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Figure 11

International Baccalaureate Visual Arts Extended Essay November 2010 The Aesthetics of Function To what extent can aesthetics be considered to have functional properties?

School: St. Peters Lutheran College Supervisor: Julie Seidel Candidate Name: Pei-Han Sabrina Wong Candidate Number: 003063-040 Word Count: 3620 ABSTRACT
Squeeeeze. 11 May 2004. DeviantArt. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://lorrainemd.deviantart.com/art/Squeeeeze-7198396>.
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The aim of this investigation was to explore the functional power of aesthetics through the studying of a specific industrial product. After brainstorming many ideas, a research question has been formulated to study the question: To what extent can aesthetics be considered to have functional properties? The topic conspicuously holds elements and principles of the visual arts and the main focus of this investigation is the functionality and aesthetics of citrus squeezers. The exploration of this concept has enabled me to analyse three specific citrus squeezers, ranging from an A-list to supermarket quality product. This includes Philippe Stark’s Juicy Salif (Alessi), Halskov/Dalsgaard’s CHARM (IKEA) and an unbranded citrus squeezer from a market place. It must be taken into consideration that the analysis of the citrus squeezer within this investigation is about design and marketing and not necessarily what is traditionally thought of as fine art. My investigation includes: personal interpretation of the chosen citrus squeezers; interviews with professional individuals; public surveys in four different suburbs; and research via archives, books and art encyclopaedias. The Industrial Revolution, notions of ‘form and function’ and theories by artists including Marcel Duchamp underpins and reinforce the idea that the citrus squeezer is truly able to transcend coexist and transcend the boundaries of functionality and evoke emotional senses. Therefore, through the wide-ranging argument within my investigation, I was able to conclude that the designing of aesthetically-based item is beyond doubt capable to have functional properties. Word Count: 240

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

i ............................................................ The Aesthetics of Function ii ........................................................................................ Abstract iii ........................................................................ Table of Contents 1 .................................................................................. Introduction 2 ........................................................................................ Emotion 3 ........................................................ Analysis of Citrus Squeezers 9 ........................................................................... Industrialisation 10 ..................................................................... Form and Function 11 ........................................................................................ Survey 16 ........................................................................ Marcel Duchamp 18 ................................................................................. Conclusion 21 ................................................................................. References

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INTRODUCTION My admiration for design and art has always led me to ponder the debate design ‘is design art?’ I always believed that visual arts is a personal experience, that is to be appreciated, whereas, design is not only about appreciation but also about functionality and ergonomics. As our community is now surrounded by a myriad of commercialised merchandise - our perceptions of these products, design and art is varied, it has made me question – what is art and what is design? Inquiring about this, I decided to explore the question, to what extent can aesthetics be considered to have functional properties?

The generic definition of art is ‘the effort to form a substantial arrangement of colours, textures and other forms that affects one’s sense of beauty’2. Hence, a question we can ask is whether it is truly possible that an item can go beyond the boundaries of acceptable functionality and evoke emotional senses as a result of a successful design. When discussing aesthetics, one must understand that there is no solid definition for this word. It can be concluded from a philosophical viewpoint that an aesthetic is ‘a kind of representation that is purposeful in itself and though without an end, nevertheless promotes the cultivation of the mental powers for sociable

2

"Art." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000. Print.

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communication’3.

This

interpretation

poses

another

thought,

whether a serious aesthetic approach can coexist with function as the goal of a specific product. It can therefore be postulated that when a simple item evokes emotional senses and also coexist with its functional purposes that the design of the practical object is an establishment of aesthetics. The establishment of aesthetics and design of a function coexisting simply demonstrates that they can be compatible and do not have distinct differences. This effectively challenges multiple

preconceived and standard conventions concerning the divide between design and art.

