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in sequence, to describe size of sets. Nominal numbers:as names on addresses and sports jerseys (1). Tag for identification(ADT123). Ordinal numbers: identify the position of an object in a sequence. Cardinal numbers: counting numbers that tell how many objects are in a set. (2km, 2 pens) Nominal, ordinal, and cardinal numbers all demonstrate meaningful uses of the number system. Numeration:concerned with an understanding of number concepts and notation, specifically the understanding and skills needed to count, name, write, read, interpret and process numbers Link bet numbers:
SYAMSINAHARNI BT HAWALIT
• abstraction principle: any collection of
real or imaginary objects can be counted. • make a double-count error by counting one or more items more than once.
• • • • •
• use idiosyncratic counting sequences such as “one,two, four, seven, eight, ten.”
• stable-order principle: counting
numbers are arranged in a sequence that does not change.
• one-to-one principle: requires ticking off
the items in a set so that one and only one number is assigned to each item counted.
• • •
Place value: allows us to read, symbolize, and manipulate both large and small numbers. A thorough understanding of place value is necessay if computational algorithms for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are to be developed and learned in a meaningful way. Place-value manipulatives are a faster way to represent larger numbers than counting one by one. Flexibility in representing numbers is very important to understanding the number system and is essential for number operations, estimation, and number sense. The compact form, such as 653 can be represented in several ways: 653 600 + 50 + 3 6 hundreds + 5 tens + 3 ones These simple expanded forms will help children develop their understanding of algorithms for operations on whole numbers. Expanded form : it makes the place-value structure obvious and aid in understanding alorithms. Suggested pedagogical development for the topic Numbers in Year 2:
• order-irrelevance principle: the order in
which items are counted is irrelevant.
Counting numbers to 1000 in hundreds, tens, fives, twos and ones. Reading numbers to 1000. Writing numbers to 1000. Decomposing numbers into hundreds, tens and ones. Recomposing hundreds, tens and ones into numbers. Counting on and counting back numbers. Comparing two or more numbers and arranging numbers in ascending and descending order. Recognizing ordinal numbers up to twentieth.
• cardinal principle gives special
significance to the last number counted because it is not only the last item counted in the set but also the total number of items in the set. It tells how many are in the set.
TOPIC 2: ADDITION AND SUBSTRACTION IN THE RANGE OF 1000 Shulman (1986): teachers need to master two types of knowledge: • Content knowledge of the subject matter and The ways of representing the subject matter that makes it easy for pupils to understand
Counting On - correct number names are given as counting proceeds, but the starting point is flexible. Children can start counting at any number. Counting on is an essential strategy in developing addition. Counting Back - correct number names are given as children count backward from a particular point. Counting back is also a strategy in developing subtraction. Gelman and Gallistel - several common counting errors:
NUMBER language symbols
Addition:an operation on two numbers, the addends, to obtain a third number, the sum. Addition:related to the union of disjointed groups of objects. • Addition without regrouping learn to add two numbers without regrouping. involves the application of basic addition facts and place value concept to record the sum. For example, 26 + 43 = 69. It is vital that children understand that they are adding 6 ones and 3 ones and they write the sum in the ones place value. Then they add 2 tens and 4 tens
Counting process by which children call number values by name. The counting process involve two distinct actions. - say the number name & point to a different object as each number is spoken. Five principles of rational counting:
make a coordination error when the count is not started until after the first item has been touched, which results in an under-count, or when the count continues after the final item has been touched, which results in an overcount. make an omission error when one or more items are skipped.
