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Paper 6A.3 ASPEN: AN ADVANCED SYSTEM FOR PROCESS ENGINEERING
L. B. EVANS,* J. F. BOSTON,H. I. BRITT, P. W. GALLIER, P. K. GUPTA, B. JOSEPH, V. MAHALEC, E. NC, W. D. SEIDER~ and H. YACI Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A. (Receivedfor publication 15 November 1979)
Abstract-The paper presents an overview of ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) which is a next-generation process simulator and economic evaluation system. The system is presently under development for use in engineering of fossil energy conversion processes. Scope-Unlike most existing simulators, ASPEN is intended for processes involving solids in addition to vapor and liquid streams. ASPEN can represent multi-phase streams and can also handle complex substances such as coal which are not described by conventional components or pseudo compounds. ASPEN is file-oriented. The objective is to allow the user as much restart capability as possible and to allow changes to the flowsheet so that the process engineer can synthesize optimum flowsheets efficiently. Because of the requirement for portability, the ASPEN System is being written entirely in FORTRAN. A key innovation in the system is the implementation in FORTRAN of techniques to handle a linked-list data structure. This has allowed considerable flexibility in design. Although the basic computational scheme for ASPEN is sequential-modular, the system is designed to allow extensions to new types of flowsheet convergence techniques such as the simultaneous modular algorithm. A problem-oriented input language has been designed to make the system easy to use by process engineers. It is free-format, with either keyword or positional input and allows flexibility in the choice of engineering units. Defaults are provided where possible. Conclusions and Significance-When ASPEN has been adequately tested, in 1981, it will be publicly released and the source code will be available. This will permit companies to modify and adapt ASPEN to meet their own special needs. Because ASPEN is intended to be a public system, the details of its models will be known and engineers will understand the inherent assumptions in a simulation. ASPEN is expected to extend the technology of process simulation to a much wider range of industries and plants than those now served by traditional vapor-liquid simulators. INTRODUCTION This paper presents an overview of ASPEN (Advanced System for Process ENgineering) which is a process simulator and economic evaluation system under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The development is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy for use in engineering of fossil energy conversion processes. Techniques for simulating industrial-scale chemical processes have evolved over the past twenty years and most of the large chemical, petroleum, and construction companies have access to an in-house simulator or to a simulator provided by a commercial organization. Most of these simulators were developed for vapor-liquid processes in the petrochemical industry and are not suited for processes involving solids or complex substances such as coal which are not described by conventional components or psuedo compounds. * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. t W. D. Seider is with the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19174, U.S.A.
The concept of the ASPEN Project was to develop a next-generation process simulator that would extend the technology of process simulation to cover a much broader range of processes. The system has been designed to be very flexible so that it can be expanded to meet future simulation requirements. An attempt has been made to provide a good preliminary cost estimation capability to permit comparison of alternative processes on an economically consistent basis at an early stage of development. ASPEN will be publicly available and many different process development teams will have access to the same simulator ; it will be easy to share models, and the details of programs and models will be known so that all of the assumptions in a model will be clear. Because ASPEN will be used at many different sites and installed on many different computers, particular emphasis has been placed on portability and ease of maintenance. The goal of ASPEN has been to build upon present technology and to engage the cooperation of the entire profession. The full-time staff at M.I.T. has involved about 15 people over the past two years, many of them on-loan from industry to work on ASPEN. Funds were budgeted to acquire proven industrial software
there is no substream molecular weight. and intermediate streams are expressed in terms of the chemical components. Attributes are used to specify additional information about the substream. critical temperature. slag. The attribute values comprise the ‘state variable’ information required to calculate physical properties of nonconventional components and their mixtures. char. B. There are over 200 pure compound properties (or correlation parameters) that can be specified for each component. and one for the inert solids. separation. . ash. To do so. hydrogen. etc. metals. The particular combination for a given component depends on the An ASPEN stream represents the flow of material and/or information from one process unit to the next. and inert solids. pulp and paper. COMPONENTS properties calculated for that component and the models used. petroleum. Examples include coal. and is specified by the user in a simple input statement. An