1 C-B01 - Pullorum disease - heart - chicken HD: Heart: The ventricular and septal walls are diffusely and transmurally

thickened 2-4 times normal by large numbers of macrophages and few lymphocytes and heterophils that separate and replace cardiac myocytes. Similar inflammatory cells infiltrate the endocardium and epicardial adipose tissue and multifocally form irregular tags and nodules that protrude from the epicardial surface. Macrophages often have large vesiculate nuclei and foamy, pale eosinophilic cytoplasm. Remaining cardiac myocytes are often pale and vacuolated (degeneration), or fragmented with loss of cross striations and pyknosis (necrosis). Multifocally, arteriolar walls are disrupted and replaced by intensely eosinophilic fibrillar material (fibrin), necrotic debris, and few degenerate inflammatory cells (necrotizing vasculitis). MDX: Morphologic Diagnosis: Heart: Pancarditis, histiocytic, diffuse, severe, with necrotizing vasculitis, and myocardial degeneration and necrosis, Rhode Island Red, chicken, avian. EDX: Myocardial salmonellosis Cause: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Pullorum-Gallinarum CS: Bacillary white diarrhea; White diarrhea DDX: For gross lesions: Marek’s disease (Gallid herpesvirus 2) and Avian leukosis virus (Avian retrovirus): Similar white nodules in the heart and other viscera Salmonella arizonae: Acute or chronic egg-transmitted infection; primarily in turkeys with highest mortality in the first 3-4 weeks of life Paratyphoid disease: Caused by any of the non-host adapted Salmonellae, especially S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis Septicemic or localized coliform, staphylococcal, streptococcal and Pasteurella multocida infections Mycoplasma synoviae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae cause similar synovitis. C-B02 - Streptococcus pneumoniae - heart - guinea pig HD: Heart: Diffusely adherent to the epicardium is a variably-thick mat of fibrin which contains numerous viable and degenerate heterophils, moderate numbers of erythrocytes, eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis), and fewer scattered lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. The underlying epicardium is diffusely edematous and expanded by fibrin, many neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages, few fibroblasts, and many perpendicular, evenly spaced, small caliber blood vessels with plump endothelial cells (granulation tissue). This inflammatory infiltrate extends into the superficial myocardium and separates and surrounds myocytes. Diffusely blood vessels are congested and lymphatics are ectatic. There is focal mild chondromatous metaplasia within the tunica media of a large muscular artery. MDX: Heart: Epicarditis and subepicardial myocarditis, fibrinosuppurative, chronic, diffuse, severe, with gram-positive diplococci, Guinea pig, rodent. EDX: Pneumococcal epicarditis and myocarditis Cause: Streptococcus pneumoniae DDX: Pericarditis in the guinea pig: S. zooepidemicus, Salmonella sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida C-F01 - Coccidioidomycosis - pericardium – dog MG543 HD: Pericardium: Diffusely the pericardium is expanded up to 4mm thick by multiple granulomas that are up to 500um in diameter and consist of numerous epithelioid macrophages and rare foreign body-type multinucleate giant cells surrounded by plasma cells, lymphocytes, reactive fibroblasts and collagen. Multifocally granulomas contain round fungal spherules up to 60um in diameter, with a 4-5um thick double contour hyaline wall, that are filled with granular to flocculent, basophilic material or occasionally few 5-8um round endospores. Granulomas are separated and

2 surrounded by fibrous connective tissue and varying numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, degenerative neutrophils, and macrophages admixed with small amounts of hemorrhage, fibrin and edema. Diffusely the pleural surface is expanded by granulation tissue and a superficial layer of eosinophilic fibrillar to beaded material (fibrin) with entrapped inflammatory cells and necrotic debris. MD: Pericardium: Pericarditis, granulomatous, diffuse, severe, with fibrinous pleuritis, and numerous fungal spherules, consistent with Coccidioides immitis, breed unspecified, canine. ED: Pericardial coccidioidomycosis Cause: Coccidioides immitis CS: San Joaquin Valley Fever DDX: Dimorphic fungal infections: Blastomyces dermatitidis Cryptococcus neoformans Histoplasma capsulatum Organisms that reproduce by endosporulation: Coccidioides immitis Rhinosporidium seeberi Prototheca sp. Chlorella sp. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis C-M01 - Dystrophic cardiac calcinosis (DCC) - heart – mouse Balb/c adult HD: Heart: Multifocally and extensively within the myocardium and particularly within the subepicardial right ventricular wall, there is cellular disruption and fragmentation with loss of sarcoplasmic detail (degeneration), or pyknotic or karyolytic nuclei (necrosis). Separating, surrounding, and replacing degenerate and necrotic cardiac myofibers, there is abundant basophilic granular material (mineral) and increased collagen (fibrosis). There are scattered lymphocytes and plasma cells within the areas of mineralization and multiple areas of osseous metaplasia. Occasionally, adjacent cardiomyocytes have large vesiculate nuclei. MDX: Heart, myocardium: Mineralization, degeneration, and necrosis, multifocal, moderate, with fibrosis, Balb/c mouse, rodent. CS: Dystrophic mineralization C-M02 - Rhabdomyomatosis - heart - guinea pig MG593 HD: Heart: Within the interventricular septum, there is a focally extensive, well-circumscribed, 3x2mm, subendocardial nodule composed of myocytes with cytoplasm markedly distended by a single, clear, up to 120 um diameter vacuole (glycogen). The small amount of remaining cytoplasm and the compressed nucleus are displaced to the periphery. In rare cells, the nucleus is centrally located and surrounded by radiating finely fibrillar eosinophilic processes (spider cells). Multifocally, few peripheral myocytes are hypereosinophilic and fragmented with pyknotic or absent nuclei (necrosis). Multifocally admixed within vacuolated myocytes are rare lymphocytes. MDX: Heart, myofibers: Vacuolar change, glycogen-type, multifocal, moderate (rhabdomyomatosis), Guinea pig, rodent. Condition Synonyms: Cardiac rhabdomyoma GD: All ages, as young as 3 weeks, suggesting congenital condition. Hamartoma or malformation rather than a true neoplasm DDX: Mesenchymoma (Rare benign cardiac neoplasm in guinea pigs, most often in the right atrium Composed of mesenchymal tissue: adipose, angiomatous, cartilaginous, osseous, hematopoietic, myxomatous tissue and smooth muscle) C-M03 - Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) - heart – cat (Siamese) MG573

3 HD: Heart: Diffusely the endocardium is uniformly thickened up to 250 um (20x normal) by abundant fibrocytes, fewer fibroblasts, and many layers of collagen and elastic fibers. Superficially, fibers are thin, loosely and randomly arranged, and separated by increased clear space and myxomatous material. Fibers within the deeper layers are thicker, more tightly packed, and parallel. Multifocally the connective tissue extends minimally into the underlying myocardium, rarely surrounding and isolating myofibers and Purkinje fibers. MDX: Heart, endocardium: Fibroelastosis, diffuse, marked, Siamese, feline. GD: Rare, congential, primarily affects Burmese and Siamese cats, leads to congestive heart failure. Primary endocardial fibroelastosis: Diffuse endocardial thickening without other significant cardiac lesions; uncommon, congenital; hereditary Secondary endocardial fibroelastosis: Diffuse endocardial thickening secondary to other cardiac conditions (i.e. myocardial inflammation, necrosis, degeneration) Pathogenesis: Unknown. Degeneration of entrapped Purkinje fibers (left bundle branch) may lead to cardiac conduction abnormalities. Additional Diagnostic Tests: Masson’s trichrome for collagen; Elastica Van Gieson (EVG) for elastic fibers DDX: 1. Secondary EFE: Gross or histological evidence of a primary cause (congenital, infectious, or inflammatory); 2. Postinfectious myocardial fibrosis CP: Reported in dogs, horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens. C-M04 - Polyarteritis nodosa - mesenteric arteries – rat MG162 HD: Small intestine and mesentery: Diffusely the walls of mesenteric arteries are markedly thickened and are transmurally disrupted by high numbers of neutrophils with lymphocytes and fewer plasma cells. Arterial lumina are often narrowed and occluded by organizing fibrin thrombi. The subendothelial tunica intima is disrupted and markedly expanded by thick bands of deeply eosinophilic hyaline to fibrinoid material admixed with cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). The tunica media is expanded and disrupted by reactive fibroblasts, collagen, numerous small caliber blood vessels, and clear space (edema) and infiltrated by numerous viable and degenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, rare multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils and necrotic debris. Similar inflammatory cells extend into the tunic adventitia, disrupting elastic fibers, and into surrounding connective tissue. Multifocally, there is moderate atrophy of mesenteric fat. MDX: Arteries, mesenteric: Arteritis, proliferative and necrotizing, chronic-active, diffuse, severe, with thrombosis, Sprague-Dawley rat, rodent. CS: Periarteritis, panarteritis nodosa, polyangitis GD: most often occurs in aging rats, with a higher incidence in males. Most often in the muscular medium sized arteries of the mesentery, pancreas, pancreaticoduodenal artery, and testis, but also seen in hepatic, coronary, uterine, cerebral, adrenal, and renal arteries. Most often in SpragueDawley, sporadic in all species of domestic animals. Pathogenesis: Unknown. Thought to be an immune complex-mediated disease similar to the type III hypersensitivity-immune complex deposition in vessel walls CP: Metazoan parasites: Strongylus vulgaris, Dirofilaria immitis, Schistosoma sp., Elaeophora schneideri, Onchocerca armillata / Viruses: Equine viral arteritis (arterivirus, Arteriviridae), Border disease (pestivirus, Flaviviridae), Classical swine fever (pestivirus, Flaviviridae), African swine fever (Asfarviridae), Malignant catarrhal fever (alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 or ovine herpesvirus-2) / Bacterial diseases: Salmonella, Erysipelothrix, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Rickettsia rickettsii / Fungi: Aspergillus, Mucoraceae Canine juvenile polyarteritis syndrome ("Beagle pain syndrome"): Small to medium sized muscular arteries of heart, cranial mediastinum and cervical spinal meninges, intimal and medial fibrosis, rupture of elastic laminae, perivasculitis; splenic, renal and hepatic amyloidosis C-M05 - Atherosclerosis - heart – dog MG599

4 HD: Heart: Diffusely the large elastic and muscular coronary arteries have thickened walls with narrowed to occluded lumina. There is extensive disruption of the internal elastic lamina and the tunica intima and tunica media are moderately to severely thickened, disorganized, and expanded by numerous acicular clefts (cholesterol) mixed with amphophilic granular cell debris and mineral. Multifocally there are moderate numbers of histiocytic cells with abundant microvacuolated cytoplasm (foam cells), and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells. The tunica adventitia is expanded by low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells and occasional macrophages that extend into adjacent fibroadipose tissue. MDX: Heart, coronary arteries: Atherosclerosis, diffuse, severe, with mineralization, Labrador Retriever, canine. GD: Vascular degenerative diseases in animals are classified into three groups: Atherosclerosis refers to lesions composed of lipid, fibrous tissue and calcium deposits in vessel walls; called “atheromas” or fibrofatty plaques. Affects elastic arteries (aorta, carotid, iliac) and large and medium-sized muscular arteries. Hypothyroid or diabetic dogs; infrequent in domestic animals, common in humans Arteriosclerosis (literally “hardening of the arteries”) is characterized by intimal fibrosis of large elastic arteries; abdominal aorta is most commonly affected. Age-related; affects many species but rarely causes clinical signs. Arterial medial calcification; frequent in animals; involves elastic and muscular arteries. Elastic arteries: Characterized by mineral deposits on elastic fibers of the tunica media. Muscular arteries: Mineral deposits form a complete ring of mineralization in the tunica media. Causes include: ingestion of calcinogenic plants, vitamin D toxicosis, renal insufficiency; Johne’s Disease in cattle C-M06 - Mulberry heart disease - heart – pig MG601 HD: Heart: Multifocally affecting 30 percent of the myocardium, there is necrosis and hemorrhage, with multifocal to coalescing areas of myofiber loss and stromal collapse. Occasionally, myocytes are fragmented, karyorrhectic and hypereosinophilic with loss of cross striations and pyknosis (necrosis) or are swollen with vacuolated sarcoplasm (degeneration). Multifocally necrotic myofibers contain basophilic granular material (mineral). There are moderate numbers of fibroblasts within areas of necrosis. There is mild to moderate hemorrhage mixed with moderate numbers of macrophages, often containing hemosiderin, lymphocytes, and occasional eosinophils. Multifocally, the tunica media and intima of the myocardial vessels are disrupted and hypereosinophilic (necrosis). Viable blood vessels are lined by reactive endothelium and are surrounded by increased clear space (edema) and few eosinophils and lymphocytes. MDX: Heart, myocardium: Degeneration and necrosis, multifocal to coalescing, moderate, with vasculitis, lymphohistiocytic myocarditis, mineralization, and hemorrhage, crossbreed, porcine. EDX: Vitamine E/Selenium deficiency cardiopathy Cause: Vitamine E/Selenium deficiency DDX myocardial necrosis: Encephalomyocarditis virus (Picornaviridae, genus Cardiovirus): Acute death and myocardial necrosis / Foot and mouth disease (Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus): Usually have typical vesiculoulcerative lesions / Swine vesicular disease (Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus): Characteristic vesicles / Gossypol toxicosis / Monensin toxicosis CP: Other manifestations of vitamin E/selenium deficiency in pigs: Hepatosis dietetica, skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, steatitis, hemolytic anemia, exudative diathesis. Most species develop skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis Additional vitamin E/Se deficiency diseases in other species: Ruminants: Hemolytic or destructive anemia Lambs: Reported skeletal muscle degeneration, necrosis, and hepatic lipidosis caused by responsive vitamin E deficiency only Horses: Steatitis (yellow fat disease); possible cause of lower motor neuron disease Dogs: Steatitis; "brown dog gut" (intestinal lipofuscinosis; ceroid), pigmentary retinal degeneration; encephalomalacia; neuronal necrosis; axonal degeneration

