuum on the north-south axis of Kolb’s continuum), I apply the knowledge acquired in the form of assignments throu gh analysis of case studies, examinations and other forms of exercises. However, learning is not just about reading and meditation. It involves the abil ity to commit what has been learnt into memory and having the ability to apply i t whenever it becomes necessary, to understand information and the intelligence to synthesize data, observation, etc. culminating into what is known as cognitiv e learning (Kommers, 2004). All the knowledge acquired is expected to help me pr oduce a successful project. Looking back, I believe my ability to conduct this r esearch would have been impossible without having been able to learn cognitively . The application of research skills gained from the Research Skill Analysis (RS A) module on the MBA course to the dissertation is a case in point. Educational stress is described as the experiences perceived by students as havi ng the potential for growth, higher gains or that which is experienced with the threat of failure (Pagana, 1990, cited in O’Connor, 2001:216). There were critical moments during this research when it was realised that the work could potential ly be delayed and make it impossible for the researcher to meet the deadline for submission set Liverpool John Moore’s University. The frustration came about when the expected responses from sampled groups were not forthcoming. In instant it was easy to understand what O’Connor had meant by anticipatory apprehension. Yet, recalled that a similar critical incident was experienced during the first semes ter of the MBA course; when, a few hours prior to an important International Man agement (IM) presentations, one of my group members had still not shown up. The group was able to device a ‘make shift strategy’ to cover for our absent colleague. Drawing on that experience was instrumental because, it made it possible for me to pursue other areas of the study while awaiting the responses from the respond ents. I believe that this course on a whole has benefited me personally, but believe t hat my friends and colleague at work would benefit from the knowledge I have acq uired as a result of pursuing this course. I have been able to complete this the sis as a direct result of the knowledge acquired, but by being able to undertake a research on the topic of training and human resources development: It would make it necessary for Ghanaian firms to realise the need for hu man resource development. It would promote calls to change the mindset of the pe ople in Ghana who do not see why training and development must be included in th eir grand strategic plans. Inform individuals whose perception on training is delusional to the ext ent that training is meant for lowly educated people; and realise that training and development is an exercise designed to facilitate the advance their personal interests. Embarking and completing this research study in the specified time frame and lim ited resources have given the writer the encouragement and confidence that illus trates the competency to successfully manage projects and business portfolios ir respective of the size of the challenge. It also shows the ability to render ans wers to practical business crisis, and that the writer can successfully manage p ersonal expectations and that of others. Reviewing the work or several authors has thought the author the essence appreci ating different views and the art of critically re-evaluating other people’s accom plishments without being influenced or entrenched. The understanding obtained th rough out this study in areas such as different methodologies available to a res

earcher, selecting, clarifying and justifying a particular research methodology for one’s study cannot be overemphasised. On reflection, the networks of fellow students, business leaders and lecturers e stablished, learning of new and different cultures, making new friends, the high s, the lows and the lessons learnt make going on board the MBA expedition an exh ilarating experience.

APPENDICES Appendix 1: Questionnaires Appendix 1a: Managers Questionnaire Dear Sir/Madam, MANAGERS QUESTIONNAIRE I am conducting a research (dissertation) on The Importance of Human Resource De velopment in an Organisation, in partial fulfilment of the Liverpool John Moores University Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programme that I am current ly pursuing. Whilst a number of Ghanaian companies have taken a lukewarm approach towards Tra ining and Development, Standard Chartered Bank (Stanchart), Ghana has successful ly employed such initiatives to great effect. I opted for your company for my re search to afford me the opportunity to evaluate how such programmes have contrib uted to the realisation of your personal and Stanchart’s objectives. Below is a questionnaire to request your candid opinion on the training courses you have attended or received from Stanchart, and how they have impacted on your career development and job performances. Additional space has been offered at t he end of the questionnaire to enable you to provide any further information or experience you may wish to share, but are not covered by the questions. I fully appreciate that you may be working on tight schedule; however, your participatio n and response in this questionnaire would be immensely appreciated. I wish to thank you profoundly for participating in this research. I undertake that comments and views expressed will be treated in the strictest confidence. Should you require further details or clarification, please contact the research er at the address below. 59 Marlborough Close, London, SE17 3AW Tel: +44 207 358 3096 Mob: +44 785 228 6038 E: sayawyeboa@yahoo.com E: syyaw1@googlemail.com Yours sincerely, Samuel Yeboah Please kindly provide the following details: Name: ……………………………………………………………………………… Title: ………………………………… Gender: Male Female I have worked at Stanchart for 0 – 5 yrs I principally work in: Accounts/finance Customer services Marketing/ Sales Business development