information substream contains only attributes and no process data. A common use of an information substream is to describe the flow of energy (heat or work) from one process unit to the next. A complete description of ASPEN would take many pages and is available in other Refs. each consisting of one or more elements. A conventional substream is described by process data and any number of optional attributes. the total molar flow. in a process stream describing the flow of a vapor-liquid mixture containing an inert solid. Only the variable information is carried with each substream. and ash. Values of the attributes are of course always unique to each component. For example. only if the full set of physical property options is exercised. oxygen. For example a particle size distribution is one type of attribute and it requires the number of discrete size increments. coal might be characterized in terms of two attribute types. STREAMS Chemical components are the most fundamental entities in a process simulation. The FLOWTRAN program [l] was acquired and the models in FLOWTRAN are being incorporated into ASPEN. rather than reprogram standard programs that exist. and ash. products. the user might want to treat the inert solid differently from the rest of the stream. including several from outside the United States and representing diverse industries including fossil energy. except that the process data gives the flow rate of each nonconventional component in the simulation and the total flow of the substream in mass units. A component may have some attribute types that are unique to it. chemicals. critical pressure. The complete set of constants is needed. In addition to proximate and ultimate analyses. specific enthalpy. the pure compound properties that characterize a conventional component are constant values and are invariant during processing of the compound. Correlations are available to determine the standard pure properties needed for boiling fractions of petroleum and of coal liquids. Conventional components are pure compounds or pseudo compounds that may be characterized in terms of standard pure properties such as molecular weight. and the weight percent of material within each increment. specific entropy. molar liquid fraction. nonconventional substreams describing the flow of nonconventional components. The data bank is designed so that it is easy to define new pure compound properties or parameters and add them to the system. ultimate and proximate analyses. nitrogen. chlorine. These ‘state variables characterizing the component can be changed as the material is processed in a block. and universities has met regularly to review progress’ on the system and to help make certain that ASPEN will meet the needs of the ultimate users. since nonconventional components do not have molecular weights. There are three kinds of substreams: conventional substreams describing the flow of conventional components. There may be many different types of attributes.320 L. the nonconventional components may be characterized by any combination of these attribute types. The use of mass units is necessary. In ASPEN there are’two types of components: conventional and non-conventional. such as particle size distribution and particle density distri- . the upper and lower size limit of each increment. sulfur. An advisory committee with representatives from industry. vapor pressure coefficients. The ultimate analysis gives the weight per cent of carbon. It is the purpose of most industrial processes to change the relative amounts of the chemical components in transforming raw materials into products by means of chemical reaction. pressure. The compositions of raw materials. Nonconventional components are not pure compounds or pseudo compounds and are characterized in terms of nonconventional ‘attributes’ rather than the standard pure compound properties. there will be a number of other built-in attribute types provided by the system. such as particle size distribution. each containing a portion of the stream that is to be treated in a special manner. The process data consists of: the molar flow of each conventional component in the simulation. temperature. and food. The values of the component attributes for each nonconventional component are carried with each substream in which the component occurs. and heat capacity coefficients. density. Some of the data are fixed (the number of increments and the size ranges) and some are variable (the fraction within each increment). The proximate analysis give the moisture content and the percent volatile matter. fixed carbon. Boiling fractions may be represented as pseudo compounds and are treated aa conventional components. In contrast. Over fifty companies are represented on the advisory committee. and other attribute types that are shared by other components. construction. EVANS et al. two substreams would be defined: one for the conventional mixture. however. and molecular weight. government. and information substreams involving no component flows. ASPEN will contain a set of built-in attributes. molar vapor fraction. Streams are subdivided into one or more substreams. A stream or substream attribute is any set of data in addition to the process data required by the simulator. mixing. For example. In this brief paper we would like to give the reader an understanding of the major features of the system and an appreciation for what is new about ASPEN. each with its own set of required data. In a particular simulation. A nonconventional substream is described by the same kinds of data as a conventional substream.