leukoencephalomalacia (cherry cerebellum). enlarged hocks. Multifocally alveolar septa are thickened up to 4 times normal by congestion and eosinophilic finely beaded material (fibrin). nonhuman primate.liver . pigmentary retinal degeneration. with hemosiderosis and congestion. pyogranulomatous pansteatitis in marmosets Humans: Dietary hypovitaminosis E is rare.Aotus cardiomyopathy . Owl monkey (Aotus sp.Owl monkey HD: Liver: Diffusely.5 Cats: Steatitis Poultry: Exudative diathesis. Lung: Diffusely alveolar lumina contain variable numbers of macrophages with vacuolated cytoplasm or hemosiderin pigment (“heart failure cells”) and few extravasated erythrocytes. marked. The pathogenesis of Aotus cardiomyopathy is unknown. Lung: Alveolar histiocytosis.). 2. fetal resorption. Lymph node. multifocal. shrunken.lung. individualized hepatocytes that are degenerate or necrotic and admixed with small amounts of cellular debris. centrilobular. . Lymph node. nonhuman primate. fat malabsorption due to cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Remaining myocytes are variably sized. Owl monkey (Aotus sp.). hemolytic or destructive anemia. macrophages. MDX: 1. Multifocally portal areas contain small amounts of clear space and ectatic lymphatics filled with an eosinophilic proteinaceous material (edema). nonhuman primate. and scattered small foci of hemorrhage. or there is replacement of normal architecture by hemorrhage and fibrin. neuronal necrosis and axonal degeneration Guinea Pigs: Testicular degeneration. with variable retention of architecture. contain pale granular or vacuolated sarcoplasm (degeneration). hemorrhage. ventricle: Multifocally.Owl monkey HD: 1. affecting approximately 40% of the myocardium. cholestasis) that interfere with vit E absorption. steatitis Rats and mice: Hepatosis dietetica. subcapsular and medullary sinuses contain many erythrocytes (draining hemorrhage) and increased numbers of macrophages that exhibit erythrophagocytosis and hemosiderosis. most cases are secondary to diseases (e. aspermatogenesis. that occasionally extend to the portal areas. or are shrunken with hypereosinophilic sarcoplasm and pyknotic nuclei (necrosis). clear discrete vacuoles (lipid-type vacuolar change).Owl monkey HD: Heart. site not specified: Diffusely. decreased egg production and hatchability. site not specified: Draining hemorrhage. dystrophy of gizzard musculature Brown pelicans: Vitamin E deficiency causes skeletal muscle and myocardial degeneration and necrosis due to rancid feed Fishing birds as herons. additionally. aspermatogenesis Non-human primates: Muscular dystrophy. MDX: Liver: Necrosis. within the subepicardial connective tissue and myocardium. There is hepatocellular loss with marked dilation of sinusoids. there are low numbers of lymphocytes. diffuse. GD: Cardiomyopathy is a very common cause of morbidity and mortality in Aotus monkeys. Multifocally. lymph node .Aotus cardiomyopathy . Remaining hepatocytes contain few to many variably sized. with congestion. Owl monkey (Aotus sp. C-M07B . and surrounded by fibrous connective tissue (atrophy).g. C-M07C .heart . moderate. there are coalescing areas of marked centrilobular congestion and necrosis.). 2. diffuse. severe. plasma cells. individualized. and rare neutrophils. and lipid-type vacuolar change. ectatic lymphatics (edema). with myocyte degeneration and necrosis. there is moderate to marked loss of cardiomyocytes with replacement by fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis). Many myocytes contain variable amounts of golden-brown perinuclear pigment (lipofuscin). MDX: Heart: Fibrosis. with increased diameter (hypertrophy).Aotus cardiomyopathy . pelicans: Vitamin E deficiency causes pansteatitis Rabbits: Cataracts. C-M07A . and hepatocytes and Kupffer cells contain a brown to black globular pigment.

well demarcated masses up to 0.6 C-M08 . may be endodermal rests misplaced during organogenesis. MDX: Heart. but unique disease in cats. edema. may be a sequela of EMC Dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy: Bilateral enlargement of all heart chambers associated with dietary taurine deficiency in cats. fibrinous. isolate and replace individual cardiomyocytes and Purkinje fibers. surround.75 cm x 1. Holstein. EDX: Idiopathic endocarditis Cause: Unknown GD: Endomyocarditis (EMC) is a relatively common. subacute. associated with acute renal insufficiency Valvular endocarditis: Horses: Strongylus vulgaris larval migration Bovine: Arcanobacter pyogenes Pigs: Streptococcus sp. moderate. myocardium: Epithelial inclusions. which is often fatal. plasma cells. bovine. neutrophils. extending into the myocardium. GD: Bovine myocardial epithelial inclusions are congenital masses that do not proliferate. metastasize. feline. especially the left ventricle Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and disarray of sarcomeres Hereditary in Persian cats Hyperthyroidism Concentric. multifocal. admixed with moderate numbers of fibroblasts. C-M09 .Endomyocarditis (EMC) .5 cm that separate. lymphocytes.Myocardial epithelial inclusions . The interstitial tissue subjacent to the endocardium is mildly separated by clear space (edema). left ventricle: Endocarditis.heart – ox-1wk old MG256 HD: Heart: Subjacent to the endocardium. ventricular hypertrophy Enlarged thyroid glands Endocardial fibroelastosis: Young Burmese. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae .cat HD: Heart: Diffusely the endocardium of the left ventricle is expanded up to five times normal by abundant eosinophilic beaded to fibrillar material (fibrin) and clear space (edema). diffuse. Siamese Aortic stenosis. macrophages. hypertension Systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis: Intraluminal proliferation of spindle cells within vessels often involving the heart with resultant myocardial dysfunction CP: EMC is unique to cats. Can be considered a choristoma. or undergo malignant transformation. carnitine deficiency in dogs Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Marked hypertrophy of the ventricles. and hemorrhage. inflammatory cells infiltrate the underlying myocardium. DDX: For cardiac disease in cats: Left ventricular endocardial fibrosis (LVEF) or restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM): Older cats. and mild multifocal myocarditis. usually bilateral. Common in cats less than 4 years. with necrosis. Between the tubules. and within one of the papillary muscles are two expansile.heart . Ulcerative endocarditis: Distinct ulcerative lesion in the left atrium of dogs. and replace cardiomyocytes that are occasionally vacuolated or shrunken with hypereosinophilic sarcoplasm and pyknotic nuclei (degeneration and necrosis). Domestic shorthair cat. marked endocardial fibrosis. eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). expand the interstitium. unencapsulated. MDX: Heart.5 mm diameter and are lined by one to multiple layers of squamous to cuboidal epithelium. hemorrhage. because of inflammation of the left ventricular outflow tract. Multifocally. The masses are composed of multiple variably sized tubules that measure up to 2. and separate. surround. there are multifocal small nests of similar epithelial cells and abundant collagenous connective tissue.

Diffusely cardiomyocytes are enlarged 2-3 times normal. and E. Adjacent myofibers are often pale. HCM is much less common than the dilated form. myocardium: Fibrosis. the tunica media of intramyocardial vessels is mildly expanded by fibrillar eosinophilic material and hypertrophic smooth muscle cells (arteriolar hypertrophy). increase of cardiac muscle mass beyond the ability of the vasculature to supply blood. occurs in hyperthyroid cats (symmetrical or asymmetrical hypertrophy. and interventricular septum. moderate. inheritance is autosomal recessive Dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies have been described in pigs. feline. Multifocally in the myocardium of the left ventricular free wall. Domestic Shorthair. nerve conduction within the heart is also altered in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. with abundant eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm and a large vesicular central nucleus (hypertrophy).7 Dogs and Cats: Streptococcus sp. cardiomyopathies have been described in certain breeds (Japanese black cattle. coli Cardiomyopathies: In dogs. Regardless of the cause the end result is myocardial infarction with scarring.heart – cat MG589 HD: Heart: The left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum are up to 8 mm thick and the right ventricular wall is 2 mm thick. Coronary vessel spasm. with myofiber hypertrophy.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy . multifocal. suspected sarcomeric gene defect similar to that occurring in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in humans (animal model) Also heritable in Persian cats Dystrophin-deficient cats: X-linked recessive dystrophin deficiency. vacuolated and fragmented (degenerate). there is loss of cardiomyocytes with replacement by moderate amounts of collagen and rare adipocytes. hypertrophic. disarray. animal model for Duchenne . or systemic disease. Multifocally cardiomyocytes are irregularly arranged in right-angle branching or radiating "pinwheel" patterns (myofiber disarray). Australian polled Herefords and Holstein-Friesian). The most widely accepted mechanism is that of myocardial ischemia as a result of coronary vessel hypertophy with resultant luminal narrowing. In cattle. hypertrophied myofibers without myofiber disarray in most cases) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes. Maine coon cats: Autosomal dominant. An inherited cardiomyopathy exists in certain strains of Syrian hamsters causing atrial thrombosis. The cause is not known but there is a familial occurrence in cats and in humans there is a strong genetic link. Multifocally and segmentally. papillary muscle. MDX: Heart. and restrictive Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by ventricular hypertrophy without ventricular dilatation that is not attributable to other cardiac. thromboembolism of the coronary arteries. degeneration and loss. mutations in genes encoding various sarcometic proteins and mitochondrial genes. C-M10 . There is marked degeneration and fibrous replacement of the atrioventricular conduction system involving the branching portion of the AV bundle and the upper portion of the left bundle branch which leads to AV block and death. In addition to myocardial hypertrophy. GD: Cardiomyopathy is subdivided into dilated. the most commonly recognized cardiomyopathy is the dilated or congestive form in giant and large-breed dogs. vascular. Affected cats are usually middle-aged males. Pathogenesis: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) Diastolic disorder: Decreased compliance of the ventricular myocardium with normal systolic myocardial contractile function > decreased filling of ventricle during diastole (decreased preload) > decreased cardiac output (CO) Concentric cardiac hypertrophy: Increase in mass of ventricle without increase in end-diastolic volume. Multifocally the endocardium is mildly thickened by fibrous connective tissue. and apoptosis have also been suggested.

and medium-sized breeds. Hypertrophic muscular dystrophy: Dystrophin abnormality. left or bilateral congestive heart failure RCM Severe ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis and thickening with atrial enlargement Mural thrombosis. and atrial thrombosis Pulmonary edema. most often the left ventricle. chronic passive hepatic congestion. coronary arteries with a narrowed lumen. Dalmatians There are two distinct histologic forms: 1) the cardiomyopathy of Boxers and of Doberman Pinschers. aortic stenosis. pleural effusion. Walls maybe thin or thick (eccentric hypertrophy) Thickened opaque endocardium. usually in older male cats Excessive moderator bands in the left ventricle. papillary muscle hypertrophy. 2) myofiber hypertrophy. trabecula septomarginalis (moderator band) normally only in the right ventricle Burmese cats: Congenital endocardial fibroelastosis Typical Gross Findings: HCM Symmetric hypertrophy of ventricles (especially the left ventricle). mineralization Excessive moderator bands: Left ventricle. narrowing of the ventricular lumen and dilation of the left atrium (concentric hypertrophy) Atrial thrombosis with thromboembolism of caudal aorta (saddle thrombus) DCM Dilation of the heart chambers. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) Systolic disorder: Decreased contractility + increased afterload > decreased CO Eccentric cardiac hypertrophy: Increase in myocardial mass with increase in ventricular volume (Ventricular wall is usually normal or thin. myofiber degeneration.8 muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy Low plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations correlate with severity of HCM. 4) thick-walled. patent foramen ovale. Portuguese Water Dogs. left sided heart failure Endocardial fibroelastosis: Burmese. Boxers. concentric myocardial hypertrophy predominantly left ventricle. intramural. young to middle-aged giant and large-breed dogs. pathogenesis obscure Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) Impaired diastolic relaxation with reduced ventricular filling (decreased preload) > decreased CO Rare. hypertension. necrosis. 3) myofiber loss with replacement fibrosis. PDA. . low B-12 and arginine correlate with presence of arterial thromboembolism. atrophy and loss RCM: Endomyocardial replacement with granulation tissue and fibrosis Differential Diagnosis: Vascular or metabolic diseases: Hyperthyroidism. especially Doberman Pinscher. ascites. expanded atrioventricular rings. left or bilateral congestive heart failure Typical Light Microscopic Findings: HCM: 1) the histologic gold standard is myofiber disarray. ventricular septal defects. etc.) Linked to taurine deficiency. DCM: Myocardial and interstitial fibrosis. occasional asymmetric ventricular septal thickening. corresponding to the “fatty infiltration-degenerative” type of DCM. 2) the form detected in many giant. large. which can be classified as the “attenuated wavy fiber” type of DCM. Siamese cats Endomyocarditis: Young cats Comparative Pathology: Dogs: Usually DCM. myofiber hypertrophy without myofiber disarray.

