Ancient Near Eastern Art | Deities | Mesopotamia



On the cover: The stag vessel with a frieze depicting a religious scene is a rare example of Hittitesilverware. It is part of a collection of silver and gold objects from Anatolia generously lent by Norbert Schimmel for the newly installed permanent galleries of ancient Near Eastern art. Inside covers: Reliefs from the Northwest Palace of Assurnasirpal 11 (883-859 B.C.). Above: Lion's-head dress ornament (see fig. 67).

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period, Beginninginthe earlyNeolithic representationsof humanfigures in stone, or bone were made all terracotta, overthe Near East. We cannotoftentell whetherthe figuresrepresentdeities or humans,or if indeed such distinctions were intended.Butbythe latefourthand scemillennia B.C., background earlythird and neryor physicalattributes activities were includedthatcan sometimes help us to distinguish gods frommen. Itis however,to tell an ordinary difficult, citizen-a priest or a worshiper,for example-from a ruler. Inthe course of the thirdmillennium B.C.variousNear Easternstates were engaged in organizedtradeand imperial and conquest, and then, politically ecosecure, theirrulersbegan to nomically have themselves portrayed unambiguously and sometimes withinscriptions. secular, Theywere depictedperforming and military, religiousfunctions,and the formsemployedwere statuaryinthe seals and roundor carvingson cylinder reliefs,usuallyin stone. here are clearly Thefiguresreproduced as rulers,identified such eitherby inscripPossitions or theirregalcharacteristics. blythe earliestis the heavy,almost and solid-casthead (fig. 1), masterfully subtlyexecuted to indicatecalm dignity and inherentpower.The heavy-lidded but eyes, the prominent notoverlarge mouth,and the intrinose, the full-lipped catelycoiffedbeardare all so carefully and skillfully modeledthatthe head may of almostcertainly a wellbe a portrait, then If ruler. this is a portrait, the head is uniqueamong Near Easternartifacts. Some scholars date itto the second millennium othersto the latethird B.C., B.C., millennium which,consideringthe The style, seems more likely. makerand as the date of the piece remainunknown, of does the identity this king,whose muteand nameless, nevrepresentation, ertheless remainsone of the greatworks of ancientart. The seated stone figure(fig.2) represents Gudea (2144-2124 B.C.), the ensi, or governor, the ancientSumerian of state of Lagash,whose name and title A are includedinthe long inscription. number stone statues of Gudea,seated of or standing,were excavatedat Tello in (ancientGirsu), southernMesopotamia, fromTello,surwhileothers, presumably faced on the artmarket; manyfromboth sources are fragmented, lackingheads or bodies. The Museum'sGudea is comcharacteristiplete and depictsthe ruler hat callydressed in a brimmed decorated withhairlike spiralsand a longgarment thatleaves one shoulderbare. His hands

The Assyrianpalaces were embellishedwithstone wall reliefs(see insidecovers) depictingroyal activitiesinwar. was expressed in numeroustexts and in variousformsof art. thrustshis spear and intoa soldier.identified Greekby his as The naturalism the of helmetand attendantholds a flywhiskand a ladlefor the replenishing royalvessel. On the coins each kingis named by an and inscription wears a personalized crown.uninscribed Unfortunately. The Museumalso possesses a stone head. the During firstmillennium Assyrian and PersianAchaemenidkingsruled manynationsand peoples. and detailssuggests thatthe artist carving was eithera Greekworking the Perfor sians or a Persiantrainedin the West. forthe inscription informs thatthe us statuewas placedin a templeto represent Gudea in supplication beforethe gods.Facinghim. On the seal at the lowerleft(fig.W.perhapsreligious.Because of slightvariationsinthe crownand the presence of the striated globe headdress.the Persiankingsdid represent seals vanquishing themselveson cylinder enemies. B. Representations Sasanian rulersappearon coins. holds a 11 Assurnasirpal (883-859 B. 4) an Achaemenid kingholdsa bow. The peaceful. On the illustratedrelieffromNimrud 3). do not knowthe function the piece.natureof the scene is reflectedinthe calm. the king (fig.3 4 are clasped in prayer-appropriately so. 5 8 .M. The Achaemenidkings(550-331 B. Ur-Ningirsu.C.whose controlledfierceness characterizesa posWe turedepictedformillennia.) and employedthe political artisticiconogwarlike raphyof earlierperiods.and domestic and religiousceremonies.the hunt. Theywere which mastersof political propaganda.and in stucco busts. the completestatue (fig.whichusuallyhelps to identify other. which slightlyunder-life-size was hammeredfroma single piece of silver. butit is a of rareexampleof a Sasanian kingportrayedin the round.D.5).) bow-a symbolof his authority-and a ceremonialbowl. portraits.again a symbolof authority.C.Although activitiesdo not appearon theirpalace reliefs. dignified composure of the figures. vessels. to The PersianSasanians (third seventh centuryA. O. and rockreliefs. son of Gudea.69) is exhibited at the Metropolitan the Louvrein and alternating three-yearperiods.)consideredthemselves and heirsto the the spiritual political of Achaemenidkings. whichwas joinedto a body inthe of the Louvre. we can inferthathe was a fourth-century king.C. this is notthe case withthe Museum's head (fig.

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in and Syria.built the II during reignof Nebuchadnezzar (604-562 B. metal.reed. wood.Some of the Mesopotamia most impressiveexamples of molded brickscome fromthe cityof Babylon. The wallsof gateways.whichmarkthe sites of human occupationinthe Near East (see figs.mudbrickand reeds were used to fashionstructures.C. Because stone is rarein southern Mesopotamia. sizable wooden beams are represented betweenthe two stories and in of the framework the building.Claybricks moldedintofigural plantformsfirst and appearas a type of decorationin architecture of the second millennium B. where the onlycommontree was the date palm(see figs. The wallsand doorwaysof most importantroyaland cultbuildings were embellished withdifferent materials.however. The lions (see fig.).The collapse of successive mudbrick wallsgradually to the formation led of mounds.On a clay culttowerprobably made in Syria(see fig. and a long processionalroad. InSyriaand Anatolia. and redglazes.the royalbuildings. 4.and paintedplaster.unbakedand formedan integralpartof all largestructures. 11 . were faced with molded 7 lgSIBW Iwhite. 51). black. 22). 39).Mudbrick.Wood was also generallylackinginthe south. 49. and stone were the chief building materials the ancientNear Eastern of world.C. brickscoveredwithyellow.stone. 44.

The aniaway. were made fromseparate pieces of stone.) the wallsof the palaces at Susa had coloredglazed surfaces. The brightly Achaemenidarchitecture. are fromthe wallsof the processional roadleadingto the BitAkitu. taste formoldedand The Babylonian and glazed bricksspreadto Iran. These blockswere carved deliberation. impostblocksheldthe wooden The ceilingbeams.9 the 9).Some of the hallsat Persepolishad huge stone columnsover mal'sears and horns. 23).and wallsof the royalbuildings stand.On the tops of these columnsand the capitalssurmounting were conRoyaland cultbuildings structedwithconsiderable care and them. sixtyfeet high. greatMesopotamiangoddess of love and war(see fig. symbolsof Ishtar. butthe mudbricksthatformedthe these blocksand combines realisticand wallsof these buildings have longsince decorativeformsinthe typicalstyle of the crumbled Achaemenidroyalworkshops. mostfamiliar 12 to representthe forepartsof various however.Manyof the stone animals: bulls. 27).now lost.The head of a bull(fig.6) inthe still Museum'scollectionis partof one of stairs.andhuman-headed southwesternIran. the sculpturesdecorating entrancegates. in the Achaemenidperiod(550-331 B. groundchosen fortem- .C. or house of the New Year'sFestival (see p. at the site of Persepolis.

D.C. This is trueof many Sumerianfigures(see fig. 35). columns.) providesevidence of westerninfluenceinthe rather realisticstyle and the function the of piece as a waterspout 8). they secure in the building place. 13 . 45) and of a particularly striking example (see a sense. head was originally The glazed. and the architecture soon reflected theirpresence.7) may have served this purpose. however. by the Greekruler of Alexander Macedon brought foreigncraftsmenin considerable numbersto the NearEast.C.and moldingsbegan to trans- formthe appearanceof buildings. an probably Iranian. The person (fig. Greekcapitals.. Stone was used morefrequently buildfor and ings of importance.datingfromas early millennium was the as the mid-third B. loose locks of hair. portrayed.A nude male a figuresupporting box (fig. fromnorthern probably Mesopotamia. long.Foundaoriginally tionfiguresoftenend in a taperednaillikeformso that.One customarypractice. of burial foundation figuresat selected pointsbeneaththe temple.has the moustache. P.and prominent nose of a Near Easterner. toppedwitha snarlinglion. A beardedmale head of Parthian date (first to second centuryA. and the beardstillretainstraces of iron pyrites.was pie buildings clearedbeforeconstructionand the soil speciallyprepared. The conquest of the Near Eastern lands inthe fourth centuryB.

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AnAchaemenidcup made of silveris inthe shape of a horse'shead (fig. the associationof certain vessels withparticular animal-shaped texts.The meaningof this cultscene is but uncertain. 72). and the artof Anatolia associated witha stag god.A spectacuof larexample (see frontcover)comes from Anatolia was made during periand the od of Hittite (fifteenth thirteenth rule to centuryB. millennia Stylizedplantmotifsinclude lotuses. silver millennium Ores producing exist in Iran.A of representation a cultscene on a Hittite cup (see backcover)shows one of these jugs in use at a ceremonywhere a liquid is offering being pouredout beforea god. During second B. ewer made of hammeredgold (fig.C. is divinities describedin Hittite Religiousor cultscenes of the type on foundon the Hittite are unknown cup latervessels of gold or silverthatare preservedfromthe periodof Achaemenid rulein Iran.the decorationof these worksof artis fairly simple.~11 ~ Vessels fashionedfromsilverand gold were made in several areas of the Near East as earlyas the middleof the third B.C. the appearanceof these materialsindicates thatan effectivesystem of trade had developed by this time. Mesopotamia the and including Taurus Caucasus mounand Egyptin the tains inthe northwest southwest.Ingeneral. Bodies are oftenflutedand decoratedwitheggshaped bosses (see fig.and rosettes. millennium spoutedjugs became extremelyelaborateand elegant in form. One vessel type thathad a long history inthe ancientNear East incorporates the head orforepart an animal.12). Neithergold and norsilveris nativeto Mesopotamia. second millennium Goldcame to froma varietyof sources.whocan be seen on the bandenthe circling neck of the vessel (see back cover).C. palmettes.C. The handledcup is inthe of shape of the forepart a recumbent an animalcommonlyrepresentedin stag.)in Mesopotamia(see fig. 2500 B. Slightlylaterin date thanthe objects discoveredat Urare gold vessels found in royaltombs in north-central A Anatolia. silverwas broughtback and fromAnatolia merchantsfromnorthby ern Mesopotamia(Assyria)in the early B.). Some of the most spectacularand earliestobjects in gold come fromthe RoyalCemeteryat Ur(ca.C. 10) had originally a longspout thatprojected the fromthe narrow neck. The bridleand the fileof birdsaroundthe 15 .C.Textsalso recordthe shipmentof gold fromthe Induscoastline in (Meluhha) the east. designs that appearon Near Easternceramicsand in metalwork the second and earlyfirst B. 66).

