A society or a human society is (1) a group of people related to each other through persistent relations such as social status, roles and social networks. (2) A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals sharing a distinctive culture and institutions. Without an article, the term refers either to the entirety of humanity or a contextually specific subset of people. Used in the sense of an association, a society is a body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence, possibly comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language or hierarchical organization. Like other groupings, a society allows its members to achieve needs or wishes they could not fulfill alone; the social fact can be identified, understood or specified within a circumstance that certain resources, objectives, requirements or results, are needed and utilized in an individual manner and for individual ends, although they can't be achieved, gotten or fulfilled in an individual manner as well, but, on the contrary, they can be gotten only in a collective, collaborative manner; namely, team work becomes the valid functional means, to individual ends which an individual would need to have but isn't able to get. More broadly, a society is an economic, social or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society may be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. A "society" may even, though more by means of metaphor, refer to a social organism such as an ant colony or any cooperative aggregate such as for example in some formulations of artificial intelligence.
Canis lupus social ethology
Conceptions of "society"
A half-section of the 12th century Song Dynasty version of Night Revels of Han Xizai, original by Gu Hongzhong; the painting, which is a masterpiece of the era's artwork, portrays servants, musicians, monks, children, guests, hosts all in a single social environment, serves as an in-depth look into 10th-century Chinese social structure. Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual has rather limited means as an autonomous unit. The Great apes have always been more (Bonobo.Homo, Pan) or less (Gorilla, Pongo) social animals so Robinson Crusoe like situations are either fictions or unusual corner cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans who fall between presocial and eusocial in the spectrum of animal ethology.
This system of classification contains four categories: • • • • Hunter-gatherer bands (categorization on duties and responsibilities. Many societies will distribute largess. which supposedly would be absent in our nearest relatives for whom paternity is not in general determinable. mankind. A society that is unable to offer an effective response to other societies it competes with will usually be subsumed into the culture of the competing society (see technology for examples). with complex social hierarchies and organized. members of a society may also shun or scapegoat members of the society who violate its norms. Conversely. a conflict theorist. population growth and density. In fact.) Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige. in contrast to humanity's closest biological relatives (chimpanzees and bonobo). Today.Society
Human societies are most often organized according to their primary means of subsistence. Some consider industrial and post-industrial societies to be qualitatively different from traditional agricultural societies. an integration theorist. which is evolving in the information age. much anthropological data has suggested that complexity (civilization. including society's beliefs. 3) advanced agricultural. or "progress" in relation to cultures (including their material culture/technology and social organization). This cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. there are bands. prestige accrues to the generous individual or group. This is somewhat similar to the system earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. tribes. These structures may have varying degrees of political power. • Virtual society is a society based on online identity. horticulturalist or simple farming societies. According to anthropologist Maurice Godelier.
Sociologist Gerhard Lenski differentiates societies based on their level of technology. at the behest of some individual or some larger group of people. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages. and intensive agricultural societies. anthropologists and many social scientists vigorously oppose the notion of cultural evolution and rigid "stages" such as these. fishing societies or maritime societies). and Elman Service. etc. 2) simple agricultural. Also. Social scientists have identified hunter-gatherer societies. and 5) special (e. 4) industrial." better/worse. a more isolated society with the same level of technology and culture as other societies is more likely to survive than one in closer proximity to others that may encroach on their resources (see history for examples).) does not always take the form of hierarchical social organization or stratification. 
In political science
Societies may also be organized according to their political structure. and state societies. is the parental role assumed by the males. chiefdoms. some cultures have progressed toward more-complex forms of organization and control. Over time. In order of increasing size and complexity.
. also called civilizations. typically. institutional governments. Villages grew to become towns and cities. who have produced a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. that upon which rest all the elements of society.
