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Training Material

for
Workshop

On
Ethical Hacking & Information Security

Kyrion Technologies Pvt. Ltd.


Corporate Office: B-92,
92, G.T Karnal Road, Industrial Area, Delhi-110033
Delhi (India)
E-mail: info@kyrion.in Website: www.kyrion.in
Tel.: +91-11-4708-5343
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Ethical Hacking & Information Security is the need of the hour.

To equip the technical support of our nation, Kyrion Technologies Pvt. Ltd. is all geared up to provide the best of
knowledge and services.
Kyrion Technologies

Table of Contents

S. No. Topic Page No.

1 About Us 3
2 EHIS Course Module 5
3 Concept of Hacking 8
4 Email Hacking 15
5 System Hacking 19
6 Trojans 23
7 Attacks on Network 26
8 Web Server as a Target 29
9 Wireless Hacking 35
10 Tool Kit Description 39

Training Programs Available with Kyrion


• EHIS Free Seminar – 4 hours (For Schools & Colleges)
• EHIS Workshop – 12 hours (For Schools & Colleges)
• EHIS Lab Workshop – 18 hours (For Schools & Colleges)
• EHIS Short Term Certification – 25 hours (For Institutes)
• EHIS Long Term Certification – 120 hours
• Kyrion Digital Security Expert – 54 hours (Summer Training)
• Kyrion Cyber Security Expert – 250 hours
• Network Security – 75 hours
• Security Tool Development – 75 hours

Join us at:
Yahoo Group: Kyrion_Hacking_Club@yahoogroups.com
Orkut Community: Kyiron Digital Securities

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About Us

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Kyrion Technologies Pvt. Ltd. with its headquarter at Delhi, aims to lay a strong underpinning
for the technical development of our country, by developing an active interest among youth in
new technologies such as Robotics, Automation, Embedded System, Ethical Hacking &
Information Security.

With the ever increasing requirements of professionals in the field of Ethical Hacking &
Information Security, Kyrion Technologies Pvt. Ltd. is all geared up to lay the foundation of a
new venture, Kyrion Hacking Club.

Key Points of Kyrion Hacking Club:


• Helping government for conducting Education & Awareness Programs on Ethical
Hacking & Information Security.
• We are carrying rich experience of working on cyber cases and giving workshops to
Delhi & Uttar Pradesh Police.
• Our head trainer is supported by Ministry of Home Affair (Forensic Lab, Hyderabad).
• We have developed our own software, spywares, bombers, remote administration
tools (Trojans) etc.
• We will be providing the students knowledge in the field of Ethical Hacking &
Information Security by showing them live hacking and gateway so that one can
secure themselves from such kind of attacks.

Kyrion Hacking Club at Kyrion Technologies Pvt. Ltd. has been founded by a group of IT
Security Experts. It has laid a foundation in the field of Ethical Hacking & Information
Security. Kyrion Hacking Club has conceptualized various workshops, products and resources to
cater the needs of different section of students' communities and eventually reaching out to an
excess of 5,000 students and tutors in different cities across the country.

Client List of Kyrion Hacking Club:


• Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
• IIT Kharagpur
• IIT Roorkee
• IIT Guwahati
• NIT Jalandhar
• North Eastern Institute of Science & Technology
• Assam Engineering College
• Uttaranchal Institute of Technology
• Security Day at IIT Delhi in Association with Ministry of Communication & Information
Technology (June or July)

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EHIS Course
Module

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Concept of Hacking

• Reading the Hacker’s mind and Understanding the hacking psychology and
methodology
o Get to know how a Hacker thinks and prepares for his attack
o Types of Hackers and their mentality
o Steps performed by a Hacker to attack the target
o How an attacker uses the freely available resources in his attack
o Hiding your identity while performing the attack
o Proxy Server

Email Hacking

• Email Forger
o How an Email travels from sender to the receiver
o Sending fake Emails, how terrorists send threatening Emails
• Email Password Hacking
o Cracking the Email ID Passwords using the fake Websites
• Email analysis
o Tracing the Email path and locating the Original Sender of the Email
o IP Tracing

System Hacking

• Targeting a Windows System


o Cracking Windows password using the Bruteforce technique
o How to bypass the Login Screen and directly Login as the Administrator of the
Computer
o Grant unlimited access to a limited user
o How to use a keylogger to hack the passwords on a computer
o Hiding secret messages behind images
• Protecting your System resources
o Configuring strong passwords
o Change the Boot sequence
o Applying the File and Folder security
o Hiding files. Encrypting data on the hard disk with a password
o Detecting the Keylogger on a Local Computer