Concrete materials demonstrate this interpretation of subtraction more effectively than graphic materials. then lay out 18 more. the missing addend. They may have to guess and check a number of possibilities. Example: Given the digits 1. sequence used to illustrate the ideas of addition and subtraction: (=children move through the experiences from the concrete to semiconcrete to the abstract) 1. “Ali picked 17 rambutans. “What is the number of the set to join to the smaller set to obtain the larger set?”. Subtraction without regrouping. Addition with grouping. Subtraction has several meanings related to reallife situations: • Take-away (baki =remainder) In the take-away interpretation. How much larger was the audience for the second performance than the first?” The answer in this subtraction is called the After working with materials. form three two-digit numbers with the sum of 102. Meaning of subtraction. Mathematical sentence :12 + 6 = 18 / 6+12=18 Vertical form: difference and tells how much greater (or lesser) one number is than the other. 2. Solving number stories for addition and subtraction. eaten or the like are useful in helping children understand this concept. How many additional stamps did he put into the album if there were 856 stamps when he started?” 856 + N = 900. 144 is the remainder. and ice-cream sticks. 5 and 6. N can be solved by subtraction: 900 – 856 = N. To obtain a solution. Finally. but the solution is not immediately apparent. How many rubber bands has she now? 1.introduced through discussion of actions on real objects and with classroom learning aids such as chips. Non-routine problems often require more thought since the mathematical procedure to solve the problem is less obvious. mathematical sentences to the vertical form. consistent in the ways you convert • • • • • • • • The meaning of addition. 4. He ate 9 of the rambutans. Subtraction with grouping. The question is. lost. A suggested sequence to teach addition with regrouping is as follows: Example: Leela has 25 rubber bands. Making up number stories for addition and subtraction. 2 . the children will have to try many possibilities. Use of place value chart: : 2 column(tens/ones) under each column put number 12 + 6 18 6 + 12 18 Subtraction: the inverse of addition. Attention here should be focused on the meaning of what they are doing. rather on the mechanical procedure. Her friend gives her 18 more. The answer. Suggested pedagogical development for the topic of Addition and Subtraction in Year 2: • Completion( cari addend/ nombor yg • Addition with regrouping (sometimes called carrying) parallels the teaching of addition without regrouping. To learn the take-away concept. Using each of them once. The children have the prerequisites for solving the problem. 3. Use maipulative materials. one must have a lot of experience in solving problems. ungrouped: Lay out 25 rubber bands (or other objects). use symbols to illustrate the operation. children study examples that involve removal or separation of a subset from a set. 2. two sets are compared: “There were two circus performances. Subtraction. 2. children may find it more difficult to add with regrouping. Distinction: Routine problems involve an application of a mathematical procedure in much the same way as it was learned. Story problems in which a subset is removed. diagrams and drawings to move a step away from the concrete toward symbolization. Provide representations of objects in pictures. 144 remain. Use a variety of problem settings and manipulative materials to act out and model the operation. Use of pocket chart: 2 column (tens / ones) under each column put materials 4. One was attended by 859 people and the other by 934 people. Easiest of the three subtraction concepts for children to learn is the take-away situation and the language associated with it. blocks. However. grouped: 25 rubber bands (2 group of tens and 5 ones) than 18 (one group of tens and 8 ones) 3. “James completed a 900 postage stamp album collection by putting in additional stamps. For example. This is indeed problem solving for the children. Use manipulative materials. • Comparision (baki = difference) In the comparison interpretation.HBMT 2103 and write the sum of 6 tens in the tens place. children need to be able to relate the written form of the algorithm with the materials. the numbers of two sets are given. Very often we allow children just to add the numbers in each column and do not think of the tens and ones. Addition without regrouping. For example. To gain skill in solving problems. 3. In this question an addend. How many did Ali have left?” perlu ditambah) In the comparison interpretation. 150 – 6 = 144 means if 6 objects are removed from a group of 150 objects. Count to find the sum. N is missing. Since addition and subtraction are inverse operations. SYAMSINAHARNI BT HAWALIT A problem involves a situation in which a person wants something and does not know immediately what to do to get it.