in effect. The simulation portion of ASPEN and can refer to those blocks for equipment sizes and process data. A detailed discussion of the cost estimation methodology or system structure is beyond the scope of this paper and will be treated in a future publication. construction difficulties. labor costs.ASPEN : an advanced system for process engineering 321 bution. Also great care has been given to the proper estimation of the cost of off-sites. Particular attention has been paid to accurate representation of the effect of different plant locations (land costs.30%. etc. such as mixers. to give ASPEN a ‘mass balance only’ capability. costing. and installation material and labor etc. An ASPEN model refers to the collection of subroutines used to model the unit operation and. Or. . BLOCKS AND UNIT OPERATION MODELS user specifies a diagnostic level (either globally for the whole simulation or individually for each block) that controls the amount of information written onto the history Me.) and date of construction (escalation of the cost of construction material and labor. it can be run in conjunction with the unit operations r-l BLOCK DATA INTERNAL RETENTION VARIABLES HISTORY Fig. since they represent a significant fraction of the cost of a new plant. The system is designed so that it can be used independently as a stand-alone system with all equipment sizes and process data supplied as input. The user can create new attributes as needed. Internal retention variables include items such as intermediate tray temperatures and compositions for a rigorous distillation model. The processing of information by a unit operation model is shown in Fig. COST ESTIMATION AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION An ASPEN block refers to the process flowsheet element representing a process unit. The flow of information in sizing. 1. 2. if optional. they are initialized during the first pass through the block and retained to speed convergence in subsequent calls Every block has a results flag that controls calculation of results not needed for convergence of the flowsheet heat and material balance. Each block also has an energy balance flag that. if turned off. Physical property options may be specified for each block and will designate the method to be used for calculating physical properties needed by the model. information may be written onto a history file to provide a record of the progress toward convergence of the simulation.). This requires the calculation of the total required capital investment and the annual operating expenses. convergence tolerances. The primary function of a unit operation model during convergence of the heat and material balances is to calculate output stream variables given the input stream variables. but which maybe of interest in the final report of the simulation. the cost estimation and economic evaluation system will be modular in design . It will be easy for users to add their own costing modules. but must also create new unit operation models that can operate on streams with the new attributes. They are calculated in a ‘results pass’ through the blocks after the heat and material balance has been converged. Flow of information to and from a unit operation model. The flags can be used with simple models. As with the rest of ASPEN. flash) and model control parameters (such as maximum number of iterations. 1. An extensive effort is being made to collect current cost data for the first quarter of 1979. labor productivities. The purpose of the ASPEN Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation System is to calculate the profitability of the simulated process. etc. and economic evaluation is shown in Fig. omits calculation of outlet stream enthalpies. On each execution of a block. splitters. particularly for large coalconversion plants. Default values are provided for all model control parameters but may be over-ridden by the user.). etc. Each block has one or more input streams and one or more output streams. The block data includes the engineering specifications for the unit (such as temperature and pressure for an isothermal The final measure of merit of a given process flowsheet is the profitability of the business venture required for its implementation. there will be one program module for each equipment class. ASPEN is intended to provide cost estimates of the preliminary study grade with accuracies in the range of +/. defines the transformation that takes place in converting input streams into output streams.
either completely or by modifying standard ones. 3. Information supplied to the monitor includes a set of codes to indicate which major properties are desired. or components in a mixture as appropriate. using standard major property routes provided by the system.322 L. Modified BWR. The complete specification of all major property routes is referred to as the property option set. B. there are four levels of complexity and sophistication in specifying physical properties. or solid of a pure component or mixture. The temperature derivatives of the major properties are also available from the monitors. Fig. 3. the temperature. This leads to computational efficiency. or solid). By means of a statement in the input language. that require physical properties. For example in computing the enthalpy of a vapor mixture. The user may create a new option set by modifying a standard set. EVANS et al. and thermal conductivity for specified phase conditions (vapor. and a pointer to an area of memory where appropriate information about the methods of calculation is stored. Physical property monitors compute major properties such as enthalpy. The user may also define new major property routes and may use them in option sets. the routes provided include one for each equation of state (e. liquid. liquid. equilibrium ratio. such as report writers. thermal conductivity. molar volume. (4) Creation of a new major property route by specifying which physical property models are to be used for computing the subordinate properties for a major property. This set can be specified globally for the entire flowsheet or individually for each block. entropy. There is provision in ASPEN for multiple data banks to contain alternative sets of parameters for a given compound. specification of the models to be used for property calculations at any point in a process is simple and straightforward. In order of increasing complexity.) and for the YenAlexander method. (2) Use of one or more standard option sets provided by the system. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ASPEN is supported by a comprehensive physical property system which is called upon by the unit operation models. For most user needs. In the ASPEN terminology a ‘major property route’ is the detailed specification of how to calculate one of the ten major properties for a given phase vapor. etc. since intermediate results needed to calculate one property (say the enthalpy) may also be required to calculate others (say the density or fugacity coefficient) and redundant calculations can be avoided. PengRobinson. and composition of the mixture.g. The call to a conventional property monitor is shown in Fig. Redlich-Kwong. The properties may be computed for pure components. one property per COMMON and may be accessed directly by the physical property models. equipment sizing models. A monitor is called once with a request to calculate all of the properties of interest at a single set of conditions. pressure. a component index vector indicating which components (of all those involved in the simulation) are present in the mixture. 2. It is also possible to load multiple sets of values into the labeled COMMONS and to call for use of a specific set of data as part of the physical property option specifications. free energy. viscosity. diffusion coefficient. Call to a conventional physical property monitor. mixtures. In summary. and other routines. r TEMPERATURE PRESSURE COMPOSITION CALCULATION CODES PROPERTY UNIT OPERATION MODEL OR SIZING I MAJOR PROPERTIES CONVENTIONAL PROPERTY MONITOR A MAJOR 8 SUBORDINATE PROPERTIES CONVENTIONAL PROPERTY MODELS 4 OPTIONS 4 EOUIPMENT COSTING ROUTINES I ECONOMIC * * + EVALUATION SUBSYSTEM AND PARAMETERS CAPITAL INVESTMENT OPERATING EXPENSE PROFITABILITY Fig. (3) Definition of one or more option sets. The pure compound properties and correlation parameters are loaded into labeled COMMONS. fugacity coefficient. they are : (1) Use of the default option set throughout the flowsheet. . the user selects from among different routes (or methods) for computing each major property. Figure of information for sizing and costing. A collection of standard sets of options will be provided and one of these standard sets will be the default.
easily specify the entire sequence. mainly because of its proven capability. true density. whether done manually or automatically. This approach would not be able to utilize the vast amount of existing software based on the sequential modular approach. 5b). 4. Finally. FLOWSHEET CONVERGENCEAND CONTROL ASPEN uses an advanced sequential modular? approach to flowsheet convergence. A Level 2 user must provide one or more option-set assignment statements . a user must define new option sets . The call on such a monitor is shown in Fig. there are simply convergence blocks. viscosity. ASPEN permits simultaneous convergence of heat and material balances and design specifications. but has not been tested on large problems. while still providing greater flexibility. Call to a nonconventional property monitor. The nonlinear models are used to update the linear models. but to design the system in such a way as to permit extension to a simultaneous modular architecture in the future. the computational sequence is determined. in fact. Loops are then nested by dividing iteration variables into subsets of variables to be converged simultaneously and specifying the order in which they are to be converged. the convergence system sits outside the flowsheet. The method appears promising. Therefore. density. the goal is to adjust certain parameters to drive the difference between required and calculated values of design specification to zero. In ASPEN the convergence of recycle streams and the satisfaction of design specifications are treated the same. In the design problem. but the user can impose as many constraints as desired (such as selecting certain tear streams) and can. A Level 1 user is not required to provide any information about physical properties. The disadvantage is that good initial guesses are required and that the method has not been fully demonstrated on large-scale systems. Level 4 users should be knowledgeable in applied thermodynamics. The simultaneous modular method utilizes simple linear models of unit operation blocks to generate a large system of linear equations. [S]) has been toward newer comput This terminology was suggested by Westerberg et al. is to partition the flowsheet into maximal cyclic subsystems (parts of the flowsheet that are to be converged prior to any computation of down stream subsystems). In ASPEN there is no distinction between convergence and control blocks. but provides a great deal more flexibility than FLOWTRAN. Design specifications are imposed by freeing certain block parameters or feed stream variables and adjusting their value to meet specifications on stream variables or block results. tational strategies such as the simultaneous modular approach and the equation-solving approach. 