over 5 yrs

Human resource Engineering/IT/maintenance Teller Facilities management Date: ………………………………. Signature: …………………………. The statements in the following four sections (A – D) are related to human resourc e training and development you have received or attended while working at Stanch art. Please rate the following statements by using the scale from ‘strongly agree’ t o ‘strongly disagree’ by highlighting, ticking or circling only one option for each statement. Example: Q. Big bonuses are good motivational tool. strongly agree e SECTION A Training and developing managers enable them to better understand their subordinates’ views. strongly agree e Training and developing managers’ skills enable them to become more flexib le in their approach to management. strongly agree e Training and development may be used to motivate managers. strongly agree e Management training has enhanced my own performance. strongly agree e Training and development has enhanced my managerial capabilities. strongly agree e SECTION B Human resource development is an essential strategy at Stanchart strongly agree e Training has provided me the skill to assess and identify my subordinate’s contributions towards strategic objectives realization. strongly agree e I am trained to identify the training needs of my subordinates toward St agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre

anchart’s strategic objectives. strongly agree e Training has enhanced my ability to help subordinates understand how the ir actions impact on Stanchart’s strategic objectives. strongly agree e Training has made it possible for me to motivate subordinates to take mo re responsibilities to aid Stanchart’s quest for competitive advantage. strongly agree e Stanchart uses training and development to facilitate sustainable growth and competitive advantage. strongly agree e Stanchart uses training and development as a key facilitator in sustaini ng competitive advantage. strongly agree e Employees are Stanchart’s most important strategic asset. strongly agree e Training and development is an important strategic investment. strongly agree e Training and development is an additional expenditure. strongly agree e agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre

SECTION C. There are positive relationships between training, development and perfo rmance. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly disagre Human resource development motivates and brings the best out of Stanchar t’s employees. strongly agree e Training enables employees to better understand Stanchart’s culture and vi sion. strongly agree e Human resource development aid employees’ personal development and career agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre

progression at Stanchart. strongly agree e Stanchart’s employees should be rewarded to commensurate the knowledge and skills they have acquired through training. strongly agree SECTION D Human resource planning plays an important role in employee development strongly agree e It is important to consider employees preferred method of learning when planning training courses. strongly agree e Stanchart consider individual learning styles when administering trainin g programmes. strongly agree e Different people respond well to different training methods or technique s. strongly agree e Most employees feel more comfortable with external trainers or tutors. strongly agree e Most employees feel more comfortable at external training resource centr es. strongly agree ee Please give further comments on training and development related experiences you may wish to share below: agree not sure disagree strongly disagr agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre

Please continue on separate sheets if necessary Appendix 1b: Staff Questionnaire Dear Sir/Madam, STAFF QUESTIONNAIRE I am conducting a research (dissertation) on The Importance of Human Resource De velopment in an Organisation, in partial fulfilment of the Liverpool John Moores University Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programme that I am current ly pursuing.

Whilst a number of Ghanaian companies have taken a lukewarm approach towards Tra ining and Development, Standard Chartered Bank (Stanchart), Ghana has successful ly employed such initiatives to great effect. I opted for your company for my re search to afford me the opportunity to evaluate how such programmes have contrib uted to the realisation of your personal and Stanchart’s objectives. Below is a questionnaire to request your candid opinion on the training courses you have attended or received from Stanchart, and how they have impacted on your career development and job performances. Additional space has been offered at t he end of the questionnaire to enable you to provide any further information or experience you may wish to share, but are not covered by the questions. I fully appreciate that you may be working on tight schedule; however, your participatio n and response in this questionnaire would be immensely appreciated. I wish to thank you profoundly for participating in this research. I undertake that comments and views expressed will be treated in the strictest confidence. Should you require further details or clarification, please contact the research er at the address below. 59 Marlborough Close, London, SE17 3AW Tel: +44 207 358 3096 Mob: +44 785 228 6038 E: sayawyeboa@yahoo.com E: syyaw1@googlemail.com Yours sincerely, Samuel Yeboah Please kindly provide the following details: Name: …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Title: ………………………………… Gender: Male Female I have worked at Standard Chartered Bank, Ghana for 0 – 5 yrs I principally work in: Accounts/finance Customer services Marketing/ Sales Business development Human resource Engineering/IT/maintenance Teller Facilities management Date: ……………………………….. Signature: …………………………. The statements in the following four sections (A – D) are related to human resourc e training and development you have received or attended while working at Stanch art. Please rate the following statements by using the scale from ‘strongly agree’ t o ‘strongly disagree’ by highlighting, ticking or circling only one option for each statement. Example: Q. Big bonuses are good motivational tool. strongly agree e SECTION A Based on the training and development courses I have receive or attended: agree not sure disagree strongly disagre