The answer is the product. Eg: [a x 1 = a] • • Multiplying by 1: Any number multiplied by 1 equals that number. A: 20 ÷ 5 = ? We have to divide 20 into groups of 5: Eg: [(a x b) x c = [a x (b x a)] For example: (2 x 3) x 4 = 2 x (3 x 4) The basic facts of multiplication involve the products of any two 1-digit whole numbers. 4. 1. 4 and 5 o Multiplying two numbers Multiplication in everyday life o Finding unknown numbers in number sentences o Solving number stories o Writing number stories Division as Equal Shares To divide a number into 2 equal parts 3. 20 ÷ 5 = 4 then./one of four =one divided by four. 5 is called the (divisor . 3. (inverse of multiplication) Two over three=two divided by three. • • Multiplicative Identity Property: The product of any number and one is that original number itself. • • Multiplying by 0: Any number multiplied by 0 equals 0. the product is the same regardless of the order of the multiplicands. we divide.it is the number being divided).(vertical order) SYAMSINAHARNI BT HAWALIT • Multiplying by 2 and 3 • Multiplying by 4 and 5 • • Four Basic Properties of Multiplication Eg: [a x (b + c) = a x b + b x c] Distributive property: The sum of two numbers times a third number is equal to the sum of each addend times the third number. you may end up with a remainder or fractional answer.it is how 20 will be divided). For example: 5 x 1 = 5 Understanding “multiplication” o Multiplication as repeated addition o Multiplication as “times” o Writing multiplication sentences Multiplication tables o Arrays and groups o Multiplication tables for 2. 3. Division as Repeated Subtraction Also. 4 AND 5 The numbers you multiply are called factors. Associative Property: When three or more numbers are multiplied. 3. Q: ? × 5 = 20. Standard form: Eg: [a x b = b x a] x 7 4 28 (multiplier) (multiplicand) (product) Meaning of division For example: 4 x 2 = 2 x 4 Four different algorithms for multiplication. the product is the same regardless of the grouping of the factors. 3 . TOPIC 4: DIVISION BY 2. Multiplication of whole numbers: repeated addition of the same number The result of multiplication is the total number (product) that would be obtained by combining several (multiplier) groups of similar size (multiplicand).the most problematic of the basic math operations. 20 is called the (dividend. 4 AND 5 Divide= over or of. 4 is called the quotient. • Commutative property: When two numbers are multiplied together. till 9x5=45 The important basic multiplication facts: The major mathematical skills related to multiplication to be mastered by Year 2: 2. Division as Grouping Now we look at breaking up products into smaller groups. Division . Division as the Inverse of Multiplication To answer. we could subtract 5 from 20 four times. For example: 4 x (6 + 3) = 4 x 6 + 4 x 3 • Two common meanings of multiplication. Division of whole numbers=repeated subtraction of the same number.HBMT 2103 TOPIC 3: MULTIPLICATION OF 2.
500 B.C. The Computational Procedure for Division Four Basic Properties of Division 1. Commutative property: When two numbers are divided. Associative Property: When three or more numbers are divided. Need activities that help them develop the skills for estimating prices and doing mental computations. Break 16 into groups of 4 . Eg: [(a ÷ b) ÷ c] ≠ [a ÷ (b ÷ c)] Eg: [(8 ÷ 4) ÷ 2] ≠ [8 ÷ (4 ÷ 2)] Division difficult and time-consuming if we had to draw the boxes each time. Dividing by 4 and 5 TOPIC 5: MONEY 4. Eg: [a ÷ (b + c) ≠(a ÷ b) + (a ÷ c)] For example: [(2 + 3) ÷ 6] = [(2 ÷ 6) + (3 ÷ 6)] How estimation and mental computations on money can help them: • save time doing long calculations. 3. one higher than the • The major mathemathical skills related to division to be mastered by Year 2: Take-home activities can show parents that there is more to the curriculum than practicing computations with algorithms. • judge the reasonableness of prices of items on sale. Adding money up to RM 50. • Doing these take-home activities will not burden the parents Instead it is part of spending quality time together as a family. • front-end estimation. Sundials use the sun to tell the time. (about 3. Take-Home Activities on Money Money reinforces place-value concepts because it uses the base 10 system. Eg: [a ÷ 1 = a] • Understanding “division” o Division as sharing equally o Division as grouping o Writing number sentences for division Division facts o Division as the reverse of multiplication o Division facts for 2.C. Suggested pedagogical development for the topic money in Year 2: • • • • • • Identifying and reading amount of money in Ringgit and sen up to RM 50. Division Identity Property: The quotient of any number and one is that original number itself. Therefore. and • solve problems when exact answers are not required.500 years ago). Three common processes for estimating sums: • rounded numbers. Dividing by 0: Numbers cannot be divided by 0 because it is impossible to make 0 groups of a number. the quotient is not the same. Dividing by 1: Any number divided by 1 equals that number. Distributive property: The sum of two numbers divides a third number is only sometimes equal to the sum of each added divided by the third number. • compatible numbers. Eg: [a ÷ b ≠b ÷ a] Eg: 4 ÷ 2 ≠2 ÷ 4 A common way in computing division is through a process called long division.HBMT 2103 2. Take-home activities are 4 . division is not commutative. 2. Using different combinations of notes to represent a given amount of money up to RM 50. 4 and 5 o Dividing two numbers Division in everyday life o Finding unknown numbers in number sentences o Solving number stories o Writing number stories • good cooperative-learning activities for adults and students at home. and Solving story problems involving money in real life situations up to RM 50. It comes from the word for bell in Latin ("clocca"). SYAMSINAHARNI BT HAWALIT • • 3. 3. The topic on money provides many opportunites for such take-home activities. TOPIC 6: TIME The word clock was first used in the 14th century (about 700 years ago). The shadow of the sun points to a number on a circular disk that shows you the time. the quotient is not the same. Using different combinations of notes and coins to represent a given amount of money up to RM 50. Dividing by 2 and 3 However: [6 ÷ (2 + 3) ≠(6 ÷ 2) + (6 + 3)] 4.400 years ago). Subtracting money up to RM 50.) They were first used around 3. division is not associative. (about 5. Therefore. water clocks were invented in Egypt lmade of two containers of water.is written in shorter form as 16 divided by 4 in symbol as:16 ÷ 4 The Basic Facts of Division For example: 5 ÷ 1 = 5 1. Around 1400 B. So quicker method= use symbols. The oldest type of clock is a sundial clock( a sun clock.