In addition to this there are: • Humanity. Cities turned into city-states and nation-states. and historical environments that these societies must contend with. Fried. one critical novelty in human society. nomadic pastoral societies. cultural relativism as a widespread approach/ethic has largely replaced notions of "primitive. depending on the cultural geographical. Thus. specialization. Stratified structures led by chieftains. communication and economy: 1) hunters and gatherers.g. Civilizations. This type of generosity can be seen in all known cultures.
agricultural and feudal. prestige or power. manner of dress. in many societies.
Types of societies
Types of societies are categories of social groups that differ according to subsistence strategies. These societies can be subdivided according to their level of technology and their method of producing food. shunning. the specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities. some people become craftworkers. Hunter-gatherers move around constantly in search of food. The family forms the main social unit. Altruistic action in the interests of the larger group is seen in virtually all societies. Leadership is personal-charismatic-and for special purposes only in tribal society. food production. As a result. Social evolution as a phenomenon carries with itself certain elements that could be detrimental to the population it serves. is subject to a ritual or process of this type. Statuses within the tribe are relatively equal. a sort of adviser. Since there are food surpluses. shared risk and reward are common to many forms of society. Because their food supply is far more reliable. producing tools. The need for mobility also limits the size of these societies. Hunting and gathering societies The main form of food production in such societies is the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals. For example. is the main economic activity. Pastoralists live a normadic life. the way that humans use technology to provide needs for themselves. becomes more complex. The production of goods encourages trade. and jewelry. These subdivisions are hunting and gathering. prestige or power. Adult male/female status. when that individual or group performs an admired or desired action. tribal consolidation for collective action are not governmental. as some families acquire more goods than others do. Sociologists place societies in three broad categories: pre-industrial. anthropologists tend to classify different societies according to the degree to which different groups within a society have unequal access to advantages such as resources. generosity.
In a pre-industrial society. members of a pastoral society rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs. pastoral.Society Mechanisms such as gift-giving and scapegoating. the division of labor. there are no political offices containing real power. pastoral societies can support larger populations. horticultural. therefore. Rather than searching for food on a daily basis. As a result. they do not build permanent villages or create a wide variety of artifacts and usually only form small groups such as Bands and Tribes. This type of recognition is bestowed by members of that society on the individual or group in the form of a name.This trade helps to create inequality. moving their herds from pasture to another. Although humans have established many types of societies throughout history. however some Hunting and Gathering Societies in areas with abundant resources (such as the Tlingit) lived in larger groups and formed complex hierarchical social structures such as chiefdoms. and postindustrial. These families often gain power through their increased wealth. The passing on of property from
. title. Virtually all societies have developed some degree of inequality among their people through the process of social stratification-the division of members of a society into levels with unequal wealth. and a chief is merely a person of influence. This type of organization requires the family to carry out most social functions. or monetary reward. with most societal members being related by birth or by marriage. They generally consist of fewer than 60 people and rarely exceed 100. The ties that bind the tribe are more complicated than those of the bands. Pastoral societies Pastoralism is a slightly more efficient form of subsistence. Some societies will bestow status on an individual or group of people. weapons. scapegoating. and decisions are reached through general agreement. which may be seen in various types of human groupings. fewer people are needed to produce food. industrial. tend to be institutionalized within a society. which is carried out through the use of human and animal labor. including production and education. The phenomena of community action.