cellular pleomorphism. expanding the subendocardium of the left ventricle. Nuclei are irregularly oval to elongate and bulge into the vascular channels. hemangioma/sarcoma C-N02 .Hemangiosarcoma . occasionally infiltrating adjacent myocardium. neurilemoma. there is a loosely cellular. rat. neurinoma. often wrap collagen bundles. and variably sized. Ferret: Secondary generalized dilatative cardiomyopathy.Endocardial schwannoma . At the periphery of the neoplasm.heart . and degenerate and non-degenerate neutrophils . variably dense cellular neoplasm composed of spindle cells arranged in short interlacing streams. Mitoses average 5-6 per HPF and are occasionally bizarre. right atrium: Expanding the myocardium and replacing 95% of the cardiac myocytes. or rarely are arranged in streams and bundles in more solid areas.9 English Cocker Spaniel: Early HCM > DCM late in life. There is marked anisokaryosis. with frequent nuclear regimentation. cardiac myocytes are surrounded by neoplastic cells and are degenerate (swollen and pale) or necrotic (shrunken and hypereosinophilic with pyknotic nuclei) and there are large areas of necrosis and few fibrin thrombi. rodent. There are occasional larger polygonal and multinucleate neoplastic cells. plasma cells. poorly circumscribed. anisocytosis. The neoplastic cells are surrounded and separated by variable amounts of eosinophilic finely fibrillar matrix. right sided heart failure in young to mature Holsteins. Schwann cell origin suspected based on histologic features and positive immunohistochemistry for S-100 protein and neuron specific enolase Typical Light Microscopic Findings:Biphasic population of neoplastic cells: Superficial cells: Ovoid with large dense oval nuclei. prominent nucleoli. there may be giant nuclei. multinucleate cells. endomyocardial neurofibromatosis. elongate nuclei have a central band of chromatin that spans the greater diameter of the nucleus (Anitschkow type nuclei). There are scattered aggregates of lymphocytes. and vacuolated (degeneration). forming whorls (Antoni type A) and herring bone patterns. areas of loosely arranged neoplastic cells (Antoni type B). sudden death in Japanese Blacks and Polled Hereford calves (associated with curly coat) Pigs: HCM and DCM Syrian hamsters: Hereditary dystrophic cardiomyopathy. rhabdomyoma/sarcoma. endocardial. Mitotic rate averages 3-5 per high power field. death occurs between 4-5 months. bundles and whorls. and multifocally expanding the atrium and aortic valve. hydrothorax C-N01 . is an unencapsulated. mostly to lung and liver Pathogenesis: Cell of origin unknown. Anitschkow cells: Neoplastic cells with a central band of heterochromatin that spans the greater diameter of the nucleus. Anitschkow cell sarcoma. Neoplastic cells have indistinct borders. Neoplastic cells form irregularly sized blood-filled vascular channels. and palisaded elongated nuclei (Verocay bodies) DDX: Intramural schwannoma: Well circumscribed. endocardial mesenchymal tumor. hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Multifocal cardiomyoctes adjacent to or entrapped within the neoplasm are pale. autosomal recessive. poorly circumscribed. discrete nodules Fibroma/fibrosarcoma. breed unspecified. oval to elongate. Neoplastic cells are spindle with variably distinct cell borders and a moderate amount of eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm. MDX: Heart: Schwannoma. infiltrative neoplasm. fibrosis and atrial enlargement one month after birth. CS: Endocardial sarcoma. myxoma. and finely vacuolated cytoplasm: Deep cells: Spindled and separated by collagen. an essential sarcomere component. Metastasis rare. and single cell necrosis. hepatosplenomegaly.heart – dog 593 HD: Heart. develop ventricular hypertrophy. neurosarcoma GD: Most common primary cardiac tumor of the rat. swollen. dilated ventricles with mineralization Mice: Transgenic mice expressing mutant tropomyosin. Occasionally.rat HD: Heart: Diffusely. have coarsely clumped chromatin and up to 2 distinct nucleoli. a small amount of eosinophilic fibrillar to vacuolated cytoplasm. taurine deficiency in some canine cases Cattle: Usually DCM. Multifocally. vesiculate nuclei that contain one variably distinct basophilic nucleolus.

endothelial cells are surrounded by tunica media and tunica adventitia Kaposi-like vascular tumor: Well circumscribed neoplasm with angular slit-like vascular spaces with few erythrocytes surrounded by large cavernous vascular spaces. GD: Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Spindle to polygonal to ovoid neoplastic cells that usually form vascular channels. breed unspecified. firm mass at the base of the heart Neoplasm arising in ectopic thyroid or parathyroid tissue Rhabdomyoma/rhabdomyosarcoma: Gray nodules that often project into cardiac chambers. neutrophils.Strongylus vulgaris infection . subacute. fleshy mass that resembles deposits of fat Pericardial mesothelioma Schwannoma: Seen in cattle as single or multiple white nodules C-P01 . severe. hemorrhage. there are cross sections of larval nematodes up to 300 um in diameter. pink to red DDX: Gongylonema pulchrum: Spirurid with broad host range. hemorrhage and necrosis.artery – horse MG607 . spaces. favors esophagus and stomach. hyperchromatic nuclei that often bulge into the lumina of vascular channels / Frequent mitotic figures. coelomyarian-polymyarian musculature. and a large intestine lined by uninucleate epithelial cells with a prominent. lymphocytes.Spirocerca lupi infection . few neutrophils and hemorrhage. lymphocytes. / Additional Diagnostic Tests: Factor VIII-related antigen for endothelial cells DDX: Hemangioma: Well circumscribed neoplasm. prominent stalked lateral chords. breed not specified. does not form nodules. necrotizing. Multifocally within the tunica media. rare in all species Malignant lymphoma: White. and a thick fibrous capsule (This tumor is named for its similar histologic appearance to the human Kaposi sarcoma and has NO association with human herpes virus 8 or immunosuppression) Lymphangiosarcoma: Vascular channels containing few erythrocytes Aortic body tumor (chemodectoma): White. eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. brightly eosinophilic material in the pseudocoelom. and abundant fibrin (larval migration tracts). right atrium: Hemangiosarcoma. ED: Aortic spirocercosis Cause: Spirocerca lupi GD: Tropical and subtropical areas / Intermediate host: Dung beetles / Spirally coiled nematodes. diffuse. The tunica media and adventitia are disrupted by multifocal to coalescing tracts composed of central necrotic cellular debris. canine.aorta – dog MG598/ 606/07 HD: Aorta: The tunica intima is thickened multifocally and expanded up to 3 times normal by plaque-like accumulations of collagen (fibrosis) and low numbers of plasma cells. tall brush border. Multifocally the intima is necrotic with accumulations of amorphous. and variable numbers of macrophages which are often hemosiderin-laden. eosinophilic material (fibrin). Focally. with larval nematodes and focal osseous metaplasia. vascular spaces are lined by a single layer of uniform endothelial cells and are filled with erythrocytes. with a smooth cuticle. canine. small thread-like worms present in the mucosa Dirofilaria immitis : Adults are filarid nematodes found normally within the heart or vascular lumina C-P02 . or small clefts somewhere in the tumor / Pleomorphic. collagen wrapping Large solid areas may be difficult to distinguish from poorly differentiated sarcomas. there is osseous metaplasia within the tunica media. there are different variants based on the size and appearance of vascular spaces Vascular hamartoma: An improper proliferation of normal blood vessels. MDX: Aorta: Arteritis.10 MDX: Heart.

platymyarian-meromyarian musculature. buffalo and goats Dirofilaria immitis: Heartworm of dogs and. severe. pseudocoelom.: In the wall of the aorta of cattle. neutrophils.: Tropical parasite of dogs and cats C-P03 . and subendothelial larval strongyles. S. hemorrhage. Often there are peribronchial/bronchiolar and perivascular eosinophils. edentatus: The larvae migrate via the portal system to the liver and eventually return to the cecum where they mature into adults S. wild canids. eosinophilic. and forms frond-like proliferations into the lumen. Multifocally there are nodular aggregates of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by neutrophils. Orientobilharzia): Blood flukes of mammals and birds Onchocerca sp. chronic. and horses Brugia sp. Lung. sea lions. large strongyles DDX: Small strongyles (cyathostomes): Synchronous emergence may cause hemorrhagic enteritis. and a large. Lesser numbers of inflammatory cells infiltrate the subendothelial connective tissue tunica intima. focally extensive. Craterostomum in equids Vascular parasites Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma. and lymphoplasmacytic. with intraarterial male and female nematodes. Within the thrombus are multiple cross and tangential sections of larval nematodes up to 220 um in diameter with a smooth 6 um thick cuticle. breed unspecified. eosinophils. prominent lateral cords. Triodontophorus. eosinophilic fibrillar material (fibrin) and erythrocytes. with an organizing thrombus. Oesophagosdontus. 2. transmural. mesenteric: Diffusely expanding and replacing the endothelium and internal elastic lamina is a variably thick band of eosinophilic granular to beaded fibrillar material (thrombus) admixed with high numbers of eosinophils and plasma cells with fewer neutrophils. ED: Strongylid arteritis Cause: Strongylus vulgaris CS: Strongylosis. 582 HD: Lung: Focally. hypoalbuminemia and weight loss. central intestine lined by few multinucleated cells with a prominent brush border. and paired uteri or a single gonad. muskrats. mesenteric: Arteritis. prominent lateral cords that possess an internal lateral cuticular ridge. re-enter the cecum/right ventral colon by direct penetration CP: Strongylus. lymphocytes. and abundant cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). less commonly. and fewer plasma cells and lymphocytes. Alveolar septa are diffusely thickened by low numbers of similar inflammatory cells and increased fibrous connective tissue. which is moderately thickened up to 4 times normal by fibrin and necrotic debris. true strongyles. and the tunica media. Within the lumen there are multiple cross sections of adult male and female 1 mm diameter nematodes with a thin eosinophilic cuticle. equine. domestic and wild cats. proliferative and necrotizing. eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic. Heterobilharzia.lung – dog MG547.Dirofilaria immitis infection . a pulmonary artery is moderately dilated and there is thickening of the tunica intima by abundant fibrous connective tissue that extends from the tunica intima. canine. Within bronchi and bronchioles there are numerous eosinophils. fibrous connective tissue and few lymphocytes and plasma cells (granulomas). a small intestine lined by few multinucleate epithelial cells. etiology consistent with Dirofilaria immitis. MDX: Artery. equinus: Migrate through peritoneal cavity to liver. lymphocytes. low numbers of lymphocytes and eosinophils surround vessels. they are generally nonpathogenic. breed not specified. diffuse. with . MDX: 1. artery: Endarteritis. multifocal. Within the tunicae media and adventitia. chronic. strongylidosis. macrophages. proliferative and villous. contains few lymphocytes and plasma cells. macrophages. Lung: Pneumonia.11 HD: Artery. moderate. then pancreas. tall coelomyarian/polymyarian musculature. histiocytic. moderate.

solium: Pork tapeworm. The eggs that lodge in small vessels cause more severe damage. eosinophilic tegument. Heart: Myocarditis. fibrillar. Taenia saginata. Thick outer membrane. The adult stage. numerous 5 um diameter. granulomatous and eosinophilic. a lacy. bovine. thin-walled. intracellular. is the most common and longest tapeworm in humans. ED: Myocardial cysticercosis and sarcocystosis Cause: Cysticercus bovis GD: Preferentially infects heart and masticatory muscles. in humans most cysts are located in the liver. Hydatid cysts are usually surrounded by mononuclear cells. Larval stages form unilocular hydatid cysts that localize in the lung. Bounding the cyst there is abundant eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). liver and other organs. with cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis and an intralesional cysticercus. Cardiac myocytes adjacent to these fibrous areas are either hypereosinophilic. plasma cells. and myofibers are often separated by eosinophilic. CP: Cats: Infection of cats by D. DDX: T. A cysticercus is a fluid-filled. with an invaginated scolex and neck. plasma cells and macrophages and few eosinophils and neutrophils. DDX: Dipetalonema reconditum is nonpathogenic cutaneous parasite that produces microfilaria Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasite of the pulmonary arteries of dogs and foxes that cause a proliferative endarteritis. and eosinophils. Heart. although cysts also occur in liver. Antigen stimulation from parasites may lead to immune complex glomerulonephritis.ox HD: Heart: Focally expanding the myocardium. eosinophils. severe. and fragmented with pyknosis or karyolysis (necrotic) or vacuolated and swollen (degenerate). MD: 1. Multifocally. multifocal. calcareous corpuscles. Unlike T.Cysticercosis . basophilic. random cardiac myocytes contain thin-walled.Acanthamoeba sp. giant cells and fibrosis. basophilic. muscular cyst. cardiomyocytes: Sarcocysts. eosinophilic parenchyma. few. crescent-shaped bradyzoites (sarcocysts). 2. cellulosae. C-P05 . metacestode C.12 multiple granulomas. ED: Pulmonary dirofilariasis Cause: Dirofilaria immitis CS: Heartworm disease GD: Heartworm disease is primarily a pulmonary vascular disease. breed unspecified. which is pathognomonic for heartworm disease. is a 3 x 3 mm parasitic cyst containing a crosssection of a larval cestode (cysticercus) surrounded by a 4 mm thick fibrous capsule. brood capsules with many ovoid.heart – dog MG384 . 100 X 200 um protozoal cysts containing abundant 3 X 5 um. The encysted larval cestode has a 4 um thick. saginata. numerous epithelioid macrophages. humans can be both definitive and intermediate hosts for T. Echinococcosis granulosus: Hydatid disease. encasing a germinal membrane that contains brood capsules (hydatid sand) that are free or connected to the membrane by a stalk. There are occasional foreign-body type multinucleate giant cells and mineral. which is further surrounded by dense collagen.heart . solium. and fewer lymphocytes. C-P04 . infection . Cysticerci often develop in cerebral or ocular locations and can be fatal. is a focally extensive area of dense fibrous connective tissue admixed with numerous lymphocytes. round. fibrillar to beaded material (fibrin) and increased clear space (edema). hooklet-laden scolices. immitis is common in endemic areas and is an important clinical entity. and a central scolex with two muscular suckers. Replacing approximately 50 percent of one section. lungs and lymph nodes. Fibrovascular proliferations grossly produce a shaggy or roughened appearance to the intima.