The panther wears scene (see fig.O.butthe remains 11) datingfromthe end of this perioda wares that providea glimpseof the luxury with were used at the royalcourtand dedicurling grapevinescrollis populated birdsand animalsand framesa small cated by rulers to their gods. 26). horn(fig.and dancingfejects. P. Another Achaemenid vessel (fig. and incharacteristic NearEasternfashionthe tongue protrudesfrombetweenthe teeth.C. The vessel is madeof seven different parts.D. 226-651). invisibly A gildedsilverrhyton 13). 63). period I 13 14 14 16 . The significanceof the Dionysiacmotifsin Iranian is unknown.H.almost joined. names of kingswere inscribed some on examples aroundthe rim(see fig. cultspreadeastwardat the timeof the Ancient textsstate thatgoldsmiths fashinvasionof Alexander Greatinthe the ioned notonlyvessels butalso statues of latefourth centuryB. On latervessels. usuallyin a hunting a grape-and-leaf vine woundaroundits plates decoratedinthis fashion Silver-gilt chest. first century B. grapevines. bythe artof the tions butthe kinghimselfis represented. late Hellenistic West. during period.continueto appear tions forthe clothingof the kingand god. shaped and havinga smallspoutfor dates fromthe Parthian pouring. 72). on the silverware the Sasanian period Onlya smallnumberof these treasured of (A. art Theyare commonon silverware late Sasanian date of that and.14) of ends inthe forepart a lion. objects have survived. Dionysiacimages kingsand divinitiesand manysmall ob-panthers.)and is much influSasanianperiod. such as jewelryand otherdecoramales (see fig. The vine scrolland the nude male figure (an unusual subjectinSasanianart)reflect the influenceof Dionysiacimagery. These motifsare symbols boringrulersorformembersof the king's of the Greekwine god Dionysos. notably those of the (ca.The mouth of the lionis open.male figure. On an oval bowl(see fig. thereare no royal inscripenced.This of combination gold and silverwas of commonlyused on metalwork the Achaemenidperiod.mayhave referredto Iranian courtfestivalsrather thanto specific Dionysiaccultpractices.C. Although royalimages do notappear on the gold and silvervessels thathave survivedfromthe Achaemenidperiod.beardedand partially nude. informand style. and an ivywreathencirclesthe rim were probably intendedas giftsforneighof the vessel.and the fashionconand tinuedon laterworksof Parthian Sasanian date.whose own court. A neck are coveredwithgoldfoil.

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Fortunately culture and generaltimeof theirmanufacture are revealedby stylisticanalysisof both the figuresand the blade shape.butnone are so elaborately decorated.Weaponsare documentedinthe archaeologicalrecordsof the NearEast fromat least the Neolithic period. boots. otherrepresentationsof Sasanian swords depicta different of attachment. armor." Morethan a half-dozenotherexamples of this formof swordand scabbard are known. weapons. an exampleof The Assyrianconcernforverisimilitude.they were in in probablymanufactured one place.and bows forbothclose. illustrate troopson the march. finds Archaeological oftenmatchitemsdepictedon the reliefs. Museum'sfragmentary example (fig.and lateriron. clothing.The double P-shapedmountsare foundon swordsrecovered fromEurope to the Eurasiansteppes.notone is represented in artor has been excavatedby the archaeologists.then bronze..C. approximately eightyexamAlthough ples of ironswords likethe Museum's (fig.). The two beardedmale heads thatprojectfromthe pommeland the crouchinglionson eitherside of the ricassoresembleLuristan styles fromthe late eighthand early seventh centuries B.Heretwo cavalrysoldiersare shown wearingheland mets. whichplayan important indating role and attribution. 15 18 .kingof Assyria(704-681 at B.C.16) are known. his palacewallsat Nineveh were linedwithstone reliefsdepictinghis victories. form we Therefore. O. rockreliefat Taq-i Bustanin Iranprovidesthe only known exampleof a Sasanian kingwearinga similar swordand mounting. Whythese swordswere so made is unknown. cannotbe certainwhetherourswordwas once inthe armory a Sasanian king.Because of the rough long-range terrain-mountainsand a spring-the soldierswalktheirhorses.W. and the willow-leaf blade is paralleled plainswords excaon vatedfromLuristan tombsof the same period.The hiltand the two mountswith P-shapedflanges are decoratedwith and granulations garnetand glass inlays. of or whetheritand its mates were once in the possession of an Avarchief. The iron to blade (notshown) is preservedin a gold scabbarddecoratedwitha stampedor on punchedfeatherpattern the obverse and withfive pairsof spiralwireson the reverse.Theywere made of stone and probably wood.D. The placementof the blade at right angles to the hiltandthe complexmethod of construction makethis class of sword unique.and equestrianparaphernalia.theycarryspears.and on representations. The swordwitha giltbronzeguardand a hollowgold hilt(fig.and combat. settlements.17) is moredifficult to attribute a specificarea. to create a terrifying us charges. are associated withthe nomadicTurkishspeakingAvarsof the sixthand seventh A centuriesA.Manyof the battlescenes are others.a few are also representedin art. butthey also yielddocumentation contemporary of artifacts-in this case. likethe bloodyand dramatic. horses weartassels. The reliefsnotonly inform of historical events.and noise during bells. the but painstakingly numbersuggests thatthey may large have signaledthe special rankof their bearers. These mountsheld leatherstrapsthat allowedthe swordto hang froma beltfor a "quick draw.M. was frequently warwithhis and neighbors. including and Iran.Eachswordwas individually and hand-forged consists of aboutten separate pieces neatlyjoinedto give the that impression the swordwas cast in one piece. fordecoration.Ourknowledgeof weapons and theiruse in warand the huntis based on findsfromcemeteries. 15). Sennacherib. swords. initially and as soon as metallurgy exploited. Identical form. was they were fashionedof copper.

16 17 19 .

wallreliefsdepict B.C. and fears.each inthe formof a deityor a symbolof a deity. the moon god.a protective goddess. were of preoccupiedwiththe world( Iand spiritual mysterious eternally ic demonicforces. necklace The was most probably apotropaic-that is.Although complete. interpretamentingtheirmanifold tions. it protectedthe royalwearerfromharm. AncientNear Eastern artand textualmaterial eloquentlyreveal howover the millennia these people resolved theirneed to relateto and placate the ever-presentspiritsand deities that manifestedthemselves in natureand in dailylife. 19) is a good example of how decorativeand spiritual functionswere oftencombined.Itis composed of doubleand triplestrandsof hollowbeads withseven pendants.and the forkedlightning Adad. Sin. Similar individual elements excavatedat Larsain Mesopotamialead us to assume thatthis necklace was made in the early 19 20 . indicating they that were to be wornby royalty. the sun god. Assyriankingsof the firstmillennium wearingnecklaces likethis one withpendantdivinesymbols.The two hornedfemales in long flounceddresses most probably represent Lama. likethose of othercultures. Theirartisti ssed expre.The peoples of the Near East. The gold necklace (fig.the apparently reconstruction the morethantwo hunof dredpieces is modern. the crescent. the centraldiskwithraysemanatingfroma boss representsShamash. probably the the original positionof each element is not absolutely certain. impulseswere largely and inconceptualizing dociJ- beliefs. The two disks withgranulatedrosettes may be purelydecorative. symbol. Whileno otherelaborateexample exists in completeform.

symbolicand value is impliedby protective spiritually the presence of the deitiesinsuch a prominentand chargedposition.20) withfour raisedfiguresprominently positionedon value in addition its fronthad apotropaic function. cylinder 18) depicts a religiousscene commonly foundon these ubiquitous objects. personaltalismanand sign of piety. who is probably dominant since his crown of hornswhiletheirs has multiple pairs have onlysingle pairs. helmetmaybe attributedto the Elamitesof the fourteenth centuryB. The Neo-Assyrian seal (fig.M. holdtheirhandsopen inrevergoddesses ence beforetheirbreasts. necklaces withapotropaicfeatureshad a long historyin the region. He is flanked goddesses and protected bytwo identical The fromabove by a giantraptor. are with placed againstbackgrounds scales. and the wingedsun disk-are the distributed throughout unobtrusively mixes the scene. Pleiades. Thatourhelmetwas wornby a personof rankis suggested bythe used and the complexpreciousmaterial Its ityof the construction.Inthe centralposition as is a beardedmale deity.appears in attendancebehindAdad.identified a mountain-water bythe scales on a god and conicalbackground the waterflowing fromthe vessel he holds. he no doubtalso carrieditas his O.who stands on a bull.A bull-man.the animalusuallyassociated with one him.C.Because of the of style and deportment the figures depicted. The bronzehelmet(fig.and varioussymbols of other and deities-the standardsof Marduk the the seven dots representing Nabu. They.A is humanworshiper in reverencebefore the stormgod Adad.and the special techniqueof the manufacture.too. second millennium and as Assyrian examples attest.Each to its immediatepractical of the figureswas sculptedfroma bitumen core overlaidwithsilverand gold and then fastened to a bronzeplateriveted to the helmet. 21 ..Whilethe ownerprobably used this device to seal documentsand cargo.C. whichinterestingly formsof the gods and anthropomorphic theirsymbols. of manymixedcreaturespiritsdepictedby ancientNear Easterners.W. whichsuggests thatthey may be mountaindeities associated withthe male god.B.

libations were offered. often lapis lazuli.In addition the ritual to feeding.his gods was not personal diateone of manymodernbelievers.21) was foundat TellAsmarinthe SquareTemple. archaeologiand cal remains.Statues of otherdeities rounding and of important. god mightthen be pleased and disposed to act favorably towardhis subjects.C.worshipers were frequently placed in the temples.usuallyof water.which was builtshortlybeforethe middleof the thirdmillennium Itis probably an B.forthe pupiland shell or alabasterforthe surwhite. oil. probably fromSyria. The gypsumstatue (fig. and whatlittlewe knowcomes largely in texts written variousdialects. These ritesare not clearlyunderstood. often royal. a deity. through visual representations. animal. beer. This imagewas the focus of the cultand was carefully nurtured throughmanyprefor cisely prescribedrituals flowfromone of the two doors cut intothe frontof the towervessel. 22 . deities were conceived Mesopotamian in humanformand were believedto reside in images erected in cultbuildings. Cuneiform texts tell us thatmost of the cultimages-none of whichare entirely preserved-were madeof preciouswoods and were eitherdressed in elaborate garmentsor covered entirelywithgold. most important. whose decisions and actions determined outcome of all events and the mankind's ultimate fate.definedessentiallythroughthe perforAncientman's mance of elaboraterituals.they were "consumed"by it behinddrawncurtains. not imageof a piousworshiper. two Betweenthem is a narrow-necked openwhicha blessed liquid was ing through poured.Such a ceramic vessel (fig. his hypnotically staringeyes may resemble those of his reveredgod. Instead. the king.22).is in the shape of a two-storied towertopped by a humanfigurewearinga conicalcap and restraining felines bytheirtails.inthe hope thatthe ing.clothand washing. functionon earthwas to serve primary the gods. of were brought Offerings foodanddrink to the deityeveryday. Itseems thatthe common manwas excludedfromall butthe majorreligious was They had staringeyes inlaidwithprecious most ritualsparticipation the privilege the responsibility and of of priestsand.itwas distantand formal. or the bloodof a sacrificial These liquids were pouredfroma special vessel onto an altaror intoanothersacred receptacleor object.