Feudal Societies From the 9th to 15th centuries. Horticultural societies Fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots that have been cleared from the jungle or forest provide the main source of food in a horticultural society. emerge. hereditary chieftainships. knight and Peasant. As with pastoral societies. they became more subordinate to men. The size of a village's population depends on the amount of land available for farming. horticulturists can stay in one area for a fairly long period of time. and ashes are used as fertilizers. conflicts with other communities inevitably occurred. In time. the typical form of government in pastoral societies. vassals under feudalism were bound to cultivating their lord's land. the lords exploited the peasants into providing food. By rotating their garden plots. The caste system of feudalism was often multigenerational. crops. educators. However. Unlike today's farmers. The wild vegetation is cut and burned. merchants. Agricultural societies Agricultural societies use technological advances to cultivate crops over a large area. These societies have a level of technology and complexity similar to pastoral societies. Specialized roles that are part of horticultural life. Between the 14th and 16th centuries. crafts. Economic and political systems are developed because of settled nature of horticultural life. shamans (religious leaders). and traders. the nobility managed to extract goods from the “lesser” persons of society. This meant a greater surplus. Some horticultural groups use the slash-and-burn method to raise crops. This allows them to build semipermanent or permanent villages. surplus food leads to a more complex division of labor. thus villages can range from as few as 30 people to as many as 2000.500 years ago that led to cultivating crops and raising farm animals. horticulturists clear a new plot and leave the old plot to revert to its natural state. in which the means of production are privately owned. This nobility organized warriors to protect the society from invasion. A system of rulers with high social status also appeared. In this way. as food stores improved and women took on lesser roles in providing food for the family. They may return to the original land several years later and begin the process again. and other services to the owner of the land. a new economic system emerged that began to replace feudalism. women previously had higher social status because they shared labor more equally with men.Society generation to another helps to centralize wealth and power. When the land becomes barren. For example. feudalism was a form of society based on ownership of land. Greater degrees of social stratification appeared in agricultural societies. which resulted in towns that became centers of trade supporting various rulers. craftspeople. This role specialization allows people to create a wide variety of artifacts. As villages and towns expanded into neighboring areas.
Cleric. Sociologists use the phrase Agricultural Revolution to refer to the technological changes that occurred as long as 8. and religious leaders who did not have to worry about locating nourishment. Capitalism is marked by open competition in a free market. As in pastoral societies. In exchange for military protection. homage. as a result. hereditary chieftainships are prevalent. Horticulturists use human labor and simple tools to cultivate the land for one or more seasons. the families of peasants may have cultivated their lord's land for generations. Increases in food supplies then led to larger populations than in earlier communities. Farmers provided warriors with food in exchange for protection against invasion by enemies. surplus food can lead to inequalities in wealth and power within horticultural societies. women even gathered more food than men. an example of feudal societies
. In hunting and gathering societies. include those of craftspeople.
employment. cultural and linguistic diversity and local content. international and regional cooperation. Australia. It therefore covers the effects of computers and telecommunications on the home. New Zealand and Japan. agriculture and science. have chosen democracy as a form of governance. are heavily influenced by Judeo-Christian values. silks. health. The International Telecommunications Union's World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva and Tunis (2003/2005) has led to a number of policy and application areas where action is required. Geographically. as well as the emergence of new social forms in cyberspace. and spices stimulated great commercial activity in Europe. media. learning. information and communication infrastructure. These include: • • • • • • • • • • • promotion of ICTs for development. capacity building. One of the European Union's areas of interest is the Information Society. as well as their application to improve social inclusion. allow freedom of religion. politics and ideas. and have some form of political and military alliance or cooperation. South America and Israel. Here policies are directed towards promoting an open and competitive digital economy.
World Summit on the Information Society. the workplace.
Although the concept of information society has been under discussion since the 1930s. often referred to simply as Western society. ICT applications in the areas of government. ethical dimensions of the Information Society. Geneva
. The cultures and lifestyles of all of these stem from Western Europe. building confidence and security in the use of ICTs. favor capitalism and international trade. The introduction of foreign metals. They all enjoy relatively strong economies and stable governments. access to information and knowledge. it covers at the very least the countries of Western Europe. It sometimes also includes Eastern Europe. enabling environment. government and various communities and organizations. public services and quality of life. business. North America. in the modern world it is almost always applied to the manner in which information technologies have impacted society and culture.
The development of the Western world has brought with it the emerging concepts of Western culture.Society Europe's exploration of the Americas served as one impetus for the development of capitalism. environment.