4. A copy of the values of the tear-stream variables at the last iteration is kept in the retention area of a . the choice is aimed at achieving the best convergence properties of the resulting algorithm. The advantage of the approach is speed of convergence near the solution and ease with which design specifications are included. [S]. In the recycle problem the goal is to adjust the recycle stream variables to drive the difference between assumed and calculated recycle variables to zero. individual unit operation models compute outlet streams and block results. The linear equations are solved simultaneously for the stream variables. In ASPEN the system is capable of complete automatic determination of the computational sequence.CONVENTIONAL PROPERTY MONITOR 323 OR SIZING NON-CONVENTIONAL PROPERTY MODEL i Fig. Next a set of tear streams is selected to break the recycle loop. input preparation is simpler than that of FLOWTRAN. samples current values of the tear-stream variables and determines new assumed values (Fig. Nonconventional physical property monitors are provided to calculate properties of nonconventional components and their mixtures. the decision was made to use the sequential modular approach. and should be thoroughly familiar with the route construction capabilities of ASPEN. ash fusibility. Recycle streams are torn and the tear-stream variables are used as iteration variables. In our initial survey the Advisory Committee overwhelmingly recommended use of the sequential modular approach. Sa). We anticipate that the vast majority of ASPEN users will find the first three levels to be adequate. At Level 3. The first step in structuring the computations for sequential modular solution.ASPEN: an advanced system for process engineering UNIT OPERATION MODEL TEMPERATURE PRESSURE COMPONENT ATTRIBUTE VALUES NON. the user is responsible for all structuring of computations and specifies the computational sequence directly. Instead. the complexity of user input is about the same as that of FLOWTRAN. Nonconventional properties of slurries include enthalpy. An ASPEN convergence block is not a ‘pseudo unit operation’ that breaks a recycle stream (Fig. it allows the user no flexibility. thermal conductivity. While this is the ultimate in simplicity. In the equation-solving approach all the nonlinear equations describing the system are solved simultaneously using a Newton-type method. Some of the nonconventional properties ofcoal and coal-related solids include the enthalpy. and grindability. In this approach. The trend in process simulation research (Westerberg et al. abrasion index. In many process simulators. given inlet streams and block parameters. and abrasion index.
INPUT LANGUAGE The Input Language is oriented towards process engineers familiar with chemical engineering calculations. that sits outside Fig. but without extensive knowledge of computer programming. The default set for a conventional substream will be component flow rates. Accessed. . variables or transformations of them. enthalpy. Therefore. PARAM is a secondary keyword indicating that the sentence contains block parameters. 5(a). A paragraph begins with a primary keyword and may consist of one or more sentences. A convergence block that breaks a recycle and serves as a psuedo unit operation. Each sentence begins with a secondary keyword that indicates the category of data appearing in the sentence. Flowsheet of process for manufacture of cumene. The internal units for calculation are basic SI units. sentences.324 L. An ASPEN convergence block. For example. stream Fig.: convergence block the flowsheet. The userspecified block identifier is Fl and the unit operation model (FLASH-PT2) is a two-phase flash with specified temperature and pressure. B. Variables not contained in the iteration variable set such as temperature and vapor fraction may still be tested for convergence. EVANS al. Process streams usually carry more variables than necessary to completely describe the thermodynamic state of the system and only an independent subset need be used for convergence. but the user may specify optional sets of input and output units which include English engineering. executes the FORTRAN. 5(b). Variables related to sizing and costing can be accessed as well as those for heat and material balancing. and words. TEMP and PRES are tertiary keywords whose values are the temperature and pressure respectively. Numerical procedures do not contain any information specific to the data structure describing the flowsheet. Therefore. \BROYOEy \ -_/ 56 Fig. The ASPEN data structure accommodates scaling for each iteration variable for algorithms that require all variables to be of the same order of magnitude. and replaces modified accessed variables. The value of a tertiary keyword may consist of a single data item or a vector of values. The transformation is carried out in an information processing block which retrieves accessed variables. and pressure. The input can be considered to be made up of paragraphs. The ASPEN user can specify any independent set ot stream variables as the iteration variables. the flowsheet description is independent of the numerical procedures used to carry out the calculations. the flowsheet description is independent of the numerical procedures used to carry out the calculations. 6. The user can access any flowsheet variable using ASPEN Input Language statements and carry out any transformation of these variables by entering program statements in FORTRAN or supplying user written FORTRAN subroutines. et iij 3. metric ? f CONV ‘I. in the statement BLOCK Fl PARAM FLASH-PT2 TEMP = 310 PRESS = 1 [ATM] The word BLOCK is a primary keyword indicating that the paragraph contains block data. Tertiary keywords are used to enter data and their values are the data items. the existence of stream attributes dictates the need for a user to be able to specify iteration variables. may be used as design specifications to be driven to zero by the convergence blocks. All convergence algorithm subroutines have the same argument list. Also.