The preconceived notions concerning the divide between design and art are based on the distinct separations of function and form. The acceptable idea of what is functional involves a key notion that practicality is found within the design. On the other hand, form is often viewed aesthetically and alternatively considers the visual values inherent in its structure - it is conspicuous that both concepts represent different viewpoints. In addition, the assumption is made that both design for function and design for aesthetics are two different concepts. This essay postulates that contemporary society has the ability to perceive a simple functional object as an item that
3

Wood, Allen W. "Art and Genius." Kant. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2005. 165. Print. Kant, Immanuel. "44: Of Beautiful Art." Critique of the Power of Judgement. Ed. Paul Guyer. Trans. Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews. 1790. N.p.: Cambridge, 2000. N.pag. Print.

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holds some creative thought, and therefore can be considered to have both functional and aesthetic properties.

EMOTION Referring to the generic definition of as art mentioned in the introduction of this paper, art is the effort to use elements and principles to evoke an individual’s emotional senses. Design concerns the development of visual structures to further develop the innovative humanisation technologies and the fundamental factor of economic and cultural exchange4. Products do elicit emotional responses from consumers, intentional or non-intentional, good or bad; emotion in design is said to be a proven fact5. Moreover, pleasure can be derived aesthetically from the

appearance of a product through its form6. The intention from a designer’s perspective is to employ artistic values to solve a client’s problem and also create a sense of pleasure to the user – a selling point within the consumer’s market7.

ANALYSIS OF CITRUS SQUEEZERS
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"Definition of Design." The International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. N.p., 2009. Web. 14 Jan. 2010. <http://www.icsid.org/about/about/articles31.htm>.
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Popovic, Vesna. Chamorro-Koc, Marianella. Wrigley, Cara. Visceral Hedonic Rhetoric: Designing for the Visceral. MS thesis. Queensland University of Technology, 2008. Brisbane: n.p., 2008. PDF file.
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Green, William S., and Patrick W. Jordan. "Product Appearance and Consumer Pleasure." Pleasure with Products: Beyond Usability. London: CRC, 2002. N. pag. Print.
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Wrigley, Cara. E-mail interview. 12 Nov. 2009.

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To explore whether designing for a common domestic appliance can be considered an establishment of art, three different citrus squeezers will be studied with the addition of interviews and surveys. Citrus squeezers are chosen for this investigation because it is considered to be one of the most common household appliances within a kitchen. Moreover, the use of citrus squeezers meets the requirements of an indispensable utensil within the realm of kitchen appliances – accessibility to effectiveness and ergonomics. These three citrus squeezers will range from products listed as

economically-oriented and aesthetically-oriented.

Figure 28

Above, an iconic citrus squeezer that is designed for the general market place and sits on many kitchen bench tops, revealing
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Kitchen Craft Citrus Fruit Squeezer. 1 Mar. 2004. Amazon. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://www.amazon.co.uk/Kitchen-CraftPlastic-Citrus squeezer/dp/B0001IWVVC>.

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consideration for the prime elements of its function. The rigid surface of the dome provides a large surface area for the consumer’s ease in extracting the juice. In addition, the dome is situated in the middle so when the juice is squeezed out of the fruit it is conveniently caught in the bowl. It has a filter that separates the seeds and pulp from the juice, as it travels to the lipped bowl below. Using plastic as the key material allows the squeezer to withstand the pressure exerted and to prevent the acidity of the juice causing corrosion. Moreover, it is dishwasher-safe, providing ease of cleaning. With the addition of the hanger which doubles as a grip to be hung upon, this manufactured article provides an effective and efficient piece of kitchenware. The dome of this citrus squeezer reflects the shape of a cut citrus fruit – the circularity reflecting the form of dissected citrus. The similarity between the citrus squeezer and the citrus fruit illustrates a visual cue in regards to appearance. Overall, this product can be considered functional, practical and replaceable. It is easily replaceable because of its inexpensive price and the concern for potential sales or commercial turnover is evident where consumers can effortlessly afford to purchase another, if required.