with amoebic trophozoites and cysts. breed unspecified. subacute. Naegleria. marked. there are scattered. Naegleria generally does not produce cysts in tissue and is often associated with acute neurologic infections. ED: Myocardial acanthamebiasis Cause: Acanthamoeba sp. clear rim. such as Acanthamoeba. wavy outer wall. canine.heart – dog MG593 HD: Heart: Diffusely and transmurally. 1. Within areas of inflammation and necrosis. and increased clear space along with ectatic lymphatics (edema).13 HD: Heart: Multifocally the myocardial architecture is disrupted by large amounts of eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). necrohemorrhagic. cruzi is a hemoflagellate protozoan (Class Zoomastigophorea. Amastigote (“leishmanial form”): Intracellular. amastigotes (intracellular form). loss of cross striations and a hypereosinophilic often fragmented sarcoplasm. inhabit animal bedding and human dwellings. short flying distances. Additional Diagnostic Tests: Organisms are PAS positive. Balamuthia. fewer macrophages.). nocturnal feeders. Cysts are generally rare and are more prevalent in CNS lesions than in extraneural lesions. hemorrhage. with many intramyocyte protozoal amastigotes. The endocardium and epicardium have similar. Family Trypanosomatidae) that causes fatal chronic myocarditis in both dogs and humans. and a rod-like kinetoplast parallel to the . within pseudocysts primarily in muscle. moderate numbers of viable and degenerate neutrophils. irregular in shape and have a thick 1-2 um. Multifocally. Cysts can be demonstrated with silver stains. pale and vacuolated to necrotic characterized by cells that are shrunken. ED: Trypanosomal myocarditis Cause: Trypanosoma cruzi CS: American trypanosomiasis GD: T. round to oval. MD: Heart: Myocarditis. and low numbers of lymphocytes. and macrophages. fibrin and edema. plasma cells. especially heart muscle. The endocardium is thickened up to 3 times normal by edema. multifocal. 10-20 um diameter. individual myofibers contain variably sized. changes. chronic-active. and Sappinia. with numerous 2-4 um round to oval protozoal amastigotes with a distinct basophilic nucleus and a rod-shaped kinetoplast oriented parallel to the nucleus. hemorrhage. irregularly round amoebic trophozoites with abundant granular amphophilic cytoplasm. breed not specified. often multiple nucleoli C-P06 . intracytoplasmic oval to elongate pseudocysts (up to 60 x 125um). surrounded. cardiac myocytes are separated. fibrin.Chagas' disease . undulating membrane running the entire length of the organism and a free flagellum.5-4 um in diameter. Cysts are smaller. and macrophages and fewer neutrophils and fibroblasts with multifocal areas that contain an eosinophilic beaded to finely fibrillar material (fibrin). and replaced by high numbers of lymphocytes. diffuse. necrotizing. Transmitted by “kissing” or assassin bugs (Triatoma sp. MD: Heart: Pancarditis. Trophozoites resemble macrophages and are 10-30 um in diameter with an eccentric nucleus and eosinophilic cytoplasm containing glycogen vacuoles and occasional ingested erythrocytes. Balamuthia: Slightly larger and more pleomorphic trophozoites than other amebas. GD: Small free living amebas of different genera. Three morphologic forms: Trypomastigotes (blood form). but less severe. angulated with pyknosis or karyolysis. many cardiomyocytes are fragmented and hypereosinophilic with loss of cross striations (myocardiocyte necrosis). severe. Up to 80 percent of remaining cardiac myocytes range from degenerate characterized by cells that are swollen. epimastigotes (form found in the vector). Trypomastigotes: Host blood and insect hindgut. canine. contain a nucleus. a single 7 um eccentric magenta nucleus and a 1-2 um dense basophilic nucleolus surrounded by a thin. neutrophils. Multifocally. DDX: Trophozoites of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are indistinguishable by light microscopy.

mummification. multifocal hemorrhage and necrosis. In ferrets AMD is a more protracted disease (two years or more) characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia and immune complex glomerulonephritis. hepatic portal areas and splenic red pulp where a nearly pure population of plasma cells .Closely related to feline parvovirus. multifocal cerebral mineralization Mink enteritis virus . canine. Basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in heart. edematous collagen and small numbers of lymphocytes and rare plasma cells. lung. eosinophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies Canine herpes virus: Inflammatory exudate. enterocyte hyperplasia with intranuclear inclusions in villus epithelium. ED: Parvoviral myocarditis Cause: Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) GD: Multisystemic necrotizing vasculitis. or rarely are shrunken and fragmented. embryonic death.Canine parvoviral type 2 infection . Adjacent cardiomyocytes are occasionally swollen or vacuolated (degeneration). H-1 virus: Cerebellar hypoplasia.cerebellar hypoplasia.Most cause subclinical infections: Kilham’s rat virus (RV). and intranuclear inclusion bodies.14 nucleus. amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes.Results in rapidly life-threatening immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. and hypergammaglobulinemia in mink.Epizootic occurrence in weanling/suckling hamsters. necrosis and loss. Lymphoid depletion DDX: Myocardial necrosis in puppies: Canine distemper virus (Paramyxoviridae. infertility Rodent parvoviruses . vasculitis. no free flagellum or undulating membrane DDX: Toxoplasma/Neospora: No kinetoplast Leishmania: Larger kinetoplast perpendicular to the nucleus (parallel in T. Labrador Retriever. with myocardiocyte degeneration. prominent plasmacytic infiltrates in numerous organs especially renal interstitium.: No tissue amastigote form C-V01 .: No kinetoplast Histoplasma capsulatum: Intracellular yeast.tropism for T lymphocytes resulting in immune modulation Hamster parvovirus .heart – dog – 5wk MG593 HD: Myocardium: Multifocally there is cardiomyocyte loss and replacement with loosely arranged. Occasionally cardiomyocyte nuclei contain a 5-10 um intranuclear inclusion body that is either basophilic and completely fills the nucleus. lymphoplasmacytic. panleukopenia and enteritis in postnatal kittens and cats Porcine parvovirus: Subclinical in adults. facial and dental malformations. Rat parvovirus. chronic. domed calvaria. Diffusely the endomysial fibrous connective tissue is mildly expanded by clear space and finely fibrillar material (edema). peritesticular hemorrhage. cruzi). mild. intranuclear inclusions CP: Canine parvovirus type 1 (Minute virus of canines): Sporadic cause of respiratory disease. testicular atrophy. Mouse parvovirus (adult mice) . no crypt lesions Feline parvovirus (feline panleukopenia): Intrauterine infection results in cerebellar hypoplasia. or is eosinophilic and surrounded by a 1-2 um clear halo and marginated chromatin. vascular endothelium. liver. enteritis Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) . with loss of cross striations and hypereosinophilic sarcoplasm (necrosis). important cause of reproductive failure and the SMEDI syndrome: Stillborn. MDX: Heart: Myocarditis. focal hepatic necrosis. endothelial cells and bile duct epithelium Minute virus of mice (infant mice) . no kinetoplast Other Trypanosoma sp. Morbillivirus): Purely degenerative. panleukopenia. intestinal tract. hemorrhagic encephalopathy. kidney. multifocal. no trypomastigote form Sarcocystis sp. high mortality. mild enteritis or myocarditis in 1-3 week old pups.

Parvovirus in pigs can induce a nonsuppurative myocarditis Vitamin E/Se deficiency (Mulberry Heart Disease) Edema: Edema disease (E. Occasionally myocytes contain multiple nuclei that form rows. myocytes are fragmented and granular. isolating and replacing cardiac myocytes are high numbers of lymphocytes. cervid.heart – pig MG593 HD: Heart. coli) C-V03 . edema. moderate. fibrin. 2 serotypes: EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 are enzootic in the US.Encephalomyocarditis virus infection . palate. Typical Gross Findings: Hemorrhage at the base of the pulmonary artery (from vasa vasorum). necrosis and thrombosis. myocardium. EDX: Picornaviral myocarditis Cause: Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) GD: Family Picornaviridae. Reoviridae family: Nonenveloped. inclusion bodies in liver. closely related to adeno-associated virus 2 Goose parvovirus: Lethal disease of young goslings and Muscovy ducks. MDX: Heart: Pancarditis. necrotizing. EDX: Orbiviral myocarditis Cause: Cervid orbivus 1 and 2 GD: Arthropod-borne virus which causes fatal hemorrhagic disease.deer HD: Heart: Affecting approximately 60 percent of the myocardium. thymus. breed unspecified. separating. epicardium and endocardium are multifocal areas of necrosis. plasma cells. There is multifocal mesothelial cell hypertrophy. lymphocytic. and few neutrophils (vasculitis). segmental bands (contraction bands). Multifocally. irregular. reticulum and omasum. Viral strains may produce either encephalitis or myocarditis. nuclei and cross striations are absent (necrosis). and basophilic granular material (mineral). multifocal. swine. DDX: Myocarditis in pigs: Foot and mouth disease (picorna/aphthovirus): Gross and microscopic cardiac lesions may be indistinguishable from EMCV. mice. Occasionally. hepatitis. rumen. ventricle: Multifocally disrupting the epicardium. multifocal. the tunica intima of blood vessels is disrupted and replaced by cellular and karyorrhectic debris. and pyknosis (necrosis).heart . also mule deer. hypereosinophilic. surround and occasionally replace myocytes. myocarditis. Hemorrhage of the rumen pillars Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Widespread hemorrhage. hemorrhage and inflammation. and hemorrhage. genus Cardiovirus. and endocardium and surrounding. spleen. and macrophages.Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) of Deer . In deer herds: All ages susceptible. . Within affected areas. plasmacytic and histiocytic. MDX: Heart: Pancarditis. morbidity-90%. porcine. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). clinically resembles acute bluetongue in sheep. Widespread hemorrhage and edema. with myocardial necrosis. Rats and mice are reservoir hosts. pronghorn antelope and cattle. Erosions/ulcers dental pad. hepatitis. mortality 60%. raccoons and other mammals with swine most susceptible (up to 100 percent mortality in suckling pigs). linear dsRNA. myocardium. intestines C-V02 . loss of cross striations. Moderate numbers of degenerate neutrophils and fewer macrophages separate. with necrotizing vasculitis. eosinophilic fibrillar material (fibrin). thyroid gland. particularly in White-tailed deer. moderate amounts of clear space (edema).15 expands the red pulp Duck parvovirus: Muscovy ducklings. cardiac myocytes are swollen with vacuolated sarcoplasm (degeneration) or shrunken with hypereosinophilic sarcoplasm. Myocytes multifocally have thick. with clinically inapparent disease and shedding of virus in urine and feces. severe. mild hemorrhage. The host range includes primates. tongue. myocarditis.

killed 4. difficile): Acute fatal necrotizing typhlitis Yersiniosis (Y. random. Multifocally there are moderate numbers of portal and periportal lymphocytes and plasma cells. lymphocytes.Liver .heart . MDX: Heart: Pancarditis.Chilean flamingo HD: Heart: Multifocally infiltrating over 50% of cardiomyocytes.West Nile virus infection . macrophages. plasma cells and macrophages. Influenzavirus A): Both cause mortality in chickens and turkeys. C. Diffusely similar inflammatory cells infiltrate the epicardial adipose tissue and nerves. plasma cells. and plasma cells (paratyphoid nodules) as well as hemorrhage. moderate.16 Arterioles and venules most markedly affected DDX: Bluetongue (Orbivirus): Identical lesions Adenovirus: Black-tailed and white-tailed deer. focal to segmental cecal mucosal necrosis.Salmonella enteritidis infection . hyalinized with loss of cross striations. and macrophages. cardiomyocytes. Rare cardiomyocytes are pale.Guinea pig HD: Liver: Multifocally there are random. and are surrounded by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). necrotizing. oocytes. variably sized (up to 2mm diameter) areas of coagulative and lytic necrosis. and the epicardium are coalescing aggregates of many lymphocytes. EDX: Hepatic salmonellosis Cause: Salmonella enteritidis DDX: Differential diagnosis for hepatic necrosis in a guinea pig Clostridial enterotoxemia (C. WNV is seldom a fatal infection in these species Eastern equine encephalitis (Togaviridae. pseudotuberculosis): Large colonies of bacteria Tyzzer’s disease (Clostridium piliforme): Portal necrosis. and lipidtype vacuolar change. characteristic appearance of intracellular bacteria best demonstrated with Warthin-Starry . fibrous connective tissues. swollen and vacuolated (degenerate).000 in 1959 African horse sickness: Acute pulmonary edema and death. Diffusely remaining hepatocytes contain clear cytoplasmic vacuoles (vacuolar change. avian. hydropericardium Equine encephalosis: Limited to South Africa. Rubulavirus) or highly pathogenic avian influenza (Orthomyxoviridae. neutrophils. periorbital and nuchal ligament edema. alternating hyperexcitability and depression. guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). DDX: Exotic Newcastle's disease (Paramyxoviridae. lipid-type). other cervids: Pulmonary edema. with nodular lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (paratyphoid nodules). Purkinje fibers. Multifocally the capsule is irregular and expanded up to two times normal by variable numbers of neutrophils. rodent. lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic. Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). macrophages and monocytes. perfringens. with fewer neutrophils and macrophages. systemic vasculitis. abortion C-V04 . Alphavirus): Arbovirus known to be pathogenic for birds D-B01 . multifocal to coalescing. intranuclear inclusions in endothelial cells Other veterinary orbiviral diseases: Ibaraki disease: Cattle in Japan infected with EHDV-2. multifocal. The majority of cardiomyoctes are shrunken. diffuse lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis. which are frequently bordered by a variable number of lymphocytes. EDX: Flaviviral myocarditis Cause: West Nile virus GD: Cellular targets include CNS (cerebellum) and PNS. MDX: Liver: Hepatitis. multiple epithelial cell types. necrotizing. however. pyknosis or karyolysis. There is rare erythrophagocytosis.