in a textiledecoand ratedwitha stepped pattern.C. presentation of The figurine a kneelingbull(fig.Across the top of the towera cylinderof seal impressionshows a variation the scene.C. holds a tall.23). Outsidethe magnificent Ishtar Gate. 9) striding boldlytoward where a mysthe sacred destination musthave teriousand crucialritual takenplace.spoutedvessel in its outstretched We hooves inthe postureof a supplicant.during the spring month of Nisan. Inaddition the dailyrituals to surroundingthe cultimage. H. of knownothingof the religiousrituals millenIran fromthe beginningof the third nium B. 46).the performed pointof the festivaloccurredwhen high the cultstatues of Marduk-the chief Babylonian god-and otherdeities were paradedalongthe ProcessionalWay leadingfromthe templeprecinctto the Akitu house. nium B. the wallsalongthe waywere linedwithcolorful images of glazed-brick lions(see fig.P. 22 23 23 . fromearlythird-millennium is magnifiIran. InBabylon. kingand priests the for rituals eleven days. Contemporary Proto-Elamite seals do show animalsin human cylinder posturethatmaybe engaged in some kindof ritual activity. Itis clothedas a human. the which.the Mesopotamian calendarwas fullof special days on which rites particular had to be observed by the priestsand the king. centlysculptedin silver(see p.The most important of these was the New Year'sFestival.aftermanychanges through was celebratedinthe firstmillenages.

procreation.Some of the most elaboraterepresentations of females inthe artof the ancient Near East are images of divineand cult figureswhose association withcertain aspects of lifemade them essential to the welfareof mankind.stone.27) with 25 24 .The exaggeratedwidthof the pelvis may be intendedto emphasize the roleof women as childbearers. One of the most important Mesopotaa miangoddesses was Ishtar. and metal arethe simplestand mostobviousexpression of these concepts.She is frequently represented on cylinderseals (fig. divinity who combinedin her natureaspects of bothlove andwar.A striking in clay fromnorthwestern (fig. and such figures in antiquity many appearedthroughout example regions and periods.and such natural phenomenaas thunderstormsand rainwere among the basic withfemale divinities concepts identified by ancientpeoples.25) is Iran served as a cult hollowand probably vessel as well as a sacred image. the growthof crops and livestock.Fertility. Representationsof nude females in clay.

the enthronedfigurerests on a Although flatpodiumor base. to perhapsfroma necklace similar the examplefromMesopotamiainthe Museum'scollection(see fig.once suspended. thus underscoring roleas a mother her of regoddess. The identity this divinity mains uncertain. A smallgold pendant(fig. The Hittite figureholds a childon her lap. smallfiguresof another benevolentgoddess. holdinga distinctive Herright foot rests on a lion.D.a complexdivinity ship was particularly widespreadinthe ancientworld.2/ weapons risingfromher shouldersor lion-headedweapon. Ishtar a goddess to whom is and rulersturnedforaid.birds. On thatnecklace.and we can onlysuppose that they were associated withsome court festivalof the Iranian year. protection.H. the wide.O.26). The appearanceof these images was influencedby Romanrepresentations of maenads. P. No texts remainfrom this periodto explainthe appearanceor of function these females in the Sasanian world. victoryin battle.aniing grape-and-leaf mals.are included amongthe pendants. 19). a ceremonialor cultvessel of a type datableto the sixthor earlyseventh centuryA. Lama. disklike but headdress may representthe sun and the figure therefore maybe a sun goddess.24) represents a goddess worshipedin Anatolia. a loop attachedto the backof the headdress indicatesthat this was a pendant.On the Sasanian vessels the females are alwaysin a dancingpose and holda select groupof objects. Dancingfemale figuresdecorate a Sasanian silver-gilt ewer (fig.her animal attribute. 26 25 . female worshipersassociated withthe cultof the Greekwine god whose worDionysos. includbranches. and vessels.

these supernatural creatureswere alwaysmade up formscombined of naturally occurring manner. amongthemwere the bull-man. One of these divinities winged.C. human-headedbull.alless thoughmonstrous. frightening formwas leftsolely to a believer'simagiof nation.Wingswere in an unnatural a often used to transform realcreature intoa fabulousone.C.The specific identity most of these creaturesis not knownbecause there is so littlecoincidence of textual descriptionand visual representation.By the thirdmillenniumB. Butoftentheirfunctionis suggested by theirappearanceor fromthe contextin whichthey are depicted.beneficentand malevolent. Until last halfof the thirdmillenthe niumB. Monstrous images were often borrowedfromothercultures. Imdugud. few of these spiritshad been a representedintangibleformsthat. beand cause he is often associated withgrowing vegetationor. On the illustrated seal (fig.he is apfromfrontand behindby minor proached deitieswithscorpionsor snakes forhands and feet. onlya few such mixedcrea26 tureswere represented.The domainof the snake god was the underworld.)a richvarietyof these fabulouscreatureswere placedintothe artistic repertory.eitherwithor The without theiroriginal identity.C.who had to be constantly appeased or repelled. Whenrepresentedin art. image of the sphinx-a creaturewitha lion's .were probably when their than previously.perhaps of Iranian inspiration. whose formis human above and reptilian below. the and the lion-headedeagle.28 29 Forancientman the worldwas full of supernatural here. But the during Akkadian dynasty(2334-2154 B. he is thoughtto be a fertility deity. withscorpions and felines and the gatepost of Inanna (the Sumeriangoddess of love and war). as was the mixingof humanand animalfeatures (see fig.30) is carved the snake god. 64). is whilethe otherhas felines emergingwinglikefromits back.

and bird's turealso served as a symbolof the Iranian Shimashkidynastyof the late third millennium B. and wings. they are combut binedina completely manner. frewith quentlyinconjunction the king.The plaque was most probably sewn on a soft cloth or leatherbackingthatserved as partof the resplendent of panoply an Achaemenid courtier.28) is decoratedwith elements of the livelyiconography of heroes and demons that superhuman was developedduring Middle the Bronze Asia. of its Although meaningis not understood. Fromthe OldAssyrian comes palace at the site of Acemhoyuk an ivoryfigurine a female sphinxwearof curls(fig.C. Allof its ing Hathor elements are Egyptian.Itis shownsometimesenthroned withnatural and sometimes struggling or fantasticcreatures. the hornedand wingedlionoccurs in AchaemenidPersianiconography. The heroic Age inwesternCentral demon.P.bodyand a humanhead-was borrowed fromEgyptand adaptedby the cultures of westernAsia.Itsopponenton the axe is a dragonlike creaturedistinguished by a single horn. un-Egyptian This ivorysupportis one of a groupof fourthatmost probably served as decorationfora throne.On a gold plaqueof this period(fig. a ridgedruff. composed of a humanbodywith birds' heads. 27 . is a creaturemost probably borrowed fromeastern Iran. Anexpertlycast silveraxe withgoldfoilgilding(fig. a feline's talons. of Representations fabulouscreatures served notonlyas images of numinous spirits. This same creabody. talons.29).each rearingwithits head turnedback.a curledbeard. H.butalso as heraldicsymbolsfor the propaganda the secular state. staggeredwings.31) are two wingedand hornedlions.


non-Semitic people who. from the second halfof the third millennium B.a kingof Urkish. or as of attributes one of the manyNear Eastern deities.caprids.the lionwas clearly associated withpower. non-Indolanguage European. and bovids. when urban ing inthe lowlands.images of wild animalspredominate: lions. the a of the Hurrians.34 32 Eveninthe densely populatedcities of the ancientNearEast naturewas never farfrommen'sdailylives.where images of animalswere used fromthe earliesttimes. goats. millennium As earlyas the latefourth societies werefirstformB.bothsecularand divine. Alongwithdomesticated sheep. The platebeneaththe (fig.impossiblein nature. Itis reportedly froman Early BronzeAge royalburial the site of at These bulls HoroztepeincentralAnatolia.. Theywere representedas natural as symbolsof abstractconcepts.Herethe hornsare morethanone and one-halftimes the lengthof the animal'sbody..The identification these earlybulls of as sacred or divineis based onlyon an bullsthatwere associanalogywithHittite ated withthe weathergod Teshuba 29 . are examples of how important animal featuresare oftenemphasized in ancient Near Easternart. withthe lion'sextended paws is inscribed in name of Tishatal. forms.C. mountain sheep. and wildbullsare especiallyimportant.Stylistic peg-frightsuggest thatthisfoundation ening enough to scare offevildoers-was artistor by made eitherby an Akkadian one within Akkadian the sphere of influence.32) perhapsfora ceremonialstandardor chariotpole. were presentinthe northern partsof and features Mesopotamia Syria.C. This is reflectedinthe art.butan effectivestylisticconvention. (fig.The forepart a lionemerges of froma bronzepeg-shaped foundation figurine 35). The yokedpairof long-horned bulls served as a decorativefinial.

30 .

Thethree-dimensional. of the Neo-Assyrian II.his hindquarters are stronglytwistedto receivethe full weightof his body. H. kingAssurnasirpal such hunting scenes were depictedon the carvedstone reliefsinthe palaces.C. 36 31 .identical to several foundat MohenjoDaro(an urbansite of the thirdmillennium B. The heads at a rightangle to the bodies are a featureshared by several similar Dashtand Marlik.possiblyroyal. an On ivorypanel (fig.33) fromnorthwestern Iran. millennium Near Easternartistsmust have carethe fullyobserved animalsin nature.later. inthe valleyof the IndusRiver).P. Fromthe earliesttimes in Mesopotamiahunting wildbeasts was a religious the that responsibility demonstrated prowFromthe time ess and potencyof a ruler. cups foundat Kalar second-millennium B. or mouflon. sculptural qualityof these animalscontrastswiththe two-dimensional bodintricately patterned. capturetheiressence either renderings or throughnaturalistic stylizedconventions.shows the animalresting. aroundthe ies of the gazelles striding side of a lovelygold cup (fig.The physicalpower of this creatureis emphasized bythe closed outlinethatincorporates his sweeping hornsintothe massive volume of his chest. A fine sculptureof a wildmountain sheep (fig.C. sites of royal burialssouth of the seen aboutto thrusta spear intothe breastof a chargingwildbullchased by a royalchariot.34). excerptsfromthese compositionswere copied in minorartsbothin Assyriaand inthe lands underits domination.36).a male figure.

probably forestlandsto the north east of Akkad.P. Frequently. scene in whicha 37) shows a hunting manseizes a hornedanimal.The sacred tree was a symbolof vegetallifeandfertility-a to significancethatwe attribute most plantmotifsand designs inthe artof the ancientNearEast. times on the ninth-century reliefsof B. nonrealistic designs.and chains of leaves and buds. or The ivory carvingsfromthe NeoAssyrianpalaces at Nimrud incorporate manyplantformsas decorativeelements inthe designs. the Favorite designs includedsprigpatterns. On one example executed in Syrianstyle (fig.A schematicrepresentationof rowsof date palmsappears in three registerson a finelycarvedchlorite vase (fig. 38 32 39 .AnAkkadian seal (fig. The reed. and river areas of southernMesopotamia and nearbyIranwas a majorsource of for and food. leaves and composed of ornamental waterlike was repeatedmany tendrils.C.38) a goat is naturalistically portrayed rearingup on its hindlegs and nibbling the leaves of a at tendrils. the Northwest Palace at Nimrud (see insidefrontcover).on a variety of objectsthroughout millennia.C.C.A.rows of trees. whichalso depictother plantsand palmtrees in decorative. stylizedflowers. Inthe Akkadian period (2334-2154 B. of frondsformats.39) of the firsthalfof the third millennium The date palmof the oases B.Inthe ancientNear East plantmotifs were incorporated designs on the into decoratedpottery the prehistoric of richly periods. decorativeplant.Thisimaginary.Firtrees and moundswithimbricated patternsindicate thatthe setting is a mountainous the region. highly stylizedshrubof intertwined The sacred tree was alwaysa popular motif. ina stylizedfashion. of timber lightconstruction. attending divinities shown administering are some substance witha date palm purifying spathe and a bucket. B.C.) trees and plants were morerealistically combinedwith natural featuresto give the impressionof actuallandscape. represented is the during Uruk period(3500-3100 B.) on cylinder seals. nativeto the marshes of southernMesopotamia.Theycontinuedto be represented.