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Figure 39

Halskov/Dalsgaard’s CHARM lemon-squeezer (IKEA), shown above, is another iconic citrus squeezer but in a different form. It is a simple, one piece article with a non-slip, absorbing handle, and a non-stick coating applied. It is also dishwasher-safe which makes the squeezer much simpler to wash. Less force is required when using this product due to its pointed, cone-shaped projection, illustrating an ergonomically pleasing citrus squeezer. The design of the handle associates the buyer with a distinctive, alluring feel and colour that reinforces the marketing intent. This is found in the entire CHARM series. Furthermore, the choice of colour is bold and definitely more attractive than the typical colour choices among kitchen wares. This
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CHARM lemon-squeezer. N.d. IKEA. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://www.ikea.com/au/en/catalog/products/30083249>.

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plastic structure is easy to maintain, store and use. One of IKEA’s objectives is to ‘create a better everyday life for the many’10 through ‘affordable solutions and a wide range of well designed, functional home products’11. Therefore, the production of an ergonomic CHARM citrus squeezer reveals and effectively exceeds IKEA’s main objectives. In addition, the colour and form references in the CHARM series entice the consumer to purchase the entire set.

Subsequently, not only does the sleek form and bold colour result in a heightened aesthetic appeal and evoke emotional senses but they also effectively demonstrate the use of visual elements as a marketing function.

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"The IKEA Concept: Intro." Inter IKEA System B.V. N.p., 2009. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://franchisor.ikea.com/showContent.asp?swfId=concept1>.
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"The IKEA Concept: Concept." Inter IKEA System B.V. N.p., 2009. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://franchisor.ikea.com/showContent.asp?swfId=concept2>.

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Figure 412

Figure 4 shows Stark’s Juicy Salif which reveals a dramatic interpretation and application of the principles and elements of art and design. The space between the three gangling legs provides a space for a cup to be placed underneath to collect the citrus juice when squeezed. The upside-down tear drop is round at the top, thus more pressure must be exerted to obtain citrus juices. Furthermore,
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Juicy Salif. N.d. Alessi. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://www.alessi.com/en/3/1055/ kitchen-accessories/juicysalif-citrus squeezer>.

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the joints between the main body and legs, as well as, the deep ridges within the main body collect the fluids; therefore, less juice is dripped into the cup and overall it could be considered to be less effective. The use of aluminium (or gold/black for the limited edition) is contemporary in comparison with the typical steel kitchen equipment and challenges ideas about what mainstream design is. Stark’s Juicy Salif has a height of approximately 30 centimetres; therefore it is not easily accommodated to fit in a standard conventional cupboard. In addition, when this product is purchased, the packaging is wrapped as a gift as opposed to a standard cardboard box, reinforcing and illustrating its purpose as a decorative item. The unconventional design is considered to be a ‘social lubricant’13 as it draws attention to its use of form and space. Moreover, unlike other citrus squeezers, Juicy Salif is used as an object of desire and indication of social status within the kitchen.

Comparing the threes types of citrus squeezers, it is evident that they have different target audiences. ‘The object of this invention [lemon-squeezer] is to obtain a simple, economical and durable implement whereby citrus fruits may be squeezed for domestic purposes with minimal power and with far greater efficiency than ordinary squeezers in general use’14. Referring to this statement and
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P. Lloyd, and Snelders D. "What Was Philippe Starck Thinking of?" Design Studies 24.3 (2003): 251. Print.
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Chichester, Lewis S. Lemon-Squeezer. Patent 28,967. 3 July 1860. United States Patent and Trademark Office. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2010. <http://patimg2.uspto.gov/ .piw?

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the study of the three citrus squeezers, it is evident that Juicy Salif’s purpose is to obtain a durable implement whereby conventional thoughts and opinions can be expressed and or challenged. This product fully illustrates that within the context of necessity it is possible to have more than one solution. Consequently, Stark’s objective for his Juicy Salif is mainly its aesthetic value, and secondly its functionality. Observing Halskov/Dalsgaard’s citrus squeezer, simplicity and modern sleek design are its essential marketing factors; drawing parallels to the initial objective which is to provide a well designed and functional product. Similarly, the non-branded citrus squeezer provides an economical and durable implement with greater functionality, however unlike CHARM; it does not exude innovation and is simply just another generic product on the shelves. Clearly, Juicy Salif suggests a greater importance of symbolic and aesthetic function, whilst the nonbranded citrus squeezer focuses on practical function and has thus inadvertently became a revived symbol of retro culture and can be considered to be aesthetically pleasing in the perspective of retro culture. This culture, a symbolic intention, differs from the others due to the current popularity of retro products that society deems to be trendy in the current decade. The sudden popularity of this