The term society is currently used to cover both a number of political and scientific connotations as well as a variety of associations. research into information and communication technologies. schools.
future prospects for the Knowledge Society. or the Royal Society). In some countries (for example the United States. to the extent that it has become the predominant factor in the creation of wealth. The digitisation of information and the associated pervasiveness of the Internet are facilitating a new intensity in the application of knowledge to economic activity. intellectual and human capital development. ICTs for ecology and the Green Economy. the American Mathematical Society. the term is employed as a means of contrasting two or more "societies" whose members represent alternative conflicting and competing worldviews (see Secret Societies). In the words of an Irish governmental analysis. management and engineering. technologies and business models for the creative industries. France and Latin America). gave special attention to the following topics: • • • • • • • • • • • business and enterprise computing. in September 2009. "The capacity to manipulate. In the United Kingdom. but cooperatives or mutuals are often known as societies (such as friendly societies and building societies). Crete. Some academic.
The Seoul Cyworld control room
The Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society. service science. culture. partnerships are not called societies. innovation. e-government and e-democracy. held in Chania. Eastern. tourism and technology. social and humanistic computing. and Western).Society
As access to electronic information resources increased at the beginning of the 21st century. sustainable development and strategic management.
People of many nations united by common political and cultural traditions. American Society of Civil Engineers. When used in this context. store and transmit large quantities of information cheaply has increased at a staggering rate over recent years. special attention was extended from the Information Society to the knowledge society. As much as 70 to 80 percent of economic growth is now said to be due to new and better knowledge. technology-enhanced learning. or values are sometimes also said to be a society (such as Judeo-Christian. the term "society" is used in commerce to denote a partnership between investors or the start of a business. professional and scientific associations describe themselves as societies (for example.
edu:8001/vcwsu/ commons/topics/culture/glossary/society. • Learning Commons .Jack Goody: The Labyrinth of Kinship" (http:/ / newleftreview.  http:/ / www. edu/ dept/ d10/ asb/ anthro2003/ glues/ model_complex. Information Society Policies at a Glance. Retrieved 2007-07-24. edu/ ~tisj/ ) Retrieved 20 October 2009. R. .edu/halsall/mod/ modsbook14.org/library/Enc/ IndustrialRevolutionandtheStandardofLiving. December 2002.topicArticleId-26957. G. 2004 "New Left Review .uk/history/scottishhistory/ enlightenment/features_enlightenment_industry.uk/) • Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living (http://www. html
• Society (http://www.Glossary Item . Effland. • Cliff Notes on Types of Societies (http://www. Retrieved 20 October 2009. From ITU. isc.html) by Clark Nardinelli . 1976. R. John P McKay.ac.eu.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/ Types-of-Societies. org/ ?view=2592). Lenski. R. palgrave. Jenkins. htm). London: Palgrave MacMillan.org. 2002. • Lecture notes on "Defining Society" (http://core. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology.dspace.ecu. Ireland (http:/ / www.bbc. pdf). htm) Retrieved 20 October 2009. Report to Government. org/ summit. edu/ dept/ d10/ asb/ anthro2003/ glues/ model_complex. mc.wsu.html) • Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Industrial Revolution (http://www.shtml) • National Museum of Science and Industry website: machines and personalities (http://www. maricopa." (http://www. eu/ information_society/ tl/ policy/ index_en.econlib. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations (http:/ / www.cam.html) • "The Day the World Took Off" Six part video series from the University of Cambridge tracing the question "Why did the Industrial Revolution begin when and where it did.Hill. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. Clare Haru Crowston and Merry E Wiesner-Hanks: Western Society: A Brief History. 1998.dmoz.edu/soci/juskaa/SOCI2110/Lectures/Lect1) from East Carolina University. (http:/ / www. ie/ downloads/ know.articleId-26856. open-knowledge-society.org/Society/History/By_Time_Period/Eighteenth_Century/ Industrial_Revolution//) at the Open Directory Project • Definition of Society (http://www. John Buckler. (http:/ / www.Society (http://www.flpmihai. Raymond Williams.askoxford. 2009 (http:/ / www. G. 1974. itu. 1998. Indiana University. maricopa.  Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society (http:/ / www.int. ISBN 0-333-96050-5. "www. mc.fordham. 1974. indiana.blogspot.the debate over whether standards of living rose or fell.
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