^~. y .~ ?^^~6 htAfm '-^ ^ <**. '^w :Ilg*'^~k.Ct' ds%a~ 1^a~a It".

j// .I'l' %~~~~~~~~~ I? I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ / . 1~~ ~~ ?5i~~~~~~~~~~/ 7/ ~2 4~ ~~~~ ~~. .rd/ /'/ -j ri~~~~~~~~~~4 7~~~~iii L1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ i.tVI< ! ~ ~~ '~~~~~~~~~ : '' .

Recentlyit has been suggested thatthey date to the firstto thirdcenturyA.) into Scythiannomads had infiltrated the rich. and a bull-all enclosed bya framewithbosses.C. partof a groupof ornaments that has been attributed a fifthto in centuryB.40 41 43 The Scythianswere one of the nomadic tribesthatroamedthe steppes northof and Iran.P.43) has an intricate openwork design witha horse and smallerfiguresof a foal. Manybeltclasps of this same type and style have been foundin ancientColchis.treasurefoundat Maikop the KubanRiverregionnorthof the Black Sea. Anatoliainthe firstmillennium They are knownto us B.the of earliestrecordsbeing those of the Assyriansand Urartians. drinking of Typical Scythianartis the so-called animalstyle.C. nowwesternGeorgiainthe Soviet Union. panthers.settled lands south of the Caspian. B.40) probably made in the regionof present-dayRumania or Similar beakershavebeen found Bulgaria. A bronzebeltclasp (fig.Thracian workmanship. a silverbeaker(fig. The Scythiananimalstyle influenced the artof othernomadictribes.nomadicanimalstyle. fromthe writings theirneighbors.portable. and birdsof prey. the GreekhistoHerodotus.41).The Museum'scup depicts several animals. as illustrated griffin-shaped appliques by (fig.Aneightin legged stag has antlersterminating birds' heads.This is reflectedin a rareexampleof fourthcentury B. and combs. a dog. vessels. the timeof the By AssyriankingEsarhaddon (681-668 B.The animalsare rendered in a decorative.Mesopotamia. tuous royalburialsof Scythianchieftains. fifth-century rian.C. in a princely tombat Agighiol.and highlydecorative objects preservedmanyof the featuresof the earlier.These small.stylizedfashion.who wroteaboutthem in Book IV of his monumental tells of sumphistory.D. whichform partof the decorative borderaroundthe rim.A.42) of carved bone coveredwithgold is probably deca orative elementforthe strapsof a harness.C. The Scythianswere great horsemen and theirpassion foradornment extendedto the harnesses wornby their horses.nearthe Danubedelta in eastern Rumania. whichhave been confirmed the by discoveriesof burial moundsin southern Russia.boars. some realand some fantastic. The tombs covered by the moundswere filledwithweapons and horse equipmentas wellas intricately and lavishlycraftedpieces of jewelry. whichchieflyrepresented such creaturesas stags. 35 . The boarclasp (fig.

the Metropolitan Museumhas been a sponsor of archaeologicalexcavationsinthe Near East. increaseddramatiactivity archaeological cally. WarIIthe MuseumsupBeforeWorld portedexcavationsat Qasr-iAbuNasr in and Nishapur Iran.One of the metalobjectsacquired is a bronzestand (fig. coins. The site consists of a large townand fortressand dates fromthe late Sasanian and earlyIslamicperiodsfrom A.46) thatprobably helda lampor candle. and metal.and staff membersof itscuratorial haveserved of or as directors codirectors several excavations. in Iraq.butits supporthas not alwaysbeen contingent on receivingobjects in return. the Museumitselfsponsoredthree seasons of excavationsat Qasr-iAbuNasr. pottery.Beginninginthe early1930s and continuingto the present.and a of largenumber objectscame to the Museumas its share of the finds.and one inTurkey.As a resultof its support.and at Ctesiphonin the during 1950s its concernwith Iraq. stone.These includeseals and sealings.Inthe past threedecades excavations and researchhave been conducted at withotherinstitutions fourteensites in two five Iran. each in Syriaand The Jordan.D. when itjoinedforces withthe GermanState Museumsat the site of Andfrom1932 to 1934 Ctesiphonin Iraq.a few miles southeast of Shirazin southwesternIran. and objectsof glass. bone. the Museumhas acquiredmuchmaterial frommanyculturesand periods. the sixthto the eighthcentury Remains of earlierAchaemenidarchitecture and from carvingsthathad been transported nearbyPersepoliswere also recovered. Qasr-iAbuNasris 44 36 . The Achaemenidmaterial subsewas quentlyrestoredto Persepolis. Museum has helpedto financethese projects. MuseumfirstparticiThe Metropolitan patedin excavatinginthe NearEast in 1931-32.

112-2004 B. Schools of Oriental American MuseumactivelyparticiThe Metropolitan patedinthe campaignsof 1957-58 and 1960-61.whichdates from the Third Dynastyof Ur(2.C. in 1948 and continuing to mencingagain 1961. was in Nippur southernMesopotamia cenfirstexploredinthe mid-nineteenth turyand firstexcavated. Research.bythe University from1889 to 1900.Urnammu.a significant because itdates to the site fromthe Sasanian to the Istransition lamicperiod. and the archaeopowerful remainsdocumentthatreputation.One of the Shulgistatuettes(fig.). logical A largetempleprecinct called the Ekur witha templeof the god Enlil witha ziga that gurat. Seven brick foundation boxes of the kingShulgiwere discoveredbeneath the templeof Inanna. Comof Pennsylvania. was Ancient texts indicatethatNippur thana centerrather a majorreligious secularstate. and scribalquarters the mainarchitectural cultural and featuresat the site. the Assyrian in site of Nimrud northern Mesopotamia has concernedarchaeologistssince 46 48 37 . Museum's A massive area withfortification walls five miles longsurrounding area of an some nine hundred acres.45) is inthe collection. were discoveredbeneaththe Ekur foundations.they are amongthe most notable artifacts foundthere. and three boxes of his father. templeof the goddess Inanna was rebuilt manytimes overthe millennia are (fig. a representedcarrying basketof mortar forthe ritual of building the temple. seven campaignswere sponsored Institute the University of bythe Oriental of of Chicagoandthe University Pennsylthe latterreplacedin 1953 bythe vania.44).and the extensivearchitecus tureand objectsfurnish withevidence this of the culture during periodof change. Each box containeda bronzepeg statuetteof the king.

inthe southwestcorner.Mallowan. are particularly interesting because fromthe palaces. and George Smithin 1873 and 1876. The campaigns Museumsupportedeleven Metropolitan of these campaigns.each yieldingquantities artifacts.depictingbattle. when AustenHenryLayard excavatedthere.and wells were recoveredthe most extraordiivories: naryfindsat the site.ritual. executed inthe styles of the cultures. L. He was followedby William KennettLoftusin 1854-55. The Citadel. genre scenes.from1951 to 1963its longestand most fruitful involvement in archaeologicalresearchinthe NearEast. Nimrud manypreservedpalaces has and temples builtby variousAssyrian of kings.4950 50 1845-54. inthe southeast. the Nimrud thousandsof carvingsin reliefand inthe and round.and the military area called Assyrianand neighboring 38 . fort. conductedthirteen who between 1949 and 1963. and of three-quarters a centurylaterby Max E.

the Metropolitan. Nush-iJan is significant its unique for and well-preserved Medianremains.W.datingfromthe lateeighth century to about 600 B..two of whichare illustrated p.47). IronI. or The continuity cultureof the two periof ods is indicated architectural features by andmonochrome commonto both. O. The other. Ina passageway a hoardof 200 silverobjects and -earrings. had four parallel magazines.Whythis "burial" occurredis a mystery. Syrianstyle.Sometimebeforethe aban- .M.the earliestof which is Median. of Hasanluand notfoundelsewhere.52)-was discoveredin a bronzebowl. levels.The OldWesternBuilding. 37.49) in northwestern Iran was excavatedin 1936 by AurelStein. Because the artifacts recoveredfrom PeriodIVwere in use at the timeof the destruction. Amongthese are bronzelionsjoinedto ironshanks ( has a freestandingfirealtar. archaeologistshave a significant preciselydatedcorpusof and material. forty-two miles south of HamadaninwesternIran.Godin Tepe. the Museumand the British Metropolitan Institute PersianStudiesjointly of excavatedthe site of Nush-iJan. with Pennsylvania.C. The Achaemenidand Parthian best preservedis the Median. bronze.C. and 1974. whichare associated withvictimsat the largestbuilding II. PeriodV.or Iron Age II.and ivory were foundinthe monumental PeriodIV whichare characterized a buildings. Threeperiodsof occupationwere is the head of a womanwithnecklace and braidedhair (fig.also has an altarand mayhave been a temple. silver.dates frombetweenthe fourteenth andthe twelfth eleventhcenturyB. The mostextensivelypreservedlevel is PeriodIV.the site outcropthirty-seven dominatesthe surrounding dramatically plain(fig.particular Syrianand Phoenician.C. Hasanlu(fig.1970. quadruple double spirals(fig. One is masterfully on sculptedin Phoenicianstyle and depicts a Nubian an bringing oryxand a monkey as giftsto the Assyrianking(fig.the capitalcityat Hamadan remains unexcavated.This building was not buriedbutallowedto decay beforethe finalabandonment.The precedinglevel. uncovered. Lozenge-shaped.benches.BurnedBuilding The lion pinswere worntwo or threeto a garment. each hallare hearths. Built the summitof a natural on shale metershigh. The adjacentFort identified such by its butas Building.. was settled inthe It sixthmillennium and was occupied B.48). TheMuseum acquired has manydiverse some of whichare characteristic artifacts.datingfromthe twelfth eleventhcenturyB.C.C.suggestingthatthe was building a templeforfire-worshiping ceremonies. The fourth is and building rectangular has a columnedhallof the same basic planas the hall contemporary at nearbyGodinTepe and those at the earliersite of Hasanlu. one of the earliest. tressed wallsand arrowslots. Eachshows the skilland precision of ancientartistswithdifferent backgrounds. when the site was violently destroyed. the templewas filledwithstones and mud.containing fourlargemud-brick buildings. pottery made of terraThousandsof artifacts cotta. bars. from1956 to 1974 bythe University of and from1959 on.51). Whetherpalaces or temples. Atpresentonlyone otherprobable Mediansite has been excavated. The Central Templeat Nush-iJan is in architecturally unparalleled the Near East.Forits the support Museumreceivedaboutone hundred fortyivories. the through Bronzeand Iron Age periods. and a raisedthrone area.followed by donmentof the site.50). painstakingly the to allowing building be preservedto a heightof eight meters. by columnedcentralhallsurrounded by storageroomsand an entrancethrough Within a grandportico.suggesting thatit also served to store goods.1973.iron.the buildings clearlyhad a majorstate close to or 800 B.