over 5 yrs

I feel more appreciated and valued at Stanchart now than before. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly disagre e I have improved my awareness and knowledge of the business environment. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly disagre e I have improved my efficiency and productivity. strongly agree e I have acquired the flexibility to cope with any organisational change(s ). strongly agree e I am better able to accept and handle work place diversity. strongly agree e I am much more aware of the use of technology to enhance business perfor mance. strongly agree e SECTION B Based on the training and development courses I have receive or attended: I understand Stanchart’s strategic objectives better now that before. strongly agree e I am more knowledgeable in how to help Stanchart achieve its strategic g oals now than before. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly e I am much more appreciative of customers’ perceptions now than before. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly e I have acquired the necessary skills to effectively appraise my own perf ormance. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly e I have acquired the essential skills to evaluate my contribution to Stan chart’s strategic objective. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly e SECTION C Based on the training and development courses I have receive or attended: I am motivated and more motivated and more committed to carry out my wor k. strongly agree e agree not sure disagree strongly disagre disagre disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre

disagre

disagre

My overall performance and productivity have improved. strongly agree agree not sure disagree e I am able to efficiently meet personal targets now than before. strongly agree agree not sure disagree e

strongly disagre

strongly disagre

I have become multi-skilled and flexible to undertake various roles. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly disagre e I can differentiate between individual and organisational performances. strongly agree agree not sure disagree strongly disagre e I believe the prospects of my career progressing and development at Stan chart have improved. strongly agree e SECTION D Based on the training and development courses I have receive or attended: I feel my preferred learning style was factored into the planning of the programme. strongly agree e I believe the actions and the general conduct of the tutor or trainer gr eatly affected my contribution. strongly agree e I feel I respond well to a particular teaching technique. strongly agree e I found the training or course content very relevant to my job strongly agree e I found the training or course centre atmosphere conducive for the progr amme. strongly agree e I feel more comfortable with an external trainer. strongly agree e Please give comments or training and development related experiences you may wis h to share below: agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre agree not sure disagree strongly disagre

Please continue on separate sheets if necessary. Appendix 1c: Comments by Questionnaire Respondents 1. Training also serves as a: Refresher for all staff and current practices on the market. Time to take a look at ongoing practices in a classroom. Engaging staff on various subjects at the workplace. Assessing staff at the workplace 2. Employees should be rewarded based on performance achieved through the correc t application of knowledge and skills and not merely the acquisition of knowledg e and skills. 3. Standard chartered appreciates the need for staff training and thus spares no thing to ensure that its employees receive all the relevant trainings and kits t o better position them in their various roles so as to maximise their performanc e. 5. Personally, my preference as far as resources persons go is neither here nor. For as long as the facilitator is able to package the course in a manner that w ill best serve the objectives of the training is the bottom line. 6. The talent and development team is also doing a superb job at ensuring the ba nks vision is attained in terms of knowledge acquisition by enabling and empower ing each member of staff with the requisite tools and conducive atmosphere at th e learning centre to achieve the banks strategic mission of being the leading in ternational bank in Ghana. 7. An external resource centre presents a more relaxing atmosphere but external trainers have barely been impressive. 8. The success or otherwise of a training session depends largely on the trainer and his level of preparation for the training programme. The session would have to be made as interactive as possible by allowing participant express their opi nion issues discussed. 9. Needless to say that the trainer must be as practical as possible. To succeed being practical the trainer have an appreciable background of the participants attending the training session. Appendix 3: Interview Appendix 3a: Objectives of Interview Questions Question A Is there a relationship between human resources planning (HRP) and human resourc es development (HRD)? Objective: Budhwar and Debrah (2001) argued that a lack of adequate human resour ce planning hampers organisations’ ability to develop their human resources in Gha na. Therefore, the objective of the question was to establish if there is a rela tionship between human resources planning (HRP) and human resource development ( HRD) at Stanchart. If there is, then it confirms Budhwar and Debrah’s argument. If there is no relationship, then there may well be other reasons why some organis ations fail to train and develop their staff in Ghana. That being the case, a fu rther research may be needed to explore the problem, which is outside the scope of this study. Question B Are there any relationships between human resource recruitment and human resourc e development? Objective: Budhwar and Debrah (2001 suggested that a lack of openness in recruit ment and selection in Ghana contributes to lack of human resources development. they argued that such acts of nepotism deprives organisations the chance to full y access the strengths and weaknesses of an employees that might have been notic ed during the normal course of recruitment. If this question highlights the trui