etc. the simulation program STREAMS s7 SPECS PURITY requires only one call to FLASHJ. PARAM TEMP ~300 PRES= -0. default values are provided for items the user need not supply. Almost every entity in the simulation (blocks. process to manufacture cumene. 8. 8.ASPEN: an advanced system for process engineering engineering. or SI units. The CONY REACTION : I C2 0. The default principle is fully exercised and where ever it is meaningful. Flow of information in ASPEN LANGUAGE. The routine SEQMON is. This program reads data from the problem data BLOCK RI RFRAC file and after performing necessary calculations. These MOLE-FLOW Cl 4O/C2 4O/C3 0 programs are then compiled. The input is completely free format. calculation sequences.INPUT 325 COMPILED PROGRAMS USER LIBRARIES Fig. streams. that override the set. components.9 Report Writer can then reproduce reports from this BLOCK HI HEATER file.' IS A SAMPLE OF THE FEATURES SYSTEM ARCHJTECTURE ASPEN has adopted a ‘preprocessor’ type of strucFLOWSHEET ture in which the input translator generates a main MI IN:SI S7 OUT= S2 calling program which is executed to perform the RI IN--S2 OUT = S3 particular simulation. A physical property initialization subSTREAM SI program. Statements in ASPEN input language for simulation of The reason for this is discussed later. The ‘I’ routines are PARAM MAXIT-actually interface routines which call the actual model. which depends on the property TEMP = 220 [C] PRES-36 models used in the simulation. the traffic director that controls execution of DES-SPEC PURITY each of the models as needed for the simulation. Fig. units may be specified for any individual data item (as in the specification of pressure in atmospheres above) and will override all other specifications. TEAR -STREAMS S7 in effect. writes STOICH REACTION: I Cl I/C2 I/C3 -I it back on the same or a new problem data file. is also written. INPUT TITLE DESCRIPTION 'MANUFACTURE uTHIS OF CUMENE" PROBLEM ASPEN INPUT TO SHOW THE MAIN USER. The flow of information in HI IN=S3 OUT: 54 FI IN:S4 OUT = S5 S6 executing an ASPEN calculation is shown in Fig. This processor-type approach to the system has a . The program INTSIM initializes the BLOCK PI PUMP simulation run and PPLOAD loads in physical proPARAM PRES: 36 perty constants for the run.8 that SEQMON processes during execution of the VARY BLOCK-VAR BLOCK=FI VAR-TEMP simulation program. Note that although there are two CONV Cl EROYDEN flash units in the example. and linked together with STREAM S7 object modules supplied from user program libraries TEMP ~320 PRES-36 MOLE-FLOW Cl 62O/C2 4O/C3 0. 9. The statements should be relatively self explanatory. 7.) are given user specified identifiers for reference elsewhere in the input and output. the keyword may be omitted to allow positional input.2 and ASPEN libraries. The order of input language statements is immaterial. The load module thus created is BLOCK MI MIXER a tailor-made simulation program for the problem at PARAM PRES--0.5 hand. PI IN-S6 OUT: S7 The input translator processes the user input. The set of units may be specified separately for individual process units. Any FORTRAN statements COMPONENTS Cl BENZENE/C2 PROPYLENE/C3 CUMENE supplied by the user are converted into FORTRAN PROPERTIES STDOI subprograms. Although every data item or vector of items has a tertiary keyword.1 A skeleton version of the simulation program for a BLOCK Fl FLASH2 process to simulate a mixer and two flash units is PARAM TEMP: 310 PRES : I [ATM] shown in Fig. PPLOAD. The DEFINE COMP MOLE-FLOW STREAM-S5 COMPONENT:C3 input translator generates the calculation sequence SPEC COMP TO 39. In addition the user may specify individual units. A Aowsheet for manufacture of cumene is shown in Fig. such as temperature. a set specific to the company or installation. 6 and used as an example to illustrate the input language shown in Fig. except that primary keywords (and nothing else) must begin in column 1. Finally. 7. since the statements are sorted into a standard order before processing. enters all data regarding the process into a problem data file HISTORY MSG-LEVELz6 and writes the main calling program containing the RUN-OPTIONS MAX-TIME=30 MAX-ERR: 500 necessary calls to models.