mountainous Mesoregionin westernIran.Inthe late1920s.Aside froma few archaeologicalcampaigns. largequantities bronze of artifacts began to circulateinthe art and market. or whatconstitutedthe econIt omy thatsupportedtheirmanufacture. is also difficult identify fullrangeof the to cultural artifacts to establishtheir and 56 40 . the great majorbronzes derivefromclanityof Luristan destinedigging.fromSurkh Dum.bordering potamiaand Elam. by 1930 theirsource was a recognizedas Luristan. Metropolitan The Museum has in its collectionforty-one objects. especially those of ErichSchmidtat SurkhDumin 1938 and LouisVandenBergheat many sites from1965 to 1979. We do not knowthe ancientname and or languageof is impossible to estimatethe numberin existence. but there mustbe thousands. of twenty-four them bronzes. whythe bronzes were made.Because so manybronzes have been dispersed so widely.

goats. but clearly they represent mythological or cultic events of some importance. and because it came from a sanctuary. At the top are horned and winged humanoids holding a lion at bay. the typical Luristanbronzes did not appear untilthe early first millennium B.chronology. And although ancient cultures existed in the region from as early as the thirdmillennium B. was excavated at Surkh Dum along with other examples. A small number of other Luristanquiver plaques exist. mouflons. to serve for future ridingor symbolically to represent the horse itself. Rampant winged bulls flanking a tree and a procession of antelope frame three narrative panels. The openwork pin (fig. The quiver plaque (fig.. This pin depicts a squatting female who holds at bay two horned animals. a number of which survive. 53) a detached male head is held by two heraldic felines. others stuck in cracks or joints. lions.C. Mounted on bottle-shaped supports. and quivers. 55) was once attached to a leather backing and is decorated with seven uneven horizontal panels in repousse with superbly rendered mythological scenes. whetstone handles. We cannot interpret these scenes. 54). The cheekpieces are in the shape of horses. horse cheekpieces. Because of the large number known. the pin may have been dedicated by a woman seeking a healthy delivery. some enclosed within walls. Horse bits with figured cheekpieces (fig. bracelets.M 41 . representing one of a variety of forms for its class. represented only by their heads and necks that curve into a frame. followed by rampant lions flanking a small figure who holds lions and a central figure seemingly threatened by two bulbousnosed creatures. If they were in fact buried in graves. serving as icons or representations of the many spirits and deities who required to be placated and worshiped constantly. they occur in a great variety of forms. or fantastic creatures. Finials were also presumably taken by their owners to their graves. O W.C. Nevertheless. we may assume that finials existed in most Luristanhouseholds. weapons. then it was probably the custom for an individual to carry his personal bit with him to the next world. often depicting heraldic animals or a central figure between two animals.They reached full production in the eighth and seventh centuries B c and mysteriously terminated a century before the advent of the Persian empire. Each of the four objects shown here is a typical Luristanbronze. but none is so richlyembellished as the present example. The female may be in a birthingposition. we are able to recognize as classic Luristantypes the stylized standards and finials. hammered and cast pins. On the Museum's example (fig. 56) and iconic finials are ubiquitous and represent the most characteristic forms of the Luristancorpus.

From that point on. The great potential of fired clay was first understood in the seventh millennium B. The zigzag-and-band decoration separating the goats is typical of Sialk pottery of this early period. yellow.Artisans first painted geometric designs in dark brown or black on buffclay vessels.~~~1 ' r _iiiiii L _illflffBflffIPqlHfs58 59 42 .the technology was developed for both the glazing of pottery and the manufacturing of glass vessels. 58) is similar in shape. a completely different but equally successful variety of pottery (fig. brown. painted decoration on pottery flourished.C site of Ziwiye in northwestern Iran. Its gray-colored surface-the result of firing in a reducing rather than oxidizing kiln-is textured with six registers of crisscross patterns made by burnishing the surface to a high polish. whose enormous ridged horns arch majestically over their bodies. fabric. A large storage jar (fig.C. and black and decorated with petals above bulls kneeling before trees is one of three in the Museum's collection reportedly from the early first-millennium B. Gradually they included more and more animal figures in their decorative schemes. pottery was the most common type of object to come from the ancient ruins of Near Eastern civilizations.P. 59) glazed with green. particularlyin Iran. 4 I~~~~~ s~~~~~~~ -~~~ I 1i . and painted decoration to ones found at the central Iraniansite of Tepe Sialk in levels III6-7. It is similar in shape and decoration to examples excavated at the Assyrian city of Assur on the Tigris. Ithas on its side schematic silhouettes of three mountain goats. blue. More than a thousand years later.57 Clay. was developed and exploited throughout Near Eastern history.C.C.. In the Chalcolithic period of the fourth millennium B. white. which were made on a slow wheel. 57) was produced. Duringthe second millennium B. A large jar (fig. so abundant and useful a resource. from the site of Tureng Tepe in the Iranian Gurgan Plain just to the east of the Caspian Sea. H.

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when struck. when morefluidand.and liquid lettingitcool and harden. and hornedand striding animalswere hammeredup fromthe vessel's surfaceinthe repousse technique.Vessels.forexample. the Caucasus betweenthe Blackand Caspianseas. they combineto forma metallic that alloy.C. Goldis a soft metal. westernIranian trapezoidal plaqueof the firstmillennium (fig. B. pouring intoa mold.the basic properties some nonferrous metals-especially copper. including Taurus the easternTurkey.62) fromLuristan. Bythis of time. ores. Atseventh-millennium metallic sites such as Cayonu.Artisanshad learnedas well -probably bytrialand error-that when some metals are mixedintheirliquid state. Hammering used to make orto finishall kindsof objects. the burgeoning urban centers inthe lowlandsbegan to demandmetals elite and for to makeobjectsforthe ruling the growing templecomplexes.Itwas known.a new material is often. The tirelyby hammering.joinedin the middleby bronze rivets.trees.Metalswere also shaped by alternately hammering and heatingthem in a process nowcalled annealing. were richin B.Six registersof birds.The bodies were then elaborately decoratedwithchased lines createdby a dulltoolthat.thatthe shape of metalcouldbe alteredby heatingitto a it state.C.. than its components. shape was formed raising sinking bronze-a or the by hammerblows.TellRamad. malleThe properties meltability.pushed the metalto eitherside. of and are ability. millenToward end of the fourth the nium B.and lead-were understood. miscibility the basis of two of the most important techniquesof ancient metalworking-hammeringand was casting. silver. such as the elaborately decoratedone were made en(fig. harder liquid.Inantiquity manymountain the rangesof the of the NearEast.easily workedby A hammering. Zagrosof western and Iran. copper-and-tin alloy-by This particular vessel was made intwo parts. 64) was made inthe same way as 60 6 62 44 .C.and AliKoshthe earlieststages of metalworkingtechnologyare documented.

J. / / ./ Aw2.

a shiny black. of copper alloyed with arsenic. a product of the last part of the Sasanian to period(fifth earlysixthcenturyA. his horse. all the decoration is gilded with an amalgam of gold and mercury. By the fourth millennium B. Boththe gazelle and the contempo- the earliest examples of the more complex technique of lost-wax casting around a central ceramic core. millennium ibex stand (fig. 63).C. The mold has a negative space. each piece was then fitted into the other and finallyjoined by silver solder. which is identified here on the basis of stylistic and iconographic traits as the creation of a ProtoElamite master of the third millennium B.tails. lost-wax. 61).). A most impressive example of the hammering technique is the lovely silver figurine of an antelope (fig. and the rams was made from separate cast or hammered pieces that were crimped into place. The low-relief decoration was formed by carving away the background close to the figures. corresponding to the burnt-wax image. Inthe ingenious lost-wax process the desired image is sculpted in wax. combines the metalworking techniques described above with others.C.the decorated bronze vessel: by hammering. is among horns. 64 46 . and chasing.P. The thirdB. repousse. into which is poured molten metal that hardens into the shape of the original wax model. The plate itself was hammered into its final shape from a cast ingot. H. 23) were made from separate pieces of silver hammered into shape.. The linear details were either chased into the silver or engraved-a process of cutting instead of pushing away strips of metal. Except for the king's face and hands. while the higher relief of the bodies of the king.60). as well as open. which is then surrounded with a clay investment that hardens into a mold when baked.C. hard compound of silver and sulphur. A ring base was attached with solder to the bottom of the plate. A handsome silver plate (fig. and hooves.D.and bivalve-mold casting had been developed. Niello. and the rams' rary kneeling silver bull (see fig. accents the king's quiver and bow.

.u ~1 ' .:': -A%i L-.i IlIiaD I .I rl tt. i.

48 .

and lotusterminals.65 Pieces of jewelryare mentionedin ancient Near Easterntexts as royalgifts. Similar of gold-medallions.67) have five themto ringson the back. one can see the richarrayof jewelry worn-necklaces. millennium is augmentedbydetailed on representations the stone reliefsfrom the Neo-Assyrian palaces.The largenumberof objects made of preciousmaterials attestsnotonlyto greatwealthand sophisbut ticatedtechnicalability. and beads-found in recentexcavationsat Larsain southernMesopotamia suggest thatthe Museum'spiece maydate from the nineteenthor eighteenthcenturyB.. humanheads in profile. of vast quantities whichthey wore about theirperson. The gold necklace (fig. made of gold pendantsinthe formof poplarleaves and carnelianand lapis-lazuli beads. Goldappliqueswere in also popular AchaemenidPersia. Ourknowledgeof jewelryof the first B. and dowries." B. also to a tradenetwork: materials the far-reaching into had to be imported southernMesopotamia(see p.allowing be attachedto clothgarmentsor tent hangings.. partsof bridal They are also recordedin the inventories there of templesandworkshops.allof whichare now in the Museum'scollection.and two silverhairrings. crescents. a including head of Bes-an Egyptian god-plaques of a male figurewitha Similar horse. headdress ornament(fig.65) is made up of elements fromthe Achaemenidperiod. The granulation particularly jewelryelements finelyexecuted. 15). A rareexample of second-millennium is B.tribute.C."Herodotus also tells us that at Persiantentscaptured PlateainGreece with were"adorned goldandsilver. II the kingAssurnasirpal and an attendant.where morethanone hundredthirty images of Bes. "Ofallthe troopsthe Persians were adornedwiththe greatestmagnifiall cence.only a few have been preserved. jewelryelements were excavatedat Pasargadae. inthe relief(see fig.C. 19) illustrated is page 20. belongedto one of the lavishlyadorned Tomb.. 3) fromthe Northwhichshows west Palace at Nimrud. Although musthave been manysuch precious objects.C millennium found fromthe mid-third Woolleyin his excavaby SirLeonard The tions at UrinsouthernMesopotamia.and crescent-shapedearringswithpendants. they glittered overwithgold. Ns 67 66 I 49 . The sumptuousobjectswornbythe Persiansare confirmed Herodotus by 83): (VII.66).C.The lion-headbracteates(fig. Plaques sewn on garments-also called bracteates-were commonin the fifth-century Scythiangravesof southern Russia (see fig. hairribbons. 41).craftsmanship the gold necklace on withpendants(see fig.armlets.P.A. bracelets." female attendantsin the "King's She also woretwo necklaces of gold and lapis lazuli. the heads of ibexes and and lionswere foundtogetherin a jar. Forexample. A majorexceptionis the jewelrydating B.