• 1889 a number of platinum-iridium metre bars were produced and one of these (number 6) replaced the Mètre des Archives to become the International Prototype Metre.M. Sumerian sexagesimal system. SYAMSINAHARNI BT HAWALIT • • A. • • • • • • Historical note on length. Quartz is a type of crystal that looks like glass. Half past seven. Units of length. from the Latin for "before noon" P. and Pacific(4). History of Time Faces of Clocks The Greeks divided the year into twelve parts that are called months. Also had a minute hand.hour hand(little hand) and minute hand (big hand). and pressure. Write: one o'clock is 1:00. By 1906. Whole day=24 hours Why 12 parts? Twelve is about the number of moon cycles in a year. TOPIC 7: LENGTH Important information regarding the content and pedagogical aspects for teaching length covers the following aspects: • 1799 which was known as the 'Mètre des Archives' and was the master standard for the world's new measuring system. it is a circle (equator). Relationship between units of length. from the Latin for "after noon" There are two types of clocks: • A clock with hands. Quarter to six. Central(6). the length of a stride. the batteries were inside the clock. Quartz crystal clocks . The delegates divided the 360 degrees of the circle into 24 zones. Four Basic Principles of Measurement 5 .1656. we use these terms: clockwise direction. • Saxon king Edgar kept a “yardstick" at Winchester as the official standard of measurement. The meaning of length. the time from sunset to sunrise. They divided each month into thirty parts that are called days. it was taken to be the length of an arm from the elbow to the extended fingertips. Eleven minutes past nine. Water clocks worked better than sundials because they told the time at night as well as during the day and more accurate. Times Zones Pendulum clock developed by Christian Huygens. The symbol : is called a colon. Since the Earth goes around the Sun in one year and follows an almost circular path. When you apply voltage. The vibration moves the clock's hands very precisely. or 12 times 30 (12 x 30 = 360). the Greeks decided to divide the circle into 360 degrees. each 15 degrees (24 x 15 = 360).1920.000 years ago. To tell time. Smaller marker = minute( every 5 marks same as hour marks) Bigger marker = hour Saying Time Correctly Quarter past three. The Egyptians and Babylonians decided to divide the day from sunrise to sunset into twelve parts that are called hours.M. or electricity. Their year had a total of 360 days. the quartz crystal vibrates or oscillates at a very constant frequency or rate. A traditional tale tells the story of Henry I (1100-1135) who decreed that the yard should be "the distance from the tip of the King's nose to the end of his outstretched thumb". the so-called metric system. The basic principles of measurement. England.-. • In 1884. developed 4.--Ante meridiem. O’clock = of the clock Two hands that point to the time . Egyptian cubit developed around 3000 BC. They also divided the night. Historical Note on Length • Ancient measurement of length based on the human body. One problem = stopped running after a while and had to be restarted. which is 0 degrees longitude. a special number in many cultures. called a digital clock The major mathematical skills related to time to be mastered by Year 2: Read and write time • Read time to five minutes • Reading time in various ways • Write time Relationship between time • Understand that 1 hour = 60 minutes • Understand that 1 day = 24 hours • Solving problems involving relationship between time Knowledge of time in everyday life • Computing time after an event • Computing duration of an event • Using alternative strategies to compute time after an event and the duration of an event the span of a hand and the breadth of a thumb. delegates from 25 countries met and agreed to divide the world into time zones. They decided to start counting from Greenwich (pronounced GRENich). United States:four time zones varies by one hour: Eastern (7). If you draw a line around the middle of the Earth.Post meridiem. The first pendulum clock with external batteries was developed around 1840. into twelve hours. called an analog clock • A clock with numbers only. Mountain(5). and each minute is divided into 60 seconds.HBMT 2103 other. for example the length of a foot. Based on the human body. Water travelled from the higher container to the lower container through a connecting tube. hour is divided into 60 minutes. Sequence of teaching length.