pyogranulomatous and necroulcerative typhlocolitis. The necrotic. there is marked hemorrhage. denuded villi are often lined by a dense layer of 1-2 x 3-7 um bacilli which are also present individually and in colonies within the lamina propria. EDX: Clostridial enteritis Cause: Clostridium perfringens type C DDX: Bacterial equine enteric disease: Salmonellosis . myocardial necrosis CP: Clostridium perfringens . UK Overeating disease/ pulpy kidney . marked. segmental ileotyphlitis/ileocolitis.Chickens Gastroenteritis . cattle. Africa.Clostridium perfringens type C infection . acute.calves. MDX: Small intestine: Enteritis.unproven association Lamb dysentery Hemorrhagic enteritis . hepatic necrosis. edema.Gram negative bacillus.Gram positive bacillus.Gram positive bacillus. Thoroughbred. but most prominent in the submucosa.Sheep. the tunica media of submucosal small and medium-sized blood vessels are occasionally expanded and disrupted by fibrin. hemorrhagic and fibrinonecrotic.enterotoxemia. and consolidated lung lobes D-B02 . peracute septicemia in foals. western US Colitis X in horses . there are areas of lytic necrosis within the mucosa and areas of coagulative necrosis in the lamina propria with multifocal loss of epithelium cells.Types.neonatal foals. Multifocally. fibrinopurulent pleuritis. hemorrhagic enteritis in foals Clostridium difficile . increased clear space and ectatic lymphatics (edema). goats. cattle. acute fibrinonecrotic ileotyphlocolitis and catarrhal enteritis in horses.Gram positive bacillus. transmural.Gram positive bacillus. guinea pigs .Adult sheep. and fibrin. congested vessels. S. Middle East Enterotoxic hemorrhagic enteritis .4d old MG366 HD: Small intestine: Transmurally. foals. peritonitis. karyorrhectic debris and hemorrhage (vasculitis). diffuse. lambs.Gram negative bacilli. pigs Struck . A ++ - - - B + ++ + - C D + + ++ - ++ - . unproven association with Colitis X Clostridium perfringens type B . pseudomembranous typhlocolitis in horses. chronic necroulcerative typhlocolitis (button ulcer lesions in pigs) Rhodococcus equi .17 or Giemsa stains Pneumococcal septicemia (Streptococcus pneumoniae): Acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia.UK. Multifocally. pyogranulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis in foals Clostridium perfringens type A .small intestine – horse. toxins and diseases Type Toxin Alpha Beta Epsilon Iota Diseases Gas gangrene Food Borne Illness humans Necrotic enteritis . with vasculitis.Ferrets Yellow lamb disease . edema. pericarditis. and large numbers of bacilli. enterocolitis in foals Clostridium piliforme (Tyzzer's disease) . equine.

with colonies of bacilli.quail HD: Small intestine: There is extensive loss of mucosal crypts and villi and replacement by a coagulum of abundant fibrin.): Also causes necrotizing and hemorrhagic abomasitis with vasculitis and submucosal hemorrhage and edema. necrohemorrhagic. diffuse. erythrocytes. or confused with. and moderate hemorrhage.abomasum – ox MG334 HD: Abomasum: Diffusely and transmurally. histological examination of liver and spleen will usually reveal histomonads Heterakis gallinarum: Cecal worm. acute. Aspergillus sp. fungal hyphae . does not affect water fowl Mortality varies with species (10% in chickens. diffuse. There is diffuse moderate congestion. fibrin and edema expand the remaining lamina propria and extend through the tunica muscularis into the serosa. adventitial vessels are markedly congested. Many heterophils. MDX: Small intestine: Enteritis. quail are not affected Histomonas meleagridis: Produces caseous cecal cores and necrotic targetoid hepatic lesions. forming a diphtheritic membrane. MDX: Abomasum: Abomasitis. severe. EDX: Clostridial enteritis Cause: Clostridium colinum CS: Quail disease GD: Sudden death in young captive game birds. avian. and extend into the tunica muscularis and serosa. ulcerative and necrotizing. with submucosal edema. thrombosis and hemorrhage DDX: For abomasitis: Mycotic abomasitis (Mucor sp. Multifocally. Spleen: Variable splenic necrosis in quail DDX: Coccidiosis: Often seen with. The mucosa is multifocally eroded. with loss of distinct architecture and replacement by karyorrhetic debris. macrophages. and vasculitis. transmural. subterminal spores. and moderate numbers of neutrophils that infiltrate the lamina propria and submucosa. Quail. lymphocytes and few heterophils admixed with the fibrinonecrotic debris.Sheep Enterotoxemia .Ulcerative enteritis . oval. necrotic debris.18 goats Focal symmetric encephalomalacia . and plasma cells. angular and shrunken with pyknotic nuclei (necrosis) or swollen and microvacuolated (degeneration). pinpoint coagulative hepatic necrosis with abundant bacteria. Rhizopus sp. EDX: Clostridial abomasitis Cause: Clostridium septicum CS: bradsot GD: Vasculitis.. breed unspecified. Multifocally. there is vasculitis characterized by disruption of the endothelium and infiltration of neutrophils within the tunica media.small intestine . moderate. increased clear space and lymphangiectasia (edema). does not cause focal liver necrosis or an enlarged hemorrhagic spleen Hemorrhagic enteritis in turkey poults (avian adenovirus type 2): Intranuclear inclusion bodies (can also be seen in inclusion body hepatitis (avian adenovirus type 1) Necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens: No liver lesions.. the abomasum is markedly expanded by eosinophilic finely fibrillar material (fibrin). turkeys and chickens. up to 100% in quail) Additional typical Light Microscopic Findings: Liver: Centrilobular or diffuse. There are many macrophages. Adjacent villi are multifocally eroded and ulcerated and remaining mucosal and crypt epithelial cells are often brightly eosinophilic. guinea pigs. lambs. necrotic lesions in the ceca and liver D-B04 .Braxy . lymphocytes. ulcerative enteritis.calves. and many colonies of 1x4 um bacilli that occasionally contain 1 um. subacute. rabbits E + - - ++ D-B03 . bovine.

Surrounding hepatocytes are swollen with pale. also associated with migration tracts of Fasciola hepatica. hemorrhage and thrombosis Bluetongue (Orbivirus.liver – horse – 3wk old MG433 HD: Liver: Effacing 80% of the normal architecture are multifocal to coalescing areas of lytic necrosis characterized by replacement with eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies Malignant catarrhal fever (Alcelaphine herpesvirus and ovine herpesvirus 2): Lymphocytic and lymphoblastic vasculitis Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (Bovine herpesvirus 1): Multifocal necrosis in the digestive system with intranuclear inclusion bodies Bovine viral diarrhea virus/mucosal disease (Pestivirus. necrosis. large numbers of viable and degenerate neutrophils. crossbred sheep. and Streptococcus can cause hepatic abscesses. D-B06 . Periportal areas and the subcapsular space (capsule of Glisson) are expanded up to three times normal by ectatic . Rhizopus): Damage to ruminal mucosa (ruminal acidosis) allows ruminal microflora to enter the portal circulation. multifocal. loss of cellular detail. phosphorus. etiology consistent with Fusobacterium necrophorum. random. Occasionally adjacent vessels have focal disruption of their walls with necrotic debris. 1-3 mm diameter. filamentous (1x15um) bacilli. necrophorum). random. and invasion of filamentous organisms into the vessel lumina. hemorrhage and thrombosis Black disease (Clostridium novyi): Similar abomasal lesions with necrotizing hepatitis.19 evident with PAS and GMS stains Viral abomasitis: Rarely limited to the abomasum. hemoglobinuria Arcanobacter pyogenes (often isolated with F. ovine. MDX: Liver: Necrosis. fibrin. there are numerous radiating colonies of extracellular filamentous bacilli. occasionally with central dropout. Peripheral. hypereosinophilic with pyknotic nuclei (necrosis). less affected hepatocytes often contain numerous. with vascular fibrinoid necrosis. Bacillary hemoglobinuria: Clostridium hemolyticum. The adjacent sinusoids are mildly expanded by clear space and contain rare lymphocytes and neutrophils. EDX: Hepatic fusobacteriosis Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum DDX: Sheep and cattle: Multifocal random hepatic necrosis (hepatocellular necrosis) Infectious necrotic hepatitis (Black Disease): Clostridium novyi.Tyzzer's disease . zinc) cause hemorrhage. fewer macrophages. Paramyxoviridae): Syncytia. eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. usually related to migration of Fasciola hepatica Enterotoxemia (Clostridium perfringens type A): Similar lesions in neonatal calves in the western US with ruminal tympany and abomasitis Toxins (arsenic. and ulcers throughout the gastrointestinal tract D-B05 . Within and along the periphery of the necrotic foci. hemorrhage. and entrapped individualized hepatocytes. pale. thallium. admixed with fibrin. icterus. vacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration) or are shrunken. Mycotic hepatitis (Mucor. associated with migration tracts of Fasciola hepatica.liver – sheep – 6d old MG431 HD: Liver: There are multifocal. Staphylococcus. swollen hypereosinophilic hepatocytes. necrotic lesions similar but often linear. and rare basophilic granular material (mineral). not emphysematous Rinderpest (Morbillivirus.Hepatic necrobacillosis . and intralesional filamentous bacilli. Reoviridae): May cause abomasal necrosis. hemoglobinemia. discrete areas of coagulative necrosis characterized by retention of tissue architecture. Flaviviridae): May cause abomasal necrosis. coagulative.

Sleepy Foal Disease (Actinobacillus equuli): Multifocal hepatitis. pseudotuberculosis produce submucosal microabscesses with large colonies of bacteria. Affects terminal ileum.small intestine. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).colon . EDX: Colonic shigellosis Cause: Shigella sp. D-B09 . colon and rectum. lesions are less severe than those of Shigella sp. intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes Salmonella sp. The submucosal lymphoid tissue contains decreased numbers of lymphocytes admixed with necrotic debris (lymphoid depletion). with fibrin thrombi. plasma cells. suppurative enterocolitis and can cause septicemia. and scattered colonies of many minute bacteria. concurrent interstitial pneumonia. eosinophilic fibrillar material (fibrin). blood vessels in the lamina propria and submucosa are variably occluded by finely fibrillar to consolidated eosinophilic material admixed with few degenerate inflammatory cells (fibrin thrombi). diffuse. and S. or E. multifocal to coalescing. described in foals and other species. Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. filamentous bacilli within hepatocytes at the periphery of necrotic areas. fibrin. coli causes hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and ulcerative colitis. and congestion admixed with moderate numbers of degenerate neutrophils. with intracellular bacilli. Multifocally. DDX: For gross and microscopic findings: Campylobacter jejuni affects both small and large intestine.Rhesus monkey . and edema. Multifocally. flexneri. adipose tissue – ox MG372 HD: Small intestine: The intestine is diffusely thickened and the mucosa is thrown into prominent . S. severe enteritis. hemorrhage. severe. S. Four species: S. nonhuman primate. HD: Colon: Diffusely. flexneri is most common. and low numbers of lymphocytes. GD: Shigella sp. coli septicemia: Watery. MDX: Liver: Hepatitis. S.Paratuberculosis . macrophages. Occasionally bacilli are free within necrotic debris. joint lesions. equine. Diffusely. dysenteriae. Foci of myocardial necrosis. Necrohemorrhagic periodontitis/gingivitis may be present in macaques. necrotizing. DDX: For random necrotizing hepatitis in foals: Equine Herpesvirus I: Hepatic necrosis. the submucosa is moderately expanded by increased clear space with ectatic lymphatics (edema). embolic nephritis D-B07 .0): There are many argyrophilic. subacute.Bacillary dysentery . acute. Enteropathogenic E. Liver (Warthin Starry Technique pH 4. Few organisms are required to cause disease. cause severe hemorrhagic enteritis (dysentery) in non human primates and humans. breed not specified. dysenteriae is the most pathogenic. lined by attenuated epithelium. boydii. Occasionally remaining intestinal crypts are ectatic. sonnei. necrohemorrhagic. mesentery. Bacilli occur in parallel and perpendicular sheaves and bundles as well as singly. congestion. there is partial to full thickness mucosal necrosis and loss with replacement by abundant hemorrhage. and contain sloughed epithelial cells admixed with degenerate neutrophils (crypt abscesses). foul smelling diarrhea. and rare neutrophils. sinusoids are congested. S.juv.20 lymphatic vessels (edema). Balantidium coli can cause ulcerative colitis. Salmonella enteritidis or typhimurium causes necrotizing. eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. EDX: Clostridial hepatitis Cause: Clostridium piliforme GD: Necrotizing enterocolitis. few degenerate neutrophils. pneumonia and/or meningitis (with Salmonella). MDX: Colon: Colitis. severe.