docid=00028967&SectionNum=3&IDKey=E938F2E7086C&HomeUrl=http://patft.u spto.gov/netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1%2526Sect2=HITOFF %2526p=1%2526u=%25252Fnetahtml%25252FPTO%25252Fsearch-bool.html %2526r=1%2526f=G%2526l=50%2526d=PALL%2526S1=0028967.PN. %2526OS=PN/28967%2526RS=PN/28967>.

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sculptural culture is mainly due to the demonstration of the typical design in the mid 1900s, the era of functionalism.

INDUSTRIALISATION The industrial revolution has shaped the economic market through the forces of mass production and mass consumption. Machinebased manufacturing in the 18th century has resulted in the transition from commissioned products into mass-produced objects; creating unsolicited economically-oriented and replaceable

merchandise. This revolution resulted in commercialised designs being more practical, economical and replaceable – with fewer industries having the intention of focusing on aesthetic appreciation of a product. Moreover, the industrial revolution has reduced demand for the availability of custom-made products; therefore, the presence of an exclusive work is immensely appreciated. Progress in ergonomics and improved technology (allowing for greater mass production) along with reduced production cost has resulted in mass produced items that are functional designs which satisfy the majority of the human population. The industrialisation of our market has created products similar to the non-branded citrus squeezer - as it is mass-produced and economically-oriented. This merchandise is popular within our society to the extent that people subsequently tend to perceive a necessity as a dispensable object, nothing more or less. Consequently, this has placed competition in

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the market place, as items previously thought of as necessities are increasingly easy to replace.

FORM AND FUNCTION Product functionality has always been a key factor within the creative industries, with utilitarian values and purposes being the key concerns. The edict ‘Form Follows Function’, invented by an

American architect Louis Sullivan in the 1920s was established by the Modernist movement. This slogan for modern design clearly suggests a division between the impacts on the senses and its utilitarian function. On the other hand, Frank Lloyd Wright believes that ‘Form Follows Function’ was misunderstood and too simplistic, enlarging the concept by saying form and function should be joined together as one instead15. Therefore, one can say that the nonbranded citrus squeezer represents Sullivan’s edict, whereas, Juicy Salif, illustrates Wright’s philosophy. This conclusion can be justified because the non-branded citrus squeezer focuses on practicality; whereas, Juicy Salif priorities on the appearance of its product. From a different perspective, a product’s function and its purpose centres on its appearance. With this in mind, what appears to be form can alternatively be considered as function, and what is thought as function can be viewed as aesthetic16. Consequently, all three citrus

15

Carter, Amanda. "Biography." Frank Lloyd Wright. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation , n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://www.cmgww.com/historic/flw/bio.html>. 16 Scott, Andrew. E-mail interview. 16 Nov. 2009.

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squeezers may have three different motives and purposes despite the common function of squeezing fruit.

SURVEY The survey included the citrus squeezers introduced earlier in this paper: Philippe Stark’s Juicy Salif, Halskov/Dalsgaard’s CHARM citrus squeezer, and a non-branded citrus squeezer that can be purchased in a supermarket for less than AUS$5 - all three products are labelled as A, B, C in the survey.