Trojans

• How does a Trojan works


• Building a Trojan server and binding it with any other file as hidden
• Controlling the remote computer from your computer
• Detection of Trojan on a Local computer and removing it manually

Attacks on Network

• Performing the LAN based attacks


o Enumerating the Network details

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o Sniffing the Network Data


o Poisoning the Network details and hacking the passwords
o Perform the DNS Spoofing attack
• Counter apart the Network attacks
o Trace the attacker on the Local Area Network and shutting down the network
attacks

Web Server as a Target

• Web Application Attacks: Live Demonstrations


o Working of Web Server
o Apache vs IIS
o Working of database server
o CRUD operation
o Login operation
o Input Validation attacks
o Placing backdoors in Website
o Google Hacking
o Website Enumeration
• Putting breaks on Web Application attacks
o Proper Input validation
o Directory access controls
o Deny Google to your website

Wireless Hacking

• Cracking Wireless Network Password


o Checking out the Wireless network details and cracking the WEP key encryption
on the Wireless network
• Wireless Security
o How can you make your Wireless network secure and very to hard to be cracked?

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Concept of
Hacking

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Hacking

• Hacker is a computer person who is very curious and wants to learn as much as possible
about computer systems.
• Hacking was developing and improving software to increase the performance of
computing systems.
• Hacking has a lot of meanings depending upon the person’s knowledge and his work
intentions. Hacking is an Art as well as a Skill. It is the knowledge by which one gets to
achieve his goals, anyhow, using his skills and power.

Ethical Hacking

• Ethical Hacking is testing the resources for a good cause and for the betterment of
technology.
• Technically Ethical Hacking means penetration testing which is focused on Securing and
Protecting IT Systems.

Types of Hackers

• White Hat Hacker


• Black Hat Hacker
• Grey Hat Hacker

White Hat Hacker

• A White Hat Hacker is computer guy who perform Ethical Hacking.


These are usually security professionals with knowledge of hacking and
the hacker toolset and who use this knowledge to locate security
weaknesses and implement countermeasures in the resources.
• They are also known as an Ethical Hacker or a Penetration Tester. They
focus on Securing and Protecting IT Systems.

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Black Hat Hacker

• A Black Hat Hacker ker is computer guy who performs


Unethical Hacking. These are the Criminal hackers or
Crackers who use their skills and knowledge for illegal or
malicious purposes. They break into or otherwise violate the
system integrity of remote machines, with maliciou
malicious intent.
• These are also known as an Unethical Hacker or a Security
Cracker. They focus on Security Cracking and Data stealing.

Grey Hat Hacker

• A Grey Hat Hacker is a Computer guy who sometimes acts legally, sometimes in good
will, and sometimes not. They
They usually do not hack for personal gain or have malicious
intentions, but may or may not occasionally commit crimes during the course of their
technological exploits.
• They are hybrid between White Hat and Black Hat Hackers.

Classification of Hackers

• Coders
• Admin
• Script Kiddies

Coders

• Coders are the programmers who have the ability to find the
unique vulnerability in existing software and to create working
exploit codes.
• These are the individuals with a deep understanding of the OSI
Layer Model and TCP/IP Stacks.

Admin

• Admin the computer guys who have experience with several operating systems, and
know how to exploit several existing vulnerabilities.
• A majority of Security Consultants fall in this group and work as a part of Security Team.

Script Kiddies

• Script Kiddies are the bunnies who use script and programs
developed by others to attack computer systems and Networks.
• They get the least respect but are most annoying and dangerous
and can cause big problems without actually knowing what they
are doing.

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Steps Performed by a Hacker


1. Performing Reconnaissance
2. Scanning and enumeration
3. Gaining access
4. Maintaining access and Placing backdoors
5. Covering tracks or Clearing Logs

Phase I: Reconnaissance

• Reconnaissance can be described as the pre-attack phase and is a systematic attempt to


locate, gather, identify, and record information about the target. The hacker seeks to find
out as much information as possible about the target.