sm in that statement, the study would have demonstrated that organisations stand to gain more if they were to change their recruitment policies to reflect best practice. Question C What calls for training at Stanchart? What determines an employee training needs? Is training offered to all members of staff regardless of their educatio nal background? Objective: organisations training their staff in anticipation that the skill and knowledge acquired through training would help them to provide better performan ce. Yet, despite the huge investments made, it seems that some training objectiv es are not met in some organisations. A lack of noticeable change in the perform ance and general attitude to work of employees who have undergone training could demoralise some employers to commit more resource to training and development i nitiatives. However, Russ-eft et al (1997) implied that some organisations engag ing in training and development programmes without clearly defined training obje ctives. This results in training being administered without a benchmark to measu re the training outcome. Given the widely acclaimed success of Stanchart’s trainin g programmes, questions (i), and (ii) aims to find out how Stanchart identifies its training needs. It would help the researcher to draw informed conclusions ab out what is required when deciding training needs for ones organisation. Using question (iii), the research intended to know, given the perception in Gha na that training is meant for people of lower academic background, whether train ing is for employees across the academic divide at Stanchart. Question D How do you convince senior management to provide funding for training programmes ? Objectives: many organisations in Ghana believe that training and development is just an added expenditure that drains the business’ finances hence, their relucta nce to give resources for training initiatives. When asked, 23 out of 23 manager s of Stanchart sampled believed that training is an additional expenditure. Neve rtheless, the management of Stanchart still find it necessary to carry out train ing and development initiatives. It is hoped that this question would bring out the reason why Stanchart still find it useful to finance training initiatives. T his would enable the research draw meaningful conclusion on why funds should be made available by organisations for training programmes. Question E How does Stanchart protect against losing valued employees in whom the bank has committed substantial resources to train and develop to rival banks? Objective: Some organisations argue that training and developing members of staf f increase their employability, even when training is done in line with the busi ness’ explicit needs rather than transferable knowledge. The dread of losing empl oyees to rivals gives such like thinking organisations reasons not to training a nd develop their staff. This question allows the study to find out how, in spite of the genuine threat of losing trained staff, Stanchart avoids losing valued s taff. Appendix 3b: Interview Request Letter 59 Marlborough Close, London SE1 7 3AW 21 October 2009 The HR Relationship Manager WB, T&O and Support Functions Standard Chartered Bank Accra High Street, Ghana