1 0 Q) .C.

this distinctive garment was wornthroughout thirdmillennium the B. 20. inside covers) of the Neo-Assyrian period (883-612 B.fezlikecap (see fig. 5).)re- tainedthisfringedborderand were also enrichedwithwoven and embroidered designs and metalappliques.C. 69) made of a single piece of wool or linenfabricreplacedthe earlierskirt. 69 51 . A headdress wornby southern Mesopotamian rulersin the latethird B. Laterinthe second millennium andearlyinthe firstmillenB.O.This Clothing the Near East was commonly made of goat's hairand sheep's wool. the artof the Near East. longergarments (see figs.C.itwas representedto symbolizethe luxuriousness of royaldress.a high. 21.enrichedby many elements such as crescent moons.C.63) indicatethat inthis case the fabricis thin.A formof dress frequently representedin Sumerianand Akkadian is the calfart lengthskirtcoveredwithtuftsof wool aroundthe (see figs.68).C. 27) signifiedthatthe wearerwas a god. sun rays. 69).perhapssilk. 27). in Mesopotamia.C. Wrapped lowerbodyand occasionallydrapedover one shoulder.The robes had fringedborders or severalhorizontal bands of fringes (see figs.Intime. a knee-length tunicand close-fitting trousersof thick wool or leather-clothing appropriate for a horseman. 2. Sleeved garmentsand shawls (see fig. a cap decoratedwithbull's horns(see figs. became the royalcrownof Sasanian 70 ^^^^9 P. 70). Onlyrarelydidhuman rulers claim divinityand adopt this headgear. niumB. kings(see fig. the in Through millennia. Impractical as this material was forhunting wear. and earlysecond millennia is a wool cap (see figs. 2.A second figureis in Mediandress. one figureis in Persiandress and wears a longfullsleeved tunicof a lighttextile. 3) was wornin Mesopotamia nobles and by kings. 20. 3. and globes.H.Underthe AchaemenidPersiansa new crownwithstepped crenellations made its appearance.wings.The folds of a similar tunic and trouserswornbythe Sasanian king (see fig. On a relieffromthe Achaemenidpalace at Persepolis(fig.

. where clay was plentifuland inexpensive. cuneiform was writing widelyused by many cultures in the Near East. Cuneiform was adopted by other the northernmost parts of Mesopotamia. and its use quickly spread throughout the Near East. or wedgeshaped. The stylus left small marks in the clay that we call cuneiform. while countless others still lie buried beneath the rubble of ancient. Writingwas done with a reed or bone stylus on small pillowshaped tablets. who lived to the east of Mesopotamia (in the area of modern-day Iran). writing inventedin was Mesopotamia as a method of recording and storing primarilyeconomic information. Later the Urartians. which can be seen on the band above the second arcade on the Urartianbell (fig. also used cuneiform. The earliest script was pictographic -rendering realistic drawings of objects familiarin everyday life. In Egypt early records were kept on papyrus. The Museum has over five 52 . By the second millennium B. Argishti.we can only inferfrom archaeological records that it was the Sumerians. also used cuneiform signs in their writing. who dwelt along the Tigris and Euphrates.About3000 B.C. It is not certain who developed this picture writing. and various groups of Semitic-speaking peoples. this material was used for the earliest documents. Hundreds of thousands of cuneiform tablets have been excavated in the Near East. unexcavated cities. But since Mesopotamia was located along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates. 74) inscribed with the king's name. who soon after developed a system in which drawings in clay were replaced by signs representing the sounds of the Sumerian language.C. The early Elamites. most of which were only a few inches wide and fit easily into one's palm. writing.

or extolledmiliof taryvictories. cylinder Recordsand inscriptions also commemoratedroyalachievements.such as the building a palace. The clay envelope of a tablet(fig.71). i. legal. 2800 B.C.The clay envelope is impressed on each side (herethe obverse) fivetimeswithtwodifferent religioustraditions mankind's civilizations. The actual tabletcontainedin the envelope is a legal theft. the MostMesopotamian tabletsare records of commercial. the great king"in OldPersian.73) dates to the OldAssyrianColonyperiod inAnatolia(1920-1750 B. The written recordfromthe ancient NearEast is extensive. The stele has been interpreted either as a recordof the purchaseof properties and commoditiesbythe priestUshumgal or as a recordof his bequest of these and properties commoditiesto various his people. and Neo-Babylonian. economic. including daughter. The documents needed to underprovideinformation standthe is inscribed"Darius.) until firstcenturyA.The rimof the Achaemenid gold bowl(fig.hundred texts and inscriptions dating fromearlySumeriantimes (ca. probably fromthe E-nunTempleof the god Sharaat Umma.s.or administrative activities.).Elamite. first 73 74 53 .D.One of the earliest Mesopotamian legal documentsinthe Museum'scollectionis a smallSumerian stone stele (fig.swornin a depositionregarding courtof law. and of intellectual.C.

) produced some of the most beautiful and iconographically varied seals in the ancient Near East.PR I* fi. storage jars. 80) is engraved with a male worshiper standing before an altar surmounted by a spade. Similar seals with pigtailed figures of the late Urukand Jemdet Nasr periods (ca. They were impressed on the clay that sealed doors.. son of Dummuqum. 1 . god of writing. and bales of commodities as well as on clay tablets and envelopes (fig. more easily impressed with a stamp. The cylinder seal (fig. both of whom are represented on many contemporary seals in virtuallythe same manner. and the stylus of Nabu.A. 73). Seals were frequently deposited as offerings in temples.: f / 79 f 80 77 54 . 79) was found in the Nabu Temple at Nimrud.. Landscape elements were frequently depicted on seals of this period. servant of Rimsin [king of Larsa]. On an amethyst example (fig. 78) with a design of two lion-griffinsattacking a mountain goat belongs to the Middle Assyrian period (1350-1000 B C ). The ownership of the seal is indicated by the inscription: "NurShamash. bull-men..)show scenes of presentation and worship. 75) depicting women with their hair in pigtails was excavated in the Inanna Temple at Nippur. B. . The seventh-century B C Neo-Assyrian seal (fig. 76) depicts the struggle of a nude hero and his allies. The example below (fig. and a thistlelike flower. t". 1 * ^". 11 /. Seals first appeared in northern Syria and Anatolia during the late sixth millennium B. - ?' l r "ge- 75 / t 78 r I . 77) are a male figure with a mace and a suppliant goddess. symbol of Marduk.chief god of the Babylonian pantheon. TN iF-76 tf i4 .) symbols of gods were a major part of the seal design. In the Neo-Babylonian period (625-539 B. The Akkadian period (2334-2154 B. written on papyrus or leather that was sealed with small clay dockets.' The carnelian seal (fig. the cylinder was the preferred shape.C. .e. They are miniature works of art carved with designs whose style and iconography vary with period and region. This was apparently due to the adoption in Mesopotamia of the Aramaic script. a star.Seals were prized possessions in the ancient Near East and served as propitious amulets for their owners. fA " 'i !tW: : ' . Many seals of the Third Dynasty of Ur through the Old Babylonian period (2112-1595 B. In Mesopotamia. comptroller in the palace. The rest of the design includes a bird. from the mid-fourthmillennium untilthe first millennium B.C.C.C ) have been found at sites from Egypt to Iran. From the Neo-Assyrian period (883612 B C ) stamps began to be used along with cylinders..: I_- f :. when a naturalistic style was favored.C.S-. The lapis-lazuli seal (fig. which were also centers of economic activity. - / I f r. 3200-2900 B.C. to protect the herd animals from lions.. in the form of stamps.