129. pounds – imperial units Sequence of learning the Topic of Mass(direc/indirect) • • • recognising the unit of measurement for mass. stating the number of centimetres that can be fitted along it. foot. the result must be a whole number.are used for measurements larger than the metre. • • 4. For example. chalk and straws. 1. 1 cm = 10 mm 2. shorter. E. high 1 m = 100 cm. length) of an object. the concept of mass = the general “heaviness” of an object. Weight = the gravitational force acting on that mass. Transitivity principle – comparing and ordering of three or more objects using appropriate language. Estimating:encourages them to think and it will also help them to attain “measurement sense”. taller. Eg: The major mathematical skills related to length to be mastered by Year 2: Vocabulary related to length • Using words related to length • Direct comparison of lengths • Comparing the lengths of two objects Non-standard measurements of length • Identifying instruments used for nonstandard measurements of length • Measuring lengths using non-standard measurements • Stating and recording non-standard measurements for lengths Standard measurements for length • Metres and centimetres • Relationship between metre and centimetre • Measuring. and deka. Iteration Measurement means repeated application of identical units of measure. Counting the number of pupils in the classroom. the result can take on values other than whole numbers. miles. • Kgs. centi-. rod.HBMT 2103 SYAMSINAHARNI BT HAWALIT Measuring a length is actually comparing that length with a measuring instrument such as a ruler or scale Basic concept of measurement a. and objects such as pen. Non. grammes – metric units • Ounces. using suitable vocabulary to describe and compare length such as 1 km = 1000 m. Practice in conversion between the standard units = help children acquire high mathematical competencies with respect to measurement of mass. centimetres) which can be laid in a straight line along or besidethe object. e. the quantity is discrete. (metric units) Identical units To say that a candy bar is 6 centimetres long means that every centimetre is exactly the same. when measuring the length of a rod. Sequence of learning concepts of measurement of length (a) identifying the attribute of measurement of length (b) building and consolidating the concepts of measuring units of length (c) developing the relationships between standard measuring units of length Relationship between Units of Length The basic SI unit for length is the metre. inches. b.(paper clips. Measuring the height of pupils. stating and recording lengths in metres and centimetres Latin prefixes such as deci-. A metre. Hence. c. and milli. The length of an object refers to the number of standard units (e.quantities are continuous quantities.g. hecto-. 1960 adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measure Meanings of Mass Mass=measure of the amount of matter in an object. a unit called kilogram accepted as the official unit of weight measurement. pace and arm length. estimating using the unit. Conservation principle – the length of an object does not change even when the position or the orientation of the object is changed. and measuring using the unit. • • yards.3 cm.standard units of measurement Non-standard unit for length is any arbitrary length used as a unit. then C must be longer than B. cups) A fixed unit of mass used that has been accepted as a standard unit internationally is called a standard unit. Standard Units of measurement A standard unit for length is any fixed length that has been accepted as a standard internationally. An arbitrary mass used as an unit is called a nonstandard unit. 12.are used for smaller measurements. Greek prefixes like kilo-. longer. tall. Conceptual differences between counting and measuring. 3. Appropriate units Use units of measure appropriate to the thing being measured. of length = distance bet any two points/locations measured along straight line. 1889. Comparison principle – comparing and ordering of objects by a specific attribute. If A is longer than B and C is longer than A. The Meaning of Length Def. short. long. feet.g. Measuring principle – fact that measurement involves stating how many of a given unit match the attribute (e.g. etc. TOPIC 8: MASS SI = Le Systeme International d’Unites ( international system of units) 6 . d. (Imperial units) metres and kilometres. it is normal to refer weighing of an object as a process to find its mass. paper clip. Primary school students. body parts such as span.distance from your left ear to the tip of the fingers on the end of your outstretched right arm.