REQUEST FOR AN INTERVIEW Dear Ama, You may recall our telephone conversation on 8th October, 2009 that I wish to co nduct a short interview with you relating to Stanchart’s training programme(s). Th e interview would help clarify some issues that surfaced after analysing the dat a received from the questionnaire respondents, and some areas that were not cove red by the questionnaire that I wish to discuss with you. In particular, I would like to clarify issues relating to: The relationship between human resource planning and human resource deve lopment; The relationship between recruitment, training and development; The process of identifying Stanchart’s training requirements; The justification of training and development expenditure or investment to management; and How Stanchart protect against losing valued employees in whom the bank h as committed substantial resources to train and develop to rival banks. I hope that it will be possible for you to grant me half an hour of your time on Monday, 26th October 2009 at 11:00 hours. Although by you, should it become inc onvenient for you, please kindly suggest another time that would be most suitabl e for you. I look forward to hearing from. Thank you kindly. Yours sincerely, Samuel Yeboah Appendix 3c: interview excerpts Is there a relationship between human resources planning (HRP) and human resourc es development (HRD)? Response: Yes. In short, there is a relationship between Human resource planning and development. This will normally be done by the relationship manager (who al so does the resourcing). Within the HR department, there is the Training and dev elopment unit that is responsible for scheduling staff for training based on ind ividual training requests. New recruits will be given an induction training that will normally focus on the bank’s mission, objectives and values/culture. The new employee will also have a rotation schedule to help them understand the busines s and what is required of them on the job. Training in SCB is need based therefo re, if an individual has not selected a specific training to help them achieve t heir objectives for the year, that individual may not be trained for that year o r will participate in the generic refresher programmes. The HR Relationship Mana ger will liaise with the business head of the employee to discuss the additional skills set that the individual requires to be able to deliver on the job. Are there any relationships between human resource recruitment and human resourc e development? Response: From my response to point your earlier question, there is a relationsh ip between resourcing and development. It is essential that you develop the tale nt that has been recruited otherwise; they rust on the job and loose their talen t marketability. What calls for training at Stanchart? Response: An individual’s performance ability gap. What determines an employee training needs? Response: The individual performance objective for the year. Is training offered to all members of staff regardless of their educational back ground? Response: Yes How do you convince senior management to provide funding for training programmes ? Response: Training budget is 35% of total staff cost for every unit. The busin ess head decides who goes for which training irrespective of what training need the individual has indicated on their learning and development plan. Where an in dividual misses a particular training, another one is scheduled depending on whe

ther it is run locally or in another country. The decision is influenced by the pace of the business and bench strength requirement on the job at any given time . How does Stanchart protect against losing valued employees in whom the bank has committed substantial resources to train and develop to rival banks? Response: The bank has a retention strategy to ring fence its key talents. This could range from training, remuneration above market practice, promotions and ot her recognised project assignments/developments. Appendix 4: The Chi - Square Test The chi-square (x2) is a statistical test regularly used to compare observed dat a with what a researcher would have expected based on a specific hypothesis (htt p://www.2.1v.psu.edu/jxm57/irp/chisquar.html, accessed at 21/10/09 at 03:23 hour s). The amount of difference between observed and expected allows the researcher to draw conclusion(s) as to how much of the deviation can be attributed to chan ce. The chi-square test usually tests the ‘null hypothesis’, which means that there is no significant difference the expected and the observed result. The chi-square (x2) test uses the following procedure ((http://www.2.1v.psu.edu/ jxm57/irp/chisquar.html, accessed at 21/10/09 at 03:23 hours).): Prepare the null hypotheses and the alternative hypotheses. The null hyp otheses (H0) indicate the parameter value to be tested. The alternative hypothes es (H1) indicate the parameter value to be accepted if the null hypothesis is di scarded. Indicate the level of consequence to be used. In respect of this researc h 0.05 level of consequence is used. Calculation of the test statistic (x2 e) is the value based on the sampl e used to decide whether the null hypotheses should be accepted or discarded. Create the table (x2 t) from a statistical table. Make the decision: The value of the sample statistic (x2 e) is related to the table value (x2 t); the degree of freedom is also established. Decision Rule: Should the value of the test statistic (x2 e) be found to be greater than or equ al to the table value (x2 e) it is compared with table value (x2 t). The degree of freedom is comparative to the expected number of frequencies. Degrees of freedom df = N-1 Chi square (x2e) is the sum of the squared difference between observed (o) and e xpected (e); and is represented by x = ∑ (O– E) 2 E Where: N is the alternative value, O = observed response rate, E = expected response rate, H0 is the null hypothesis, and H1 is the alternative hypothesis. Appendix 6: Gant Chart In view of the fact that the study had to be completed within a stated time fram e, a Gant chart was designed to guide the researcher track of time (Saunders, et al, 2003). BIBLIOGRAPHY Bratton, J and Gold, J (2001) Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, il lustrated 2nd Edn, Routledge Bramham, J (1989) Human Resources Planning, London, Sage. Bratton, J. Gold, J. (2001) Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, edit ion: 2, illustrated, Routledge, Beardwell, I. and Holden, L. (1994) Human Resources Management: A Contemporary P erspective: Lecturer s Guide, edition: illustrated, Pitman Beaumont, P. (1993) Human Resource Management: Key Concepts and Skills. London:

 