not acid-fast. admixed with abundant 1 X 1-3 um bacilli. Gram negative bacilli. increased numbers of small bile ducts (biliary hyperplasia) and many lymphocytes and plasma cells admixed with epithelioid macrophages and fewer multinucleated giant cells with intracytoplasmic bacilli. Angus cross. finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric oval nucleus. there are low to moderate numbers of perivascular lymphocytes. not acid fast Secondary copper deficiency (chronic molybdenum poisoning) . Intestinal parasites (coccidiosis. avian. diffuse. Within the tunica muscularis and serosa. nodule formation. diffuse. MDX: 1. The macrophages are further surrounded by abundant fibrous connective tissue and numerous lymphocytes and plasma cells. Surrounding the necrotic core are numerous epithelioid macrophages and fewer multinucleated giant cells that often contain intracytoplasmic bacilli. Flaviviridae) . varisized. (Acid-fast): Liver: Necrotic areas. macrophages. there is loss of hepatocytes with replacement by abundant fibrosis. etiology consistent with Mycobacterium sp. chronic reticulopericarditis) D-B10 . Diffusely between nodules.21 rugose folds. and numerous intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli. Gram negative bacteria.fecal examination for eggs or oocysts Malnutrition.generally regional. Submucosal and serosal lymphatics are mildly ectatic.Avian mycobacteriosis . with mitotic figures high in the mucosa (regeneration). Small intestine: Enteritis. vesicular nuclei. gastrointestinal helminthiasis) .liver .quail HD: Liver: Effacing over 90% of normal architecture and multifocally elevating the overlying capsule are numerous.generally acute. bovis . 2. and multinucleated giant cells contain abundant acid-fast 1 x 1-3 um bacilli. paratuberculosis) CS: Johne's disease GD: Mesenteric lymph nodes . bovine. marked. up to 1 mm diameter. numerous. moderate bile duct hyperplasia. calcification Bovine viral diarrhea (Bovine Pestivirus. Villi are diffusely blunted or absent. EDX: Hepatic mycobacteriosis Cause: Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAIC) CS: Avian tuberculosis DDX: Neoplasia Fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida): Gram negative bacilli. edema. not acid-fast.. Diffusely within crypt epithelium there is increased cytoplasmic basophilia. granulomatous. severe EDX: Mycobacterial enteritis Cause: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. . there are dense sheets of large macrophages with abundant. plasma cells and rare neutrophils and foreign-body type multinucleated giant cell macrophages. affects multiple animals. with villus atrophy. with chronic diffuse severe lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic hepatitis. granulomas composed of a central core of abundant eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (caseous necrosis). Mesentery. and acid-fast bacilli. neoplasia (lymphosarcoma. and piling up of cells 3-5 deep. fibrosis.usually fewer organisms. adipose tissue: Atrophy. Expanding the submucosa and lamina propria and separating and isolating crypts. Fowl typhoid (Salmonella gallinarum): Most characteristic lesions are in heart and gizzard. mixed with fewer lymphocytes. and serosal adipocytes are diffusely atrophied. Thymus .3 x 2 um acid fast bacilli. MDX: Liver: Granulomas. Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix). Acid fast: Small intestine: Macrophages contain large numbers of 0. necrosis. a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio.lymphoid depletion DDX: Chronic diarrhea in adult cattle M.granulomatous lymphadenitis.diarrhea with mucosal and Peyer's patch erosions Salmonellosis .

Extension to the mesenteric lymph nodes may occur.Yersinia enterocolitica infection .African green monkey HD: Colon: Multifocally. If septicemia develops. admixed with low numbers of degenerate neutrophils. intracellular. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. hepatitis. hepatic. Pathogenesis: Transmission is fecal-oral. and lung occur in the chronic form. and colon. up to 200 um wide. enterocolitica is a gram negative. ulcers. Y. Colon: Colitis. segmental. lagomorphs. colonies of coccobacilli up to 250 um wide that extend into the mesentery and are admixed with moderate numbers of viable and degenerate neutrophils. meninges). moderate. In . African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops). pestis Birds and rodents are reservoirs. multifocal. Liver: Hepatitis. random. pseudotuberculosis and Y. and large. Three major pathogenic species of Yersinia: Y. acute. congestion. necrotizing. Bacteria multiply in Peyer's patches. there are bacterial colonies and few viable and degenerate neutrophils and macrophages. suppurative lesions may occur in various organs (liver.granulomas in liver and intestinal tract. nonhuman primate. new and old world primates. 2. lymph nodes. with peritonitis and large colonies of intralesional and intravascular coccobacilli. horses. necrotizing. and cats). Vessels often contain bacterial emboli and the tunica media is disrupted by previously described inflammatory cells. Y. necrosis eventually causes mucosal ulceration. domestic animals (swine. Bacteria invade enterocytes. marked neutrophilic inflammation. spleen.22 Escherichia coli: Coligranulomas . macrophages. multifocal necrosis with neutrophilic inflammation and large. multifocal. and large bacterial colonies Liver and spleen: Random. granulomatous nodules in the spleen. subacute. pseudotuberculosis affects a wide range of species including primates. and peritoneal yersiniosis Cause: Yersinia enterocolitica General Discussion: Y. There are multifocal. enterocolitica. transmural. lungs. with numerous large colonies of coccobacilli Etiologic Diagnosis: Colonic. often transmural. causing necrosis and subsequently enter the lamina propria of the distal ileum. Liver: Multifocally and randomly affecting 10% of the parenchyma there are well demarcated areas of necrosis characterized by loss of normal hepatic architecture and replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. not acid-fast. liver. cecum. Acute septicemia. D-B11 . Randomly in the sinusoids. liver . it is an important foodborne pathogen. severe. mesenteric lymphadenitis. lymphocytes. edema. dogs. colonies of coccobacilli. hemorrhage and necrosis of the small and large intestine (ulcerative enterocolitis) Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly with multifocal necrosis or abscesses Mesenteric lymphadenopathy Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Intestine: Multifocal mucosal necrosis. lobulated bacterial colonies Differential Diagnosis: Bacteria That Form Large Colonies in Tissue (YAACSS): Y. and eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (lytic necrosis).colon. there is well-demarcated coagulative necrosis of the mucosa characterized by loss of differential cell staining with retention of cellular architecture. nonmotile. infections are more common in outdoor housed primate colonies and during wet weather. cattle. and some prosimians and apes. sheep. Typical Gross Findings: Multifocal to diffuse. coccobacillus that causes enterocolitis. fibrin. hemorrhage. enterocolitica can replicate at refrigeration temperatures. transmural. and fewer plasma cells. and less commonly septicemia in many mammals including rodents. along with fibrin. hemorrhage.

a hemorrhagic inflammation of the perioral subcutis of freshwater fish (esp. through IBs. mild bile duct hyperplasia. coli): Similar to shigellosis but also affect small intestine. Differentiation from Y. sheep. (gm -). mild anisokaryosis and increased mitotic activity. S. S.Psittacosis . multifocal to coalescing. Staphylococcus sp. up to 1 mm diameter areas of necrosis characterized by complete loss of hepatic architecture and replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (lytic necrosis). air sacs and pericardial sac within 4 hours > bacteremia within 48 hours > portals of exit (cloaca & nasal turbinates). and intrahepatocellular bacteria. Intermediate body (IB): has morphologic characteristics between EB and RB. avian. and goats. allowing rapid replication and causing sudden death. Corynebacterium sp. typhimurium. and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells. Remaining foci are characterized by retention of hepatic cord architecture with loss of differential staining (coagulative necrosis). no large colonies Comparative Pathology: Y. It can cause abortions in cattle. jejuni. boydii. rainbow trout) D-B12 . The reproductive cycle: EBs attach to host cell membrane at coated pit > internalization into host cell via invagination of the host cell membrane > inhibition of phagosome lysosome fusion > differentiation into RB > binary fission > reorganization. typhlitis and colitis. Etiologic Diagnosis: Hepatic chlamydophilosis Cause: Chlamydophila psittaci General Discussion: C. hemorrhage. RNA.pseudomembrane. enterocolitica requires culture. ruckeri: Causes “Red Mouth”. (gm +) and Streptococcus sp. colonic edema. S. lung. Multifocally.liver . metabolically active. psittaci has 8 known fairly host specific serovars: 6 in birds (A-F) and 2 in mammals (WC and M56). necrosis. heterophils and lymphocytes. Multifocally hepatocytes are mildly vacuolated and contain small aggregates of brown. stanley): Fibrinonecrotic enteritis. (C.23 primates.acute infection . enteriditis. granular pigment (bile and/or hemosiderin). flexneri. sonnei): Lesions limited to large intestine. S. fibrinonecrotic enteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis with necrosis in the liver. no large bacterial colonies Campylobacter sp. dublin. (gm -) (S. Tropism for columnar epithelial cells lining mucous membranes Pathogenesis: Inhalation or ingestion of contaminated feather dust or feces > multiply in lung. Actinomyces sp. Y. Reticulate body (RB): intracellular. and divides by binary fission. Bile ducts are prominent. (gm +). (gm +). dysenteriae. Histologically there is a necrotic core with suppuration surrounded by large numbers of epithelioid macrophages but no giant cell macrophages. (gm -) (S. (gm+) Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Primates: Shigella sp. Yellow Nape Amazon parrot (Ochrocephala auropalliate). replicating form that synthesizes DNA. Bacteria use host derived proteins to produce an envelope that is resistant to host phagocytosis. pestis (Plague): Transmission occurs by direct contact with infected carcasses or bodily excretions or by flea bites. The organism enters through mucous membranes or broken skin. severe. moderate. there is acute. and lined by hyperplastic epithelium characterized by piling up. few random hepatocytes and Kupffer cells contain intracytoplasmic gray granular material (bacteria). edema. Actinobacillus sp. C. villus blunting and fusion. S. Bacteria are killed in neutrophils but can survive and replicate within macrophages. Elementary body (EB): infectious form that enters the cell. into new EBs > release from host cell (cell lysis or exocytosis) Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Liver: Multifocal coagulative necrosis . and protein. often surrounded by epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells (granuloma). necrotizing. Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Hepatitis. and spleen. mildly ectatic. with spread to regional lymph nodes and/or bacteremia. hemorrhage and ulcers +/. Diffusely sinusoids are expanded by macrophages. S. with multiple granulomas.Amazon parrot Histopathologic Description: Liver: Multifocally there are random irregularly round. Salmonella sp.

S. M. pneumonia Guinea Pigs: Guinea Pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis (GPIC). including ovine enzootic abortion (necrotizing placentitis in ewe. Within crypts and along villi.Enterotoxigenic colibacillosis . intranuclear inclusions Mycobacteriosis (MAIC): Acid-fast. epididymitis. Capillaries within the lamina propria are mildly congested. The intestinal lumen contains variably sized aggregates of sloughed enterocytes admixed with small amounts of eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris and abundant bacilli. pneumonia. lymphoid depletion. pullorum (Pullorum disease). acid-fast. crypts contain necrotic cellular debris and few neutrophils (crypt abscess).more chronic infection. Kupffer cell hyperplasia. there are small aggregates of 1x2 um bacilli that are often adjacent to enterocytes that are mildly attenuated and occasionally have a loss of cellular detail with nuclear pyknosis or loss (necrosis). typhimurium (paratyphoid). multifocal.small intestine . Spleen: Histiocytosis.eg. Air sacs: Fibrinous exudate with heterophils and macrophages. most cases of abortions in ruminants due to Chlamydophila abortus. can also cause rhinitis and genital tract infections Mice: Mouse pneumonitis (focal interstitial pneumonia and bronchitis) and experimental genital infection resolution of infection and milder clinical signs associated with pronounced PMN response and increased numbers of CD8+ T cells Swine: Polyarthritis. similar signs and lesions may be caused by the following diseases: Fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida) Mycoplasmosis: M. coli): Hepatocellular necrosis with necrogranulomas Reoviral hepatitis: Hepatocellular necrosis without inclusion bodies Lead toxicosis: Eosinophilic. particularly in serosal membranes Differential Diagnosis: Hepatic necrosis in psittacine birds: Pacheco's disease (alphaherpesvirus): Intranuclear hepatocellular inclusions Polyomavirus (Budgie Fledging Disease): Glassy intranuclear inclusions Salmonellosis (Salmonella sp.24 Granulomas and bile duct hyperplasia . with villus blunting. there is mild blunting of intestinal villi. psittaci or more often C. polyarthritis of calves. gallinarum (fowl typhoid) Adenovirus . meleagridis (air sacculitis) Colibacillosis Salmonellosis . orchitis. large granular leukocytes and eosinophils and many cells exhibiting karyolysis and necrosis. conjunctivitis. and sporadic abortion. pneumoniae): Multiple organs including the eye. pseudomembranous enteritis. gallisepticum (chronic respiratory disease/infectious sinusitis of turkeys). felis. plasmacytosis. ranging from inapparent to severe systemic disease with pneumonia D-B13 . Rarely. hepatic necrosis in fetus) Cats: C. and perinatal mortality Koalas (C. respiratory tract. multifocal necrosis. wide spectrum of illnesses. S. Intrahepatocellular bacteria. may result in sterility or death Humans: Zoonotic disease.pig Signalment: A 2-day-old piglet Histopathologic Description: Small intestine: Multifocally.) and colibacillosis (E. pericarditis. and intestinal and reproductive systems. The lamina propria is mildly expanded by few neutrophils. accessory sex gland infections. intracellular bacilli In poultry. . acute. Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine: Enteritis. psittaci serovar WC: sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis.S. mild. hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys Comparative Pathology: Ruminants: C. conjunctivitis. some of which contain bacteria. Inclusion body-like microcolonies may be seen in affected cells of many organs.