In the survey, the citrus squeezers were tested in four different suburbs in Eastern Australia to investigate the possibility that different population bases interacted with the object in different ways. The four areas include urban, suburban, more educationally advanced and less educationally advanced areas – to investigate if the different socio-economic impacts on different products. Areas that are more educationally advanced are those where a higher percentage of university degrees are recorded and theoretically, higher levels of employment. The less educationally advanced areas are the opposite. The Myer store in Brisbane’s central business district represents the urban section; Queens Street in Sydney represents the more educationally advanced region. Garden City in Brisbane’s suburban division is visited, and Woolooga Road; Gympie, a farming area represents the less educationally advanced vicinity. The following table clearly demonstrates this notion:

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Urban Suburban More Educationally Developed Less Educationally Developed

Brisbane’s

Central

Business

District (CBD) Brisbane’s Garden City Sydney’s Queen Street Brisbane’s Woolooga (Gympie)

Road

Moreover, this experiment was split into three sections: photograph, product, and price with the commercial photographic image, actual products and prices on display respectively. Each area has 10 samples, in an attempt to keep the qualitative data controlled.

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SECTION ONE: Which product does the physical appearance appeal to you?

Which product would you buy to use?

SECTION TWO: Does the product you chose in section one still appeal to you; if not, which one does now?

Would you still buy the product you chose in section one; if not which one would you buy now?

SECTION THREE: Does the price change your mind to which product you would buy; if so, which one you would buy now?

Figure 4
Figure 5

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Sydney’s Queen Street more educationally advanced Juicy Salif CHARM No Brand Brisbane’s CBD urban Juicy Salif CHARM No Brand Brisbane’s Gympie less educationally advanced Juicy Salif CHARM No Brand

Photo 7 3 0

Product 7 3 0

Price 5 5 0

Photo 7 3 0 Photo 5 4 1

Product 6 4 0 Product 5 5 0 Product 5 5 0

Price 4 6 0 Price 1 4 5 Price 3 3 4

Brisbane’s Garden City suburban Photo Juicy Salif 4 CHARM 5 No Brand 1

Figure 6, shows the qualitative data collected from the conducted survey, seen in Figure 5. The investigation was split into three parts (first, photo; second, product and finally, price) to examine the squeezer’s aesthetic appearance, function and market success, respectively. Considering the individual citrus squeezers, it is evident that they are all produced for the same function – to extract juice from a citrus fruit.

The photo of the non-branded squeezer only interests 2 out of 40 people within the different locations. Unmistakably, areas that are

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more urbanised and educationally advanced showed no interest in the appearance of this product – effectively that this manufactured product doesn’t resonate with the viewer as an object of desire or interest. Moving to the next stage – product – it received no interest, suggesting the actual object does not appeal to the consumers due to the ineffectual form or function. When it comes to the price, 9 respondents chose this item for consumption, therefore the cheaper price tag with a possibility for great value for money is the approach for selling this product.

Many people appreciated the form and function of Juicy Salif. This is in the area of Photo and Product in all four locations. In other words, appreciation for form can be found anywhere; urban or rural. As soon as the price was mentioned, an average of two respondents changed their opinion in each location and went for the cheaper products. It is postulated that the Juicy Salif, although it intrigues many consumers, it is not viewed as an effective and economical citrus squeezer in comparison to the cheaper, just as usable, nonbranded citrus squeezer. As many people appreciate the form of Stark’s Juicy Salif; it can be said that the appearance of Juicy Salif is the purpose of its invention, thus its function, and is viewed through its aesthetic value.

Approximately 4 people chose Halskov/Dalsgaard’s CHARM citrus squeezer under the functionality category, the results are relatively

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similar to those from Juicy Salif. Conversely, when the prices of all citrus squeezers are revealed, approximately half of the total 40 surveyors valued and chose CHARM at the end. This illustrates that CHARM is able to provide an influential amount of aesthetic value in comparison to Juicy Salif and the non-branded citrus squeezer. Additionally, it carries out its economical function where citrus can be squeezed with ease for a reasonable price. Juicy Salif being the most aesthetically appreciated citrus squeezer, and the nonbranded product to be the most economically appreciated utensil – demonstrates the different intentions within the market and therefore it’s different function. However, it can be observed from the data collected that at the end of the survey, many people decided to choose CHARM for aesthetic appreciation, function and cost. This makes it successful in the eyes of designer, marketer and consumer. Moreover, this can be reflected through IKEA’s mission statement where they ‘aim to offer a variation of household products of good design and function at low prices to serve more people living in a higher standard of living’17.