Phase II: Scanning and Enumeration

• Scanning and enumeration is considered the second pre-attack phase. This phase
involves taking the information discovered during reconnaissance and using it to examine
the network.
• Scanning involves steps such as intelligent system port scanning which is used to
determine open ports and vulnerable services. In this stage the attacker can use different
automated tools to discover system vulnerabilities.

Phase III: Gaining Access

• This is the phase where the real hacking takes place. Vulnerabilities discovered during the
reconnaissance and scanning phase are now exploited to gain access. The method of

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connection the hacker uses for an exploit can be a local area network, local access to a
PC, the Internet, or offline. Gaining access is known in the hacker world as owning the
system.
• During a real security breach it would be this stage where the hacker can utilize simple
techniques to cause irreparable damage to the target system.

Phase IV: Maintaining Access and Placing Backdoors

• Once a hacker has gained access, they want to keep that access for future exploitation
and attacks. Sometimes, hackers harden the system from other hackers or security
personnel by securing their exclusive access with backdoors, rootkits, and Trojans.
• The attacker can use automated scripts and automated tools for hiding attack evidence
and also to create backdoors for further attack.

Phase V: Clearing Tracks

• In this phase, once hackers have been able to gain and maintain access, they cover their
tracks to avoid detection by security personnel, to continue to use the owned system, to
remove evidence of hacking, or to avoid legal action.
• At present, many successful security breaches are made but never detected. This includes
cases where firewalls and vigilant log checking were in place.

Proxy Servers

• A proxy server is a server that acts as an intermediary between a workstation user and the
Internet so that the enterprise can ensure security, administrative control, and caching
service.
• Hackers generally use the Proxy server on the Internet to make their Identity invisible to
the target.

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Web Proxies

• A Proxy site is a web page which allows you to browse your favorite web sites -- even
though your access to those web sites might be blocked by a content filter.
• If you find that you are blocked from your favorite websites, use one of these web proxy
sites to get around the block.

How Proxy Sites Work

Proxy sites enable you to bypass your own Internet provider and browse through the proxy web
site. All that you have to do is type the web site address you would like to visit in the form they
provide, and start browsing. Once you keep browsing using that form, you are protected and
your real IP address is not being logged.

Given below is a list of Web Proxies:

• http://cellphonemp3s.info
• http://thenbanews.info
• http://slumdogproxy.info
• http://it-digits.com
• http://insurance77.info
• http://rinsemyproxy.co.uk
• http://darkcorn.info
• http://eyeground.info
• http://towsh.info
• http://www.getaniphone.info
• http://proxylight.co.cc
• http://iwati.com
• http://carrotproxy.co.cc
• http://www.oxytopia.info
• http://s360.info
• http://www.surfnsafari.info
• http://stableunblocker.co.cc
• http://www.jot28.info
• http://smartfriend.co.cc
• http://eowsh.info
• http://baywatchnights.info
• http://unblockwebsense.net
• http://socialproxy.co.cc
• http://www.evilproxy.co.uk
• http://springsurf.info

Anonymous Proxies

• An anonymous proxy is a piece of software designed to protect the privacy and


anonymity of web browsers from web site operators, Internet snoops, and even
unfriendly governments.

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• The anonymous proxy software resides on a proxy server. The web browser connects to
the proxy server and the proxy server connects to the web server.
• The web server does not know who you are, it only knows who the proxy server is. The
proxy server does know who you are -- so you had better choose a proxy server that you
trust.

In addition to hiding your IP address, an anonymous proxy server will typically remove
traffic such as:

• Cookies
• Pop-ups
• Banners
• Scripts
• Referrer information

Some of the Anonymous Proxy Servers are:

• Ultrasurf
• Freegate

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Email
Hacking

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Electronic mail – often abbreviated as e-mail or email is any method of creating, transmitting,
or storing primarily text-based human communications with digital communications systems.

Email Travelling path

Fake Email
Fake Email means an Email which has come from an Email ID which was not sent by the
Original Email ID Owner.

There are so many ways to send the Fake Emails even without knowing the password of the
Email ID. The Internet is so vulnerable that you can use anybody's Email ID to send a
threatening Email to any official personnel.

Different methods to send Fake Emails

• Open Relay Server


• Web Scripts

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Sending Fake Email using the Open Relay Server

• An open mail relay is an SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) server configured in
such a way that it allows anyone on the Internet to send Email through it, not just mail
destined to or originating from known users.
• An attacker can connect the Open Relay Server via Telnet and instruct the server to send
the Email.
• It requires no password to send the Email.