villus blunting and fusion Clostridium perfringens type C: <8 days old. villus height:crypt depth ratio reduced from the 7:1 found in normal pigs to 4:1 in infected pigs. enterocyte sloughing. Etiologic Diagnosis: Enteric colibacillosis Cause: Escherichia coli General Discussion: Classification based on specific pathogenic mechanisms (toxins. meningitis.: Diarrhea in piglets 5-15 days old. postweaning E. and numerous superficial bacilli. may lead to shock and death. Usually no inflammation or erosions. organism within the cytoplasm of villus and crypt enterocytes Rotavirus: Diarrhea in piglets > 10 days old. asymptomatic carriers of human pathogenic STEC strains and O157:H7 Poultry: Acute septicemia.: Ulcerated Peyer’s patches covered with a necrotic pseudomembrane. Necrotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea (PWECD) caused by ETEC in recently weaned pigs Cattle: The most common Gram-negative cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. fibrinonecrotic pseudomembrane without blood. coli (EHEC) 4. coli (STEC) Verocytotoxic E. EHEC (O157:H7) contaminant in meat products important cause of food-borne illness Calves Less than 5 days old: ETEC. in newly hatched chicks omphalitis and mushy-yolk disease . common cause of foal septemia Dogs: ETEC and EPEC strains associated with gastro-intestinal disease in young dogs.25 villus tip necrosis. and macrophages in the lamina propria. survivors with polyarthritis. in severe cases.) and varies among bacteriologists: 1. diarrhea and dysentery with blood. villus epithelial cell lysis Isospora sp. severe dehydration. Enteropathogenic E. usually follows colostrum deprivation. congestion. coli (EPEC) Attaching and effacing E. enteric form caused by enteropathogenic. marked atrophy of small intestinal villi. Enterohemorrhagic E. endotoxin-mediated and. etc. coli (EIEC) 7. porcine. Shiga-toxin producing E. Typically no damage to enterocytes within the first 24-hours. coli (NTEC) 6. edema and vascular necrosis. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) 5. colonic “button ulcers” Comparative Pathology: Pigs: Edema disease (ED) from STEC in weaners and growers causing neurologic signs. with replacement by cuboidal to squamoid cells. Enteroaggregative E. fibrinopurulent serositis and coligranuloma (Hjarre’s disease). lymphocytes. signs similar to calves Foals: Diarrhea in foals common but usually mild. breed not specified. Mild villus blunting or fusion. few neutrophils. generalized systemic infection (septicemic colibacillosis). rarely hemorrhage into the lumen Differential Diagnosis: Diarrhea in young piglets Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus (Coronavirus): Diarrhea in piglets <10 days old. coli (EAggEC) Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Bacteria adherent to brush borders of villi or limited to the crypts of Lieberkühn. weakness. Enteroinvasive E. transient and not caused by infectious agents. coli (ETEC) 2. weight loss and high mortality Less than 4 weeks old: EHEC. or interstitial nephritis (white-spotted kidney) Lambs: 2-8-days-old: enteric and septicemic forms. noninvasive strains. necrohemorrhagic enteritis Salmonella sp. profuse yellow watery diarrhea. adhesins. invasiveness. coli (AEEC) 3. whole litter affected.

pig . lymph node. variably sized (up to 1mm diameter) areas of necrosis characterized by eosinophilic cellular debris and degenerate neutrophils. Amblyomma) which pass the infection transtadially and transovarially. beaver (Castor canadensis). Adjacent hepatocytes are individualized. neutrophils and macrophages Vasculitis and thrombosis +/. Ixodes. surrounded by a few lymphocytes. and contain granular. bacteremia/septemia Humans: ETEC is the most common cause of traveler’s diarrhea. gram-negative. pyometra. moderate. and fibrin thrombi. spleen. portal areas are expanded by low numbers of lymphocytes. multifocal necrosis in the liver. differentiate with a gram stain Toxoplasma gondii: Multifocal coagulative necrosis in the liver and other organs. plasma cells and macrophages. Etiologic Diagnosis: Hepatic francisellosis Cause: Francisella tularensis Condition Synonyms: Rabbit fever. deerfly) Small.beaver Histopathologic Description: Liver: Effacing approximately 40% of the hepatic architecture are random. Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Hepatitis.26 Rabbits: Highly susceptible to AEEC. spleen. with intralesional tachyzoites Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica: Multifocal hepatic necrosis with large lobulated colonies of gram-negative coccobacilli Mouse Hepatitis Virus (Coronavirus): Multifocal hepatic necrosis with syncytia D-B15A . Occasionally. multifocal necrosis in the liver +/. reported in over 125 species of mammals. birds. abortion. and act as reservoir. facultative. O'Hara's disease. and other arthropods (mosquitoes. kidneys: Multifocal to coalescing areas of caseous to lytic necrosis. reptiles and fish Transmitted by ticks (Dermacentor. Multiple central veins and portal vessels have disruption of the tunica media and endothelium with replacement by necrotic debris and degenerate neutrophils (vasculitis).Tularemia . rodent. prostatitis.Intestinal adenomatosis complex of swine .other organs with septicemia. yellow-brown or green-brown cytoplasmic pigment (hemosiderin or bile). Deerfly fever General Discussion: Highly infectious zoonotic disease.ileum . fibrin thrombi occlude vessels. most prevalent in the western US Primarily causes disease in rodents and lagomorphs. acute.Lymphoid necrosis Differential Diagnosis: For necrotizing hepatitis in rodents: Tyzzer's disease (Clostridium piliforme): Intracellular gram-negative bacillus.: Gram-negative bacilli. Multifocally. with necrotizing vasculitis. pleomorphic.liver . random. "paratyphoid nodules" (multifocal to coalescing areas of necrosis that progress to microgranulomas Listeria monocytogenes: Gram-positive coccobacillus. lymph nodes and kidneys. D-B14 . multifocal to coalescing. necrotizing. less commonly in the heart and lung with occasional caseous granuloma formation Hemorrhagic enteritis with ulcerations of the Peyer's patches has been reported Pneumonia reported in dogs and swine Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Liver. mastitis. intracellular coccobacillus Typical Gross Findings: Numerous pinpoint to small white foci in the enlarged liver. spleen and intestine. endemic worldwide. EHEC (O157:H7) causes foodborne illness and hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome.0 and similar silver stains Salmonella sp. intracellular bacilli stain with Warthin-Starry 4. mortality exceeding 50% in weanlings Extra-intestinal lesions in animals: Urinary tract infections.

necrosis of mucosa. Crypts are variably lined by attenuated to hyperplastic epithelium and contain abundant eosinophilic cellular and nuclear debris. branching and/or tortuous glands. absent goblet cells. expansion. Most common and important spontaneous disease of hamsters.jejunum) thick and dilated. few neutrophils and macrophages. well-demarcated from normal mucosa. elongation. Etiologic Diagnosis: Lawsonial enteritis Cause: Lawsonia intracellularis Condition Synonyms: porcine proliferative enteropathy. atrophy of surrounding villi NE: Coagulative necrosis of adenomatous epithelium with inflammation RI: Replacement of damaged mucosa by granulation tissue. cystic. degenerate neutrophils. blood tinged necrotic mucosa RI: Thickened intestine “hosepipe gut”. cecum. PHE occurs in pigs > 4 months old. possibly ileocecal obstruction. the lamina propria is mildly expanded by moderately increased numbers of lymphocytes. Necrotic Enteritis (NE). open or vesiculate nuclei with basophilic cytoplasm. crypt abscesses. plasma cells. lesions often fibrose and progress to RI. moderate inflammation. villi in the areas between the polypoid areas are blunted and fused with mild multifocal loss of epithelium.27 Histopathologic Description: Ileum: Multifocally. porcine intestinal adenomatosis. thickened edematous ileum with a cerebriform pattern. proliferative. Morphologic Diagnosis: Ileum: Enteritis. intestinal clots and fibrin casts within lumen and no discernible points of hemorrhage. may result in stricture PHE: Abundant fluid blood. smooth muscle hypertrophy. the mucosa is expanded by polypoid projections up to 3x5 mm composed of haphazardly arranged. cecum and proximal colon. Multifocally. with crypt abscesses. Regional Ileitis (RI). and rare eosinophils. porcine. vacuolated cytoplasm. Pigs and hamsters are the most commonly affected. If the animal is subjected to additional insult. primarily in weanlings Porcine proliferative enteropathy encompasses four histomorphologically distinct syndromes: Porcine Intestinal Adenomatosis (PIA). proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy. subacute. luminal . this may be an acute manifestation of PIA. intestinal adenomatosis complex of swine. hypertrophy of the tunica muscularis NE: Yellow/brown. and increased mitotic figures. proliferative ileitis. Typical Gross Findings: Pigs: PIA: Multifocal nodular or ridgelike thickenings. moderate. pale skin Ferrets: Palpable segmental colonic thickening with prominent longitudinal folds Hamsters: Ileum (+/. numerous mitoses. PIA is a persistent uncomplicated condition in young growing animals. serosal adhesions Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Pigs: PIA: Nodular or polypoid masses. and sloughed epithelial cells (crypt abscesses). intestinal adenoma of swine General Discussion: L. PHE: Congestion of mucosal vessels. congestion of the ileal mucosa. breed unspecified. The glands are lined by hyperplastic columnar epithelial cells up to 4-5 cells thick with amphophilic. multifocal. Pathogenesis: Predilection for crypt cells within the ileum. necrotic enteritis. vesicular nuclei. In those that survive NE. thrombi. Diffusely. and Proliferative Hemorrhagic Enteropathy (PHE). and branching of crypts. regional ileitis. PIA can progress to NE. and colon of several species and causes proliferative enteritis. intracellularis is an obligate intracellular curved gram-negative bacterium that colonizes enterocytes in the ileum. There is a marked decrease in goblet cells.

28 hemorrhage Granulomatous enteritis and lympadenitis: marked granulomatous infiltrate consisting of histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells in Peyers patches and regional lymph nodes; rare. Ferrets: Colonic epithelial hyperplasia; reduced goblet cells; variable inflammation; lesions predominantly in colon (unlike most other species) Hamsters: Lesions are similar to ferrets; in late stages, the epithelial cells may herniate through the muscularis mucosa, causing pyogranulomatous inflammation. Recovered animals have ileocecal fibrosis and stenosis. Differential Diagnosis: For hemorrhagic enteritis in pigs: Clostridium perfringens type C Swine dysentery (Brachyspira hyodysenteriae): Large bowel; less severe; argyrophilic spirochetes in mucus layer Escherichia coli in post weanling pigs Acute enteric salmonellosis Intestinal hemorrhage syndrome: Affects all areas of the intestine; associated with abdominal distention and tympany as a result of torsion Esophagogastric ulceration: Sudden death; ulcers evident grossly. Ferrets: For hemorrhagic or green tinged diarrhea Epizootic catarrhal enteritis (coronavirus) - Catarrhal mucoid green diarrhea (affects the small intestine) Hamsters: For hemorrhagic enteritis Proliferative lesions have been described in the cecum and colon with intracellular organisms unrelated to Lawsonia. Tyzzer's disease (Clostridium piliforme): Diarrhea in adult hamsters; hepatic necrosis; no proliferative lesions Intestinal adenocarcinoma: more chaotic cell proliferation; +/- metastasis D-B15B - Proliferative colitis - colon - ferret HD: Colon: Multifocally, the mucosa is thickened 2-4 times normal by deep, often tortuous glands lined by hyperplastic epithelium. Crypt epithelium is hyperplastic characterized by plump, cuboidal to columnar, cells with basophilic cytoplasm that pile up to 4-5 cells layers thick, with numerous mitotic figures present at all levels. There is a marked decrease in goblet cells. Multifocally, crypts are dilated, lined by attenuated epithelium, and contain numerous nondegenerate and degenerate neutrophils, sloughed epithelial cells, cellular and nuclear debris (crypt abscesses). The lamina propria and submucosa are mildly expanded by moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils and macrophages. Colon (Warthin-Starry): Affected mucosal and glandular epithelial cells contain many silverpositive curved bacilli, measuring 1x5um, that concentrate in the apical cytoplasm of the cells. Morphologic Diagnosis: Colon: Colitis, proliferative, subacute, multifocal, moderate, with crypt abscesses, and agyrophilic intracellular bacilli, etiology consistent with Lawsonia intracellularis, sable ferret (Mustela putorius furo), mustelid. Etiologic Diagnosis: Lawsonial colitis Cause: Lawsonia intracellularis Condition Synonyms: Proliferative bowel disease D-B15C - Proliferative ileitis - small intestine - hamster HD: Small intestine and attached mesentery: Diffusely the mucosa is thickened 2-4 times normal with deep, often tortuous glands and irregularly thickened, blunted, and fused villi. Affecting approximately 70% of the mucosa, there is extensive transmural coagulative necrosis characterized by retention of tissue architecture with loss of cellular detail, cytoplasmic hypereosinophilia, nuclear pyknosis and karyolysis, and small amounts of cellular debris surrounded by a band of