MARCEL DUCHAMP

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"The IKEA Concept: Concept." Inter IKEA System B.V. N.p., 2009. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://franchisor.ikea.com/showContent.asp?swfId=concept2>.

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Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), a famous French/American artist known for his Dada and Surrealism movements challenged the conventional opinion about art and its artistic approaches.

Figure 518

His famous Fountain made in 1917 (as seen in Figure 5), introduced and explored in a radical manner how an everyday object can be contextualised to become artistic concept. Duchamp successfully raised the question whether anything, in particular functional appliances or objects, can be considered art. Consequently, items displayed within an art gallery can be viewed not so differently from those in one’s household when it concerns surface appearance. However, as beauty is in the eye of the beholder the debate of art, beauty and aesthetics is widened due to technology, development and globalisation.

18

Stieglitz, Alfred. Fountain. 1917. Marcel Duchamp. Wikipedia. Web. 9 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fountain_%28Duchamp%29#cite_note-0>.

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Duchamp and many other artists challenged the conventional notions of art and objects which can be effectively applied to the three citrus squeezers used for this investigation. Juicy Salif, the well known citrus squeezer designed by Philippe Stark (Alessi), believes that this visceral design’s function is not to simply squeeze juice out of fruits, but to start conversations19. Observably, Stark’s intention is similar to Duchamp’s work – capturing pieces from our daily lifestyle, and placing them within a new context. Juicy Salif truly indicates the notion where a functional product is able to reveal an aesthetical and creative side. The non-branded citrus squeezer that can be easily bought in a supermarket demonstrates the antithesis of Juicy Salif, effectively illustrating the concept that there is room for a product that reflects pure function. CHARM citrus squeezer designed by Halskov/Dalsgaard (IKEA), indicates there is a middle ground of both non-branded and A-list works. This suggests a conservative rod to aesthetic balanced against price.

CONCLUSION Observing the three citrus squeezers examined within this essay, it is evident that the context, demographic type of the population and target groups affect the evidence concerning the research question of ‘to what extent can aesthetics be considered to have functional qualities’ as well as considering if form follows function or the other

19

Norman, Donald Arthur. Emotional Design. New York: Basic Books, 2005. 114. Print.

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way around. In addition, it can be suggested that aesthetics equate to a specific aspect of functionality because it contributes to the selling of products in the market place. It has been established that the nature of aesthetic and function are not the same and are measured in different values, thus, aesthetics and functionality are not parallel. Rather, both concepts intersect and overlap each other and one cannot exist without the other. I propose this because, as art affects one’s sense of beauty and challenges thoughts in a creative framework with the addition that design is developing and changing our lifestyles, it seems that both concepts can not exist together. Depending on how the object affects one’s emotions, and the reactions that demonstrate the ability to change one’s lifestyle, then ultimately, design and art coexists. It can not be said that design is equivalent or interchangeable with art; it can merely be considered that design is a sub set of the generalised idealisation of art.

Before this investigation began, the assumptions were that the design of function and of aesthetics were two different concepts, clearly defined and separate. Through the extensive research collected for the purpose of this essay, I found that there is a grey section between these two concepts and that the design of aesthetics can be functional as well. Through the development of technology and the era of industrialisation and urbanisation, the idea of function has been challenged and extended. Function, in a

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contemporary context such as advertising, design marketing and consumerism, providing a new definition for our community. At this current moment, function has more than one definition, allowing our society to consider the coexistence of both function and form.

