LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Characteristics of LASER 1.

Laser is a special light source that generates an intense beam of light. 2. Light is very pure -- all the light rays in the beam are nearly the same colour. 3. The light is extremely well collimated -- all the rays are headed in almost exactly the same direction.
4.

The laser is a light it produces coherent (105 to 107 W/cm2).

Laser can be classified as 1. Optically pumped laser 2. Electrically pumped laser On the basis of the operation mode
1. 2.

Continuous Wave Lasers Pulsed Lasers.

Medium used to produce the Laser: 1. Solid State 2. Liquid state 3. Gaseous Principle of laser welding

Laser-Beam Welding (LBW) # Uses a moving high-density (105 to 107 W/cm2) coherent optical energy source called a laser as the source of heat # The coherent nature of the laser beam allows it to be focused to a small spot. leading to high energy densities # # # # # # focal spot diameter for a laser beam ranges from 100 to 1000 μm Used with / without shielding gas. does not require electrical continuity. is not influenced by magnetism. is not limited to electrically conductive materials . no pressure is applied Filler metal may or may not be used Can be operated in normal atmosphere No radiation kind of problems The laser output is not electrical.

o the thickness of the materials to be welded is generally less than 0. the beam energy is maintained below the vaporization temperature of the workpiece material • Because the penetration of the workpiece depends on o conducted heat.Basic operation of laser welding • The high intensity light beam is targeted on the workpiece surface which will be welded. • At the surface the large concentration of light energy is converted into thermal energy • The surface of the workpiece starts melting and progresses through it by surface conductance • For welding.80 inches o Characteristics of laser • Concentrated energy produces melting and coalescence before a heat affected zone is developed .

Solid state 2. Liquid state 1. Nd:YAG (neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet) Laser Solid bar of YAG doped with neodymium as a lasing medium .Welding lasers 1.

2. Co2 laser (A mixture of high purity carbon dioxide with helium and nitrogen as lasing medium) .

the pool shape is more spherical and is dominated by conduction heat transfer # High Prandtl number material. aspect ratio. where pool shape is shallow and wide because it is dominated by the surface-tension-driven flow . Conduction-mode welding 2. and lack of fusion # Convection is also responsible for mixing and therefore affects the composition of the melt pool during laser welds because pool configuration in conduction-mode laser welding is a function of the Prandtl number Prandtl number = (kinematic viscosity/molecular diffusivity) # Low Prandtl numbers. pool shape.PROCESS Lasers are capable of both 1. porosity. Deep-penetration welding Conduction-mode welding Momentum transfer or convection dominates conduction-mode welding # # Surface-tension-driven thermo-capillary flow Convection is the single most important factor affecting the geometry of the laser melt pool (that is. and surface ripples) and can result in defects such as variable penetration.

Deep-penetration welding # # # the process is a non-contact one that directs laser outputs of 2-10 Power levels in excess of 105.107 W/cm2 are produced on the surface of the parts to be welded The laser beam makes a ‘keyhole’ and the liquid steel solidifies behind the traversing beam. leaving a very narrow weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) # # The weld is approximately 1 mm wide and the surrounding material is not distorted Because the weld bead is small. there is usually no need for finishing or re-working and this reduces costs kW into a very small area .

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penetration typically increases as the beam power is increased 2. Absorptivity # The efficiency of LBW depends on the absorption of light energy by the workpiece # Any heat transfer calculation for laser processing is based on the energy absorbed by the workpiece # Absorptivity is a function of the electrical resistivity of the substrate material . Laser-Beam Diameter # This parameter is one of the most important because it determines the power density 3.Laser Welding Parameters The major independent process variables for laser welding include: • INCIDENT LASER BEAM POWER • INCIDENT LASER BEAM DIAMETER • ABSORPTIVITY • TRAVERSE SPEED OF THE LASER BEAM ACROSS THE SUBSTRATE SURFACE 1. Laser-Beam Power # The depth of penetration with laser welding is directly related to the power density of the laser beam and is a function of incident beam power and beam diameter # For a constant beam diameter.

# Applying an absorbent powder to the surface or forming an anodized film on the surface are two techniques that are considered to be very effective Absorptivity can also be increased by the use of reactive gases # 4. Traverse Speed # Other Parameters  Weld design  Shielding gas  Gap size for butt welds  Depth of focus with respect to the substrate These factors decides  Depth of penetration  Microstructure  Mechanical properties of laser-welded joints. and  Weld pool geometry .

AND PENETRATION) CAN BE OBTAINED WELDS WITH LITTLE OR NO CONTAMINATION CAN BE PRODUCED THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ) ADJACENT TO THE WELD IS VERY NARROW INTRICATE SHAPES CAN BE CUT OR WELDED AT HIGH SPEED USING AUTOMATICALLY ABSENCE OF DISTORTION IN WELDS CREATED EXCELLENT METALLURGICAL QUALITY WILL BE ESTABLISHED IN WELDS ABILITY TO WELD SMALLER.Advantages and Limitations of LBW • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • LIGHT IS INERTIALESS (HENCE. TITANIUM.) CAN BE JOINED WORKPIECES DO NOT NEED TO BE RIGIDLY HELD NO ELECTRODE OR FILLER MATERIALS ARE REQUIRED NARROW WELDS CAN BE MADE PRECISE WELDS (RELATIVE TO POSITION. DIAMETER. ETC. QUARTZ. HIGH PROCESSING SPEEDS WITH VERY RAPID STOPPING AND STARTING BECOME POSSIBLE) FOCUSED LASER LIGHT PROVIDES HIGH ENERGY DENSITY LASER WELDING CAN BE USED AT ROOM ATMOSPHERE DIFFICULT-TO-WELD MATERIALS (FOR EXAMPLE. THINNER COMPONENTS INCREASED TRAVEL SPEEDS NON-CONTACT WELDING LOT OF REFLECTION / POOR ABSOPRTIVITY HIGH COST .

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