Sage Budhwar, S. P. and Debrah, Y. A. (2001) Human resource management in developing countries, illustrated edition, Rutledge Burns, N and Grove, S., K. (2004) the practice of nursing research: conduct, cri tique, and utilization Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, & Util 5 th edn, illustrated, Elsevier Health Sciences Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2007) Business research methods, 2nd edn, illustrated, Oxford University Berrett-koehler Series, illustrated edn, Berrett-Koehler Publishers Burns, N., Burns, N. (Ph.D.) and Grove, S., K. (2005) The practice of nursing re search: conduct, critique, and utilization Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, & Util, 5th edn, illustrated, E lsevier Health Sciences Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G. and Williams, J. M. (2008) The craft of research: Ch icago guides to writing, editing, and publishing, 3rd edn, illustrated, Universi ty of Chicago Press Claire Foggon, Deutsche Bank AG, Human Resource - Development, 1 Appold Street L ondon Cox, T. and Beale, R. L. (1997) Developing competency to manage diversity: readi ngs, cases & activities, edition: illustrated, Berrett-Koehler Publishers Cook, R. J. (1887) Human rights of women: national and international perspective s, edition: 3, illustrated, University of Pennsylvania Press Creswell, J. W. (2003) Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed met hod approaches Dickmann, M., Brewster, C. and Sparrow, P. (2008) International Human Resource M anagement: A European Perspective, edition: 2, illustrated, Routledge Fink, A. (2005) How to conduct surveys: a step-by-step guide, 3rd edn, illustrat ed, SAGE Fink, A. (2003) The survey kit, Volume 7, 2nd edn, illustrated, SAGE Frank, P. (2007), Einstein – His Life and Times: Read Books Flannes, S. and Levin, G. (2005) Essential People Skills for Project Managers, M anagement Concepts Grundy, T. and Brown, L. (2003) Value-based human resource strategy: developing your consultancy role, edition: illustrated, Butterworth-Heinemann. Hart, C. (2001) Doing a Literature Search: A Comprehensive Guide for the Social Sciences, Sage Publications Ltd Hackett, P. (2003) Training Practice, illustrated edition, CIPD publishing. http://uk.news.yahoo.com/4/20090514/tuk-bt-to-cut-15-000-jobs-dba1618.html Halligan, J., Aulich, C. and Ntley, S (2001) Australian Handbook of Public Secto r Management, Edition: illustrated, Allen & Unwin http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/banking_and_fina nce/article5176669.ece Home Office, Great Britain (2006) A Points-based System: Making Migration Work f or Britain, edition: illustrated, The Stationery Office Harrison, R. (1992) Employee Development, London: IPD http://www.unileverghana.com/ourcompany/careers/, accessed on 09/05/09, at 1700 hours https://clc.executiveboard.com/Public/CurrentResearch.aspx Mullins, L. J. (2007) Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th edn, Pearson Education Harris, H., Brewster, C. and Sparrow, P. (2003) International Human Resource Man agement, illustrated edition, CIPD Pulishing Hakim, C. (2000) Research design: successful designs for social and economic res earch, Social research today, 2nd edn, illustrated, Routledge http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080412074445AA5nWzC, accessed on 0 2/09/09 at 17:11 http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Colosi/lcolosi2.htm, accessed on 0 3/09/09 at 09:20 hours http://www.2.1v.psu.edu/jxm57/irp/chisquar.html http://intoweb.co.za/et-human-resource-training.html