Regarding the definition of art; if art is to affect, our perspectives, then there is a need for somebody to appreciate it in the first place and what affects an audience is its function. Without one to appreciate and experience a specific artwork, to an extent, the artwork itself ceases to exist. Subsequently, the role of an audience is of the utmost importance within the realm of aesthetics. With this in mind, as the audience is a necessity in aesthetics, the same must apply to function as well. Integrating the conducted survey within this context, where a large audience has been surveyed, only Stark and Halskov/Dalsgaard’s citrus squeezers received positive

feedback on the aesthetic appearance and therefore can be considered functional. This illustrates that design may have the opportunity to employ aesthetic dimensions to increase the value of a utensil in the economic market; implying that the designing of function is mainly a device to increase market value. This further highlights that the aesthetic appearance is to be considered as a function within the economic market. As the designing of a function is able to increase the market value, according to the conducted survey, it demonstrates that it can affect the consumers’ thoughts for consumption. Evidently, the designing of a function is able to

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affect one’s senses and challenges their thoughts in expenditure. As mentioned beforehand, art is something that is able to affect one’s emotions and sensually excite the audience, thus, items are truly able to transcend their boundaries of functionality and evoke emotional senses, as well as coexist with each other.

As a result, the designing of an aesthetically-based item is beyond doubt largely capable of having functional properties.

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REFERENCES Primary Sources: Andrew Scott; Subject Area Co-ordinator: Industrial Design, School of Design, Queensland University of Technology Cara Wrigley; Postgraduate Researcher, School of Design, Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology Citrus Fruit Squeezer, Coles Supermarket CHARM Lemon Squeezer, C Halskov/H Dalsgaard, IKEA Juicy Salif, Philippe Stark, Alessi Figure 4: Conducted Survey Figure 5: Conducted Survey’s Results Secondary Sources: "Art." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000. Print. Chichester, Lewis S. Lemon-Squeezer. Patent 28,967. 3 July 1860. United States Patent and Trademark Office. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2010. <http://patimg2.uspto.gov/ .piw? docid=00028967&SectionNum=3&IDKey=E938F2E7086C&HomeUrl =http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/ nph-Parser? Sect2=PTO1%2526Sect2=HITOFF%2526p=1%2526u= %25252Fnetahtml%25252FPTO%25252Fsearch-bool.html %2526r=1%2526f=G%2526l=50%2526d=PALL %2526S1=0028967.PN.%2526OS=PN/28967%2526RS=PN/28967>. Carter, Amanda. "Biography." Frank Lloyd Wright. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation , n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://www.cmgww.com/historic/flw/bio.html>. "Definition of Design." The International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. N.p., 2009. Web. 14 Jan. 2010. <http://www.icsid.org/about/about/articles31.htm>. Green, William S., and Patrick W. Jordan. "Product Appearance and Consumer Pleasure." Pleasure with Products: Beyond Usability. London: CRC, 2002. N. pag. Print.

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"The IKEA Concept: Concept." Inter IKEA System B.V. N.p., 2009. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://franchisor.ikea.com/showContent.asp?swfId=concept2>. "The IKEA Concept: Intro." Inter IKEA System B.V. N.p., 2009. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://franchisor.ikea.com/showContent.asp?swfId=concept1>. Norman, Donald Arthur. Emotional Design. New York: Basic Books, 2005. 114. Print. Popovic, Vesna. Chamorro-Koc Marianella, Wrigley, Cara. Visceral Hedonic Rhetoric: Designing for the Visceral. MS thesis. Queensland University of Technology, 2008. Brisbane: n.p., 2008. PDF file. Snelders D, and P. Lloyd. "What Was Philippe Starck Thinking of?" Design Studies 24.3 (2003): 251. Print. Wood, Allen W. "Art and Genius." Kant. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2005. 165. Print. Images: Figure 1: Squeeeeze. 11 May 2004. DeviantArt. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2010. <http://lorrainemd.deviantart.com/art/Squeeeeze-7198396>. Figure 2: Kitchen Craft Citrus Fruit Squeezer. 1 Mar. 2004. Amazon. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://www.amazon.co.uk/Kitchen-Craft-Plastic-Citrus squeezer/dp/B0001IWVVC>. Figure 3: CHARM lemon-squeezer. N.d. IKEA. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://www.ikea.com/au/en/catalog/ products/30083249>. Figure 4: Juicy Salif. N.d. Alessi. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. <http://www.alessi.com/en/3/1055/ kitchen-accessories/juicysalif-citrus squeezer>.

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