Sending Fake Email via Web Scripts

• Web languages such as PHP and ASP contain the mail sending functions which can be
used to send Emails by programming Fake headers i.e. From: To: Subject:
• There are so many websites available on the Internet which already contains these mail
sending scripts. Most of them provide the free service.

Some of them are:

• Fakemailer.net
• Fakemailer.info
• Deadfake.com
• Will Go On and On……

Email Password Hacking

• There is no specified attack available just to hack the password of Email accounts. Also,
it is not so easy to compromise the Email server like Yahoo, Gmail, etc.
• Email Password hacking can accomplished via some of the client side attacks. We try to
compromise the user and get the password of the Email account before it reaches the
desired Email server.
• We will cover many attacks by the workshop flows, but at this time we will talk about the
very famous 'Phishing attack'.

Phishing

• The act of sending an e-mail to a user


falsely claiming to be an established
legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam
the user into surrendering private
information that will be used for identity
theft.
• The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web
site where they are asked to update
personal information, such as passwords
and credit card, social security, and bank
account numbers, that the legitimate
organization already has. The Web site,

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however, is bogus and set up only to steal the user’s information.

Email Tracing

• Tracing an Email means locating the Original Sender and getting to know the IP address
of the network from which the Email was actually generated.
• Locating Original Sender in not always possible but we have tried our best to get it. To
get the information about the sender of the Email we first must know the structure of
the Email.
• As we all know the travelling of the Email. Each message has exactly one header, which
is structured into fields. Each field has a name and a value. Header of the Email contains
all the valuable information about the path and the original sender of the Email.

Header Fields

• From: Email Address where the Email has come from.


• To: Email Address of the destination.
• Subject: Subject of the Email
• Date: The Local Time of the server when the message was sent.
• Bcc: Blind Carbon Copy
• Cc: Carbon copy
• Content-Type: Information about how the message has to be displayed, usually a
MIME type
• In-Reply-To: Message-ID of the message that this is a reply to.
• Received: Tracking information generated by mail servers that have previously handled
a message
• References: Message-ID of the message that this is a reply to, and the message-id of this
message, etc.
• Reply-To: Address that should be used to reply to the sender.

You can easily get the IP Address of the sender from the header and then can locate the sender.

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System
Hacking

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Cracking the Windows User account Password

• Passwords are generally stored and transmitted in an encrypted form called a hash. When
a user logs on to a system and enters a password, a hash is generated and compared to a
stored hash. If the entered and the stored hashes match, the user is authenticated (This is
called the Challenge/Response).
• Passwords may be cracked manually or with automated tools such as a Brute-force
method or the Rainbow table attack.

Brute Force Attack

• Brute force password guessing is just what it sounds like: trying a random approach by
attempting different passwords and hoping that one works. Some logic can be applied by
trying passwords related to the person’s name, job title, hobbies, or other similar items.
• Brute force randomly generates passwords and their associated hashes.
• There are tools available to perform the Brute force attack on the Windows SAM File.

Rainbow Table Attack

• Rainbow Table Attack trades off the time-consuming process of creating all possible
password hashes by building a table of hashes in advance of the actual crack. After this

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process is finished, the table, called a rainbow table, is used to crack the password, which
will then normally only take a few seconds.
• We can use the Live CD to crack the Windows password using the Rainbow table attack
technique.

Privilege Escalation

• Once you have cracked the Administrator password on a Windows computer, you can
easily login with the administrator user account and promote any user account to give
him the Administrator privileges.
• One more thing which an attacker can do is to boot the computer from the Live CD and
change the SAM file to promote any Limited User account to Administrator.

Key loggers

• Keystroke loggers (or key loggers) intercept the target’s keystrokes and either saves them
in a file to be read later, or transmit them to a predetermined destination accessible to the
hacker.
• Since keylogging programs record every keystroke typed in via the keyboard, they can
capture a wide variety of confidential information, including passwords, credit card
numbers, private email correspondence, names, addresses, and phone numbers. Once
installed on the target machine, either directly by the user, or through stealthier means,
the keylogger program runs continually in the background. After the keystrokes are
logged, they can be hidden in the machine for later retrieval or transmitted to the attacker
via the Internet.