http://www.citehr.com/41401-famous-quotes-training-development.html http://www.analytictech.com/mb313/elements.htm Johns, C. and Joiner, A. (2002), Guided reflection: advancing practice, 2nd edn, illustrated: Willey-Blackwell Jobber, D. (2001), Principles and Practice of Marketing, McGraw-Hill Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R. (2008) Exploring Corporate Strategy : Text and Cases, Edition: 8, illustrated, Pearson Education Kanter, R. M (1983) The Change Masters: innovation and entrepreneurship in the A merican corporation, New York, Simon and Schuster Kuntz, H. (2006) Hepatology: principles and practice: history, morphology, bioch emistry, diagnostics, clinic, therapy. Edition: 2, illustrated. Birkhäuser. Kirkpatrick, D. L (2006) Improving employee performance through appraisal and co aching, illustrated 2nd edn, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn Kaplan R. S. and Norton D. P. (1996) The balanced scorecard: translating strateg y into action, illustrated edition, he Harvard Business Press Kumar, R. (2005) Research methodology: a step-by-step guide for beginners, 2nd e dn, illustrated, SAGE. Kommers, P. A. M. (2004) Cognitive support for learning: imagining the unknown, illustrated edn, IOS Press. Kemin, M. (2006), Customer Service Training, Elsevier Leopold, J. (2001) Human resources in organisations, 2nd edn, illustrated, Pears on Education Legge, K. (1995) Human Resource Management: Rhetoric and Realities. Basingstoke: Macmillan Business. Lewis, C. (1985) Employee Selection. London: Hutchinson. Lewis-Beck, M. S. (1995) Data Analysis: An Introduction, Quantitative applicatio ns in the social sciences: Volume 103 of Sage University papers, 3rd edn, illust rated, SAGE. Mabey, C., Salaman, G. and Storey, J. (1998) Human resource management: a strate gic introduction, Wiley-Blackwell. Maxwell J. A. (2005) Qualitative research design: an interactive approach, 2nd e dn, illustrated, SAGE. Mugo, F. W. (http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Mugo/tutorial.htm, ac cessed on 31/08/09 at 19:52). Munhall, P. L. and Chenail, R. J (2008), Qualitative research proposals and repo rts: a guide to National League for Nursing Series, 3rd edn, revised, illustrate d: Jones & Publishers. O’Connor A. B (2001) Clinical instruction and evaluation: a teaching resource Faculty Resources Series, illustrated edn, Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Posner (2006), The Leadership Challenge, 4th Edn, Wiley – India. Rothwell, W. J. and Kazanas, H. C. (2002) Planning and managing human resources: strategic planning for human resources management Edition: 2, illustrated, Huma n Resource Development Press. REA (1997) Careers for the Year 2000 and Beyond: Everything You Need to Know to Find the Right Career. Edition: revised, illustrated, Research and Education Ass ociation. Rothwell, W. J. and Kazanas, H. C. (2003) The Strategic Development of Talent, 2 nd edn, revised, Human Resource Development Press. Remenyi, D., Williams, D. and Money, A. (1998) Doing research in business and ma nagement: an introduction to process and method, illustrated edn, SAGE. Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, illustr ated 2nd edn, annotated, SAGE. Stewart, J. and McGoldrick, J. (1996) Human Resource Development: Perspectives, Strategies and Practice, edition: illustrated, Pitman. Storey, J. (1992) Development in the Management of Human Resources, Oxford: Blac kwell. Sayer, R. A. (2000) Realism and social science, illustrated edition, SAGE Smith R. D. (2002) Strategic planning for public relations, illustrated edn, Law rence Erlbaum Associates Press Smith, A. R (1971) ‘The Nature of Corporate Manpower Planning’, Personnel Review, Vo

l. 1 Swanson, R. A. and Holton F. E. (2005) Research in organizations: foundations an d methods of inquiry, Publication in the Berrett-Koehler organizational performa nce series. Shaw, H. B (1990), Perspectives of Black popular culture, popular press. Shavinina, L. V. (2003), The international handbook on innovation, illustrated e dn: Elsevier. Tyson, S. and York, A. (1989): Personnel Management Made Simple, Edition: 2, ill ustrated, revised: Made Simple. Taylor, S. (2005) People Resourcing, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Develo pment. Edition: 3, illustrated: CIPD Publishing. Taylor, S. (2002) People Resourcing, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Develo pment. Taylor, S. (2002) the employee retention handbook, Chartered Institute of Person nel and Development: CIPD Publishing. Torrington, D., and Hall, L. (1995) Personnel Management: HRM in Action. London: Prentice Hall: 2, illustrated: CIPD Publishing. Torrington, D. Hall, L., & Taylor, L., 2004. Human resource management, 6th edn, illustrated: Pearson education Van Bon, J., Pieper, M., ITSMFR, Van der Veen, A. (2005) Foundations of IT Servi ces Management on ITIL: Van Haren Publishing Wilson, J. P. (2005), Key Academic Titles cluster sheet: Human Resource Developm ent: Learning and Training for Individuals and Organizations, Kogan Page Werner, J. M. and DeSimon, R. L. (2008), Human Resource Development, 5th Edn, Il lustrated: Cengage Learning.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.