The file orientation makes it easy to modify the process being simulated and save considerable time in reruns and sensitivity runs. 9. The only exception to the storage of data in the plex is for physical property constants and correlation para- . thus simplifying the system coding. etc. The combination of the preprocessor architecture and the plex data structure. it is easy to restart a simulation in case of termination before completion.) GO IO llOl. . They may be compiled along with the main program generated by the Input Translator. Skeleton version ofsimulation program-usedasmain calling program in simulation phase. The Data Regression subsystem process raw data to generate updated physical property data files.lPLEXIL2). and physical property modules in the system. . FLASH1 and MIXI in Fig. ready-to-execute program. one for each property or set of parameters. Table 1 lists the various files created during a simulation. large program would have to include all unit operations.lPLEX(Ll). have resulted in the complete absence of any dimensional constraints on the system. ASPEN utilizes a plex data structure of the type proposed in Evans et al. using an interactive terminal before printing them. During a simulation.. Provision is made to COMYONIPLEX I IPLEX (10001 CALL INTSIM CALL PPLOAD 100 CALL SEOMON (NG~. unit operation model data and stream requirements.N~. However.MIXER. First. debugging and maintenance. since intermediate results are stored.. NGO 101 CALL FLASH1 (NB. maintains and updates data files containing physical property constants. Each bead in the file is located by a directory containing the location of all beads in the file. Thus. therefore. etc. Since ASPEN is implemented in FORTRAN. IPLEX (LI). The Data File Management System creates. the plex handling capability was built using a number of subroutines called the Data Management System.) GO TO 100 102 CALL MIX1 (NE.. Programs can access the contents of a bead by using its bead number and Data Management System subroutines to determine its location in the PLEX array. Beads of any length are created dynamically from a pool of free storage which may be thought of as a lengthy FORTRAN array named PLEX. attribute descriptions. and the ‘read-only’ information required by them must be accessible as efficiently as possible. thus avoiding the use of large. an attempt is made to ‘isolate’ the plex by using the subroutine call facility in FORTRAN. programs and reports. ASPEN is a file-oriented system. The Input Translator is completely table driven. it is possible to examine intermediate results. sizing and costing. It is. This means that all of the information needed to process input statements (such as names of keywords. Use of files to store intermediate results allows the system to be broken up into smaller subsystems.. Hence. a bead in the plex array can be referenced as an object time dimensioned FORTRAN array in a unit operation model. All of these programs are not required in any one simulation. stages in a column. IPLEX ILZI. The user can save any of these files for future reference.. B. intermediate results. object-time dimensioned FORTRAN arrays..MIXER L.L~.) are stored in tables in a file called the System Definition File. 9) is to allow the actual models to reference data in arrays rather than beads within the routines. Beads may contain integer values. Thus. The Problem Data File forms a convenient medium for storing intermediate results and saves considerable time for reruns when only a few process variables are changed. etc. almost any ‘changeable’ information related to Input Translation is stored in the System Definition File. Finally. the data arrays used in the simulation can be dimensioned to their proper length.FLASH. number of advantages as opposed to a single. this is rather cumbersome and inconvenient for unit operation and other lower level routines. In addition to the three load models involved in a process simulation run. The plex isolation principle has allowed us to use the plex with its great flexibility in the executive routines. This approach was used because the physical property models are the most frequently executed parts of the system. That is. physical property option models and data structure.lPLEX(L3). or character strings. by generating a program especially tailored for a specific simulation. large. beads are read from the file into core and may be written out when no longer needed. The approach is made feasible by the fact that only those labeled COMMONS containing properties or parameters required by a given model need be included in its subroutine. there are no maximum number of streams.. this structure allows us to easily incorporate user supplied FORTRAN statements and programs into the simulation phase. we can avoid the use of complex overlay structures and other memory-conserving techniques which will be required in the interpretive approach. The primary purpose of the model interface routines (e.. IPLEX (L31.l GO TO 100 END Fig. meters which are stored in labeled COMMONS.LI. In addition to the Input Language tables. Thirdly.g. Secondly. The Table Building System maintains and updates System Definition Files.lO2) . EVANSet al. the creation of a single. This includes unit conversion tables. unwanted dimensions in the simulation. Beads are identified and stored by bead number. The Problem Data File is also structured as a plex. unit operation model.LZ. easy to add keywords or change defaults by changing entries in the System Definition File..326 EXTERNAL FLASH. Thus it is easy to add a new attribute type. Information is stored in blocks of contiguous locations known as beads. Files are used to store input translator tables. ASPEN has three other supporting subsystems that exist as stand-alone programs. real values. blocks. components.. physical property option. but to write lower-level routines (models) with mnemonically named. without changing any code in the Input Translator. etc. default values of data items. As a result.