Steganography

• Steganography is the technique to


place text content behind the
images.
• This is generally performed by the
terrorists to hide the secret
messages behind the images and
conveying the message via sending
the Image via Internet.
• Windows Internal Commands as
well as Steganography tools can be
used to perform this technique.
• Now you definitely don’t want your
system to be vulnerable. So here
are the countermeasures.

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Configuring a Strong Login Password

• A strong password is less susceptible to attack by a hacker. The following rules should be
applied when you’re creating a password, to protect it against attacks:
• Must not contain any part of the user’s account name
• Must have a minimum of eight characters

Must contain characters from at least three of the following categories:

• Non alphanumeric symbols ($,:”%@!#)


• Numbers
• Uppercase letters
• Lowercase letters

Change the Boot Sequence

• You should change the boot sequence in the BIOS so that your computer is not
configured to boot from the CD first. It should be configured as Hard Disk as the First
Boot Device.
• This will protect your computer from the attacking Live CDs.

Applying the permissions on the Files and Folders

• You can set permissions on the Files and Folders in Windows so that no one else can
open or access them.
• Windows carries Access Control List command to apply the Access security on the Files
and Folders.

Proper Monitoring

• Process Viewer (PrcView) (www.teamcti.com/pview/prcview.htm) is a free GUI-based


process viewer utility that displays detailed information about processes running under
Windows. For each process it displays memory, threads, and module usage. For each
DLL, it shows full path and version information.

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Trojan

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Definition

• Trojans are malicious pieces of


code used to install hacking
software on a target system
and aid the hacker in gaining
and retaining access to that
system. Trojans and their
counterparts are important
pieces of the hacker’s toolkit.
• Trojans is a program that
appears to perform a desirable
and necessary function but
that, because of hidden and
unauthorized code, performs
functions unknown and
unwanted by the user.
• Trojan generally consists of
two parts: a client component
and a server component. For
the Trojan to function as a backdoor, the server component has to be installed on the
victim’s machine.
• Server is part of the Trojan on the Victim’s Computer. It opens a port in the Victim’s
computer and invites the attacker to connect and administrate the computer.
• Client Trojan is the part of the Trojan on the Attacker’s computer. It tries to connect the
Victim computer and administrate the computer without the permission of the User.

Wrapper

• A wrapper is a program used to combine two or more executables into a single packaged
program. The wrapper attaches a harmless executable, like a game, to a Trojan’s payload,
the executable code that does the real damage, so that it appears to be a harmless file.
• Hackers use it to bind the Server part of the Software behind any image or any other file.

Some Famous Trojans


• Back Orifice
• NetBus
• Zlob
• Pest Trap
• ProRat
• Sub7
• Vundo

Modes of Transmission

• CD or DVD Autorun

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• Pen Drive
• Email
• Website
• Shared Drives

Trojan Countermeasures

• Awareness and preventive measures are the best defense against Trojans.
• Educate users not to install applications downloaded from the Internet and email
attachments.
• Most commercial anti-virus products can automatically scan and detect backdoor
programs before they can cause damage.

TCPView

• TCPView is a Windows program that will show you detailed listings of all TCP and UDP
endpoints on your system, including the local and remote addresses and state of TCP
connections.
• On Windows NT, 2000, and XP, TCPView also reports the name of the process that
owns the endpoint.

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Attacks on
Network

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Sniffing

• Sniffing is the process of gathering traffic from a network by capturing the data as they
pass and storing them to analyze later.
• Sniffers are used to capture traffic sent between two systems. Depending on how the
sniffer is used and the security measures in place, a hacker can use a sniffer to discover
usernames, passwords, and other confidential information transmitted on the network.
• It is a Passive Process.

ARP Poisoning: Man in the Middle Attack

• The concept of ARP Poisoning (or ARP spoofing) is to set up a man- man-in-the-middle
attack that allows the attacker to insert himself into the communications stream between
the victim and the victim’s intended
i communications recipient.
• It involves sending bogus ARP requests to the network device so outbound traffic will
be routed to the attacker.
• Hacker uses the concept of ARP Poisoning to redirect all the network traffic to the
Sniffer device and get allll the Username and Password sent in the Network.

DNS spoofing

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• DNS spoofing (or DNS poisoning) is a technique that tricks a DNS server into believing
it has received authentic information when in reality it hasn’t.
• When a user requests a certain website URL, the address is looked up on a DNS server
to find the corresponding IP address. If the DNS server has been compromised, the user
is redirected to a website other than the one that was requested, such as a fake website.