7/8in.).C.. Rockefeller. Northwest Palace of Assurnasirpal II(883-859 B. 147/8in. Moore.3 cm.901/4in. Panel with striding lion. Parthian period 200 B.H. 1954 (54. H. North-centralAnatolia. (2. Rockefeller.D.Gold.). Akkad suzerainty in Susa Alaca Hiuyk royal tombs Old Elamite . cm. Lent by Norbert Schimmel (L. Cylinderseal and modern impression. 713/8in.). (210.2) 10. Sasanian period. Early Dynastic II period.). 325 M. 224 Sasanian Empire 226-651 500 A.D. Babylon.with mercury gilding. (97. NeoAssyrian period.130. Limestone. Harris Brisbane Dick Fund. Jr. Hittite Empire 1400-1200 Late Bronze Middle Elamite Iron I Destruction of Uqarit by Sea Peoples Iron Age NE eo-Hittite and Kingdoms of Israel Ar ramaean states and Judah Phoenicians UrartianKingdom 850-600 Phrygian Kingdom 775-690 New Kingdom 1570-1085 Middle Assyrian period 1350-1000 ThirdIntermediate 1000 B.1 cm. Seated statue of Gudea. (17.Parthianperiod. Jr. Neo-Sumerian period. 1947 (47.87) in.C.2 cm. probably Tello.C.1 cm. Sumero-Elamite Susa IV Early Bronze Troy II Old Kingdom 2636-2160 2500 B. 1957 (57. Iran. Mrs.D.D. Lent by Rt. Uruk 3500-3100 Mesopotamia (North) Iran Proto-Urban Susa II Levant Anatolia Egypt 3500 B.).H.D. Rogers Fund. Diam. and Bequests of MaryCushing Fosburgh.C. Third Intermediate 1085-656 Hasanlu IV ca.-A.8 cm.3) Inside back cover: Relief of bird-headed divinity Alabaster. Rogers Fund.80) 2. Paul Moore. Rev.142) 8.). WilliamH.C. Prins Gifts. Silver with mercury gilding.). (27. 181/2in. (34.). Glazed brick.).5 cm. Persepolis.100. 905/8(230. Inside front cover: Relief with two registers of sacred tree attended by divinities. Iran.H..126) 6.).. 15th-13th century B. Achaemenid Empire 550-331 Alexander the Great 331-323 Capture of Babylon 331 Seleucid Empire _ 0 B. (44 cm. by exchange.1) Back cover: Detail of frieze on the stag vessel depicted on front cover showing a male god standing on a stag and facing a man who is pouring liquid from a spouted vessel.H. Rogers Fund. Diorite.). W.).4) 4. 5th century B. (181. Hittite. (17 cm.C.C. Northern Mesopotamia.Achaemenid period.H. 1931 (31. 500 B.83 in.16) 55 . 93/16 in.83) 7. Bull head.). 131/2in.). E. Oval bowl. Nineveh. (L. Moore. A.3 cm.7 cm. (40 cm.-A.43/8in.).1 cm. 7 in. Alabaster.). MurielPalitz. 81/16 (20.). Iran. 1947 (47. Fletcher Fund. Rhyton with forepart of a panther.D. Relief of king and attendant. Edward C.9 cm.4 cm. H. Gold. 1955 (55. 1959 (59. in. 175/16 in. Statuette of man carrying box on head. 1931 (31. Archaic 3100-2686 3000 B. 5th century B. late 3rd millennium B.) HarrisBrisbane Dick Fund. ca.). Alabaster. 1959 (59. Silver with mercury gilding. Pauline V Fullerton Bequest. 893/4 in. 5th century B. HarrisBrisbane Dick Fund. 550-450 B. ca.Neo-Assyrian period.143. (227.C.).2 cm. Rockefeller.C. W. Diam. 21442124 B. W. 43/4in. Western Asia. Sumerian. 1947 (47 100.55. H. H. Rogers Fund.1 cm.119.C. 1500 B. W. W. Old Assyrian period 1500 B. Vessel in shape of horse's head.Empire period.3 cm. Oenslager. ca. 1956 (56.143.).8 cm. H. Arsenical copper.D. (233. 2750-2600 B. 1st century B.100.).C. L. (86.).4 cm.C. Nimrud. (55. Silver. Relief with cavalrymen in the mountains. 81/4in. Achaemenid period. Enid A. Fletcher Fund. Giftof John D. Giftof WalterHauser.C. Purchase. 63/4in. and Geert C.Parthian period.C. Silver with gold foil.C.C. 22 in. Northern Mesopotamia.C. Head of a king. Nimrud.).143.447) 14.3) 15. (12. 92 in. by exchange. 7/16 (1.C. and Stephen Whitney Phoenix.). ca. Kassite Dynasty 1595-1157 Mitannian Empire 1600-1350 Second Dynasty of Isin 1156-1025 IUU D. Head of a dignitary Arsenical copper.C.. Northern Mesopotamia.ffNnv' R i'" luu V0 First Intermediate 2160-2060 Assyrian Colony period 1920-1750 Middle Bronze Old Hittite Empire 1650-1400 Middle Kingdom 2060-1786 Second Intermediate 1786-1570 Hyksos 1667-1559 2000 B.126) 5.C. Rockefeller. (227. 153/4in. Ceramic. (37. A. A. Northern Mesopotamia. Jemdet Nasr 3100-2900 Early Dynastic I-lila 2900-2500 Proto-Elamite Susa III . originally glazed.1) 12. Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire Coptic period 325-641 ~~~~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~---- 500 A. Jr. 13. 1965 (65. - 0 B. Neo-Babylonian period.).72. ca. 1979(1979. reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 B. (11. (20.C.3.34 in. Giftof John D.C./ A.).C.891/2in. Processional Way.Neo-Assyrian period.D.9 cm.2) 3.2 cm.C. Jr. Iran. 1932 (32.). H. 381/4in. Southern Mesopotamia. (17.1983. Chalcedony Iran.3) 1.W.8cm.). Chalcolithic 3000 B. (229. II~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CREDITS Front cover: Stag vessel. 1200-800 Neo-Assyrian Empire 883-612 Neo-Babylonian Empire 625-539 Neo-Elamite Median Empire Iron II Iron III Late Dynastic 656-332 500 B.9 cm. Jr. Donald M.C. Iran.C.6th-7th century L. 1932 (32.C. H. (23.H. (47 cm.Neo-Assyrian period. Northwest Palace of Assurnasirpal 11 (883-859 B.L.D.4th century H. - Ib Early Dynastic II 2500-2334 Akkad Dynasty 2334-2154 Neo-Sumerian period Gudea of Lagash 2144-2124 Third Dynasty of Ur 2112-2004 Isin-Larsa period 2017-1763 Old Babylonian period 1894-1595 Hammurabi 1792-1750 2500 B.Mesopotamia (South) 3500 B. Sasanian period. Iran. Northwest Palace of Assurnasirpal 11(883-859 B. Mrs. 107/8in./ A. 71/16 in.3. Alabaster.56) 9.). 611/16in.H. Mesopotamia. Male head used as a spout. Giftof John D.2 cm. Ewer. Nimrud.C. late 3rd millennium B. Achaemenid period.67) 11.1st-2nd century H. Collection of Mrs. Giftof John D.49.Achaemenid period. (18 cm. Palace of Sennacherib (704-681 B. Fletcher Fund. 1932 (32.C.C.C. Vessel with forepart of a lion.C. Silver with gold inlay Anatolia. Southern Iran. Seleucid Empire Parthian period Sasanian Empire Alexander the Great Capture of Tyre 332 Antigonid and Seleucid Empires Roman period Roman period Macedonian period 332-305 Ptolemaic period 305-30 Roman perno 30 B.).13.). Southern Mesopotamia. Haupt. Fletcher Fund.