ASPEN: an advanced system for process engineering Table 1. The CACHE Corporation (1977). including structured analysis and programming. D. File containing all intermediate messages produced by the system during a run. REFERENCES I. 6. Pauls.. Department of Energy Contract No. A copy of the data structure describing the process. R. 9) 2nd Ann. Progress Rep. This requires that the system be portable. Seider. L. The file has a plex data structure and each table is made up of a link-list of beads. 23(S). C. and a systematic plan for integration and testing of the system. CACE 3: 1-4 . D.g. Task Order No. Simulation-An 3. D. and easy to maintain. A file generated by the Input Translator containing loader or linkage editor control statements. Job Control Language for IBM computers). 4. Westerberg.S.. familiarity with FORTRAN. Winter. W. September. 5. Seider & A. Introduction. 9th Quart. it was essential that ASPEN be delivered on time and within budget. and the availability of trained personnel to maintain programs in FORTRAN in their companies. We believe that these techniques have given the ASPEN project a higher productivity and will result in a more easily maintainable product. File containing physical property constants for components. 10th Quart. W. Space is allocated in the data structure to store the results of the simulation. critical path scheduling. Progress Rep. Cambridge (1979). this executive controls all the steps shown in Fig. L. Therefore. Early in the project a survey was made of the ASPEN advisory committee to get their recommendations concerning the language in which the executive system and the models should be written. This file contains all information about the processes. Rep. System structures for process simulation.000 lines of code. 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN FOR PORTABILITl MAINTAINABILITY AND The ASPEN system is expected to consist of about 150. highly reliable. the decision was made to program the entire system in FORTRAN. Motard & P. 2nd Edn. The FORTRAN programs generated by the Input Translator. AIChE J. When ASPEN is completed it will be installed on many different computers and maintained and modified by many different organizations. Seader. December (1978)(Report MIT-2295T9-11). Process Flowsheeting. P. For a typical simulation. A. Because the funding and schedule for development of ASPEN were fixed by the contract with the Department of Energy. E(49-18b2295. Ibid. Hutchison. 658466 (1977). B. Evans.” . 327 Problem history file Report file Property data files Cost and size data file update this file frequently with the current state of the simulation so that all data is not lost due to an abnormal termination such as a system error. This executive controls the execution of various programs and the creation and selection of files used by the system. B. J. File containing all the reports produced by the system. ASPEN has a small executive program written in the language of the operating system (e. 1978 (Report MIT-2295T9-10). 1978 (Report MIT-2295T9-9). FLOWTRAN 2. Joseph SKW. Project on Computer-Aided Industrial Process Design (U. Ibid. Types of data files in ASPEN Type of file System definition file Input data file Program file Load control file Problem data file Contents File containing Input Translator tables. Cambridge University Press. During EDITRUNs the file is used as the starting point for modifications.. An overwhelming majority preferred the use of FORTRAN as the programming language for both the executive system and the model. Some of the most up-to-date methodologies of software development have been used. The user’s input data. The reason for their preference was availability of FORTRAN as a maintained and widely used language in their company. strict standards of programming and documentation. June. File containing constants for equipment sizing and costing.
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