Counter apart the Network attacks

• Generally a Client User is not really the concerned person to secure the Network; it is the
part of the Network Administration.
• However, still the User is the one who will directly or indirectly effect with the Network
Attacks.

Trace Your Sever

• Trace your Server to check if there unreliable device in between your computer to your
Server.
• Command: tracert ServerIP

Check the Network Connections

• A User must check the network connections which his computer has made to outer
devices.
• Command: Netstat –a
• Or you can use the TCP View to check the network connection details.

Checking the ARP Table

• ARP is Address Resolution Protocol, which converts the IP Address of a device to its
Physical Address.
• “Arp –a”, use this command to check the ARP table for your computer and you can
easily detect the MITM Attack.

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Web Server as
the Target

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Web Operations
Web Server

A computer that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients (user agents such as
web browsers), and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which
usually are web pages such as HTML documents and linked objects (images, etc.).

Software to setup a Web Server:

• Apache
• Internet Information Services(IIS)

How Webserver Works: The Basic Process

Let's say that you are sitting at your


computer, surfing the Web. So you
type that URL into your browser and
press return. And magically, no
matter where in the world that URL
lives, the page pops up on your
screen.

At the most basic level possible, the following diagram shows the steps that brought that page to
your screen:

Web browser formed a connection to a Web server, requested a page and received it.

1. Client sends the request for a Webpage on the Webserver.


2. Webserver receives the request the sends the Webpage code to the Client.
3. Client receives the Webpage code, and the Web Browser converts that code in to design
and displays it to the User.

Database Server

• The database server is a key component in a client/server environment. It holds the


database management system (DBMS) and the databases.
• Upon requests from the client machines, it searches the database for selected records and
passes them back over the network.

Software to setup a Database Server:

• Oracle
• SQL Server
• MySql

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The Login Process on the Website

Let's say that you are sitting at your computer, surfing the Web, and you open a Website to
Login to your account.

You types in the Login Username and Password and clicks on Sign in and you get in to your
account.

1. Client sends the request for the Login page on the Webserver.
2. Webserver receives the request the sends the Login page code to the Client.
3. Client receives the Login page code, and the Web Browser converts that code in to
design and displays it to the User.
4. Client puts in the Username and Password in the Login page and sends it to the Web
Server.
5. Web Server receives the Username and Password and forwards it to the Database server.
6. Database server receives the Username and Password from the Web Server and checks
its tables for that Username and Password.
7. After the finding process is complete, the Database Server sends the result of the
authentication to the Web Server.
8. Web Server receives the Authentication result from the Database Server and on the basis
of the result, redirects the User to the proper Webpage.

If the Authentication is True, User gets signed in to the Account, and if it fails User is asked to
Sign in again.

Operations of a Database Server.

Database server consists of tables and records. Records are kept in tables. These tables and
records the updated on a regular basis. Below are the four main working functions of a Database
Server.

1. Creation of Records: CREATE


• Create or add new entries
2. Accessing the Records: READ
• Read, retrieve, search, or view existing entries
3. Updating the Records: UPDATE
• Update or edit existing entries
4. Deleting the Records: DELETE
• Delete existing entries

This is known as CRUD operation of a Database Server.

Syntax Queries:

1. Creating or Inserting the records in the Table


• INSERT INTO tablename (column1, [column2, ... ]) VALUES (value1, [value2,
...]);
• The number of columns and values must be the same. If a column is not
specified, the default value for the column is used.

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2. Accessing or Reading the Records


• SELECT (column1, [column2, ... ]) FROM tablename;
• SELECT * FROM tablename (for all the fields)
3. Updating the Records
• UPDATE tablename SET C1 = 1 WHERE C2 = 'a';

4. Deletion of records
• DELETE FROM tablename [WHERE condition];

SQL injection

• An SQL injection attack exploits vulnerabilities in a web server database that allow the
attacker to gain access to the database and read, modify, or delete information.
• A simple example of a SQL injection attack is to use the single quotation mark as part of
an input value to a Web page. These values can be inserted into a login as follows:
o Login: admin’--
o Login: admin'#
• Database Server ignores everything after "--" or "#" because these characters are the
single line comment sequence. They are needed for inputs and queries to terminate
without an error.
• Another example of a SQL injection attack is making the condition true by giving the
identical value to a web page.
• These values can be inserted into a login as follows:
o Login: 1' or '1'='1 and Password= 1' or '1'='1
o Login: 1' or '1'='1';--
• When the Username argument is evaluated, ‘1’=’1’ will assess to TRUE, and an authentic
username will be returned.