Spear and SchimmelFoundation Gifts.1) 73. Old period. 1965 ( in.13/16 (2.) [mouthpiece].Joseph Pulitzer Bequest.6th-7th centuryH. W. 13/8in.).3 cm.178) seal 77.154. Helmet.).213/16 (7.PaulMoore. H. Fletcher in. 1971 C.William Moore. ca. 1948 (48. ca. Quiver ca.C. a.9 cm. RogersFund. Fletcher foil Bronzewithgold and silver over 20. 1943 (43.).1 cm.William Moore.Lent Jr. (1. Mesopotamia.190. Harris BrisbaneDickFund.55.). Luristan.8) 80. Achaemenidperiod.).5 cm.D. Medianperiod. ca. Early H.7 cm. (35. Jar. W.86).15th-13thcentury Empire Schimmel B. Reliefwithservantscarrying Southern Iran.).84) 35. Hittite.C. (1.). Fletcher Fund.5b) J. 47.).(15. Lapis Akkadian lazuli.55. period.35. Neo-Assyrian period.166.24) 58.41/2 ( Jr. Bitand cheekpieces fora horse.). B. ca. Giftof Mr. 215/8 (55 cm. w. 1951 (51.).Mr.H. period. RogersFund. 19th-18thcenturyB. 11/2 (3.Iran.7 cm.6 cm. 8th centuryB. Anatolia. (6. Antelope. Aerial photograph thecentral taken innorthwestern as seen from southwest Iran the University duringthe 1962 season.) respectively Giftof Khalil Rabenou. (1. Mrs. (5. W. Griffin dress ornaments. 71/2 and (19 cm.5 cm. 5 in. 1957( 63. 8th-7th century H. 56 H.C.3 cm.Anatolia.) and H.3 cm. in. in. Gold. Akkadian diorite. Lower Danuberegion. B.9 cm. Inanna limestone.).24. cm. 161/2 (41. (64. in. Inscribedbowl.C.).8 cm. Giftof Matilda Bruce. Sword. (3.C.9 cm. (2. 51) 42. 1932 (32. centuryB. ca.Anatolia. IvoryNorthern Mesopotamia.207/8 in. 9/16 in. Early Dynastic Ilaperiod.C. Pendantof seated goddess holdingchild. 1511/16 in.121. A.Gold.(3. Purchase.341/16in. W. Diam. (1. Vase.1954 (54.3 cm.Northwestern reportIran.1947 (47. Mrs. Metaseal 30. 2500-2000 B.1 cm. NecklacewithBes head and figuredplaques.).23/4 (7 cm. L. Mrs.Northwestern Iran.). Deep soundinginthe Inanna Templeat Nippur Uruk periodlevels. 1964 ( 62.3 cm.Silver. H. ca.1 cm. (1979.3 cm.1 cm. (12.158) MesoSouthern Chlorite.4 cm. Sumerian. in. RogersFund.).10) Gift.). Cylinder and modernimpression.37/8in.PaulMoore. 3200-2900 B.17.C.3.41. early6thcenturyH. L.6 in. Cylinder and modernimpression. Iran.Gold.(86. ( Dodge Fund.9 1934 (34. from reportedly Ziwiye. 3/4in.Iran.1934 (34.C. 83/8 (21. period. ing. Silver. Fundsfromvarious in. period. 11/2 (3. of (1. L.).). FletcherFund.C.1963 (63. Graychalperiod. L. H. and Gold.5) 34.). 1940 (40. centuryL. Panelwithbullhunt.) A. 15/16 (2. 8th-7th plaque.Chlorite.1947 (47. W.C.C. in.2334-2154 B. H.20) Carnelian.C.6 cm.reignof Rimsin Mesopotamia. in.b) 65.6 cm. 11/16 in.(43.62) 17. D.D.iron. (L. Diam.William Moore. Neo-Babylonian cedony Mesopotamia.C. 8thcenturyB. H. ca.C. RogersFund.).C.(4.C.C. in. L.C. in 1936 (36. Foundation withlion. W. in.C. H. Bronze. (2. Shalmaneser.8) of Pratt. Silver 28.C.Silver. 2750 and in.). Luristan. (L.1st-3rd in.8 cm. 1966 (66. H. 61/4 (15.4 cm.).H. in.1978 (1978.1) Meso19.(2cm.(53 cm.C.2750-2600 B. in.5 cm.PaulMoore.H. (10. centuryB. 1900 B.49.81/2 (21. Cylinder and modernimpression.100.33/8 (8. 8th-7th centuryB.6 cm. 2900 B.).L.49. 2123-2119 B.).(2. DynasticI period. Temple. Giftof J. Lentby Norbert 19. 1 in. (12.55. 5th-4th in. to rim21/2in. centuryFull 391/2 (100.Nimrud. Dodge Fund. centuryB.8 cm.H. centuryB.).Iran. H. SerpenAkkadian tine.5/8 in.90) Steatite.James N. Iran. 72. Furniture H.H. Gift and Purchase. Cylinder and modernimpression. Giftof in. Giftof D.IvoryNorthern 48. (2.53/8in.C. Necklacewithpendants. Femalefigure.).Iran.50.SouthernMesopoShrineII.Mesopotamia. 2 in. Doublespiral. (?). h.carnelian. 36.89) cm. Sumerian.1907 (07. reportedly in. 55/16 in.Rev. H. Bequestof Walter Baker.D. Cult Ceramic.2300-2000 Horoztepe. UrIII dynasty. 40.51/8 (13 cm.1a.11) of of mound Hasanlu 49. (1822-1763 B. c.C. 1955 (55.156) 56. memory GeorgeD.5 cm.). W. H. gilding.65. BrisbaneDick in. tic 1/I11 period.Northern axe.C.190) in.41/2 (11.). 73/8 (18.Iron withcarnelianinlays. ( 17/16in.7 cm. in. W.Lent Jr. Standing malefigure.5 cm.). ca. (10. Luristan. RogersFund.reportedly fromMaikop.55/8in.145.23.(31. (1.2) bulls. 10th-9th Iran.1967 (67.). 5thcenturyB.).).). Stele of Ushumgal.) in. 43/16 (10.Sasanian 46. reportedly copper. L.).reignof Shulgi(2094-2047 B.8 cm. ca.Iran.C.31/8 ( (8. IvoryNorthern Mesopotamia. RogersFund.H. Fund.131. Proto-Elamite Iran. B. (1.C. Stampseal and modernimpression. 6th century B. RogersFund. 1959 (59. Beltclasp.).100.University Pennsylvania. Iran.5). seal 27. L. (4 3 cm. Head:Rogers Fund.61/4 (15.).102.Joseph Pulitzer Bequest.1984. ca.7 cm.3/4in. Plaquewithfriezes. in.).H. 5th-4th 123/8 (31. 13/8 in.of rim in. Giftof Mrs. of Collection Mrs.5 cm. H.9 cm. 1966 (66.8 Diam. ca.Ceramic.H.Northeastern Tureng Iran.H. H. Fletcher Fund.74) 21.160.).67/16 in.Silver Sasanianperiod.C.C. H. Goldon bone core withsilverbackin. (13. (40 cm. Early DynasticIII period.105/8 (27 cm. Cylinder and modernimpression.2 cm. Top Ann Fund. Gold. in.13/4 (4. in.probably H. Iran. Cylinder and modernimpression.9 cm.5) with leoninecreatures. Amethyst.155) Southwest23.155. Jr.( Royal Collection Mrs.61/2 (16. Kultepe. 11/16 in.2) 60. Pin. (L.Gold. (9.Southern Inanna tamia.C.70. Temple. A. 6th-5th centuryB.100) .130) Sasanian Silver withmercury 26. 193/4 (50. 11/16 in.55.5/8 ca. Gr.245.).8 cm. cm. Diam. Mesopotamia. L. Brisbane in.4 cm. 1/16 Marble. in. 115/8 in.1962 (62. Syria in. 2200 B.Rev. taken 51.51. H. Scythian.1977 (1977. 8thcenturyB. (34.78.1893 (93.Northwestern ca. 1974 (1974. II.Iran. in.Ceramic. Sumerian. 500 B.5) 33. 8thcenturyB.7 cm. Lapis Akkadian lazuli.).Mesopotamia. Kish.5 1917 (17. Southwestern bitumen.251/2 in.14th-13th Mesopotamia.1955 (55. 1979 of G. Bequest. ca. (3.Mesopotamia. Dressornaments shape of lionheads. by Rt.Early in. Mesopotamia Iran. H.100.8 cm. or Mesopotamia. 31.Northern Black Sea region.98.Iran.10) Hematite.Iran. Cylinder and modernimpression.).9 cm.Sumerian.Lentby Rt.). in. Oriental Institute. Arsenical copper withshelland lapis-lazuli inlaySouthern Mesopotamia.169) 66. 1615/16 Fund.1) 55.106) cm.53/4 (14.).H. DunscombeColt.2600-2334 B. Seal h.).(14. H. SquareTemple.21/4 (5. 8th-7th centuryB. Stand.2 cm.1961 (61. 111/16 (28 cm.6 cm. 7/8 in.29) Achaemenidperiod. Diam.3 cm. OldAssyrian RogersFund. 2334-2279 B. 7th bronzeguard. Iran. Fund.). Fundsfromvariousdonors. 74. W. period.C.Early period.Constantine Sidamon-Eristoff 1961 (61.). vessel inshape ofa tower. Bronze. ca.Gedney Beatty.7 cm.C.C. 19/16 (4 cm. in. Femalehead. Beaker. Scythian.). in.2 cm. Hasanlu.49.65/16in.100. Collection Mrs.3. 125/1A6 (31.1968 (68.3) in 67.BurnedBuilding 9th Gatewayarea.). in.51/8in. Iran. H.3) Mesobearer.21/4 in. Plaquewithgoat.45/8 in.Ivory 29. in. PaulMoore. of in.33) 64. Qasr-i in. L.6 cm.: L.5 cm. 3100 B.63/16 (15. H.).1962 ( (69. Lion-shaped Bronze. Nasrperiod. 17/8 (4.7 cm.C.).). period.Joseph Pulitzer Bequest. Gift Christos Bastis. Achaemenidperiod.H. W. Harris DickFund.6) or 39.). RogersFund. Inscribedbell. (1972.4 cm.1952 (52.7 cm. 153/16 (38.1982 (1982. in. in.).late5thgiltwithniello. 11/16in.1921 (21. Elamite. Klejman. Tepe.9 cm. W.31/4 in. in. Copper.91/4 (23.). seal 78.5 cm.8 in.C. by Rt. Fletcher Fund. 11/8in. chert. potamia. Hurrian. W. H. period. Burnt Nimrud.1959 (59.IvoryNorthwestern Iran.3 cm.197.70.).1) AbuNasr. Pierpont Morgan. b. (29. 11/8 (2.Joseph Pulitzer Bequest. 125/16 25. (13. BrisbaneDickFund. seal 79. Cylinder and modernimpression.1) 43. (inv. Diam. Diam. in.8 cm.). (13 cm. (3.H.118.7 cm.University Pennsylvania) 50. Statueof Ur-Ningirsu. 71.H. Finial. donors. Tello. 1955 (55. Grave789.2 cm.).).).Mesopotamia. Cylinder and modernimpression. Middle Assyrianperiod.Body:Lentby Museedu Orientales des Louvre.).5 in. fromZiwiye. (Photograph: of Museum. Vesselstandwithibexsupport. (L.).3).C.).(16 cm.Neo-Assyrian Nimrud. Fort Nimrud. B. withgold foil.6 in. RogersFund. 900B. Vase.Rev. W.). Harris Fund. period. showingthe workmen uncovering Thisviewwas takenduringthe 1960-61 season of to of Institute the JointExpedition Nippur the Oriental and the American Schools of Oriental Research.H. Excoll.173) Joseph Pulitzer 24. period. Boarclasp. 15/16 (3. B. Persepolis.).).C. 2900 B.27.Southern Ur. (16. Isin-Larsa period. Shaft-hole in. (2.). Purchase. H.Ceramic.). Anonymous Giftand RogersFund.Neo-Sumerian period. 5/8in.(Photoof Institute PersianStudies) graph:British Nush-iJan.(4. 8th 54. 2600-2500 B. 69. (L.53/4 ( (43 cm. W. 2 in. (11.97.C. Giftof Mr.).).16.). Lentby Rt. in. Western 52.).Joseph Pulitzer Bequest.).1934 (34. 1941 (41. Jar.).156) 22.1) seal 70. (11 cm.2750-2334 B. Cylinder and modernimpression.).).(Photograph: of University Chicago) 45. Nippur.28) Yellow seal 18.1958 (58.1) ca.Neo-Sumerian period.C.2) food. Bronze. 4 in.5 cm.). NabuTemple. 19thcenturyB. LateUruk-Jemdet LevelXVB. Purchase.3 cm. Viewof TepeNush-iJan inwesternIran duringthe firstseason of excavations(1967). in. Envelopefortablet. lapis lazuli.D.17) MesoSouthern Alabaster. Diam. 1924 (24.74) seal 76.Citadel. Purchase. 53.L.C.21/2 (6. W.Northern Syria peg ca.1 cm. Pratt.Iran.Northwestern pin. H. centuryB. Diam. 8th-7th centuryB.Glazedceramic.57/8 (15.1947 (47.). ca. H. Cupwithfourgazelles. centuryB. period. 11/4in. Baghdad.George D. Early DynasticIIperiod.). in. of (2.H.7thcenturyB. DouglasDillon and RogersFund.1965 (65. RogersFund. 8th-7th centuryB. Rogers H. 6th-5th century Gold. 1300 Palace. Diam.Arsenical with 32.7/8in. Diam.5 cm. Limestone. Bequestof CoraTimken 57.20) George SurkhDum.Nathaniel Spear.).).88) 41.8 cm.7 cm. Luristan.Bronze. The University of Museum.3 cm.). Urartian.H. ca. 171/4 in.C.H. W.2900Early potamia. 68. (2.7 cm.8 cm.). 9504) (L. in.2 cm.1954 fragment: and GeorgeBlumenthal (54.).C. W.Central ca.William Moore.3.40a-c) Burnett.180) B.H. 11/16in.H. tamia.2334-2154 Giftof Walter Hauser.81/2 (21.Thracian. H.C.186) Pink seal 75. Goldover wood withgarnetand glass paste jewelsand giltSasanianperiod.1983.1933 (33.of rim43/8in. mouflon.). Collection Mrs. 11/4in.6 cm. 6th-7th century. 1961 (61.). edly fromZiwiye. Kneelingbullholdingvessel.3 cm.1958 (57.58) seal 37.).A.). 1900 B.C. (5. Iran.1954 (54.1947 (47. Headdressornament.of rim 4 in.11/2 in.North-central BronzeAge period. ca.(3.Achaemenidperiod.5 cm.Mesopotamia.).C.L. 4thcenturyB.Mesopotamia. 750-650 B. (5 cm. potamia.2 cm.180).C.). Max.Northwestern Iran.5 cm.1964 (64.C.Jr.192) of W. RogersFund.).by exchange. H. IndusValleyca.Bronze. Foundation Mesopofigurine. Gold.811/16 (22. Recumbent in.). Diam.85/8 in. W.1) cm. Ornament confronted Achaemenidperiod.Caucasus.7 cm. A. 21 in.). Diam.C.1941 (41. 2000-1750 B.Bronze.C. RogersFund. H.C. (1.4 cm. Ewer.L.2 cm. Luristan.Southern in.1.73/4 (19.1962 (62. period. PlatewithPerozor KavadI hunting rams.5) Anaof ornament femalesphinx. Purchase. Shalmaneser. RogersFund.8 cm. Departement Antiquites A. in.). Silver. 1000 B. 9thNeo-Assyrian 8th centuryB.Harris Inc.(53.Nippur.). Proto-Elamite ern Iran.Rev.). Gold Iran.D.). 1311/16 in.).Bronze. Mrs. Detailof swordhiltand scabbard. Bottom fragment: RogersFund.141/8in..C. Bequest 61. 19thcenturyB.C.813/16 (22. Afghanistan.257. Figureof a tribute Fort Neo-Assyrian potamia. 11/6 in.). H. J. 33/8 (8.1 Ceramic.61/4 (15. 0.23/8 (6 cm. RogersFund.107.1948 (48. Rogers Fund.2 in. DunscombeColtGift.C.49.C. W.2 cm. Neo-Assyrian period.Tell Asmar.).2 cm. Diam. 2334-2278 H. Pratt. 4th centuryB.4 cm.3 cm. (8. 8th centuryB.5 44. 1850-1700 Mesopotamia.1956 (56. 133/8 (34 cm. Early Dynasin. H. Bronze. Babylonian H. tolia. RogersFund. Standard two long-horned from Anatolia. 11/8 in. Jar.352.52) 59.).1960 (60.

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