Non-standard units are easier to use. vi. Students at these levels are capable of formulating proofs of theorems • Level 3 – Ordering – classifying and generalizing by attributes • Identifying instruments used as non- standard measurements for volumes of liquid • Level 4 – Deduction – developing proofs using axioms and definitions 7 . humans used non-standard units for measurement before establishing standard units. • Identifying the attribute for the volume of liquid • Level 1 – Recognition – visualizing and naming the figures • • Direct comparisons of volumes of liquid • Indirect comparisons of volumes of liquid through a reference • Level 2 – Analysis – describing the attributes Children classify and organize shapes and solids according to their characteristics.. the levels are based in part on the Piagetian stage theory but not related to the age of the student. Level 4 and 5 • Dwell on the advanced mode of thinking and correspond to a more complete understanding of the nature of geometry. the learning of geometry concepts is through a hierarchical series of five levels and a series of phases for thinking from each level to the next. • • The major mathematical skills related to mass to be mastered by Year 2: Vocabulary related to mass • Using words related to mass • Direct comparison of masses • Comparing the masses of two objects Non-standard measurements of mass • Idea of balancing masses • Measuring mass using non-standard maeasurements • Stating and recording non-standard measurements of mass Standard measurements for mass • Kilogrammes • Weighing using weighing scales • Measuring. • Introducing standard measurements for Empty. • • • v. (pre-measurment coz no number involved) Reasons for introducing measurement of liquid to children through the use of non-standard units: volumes of liquid • Measuring volumes of liquid using standard measurements in litres (ℓ). TOPIC 10: THREE DIMENSIONAL AND TWO DIMENSIONAL SHAPES Development of Geometry Concepts – The Van Hiele Theory (Dina &Pierre van Hiele) • iii. and the levels are based on the actual geometric learning that the student has experienced. children are able to: • recognise and label common figures such as circles. iv. Non-standard units use materials that seem naturally related to the child’s everyday experiences. 1 kilogram equals 1000 grams and hence 1 tonne is 1 000 000 gram. It is good to give children experience with unfamiliar systems of measurement just as they might use bases other than ten in numeration. At Level 1. cylinder. squares. A sphere is a “ball” and a square has four “straight” corners – • Suggested pedagogical development for the topic Volume of Liquid in Year 2: Five levels of geometric experiences: The level 3 begins in upper primary. • recognise simple solids such as cubes. • • Materials for non-standard units are easier to obtain. ii. spheres. name simple solids with those labels or with less formal names such as the solids look like a “box” or a “ball”.HBMT 2103 Eg: 1 tonne equals 1000 kilogram. half full. stating and recording mass in kilogrammes and grammes At Level 2. • not necessarily be precise mathemathical terminology. triangles and rectangles. Historically. full. pyramids and cones. children are able to start describing the attributes of the shapes and solids. perceiving and identifying the attributes of mass through direct and indirect comparison building the concept of measuring units through the use of non-standard units followed by standard units directly consolidating the concept of measuring units through the use of measuring instruments developing the relationship between standard units of measurement performing arithmetic operations involving standard units for mass solving daily problems involving standard units for mass TOPIC 9: VOLUME OF LIQUID Attribute for Volume of Liquids SYAMSINAHARNI BT HAWALIT • Measuring volumes of liquid using nonstandard measurements • Level 5 – Rigour – working in various geometrical systems The first three levels occur during the primary school years. Sequence of teaching the Topic of Mass i.
adding new words as appropriate. • Describing and Classifying Geometric Shapes Studying the geometrical properties of three dimensional and two dimensional shapes is built around the processes of describing and classifying. SYAMSINAHARNI BT HAWALIT • Describing and classifying three dimensional shapes. Suggested pedagogical development for the topic Shape and Space in Year 2: • Understanding and using vocabulary to name and label two dimensional shapes. Describing and classifying are processes that develop over time as children add new and more complex properties. • Understanding and using vocabulary to name and label three dimensional shapes. and 8 . the vocabulary used should be introduced gradually for beginning. exploring and discovering as well as relating 3D to 2D shapes. more of deductive study and occurrs from secondary schools and right through to postsecondary education. Similarly. • Building models using three dimensional and two dimensional shapes. A teacher should build on the children’s own vocabulary. • Describing and classifying two dimensional shapes.HBMT 2103 without the need of concrete experience. intermediate and more advanced students. constructing.
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