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Website Enumeration

• Website Enumeration is checking the structure of a Web site.


• Acquiring the files and folders from the Website to the Local Computer. This is also
known as Web Ripping.
• It is the ability to copy the structure of a Web site to a local disk and obtain a complete
profile of the site and all its files and links.

PHP Injection: Placing PHP Backdoors

• This attack provides the means for a hacker to execute his or her system level code on a
target web server. With this capability, an attacker can compromise the web server and
access files with the same rights as the server system software.
• For example, a number of PHP programs contain a vulnerability that could enable the
transfer of unchecked user commands to the eval( ) function.

Google Hacking

• As we all know, Google is a Search Engine. It keeps snapshots of pages it has crawled
that we can access via the cached link on the search results page.
• Google hacking can be used to explore the Website by using some Advance Google
search operators.

You can look for the particular filetypes, password files and directories. Even you can find out
the IP based CCTV Cameras.

• Intitle: Searches the text in the title of the Website.


• Inurl: Finding the text in the URL of the Website.
• Filetype: Searching for Files of a Specific Type
• Site: To narrow the Search to Specific Sites

The Wayback Machine

• Archive.org, called the Wayback Machine.


• Hackers use this website to have a look how other websites looked in the past.

Putting breaks on Web Application attacks

• Input Validation on the SQL injection


• There are measures that can be applied to mitigate SQL injection attacks. Use of these
practices does not guarantee that SQL injection can be completely eliminated, but they
will make it more difficult for hackers to conduct these attacks.
• Javascripts are available which allow only known good input from the Web server to the
Database server.

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Directory access controls

• Htaccess files provide a way to make configuration changes on a per-directory basis.


• .htaccess files should be used in a case where the content providers need to make
configuration changes to the server on a per-directory basis, but do not have root access
on the server system.

Deny Google to your website

• A robots.txt file on a website will function as a request that specified robots ignore
specified files or directories in their search.
• For websites with multiple subdomains, each subdomain must have its own robots.txt
file. If example.com had a robots.txt file but a.example.com did not, the rules that would
apply for example.com would not apply to a.example.com.

Basic Website Security

• Put an Input Validation to countermeasure the SQL Injection.


• Always change the default Username and Passwords.
• Do not allow every type of file to get uploaded on your Website.
• Check the files on the Website regularly.

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Wireless
Hacking

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The popularity in wireless technology is driven by two major factors: convenience and cost. A
wireless local area network (WLAN) allows workers to access digital resources without being
locked to their desks. Mobile users can connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless
(radio) connection.

Basic Terminologies in Wireless connection

• SSID: Name of the Wireless Connection. It is also known as the ESSID.


• BSSID: MAC Address of the Wireless Device Access Point.
• Channel: Frequency of the Wireless Network.

Wireless Security Overview

• Two methods exist for authenticating wireless LAN clients to an access point: Open
system or Shared key authentication.
• Open system does not provide any security mechanisms but is simply a request to make a
connection to the network.
• Shared key authentication has the wireless client hash a string of challenge text with the
WEP key to authenticate to the network.

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War Driving

• War Driving is detecting the Wireless Networks and checking out their properties.
• WAR Driving is of two types:
o Active War Driving
o Passive War Driving

Active War Driving

• Active War Driving is detecting the Wireless Networks whose SSIDs are broadcasted or
the Wireless Networks which are shown to all the Wireless Adapters.
• It can be done through any Wireless Card.

Passive War Driving

• Passive War Driving is detecting the Wireless Networks whose SSIDs are not
Broadcasted or the Hidden Wireless Networks.
• The Wireless card should support the Monitor Mode.

WEP Key Cracking

• Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) was the first security option for 802.11 WLANs. WEP
is used to encrypt data on the WLAN and can optionally be paired with shared key
authentication to authenticate WLAN clients. WEP uses an RC4 64-bit or 128-bit
encryption key.

• The process by which RC4 uses IVs is the real weakness of WEP: It allows a hacker to
crack the WEP key.

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Applying the Wireless Security


Hide the Wireless Network

• Do not broadcast the SSID of the Wireless Network. This will help you in protecting
your Wireless being invisible to the people who do not know about Passive War Driving.

Use a WEP Key

• You can use the WEP Key protection on your Wireless Network to protect your
Wireless Network Connection. Although this is not the ultimate security measure but will
help you a lot against the Script Kiddies who do not know how to break into the WEP
Protection.

WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access

• WPA employs the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)—which is a safer RC4
implementation—for data encryption and either WPA Personal or WPA Enterprise for
authentication.
• WPA Enterprise is a more secure robust security option but relies on the creation and
more complex setup of a RADIUS server. TKIP rotates the data encryption key to
prevent the vulnerabilities of WEP and, consequently, cracking attacks.

Mac Filtering

• An early security solution in WLAN technology used MAC address filters: A network
administrator entered a list of valid MAC addresses for the systems allowed to associate
with the Wireless Access Point.

Choosing the Best Key

• Always use a long WPA Key with lower as well as upper case letters including numbers
and special characters.

A Sample Key: 12345@abcde&FGHI

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Tool Kit
Description

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Concept of Hacking

• Book: Hacking for Dummies by Kevin Beaver


o This book outlines computer hacker tricks and techniques — in plain English —
to assess the security of your own information systems, find security
vulnerabilities, and fix the vulnerabilities before malicious and criminal hackers
have an opportunity to take advantage of them.
• UltraSurf: Https Tunneling Tool
o UltraSurf protects your Internet privacy with anonymous surfing and browsing:
hide IP addresses and locations, clean browsing history, cookies and more. It
supports https tunneling. You can visit “https” websites through UltraSurf.
Because contents in “https” websites are encrypted already, data from these
websites will be double protected through UltraSurf.

Email Hacking

• Putty: Telnet Connection tool


o Putty is a Connection based tool used to Setup the Telnet connection with the
Open Relay Server to send the Fake Emails.
• Fakemail.php: PHP Fakemail Web Script
o This is the PHP Webmail Script, which is used to send Fake Emails when
uploaded on the Web Server.

System Hacking

• Cain and Abel: Password Cracking Tool


o Cain is the tool to crack the Windows Password using several types of
Automated Password Guessing attacks like Brute Force.
• Image Hide: Steganography Tool
o Image Hide loads of text in images using the concept of Steganography.
• Streams: Streaming Tool
o Streams will examine the files and directories you specify and inform you of the
name and sizes of any named streams it encounters within those files. Streams
make use of an undocumented native function for retrieving file stream
information.
• Offline Password Cracker: Windows Live Disk
o This is Windows Live Disk used to reset the Password of any User Account in
Windows XP and Windows Vista. This is disk is also used for the Privilege
Escalation.
• Active Password Cracker
This is Windows Live USB Disk used to Crack the Windows User Accounts password.

• Soft Central Keylogger: Keylogger


o This is Software Keylogger which can be installed automatically on the Victim's
computer. This program record every keystroke typed in via the keyboard, it can
capture a wide variety of confidential information, including passwords, credit
card numbers, private email correspondence, names, addresses, and phone
numbers.

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• Password Recovery Tools


• Process Explorer
o This is the utility that displays detailed information about processes running
under Windows. For each process it displays memory, threads, and module
usage. For each DLL, it shows full path and version information.

Trojan

• Beast: Trojan
• Netbus: Trojan
o These are the Trojans which are used for the Remote Administrator of the
Victim's computer.
• Microjoiner: Wrapper Program
o This is the program to bind the Server part of the Software behind any image or
any other file.
• TCPView: Local Network Connection Viewer
o TCPView is a Windows program that will show you detailed listings of all TCP
and UDP endpoints on your system, including the local and remote addresses
and state of TCP connections.

Sniffing

• Cain and Abel: ARP Poisoning Tool


o Apart from Password Cracking, Cain can also be used to Sniff the Network
traffic and launch the Man in the Middle attack. Hacker uses this tool to redirect
all the network traffic to the Sniffer device and get all the Username and
Password sent in the Network.

Web Server Hacking

• Book: Dangerous Google-Searching For Secrets


• Black Widow: Web Ripper
o Black Widow has the ability to copy the structure of a Web site to a local disk
and obtain a complete profile of the site and all its files and links.
• PH.php: Remote Execution Script
o This PHP Script provides the means for a hacker to execute his or her system
level code on a target web server.

Wireless Hacking

• Net Stumbler: War Driving Tool


o This is the best War Driving tool available for Windows.

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