29 nondegenerate and degenerate neutrophils as well as necrotic debris and abundant basophilic granular material (mineral) within muscular tunics and mildly expanding the serosa and mesentery. Within the necrotic areas there are numerous mixed bacteria (fecal bacteria). In the remaining mucosa, crypts and villi are lined by closely packed, tall columnar epithelial cells with amphophilic to basophilic cytoplasm, and increased mitotic figures (hyperplasia) with decreased numbers of goblet cells. There is scattered individual cell necrosis, and rarely crypts are ectatic and contain necrotic and cellular debris (crypt abscesses). There is focal crypt herniation into the submucosa and tunica muscularis. Within the lamina propria and submucosa there are mildly increased numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, rare lymphocytes, plasma cells and moderately congested vessels. The attached mesentery is diffusely expanded by clear space (edema) and moderate numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine and attached mesentery: Enteritis, proliferative, subacute, diffuse, severe, with focally extensive transmural necrosis, and mild subacute serositis, hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), rodent. Etiologic Diagnosis: Lawsonial enteritis Cause: Lawsonia intracellularis Condition Synonyms: Wet tail, hamster enteritis, transmissible ileal hyperplasia of hamsters D-B16 - Swine dysentery - colon - pig Histopathologic Description: Colon: Diffusely the mucosa is expanded up to three times normal with elongated crypts. There are multifocal to coalescing areas of necrosis within the superficial mucosa that occasionally extend deep into the crypts. Admixed with the necrotic debris are moderate numbers of degenerate neutrophils, fibrin, and numerous 6 um long bacteria. There are rare crypt abscesses and abundant mucus. Superficial mucosal vessels adjacent to the necrotic areas often contain fibrin thrombi. Focally there is crypt herniation into a submucosal lymphoid nodule. Multifocally, there is moderate congestion. Morphologic Diagnosis: Colon: Colitis, proliferative and necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, moderate, with excessive mucus, crypt abscesses, and numerous bacteria, Yorkshire crossbred, porcine. Etiologic Diagnosis: Brachyspiral colitis Cause: Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Condition Synonyms: Vibrionic dysentery, bloody scours, bloody dysentery, black scours, mucohemorrhagic diarrhea General Discussion: Acute to chronic contagious disease, mainly of weaned pigs (7-16 weeks) but more common in fattening than in breeding units Gram-negative, strongly beta hemolytic, oxygen tolerant, anaerobic, loosely coiled, motile spirochete, 6-8.5 micron long and 320-380 nm in diameter Mice are a reservoir host for infection. Asymptomatic carrier pigs are the most important mode of transmission from farm to farm. Mechanical vectors include boots, coveralls, vehicles, migratory animals and birds. Typical Gross Findings: Lesions in the large intestine, not small intestine, often sharp line of demarcation at the ileocecal junction. Fibrinonecrotic pseudomembranous colitis with a granular, hyperemic mucosa in advanced cases. Opaque spots (enlarged submucosal glands) visible through the colonic serosa. Mucus, fibrin and blood in the lumen in chronic cases. Congestion of the gastric mucosa and pericardial serous effusion Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Elongated hyperplastic crypts, may be dilated and contain necrotic debris and abundant mucus Significant lesions limited to cecum, colon, rectum. Early - discrete necrosis of the superficial mucosa with a fibrinocellular exudate Fibrin thrombi in the vessels of the superficial lamina propria

30 Transmural edema Mucosal and submucosal thickening from vascular congestion and extravasation of fluids and electrolytes Additional Diagnostic Tests: Silver stains demonstrate spirochetes in superficial erosions and crypt lumina. Differential Diagnosis: Porcine colonic spirochetosis: caused by the weakly beta-hemolytic intestinal spirochetes (WBHIS); mild diarrhea and reduced growth rate in weanling pigs (5-12 weeks) Coliform gastroenteritis: deep red gastric venous infarcts; flaccid small intestine and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes Salmonellosis: S. typhimurium: yellow watery diarrhea; acute enterocolitis with pseudodiphtheritic membrane; lesions in colon and rectum. S. choleraesuis: primarily septicemia with enteritis Classical swine fever (swine pestivirus): Sudden death; weak pigs; anorexia; watery diarrhea; hypertrophy and ulceration of mucosa of stomach, cecum and colon; colonic button ulcers Trichuris suis: Concurrent infections are possible, which can cause bloody diarrhea. Acute hemorrhagic proliferative enteropathy (Lawsonia intracellularis) : affects terminal ileum and colon, rapidly fatal with severe hemorrhagic diarrhea. Gastric ulceration: Melena rather than frank blood D-B17 - Bacillary hemoglobinuria - liver - ox Histopathologic Description: Liver: Multifocally, there are areas of lytic necrosis interspersed among diffuse coagulative necrosis disrupting and multifocally effacing hepatic architecture. The areas of lytic necrosis are characterized by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris admixed with moderate numbers of degenerate neutrophils, with lesser macrophages and few lymphocytes and plasma cells, hemorrhage and fibrin. The inflammatory cells, hemorrhage, and fibrin extend into areas where sinusoids are moderately expanded but hepatic cord architecture is retained. Hepatocytes in these areas are shrunken with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm with loss of cellular detail and absent, pale or pyknotic nuclei (coagulative necrosis). Peripheral to the areas of lytic necrosis there are multifocal individual and colonies of 1x7um bacilli. There are ectatic lymphatics (edema) that occasionally contain fibrin and multifocal variably sized up to 1mm in diameter areas of clear space (emphysematous change). Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Necrosis, diffuse, extensive, with multifocal acute moderate hepatitis, emphysema, and numerous bacilli, Holstein, bovine. Etiologic Diagnosis: Clostridial hepatitis Cause: Clostridium hemolyticum Condition Synonyms: Red water disease, hemorrhagic disease or infectious icterohemoglobinuria. General Discussion: Bacillary hemoglobinuria is an acute, highly fatal disease of sheep and cattle that occur in regions in which liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infections also occur. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Hepatic necrosis Thrombi in hepatic venules, intestines, and other abdominal organs Mottled kidneys due to hemoglobinuric nephrosis Bacilli are present singly or in short chains in tissue and have distinctive subterminal spores that bulge. Differential Diagnosis: Other diseases causing hemoglobinuria and hematuria in cattle Acute leptospirosis causes intravascular hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria Hypophosphatemic hemolytic anemia (postparturient hemoglobinuria): This is common in dairy

31 cows 3 to 8 weeks following parturition. Erythrocytes require phosphorus for the synthesis of ATP (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), which is essential for membrane function and integrity. Babesia bovis (Texas or red water fever): Fever, intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobinuria; intracytoplasmic paired pyriform protozoa Hemolytic anemia associated with Brassica sp. (rape or kale): Anemia results from dimethyl disulfide produced by ruminal bacteria from plant breakdown. Bracken fern (enzootic hematuria): Hemorrhagic cystitis; neoplasia in chronic cases Other bacteria: Cl hemolyticum, Cl novyi, Cl perfringens, E coli. Oxidants: Acetaminophen, Copper, Onions, Propylene glycol, Red maple, Phenothiazine Immune mediated: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (horses, cattle) Comparative Pathology: Bacillary hemoglobinuria: Also occurs in sheep, can be experimentally induced in rabbits, and has been diagnosed in a free ranging elk calf following similar undiagnosed deaths Black disease, or infectious necrotic hepatitis, occurs mostly in sheep and cattle, but occasionally in horses and pigs, and is caused by Clostridium novyi (usually type B). Pathogenesis is very similar to bacillary hemoglobinuria: Hepatic necrosis (immature fluke migration) > decreased oxygen tension > germination of dormant spores > toxin production D-B18A - Helicobacter infection - stomach - Rhesus monkey HD: Stomach: Multifocally there is marked loss of parietal and chief cells lining gastric pits and glands and replacement by high numbers of mucous neck cells (mucous neck cell hyperplasia). The lamina propria contains small clusters of plasma cells and lymphocytes that expand and surround gastric glands and extend into the submucosa. Occasionally gastric glands are mildly dilated, lined by attenuated epithelium, and contain few neutrophils and eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (glandular abscess). There is occasional individual epithelial cell necrosis and rare spiral shaped bacilli adhered to the epithelium. Morphologic Diagnosis: Stomach: Parietal and chief cell loss, chronic, multifocal, marked, with mucous neck cell hyperplasia, mild lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, and rare epithelial-associated spiral shaped bacilli, Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), nonhuman primate. Etiologic Diagnosis: Helicobacter gastritis Cause: Helicobacter pylori General Discussion: Helicobacter sp. are gram negative, microaerophilic, curved to spiral motile bacilli with sheathed flagella. Cause of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in several animal species and peptic ulcers and gastric neoplasia in humans. Associated with gastric lymphoma and carcinoma in ferrets. Causes chronic active hepatitis in mice. Mice: Helicobacter hepaticus will persist indefinitely in the bile canaliculi. Also causes proliferative typhlocolitis and rectal prolapse in immunocompromised mice. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Pathologic findings vary from absence of lesions to severe gastritis. Lymphoplasmacytic gastritis with erosion, ulceration, mucosal hypertrophy, dilated glands, and necrosis of individual glands +/- hyperplasia and metaplasia of superficial glands. Focal infiltration by neutrophils and eosinophils may also occur. H. mustelae and H. pylori are 2-5 um long, loosely spiraled, "gull wing" bacilli and are most commonly found in antral glands. H. felis and H. heilmannii are 7-15 um long, more tightly spiraled bacilli and most common in fundic glands Mice: H. hepaticus causes acute, focal, non-suppurative, necrotizing hepatitis; progresses to chronic active hepatitis with minimal necrosis and is associated with gallbladder mucosal erosion and ulceration Differential Diagnosis: Gross lesions:

Multifocally. rodentium. mild. Aspicularis tetraptera .cecal pinworms of mice Microscopic lesions: For H. many lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltrate portal triads. multifocal. pylori: Man (50%) assoc with chronic active gastritis. animal model of IBD and potentially IBD related cancer D-B18B . heilmannii-like organisms: Non-human primates. pullorum: Chickens H.Helicobacter infection . globular material (hemosiderin/bile). mild with mild fibrosis. cats H. Stomach: Multifocally nodular aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells expand the lamina propria. aurati: Syrian hamsters. Warthin Starry 4. coronavirus. ferret (Mustela putorius furo). mustelae: Ferrets (found in 99% of sick and healthy ferrets). however. with superficial argyrophilic curved bacilli. surround and separate gastric glands and extend into the muscularis mucosa and submucosa. etiology consistent with Helicobacter sp. rats H. there is scattered yellow-brown globular material within Kupffer cells and hepatocytes (hemosiderin). muricola. H. moderate. mustelid. Stomach: Gastritis. there is fatty change. diffuse. Rarely. Liver: Diffusly. peptic ulcer. non-human primates and felines H. Multifocally.0: Numerous agyrophilic 1x3um gently curved bacilli are present on the mucosal surface. 2. dogs. 3. H. gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.ferret Histopathologic Description: 1. ulcers. portal. ectatic glands are lined by attenuated epithelial cells and contain few neutrophils and eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (pit abscesses). H. multifocal.Helicobacter infection . hepaticus: Mice. muridarium. MHV infection results in virus-induced syncytia formation and acute hepatic necrosis but does not typically result in biliary hyperplasia Comparative Pathology: H. Rarely. periportal connective tissue extends between adjacent lobules (bridging fibrosis). mesocricetorum. felis: Dogs. ganmani. cats H. acynonix: Cheetah H. 3. and carcinogenesis H.liver . hepaticus in mice: Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) infection. rappini: Mice. H. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. typhlonius. 2. Liver: Hepatitis.. there is scattered extramedullary hematopoiesis and intra and extracellular brown. alters the pathogenicity of mouse hepatitis virus in co-infections H. nemestrinae: Pigtailed macaque H. Lack characteristic spiral shaped bacteria Differential diagnosis for rectal prolapse in mice: Helicobacter hepaticus Citrobacter rodentium .mouse Histopathologic Description: Liver: Multifocally there are moderate portal and periportal infiltrates . There are lightly basophilic spiral shaped bacilli mixed with a layer of mucous. H. H.Transmissible Murine Colonic Hyperplasia (TMCH) Syphacea obvelata. animal model for study of gastritis.32 Chronic NSAID administration Catarrhal or hemorrhagic gastritis caused by infectious or toxic agents. scattered erythrocytes and occasional neutrophils multifocally adhered to the epithelium. lymphoplasmacytic. lymphoplasmacytic. Spleen: Extramedullary hematopoiesis. H. Spleen: Diffusely.stomach . bilis. Etiologic Diagnosis: Helicobacter gastritis Cause: Helicobacter mustelae D-B18C .

Multifocally.Zygomycetes infection . severe. plasma cells. and serosa are expanded by increase in clear space and ectatic lymphatics (edema) along with fibrin. lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic.ox Histopathologic Description: Rumen: Extending from the mucosa into the tunica muscularis is a focally extensive area of coagulative necrosis (infarct). and vessels often contain fibrin thrombi. breed unspecified.transmural) with coagulative necrosis and multinucleated giant cells. clumped chromatin and up to eight prominent magenta nucleoli (hepatocytomegaly and karyomegaly). bovine. non-dichotomous. necrotizing. Rarely. Angioinvasive. vessel walls are transmurally disrupted by fibrin with moderate numbers of nondegenerate and degenerate neutrophils admixed with nuclear and cellular debris (necrotizing vasculitis). irregular. vacuolated. macrophages. The lamina propria. Within the infarct and extending into adjacent tissues. occasionally folded. Etiologic Diagnosis: Helicobacter hepatitis Cause: Helicobacter hepaticus D-F02 .rumen . loss of cellular detail. plasma cells and neutrophils. infarction. multifocal. there are moderate numbers of nonseptate 5-15 um wide. . and numerous nonseptate fungal hyphae. and bulbous dilatations. acute. Etiologic Diagnosis: Ruminal zygomycosis Cause: Zygomycetes sp. and random hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis. Diffuse pyogranulomatous inflammation (+/. thin-walled 3-25 um wide hyphae with non-parallel walls. fibrin thrombi. Chronic cases: Granulomatous inflammation in the deep mucosa. Hepatocyte nuclei frequently contain inclusion body-like cytoplasmic invaginations. myocytes are often hypereosinophilic. moderate. and fragmented with pyknotic or absent nuclei (degeneration and necrosis). and fungal hyphae. and nuclear pyknosis or loss.33 of lymphocytes. branching and focal bulbous dilatations. The infarcted area is bounded by a 5 mm wide band of degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils. fungal hyphae with non-parallel walls. karyomegaly. infarctions and hemorrhagic necrosis. irregular or right angle branching. In the tunica muscularis. with marked bile duct hyperplasia. thrombosis. rodent. often right angle. hepatocytomegaly. ICR mouse. with parallel walls and acute angle. septate. dichotomous branching. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Necrotizing vasculitis. and eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. bile ducts are lined by attenuated epithelium and contain sloughed cellular and proteinaceous debris. non-dichotomous. varying leukocytic inflammation. At the mucosal/ submucosal interface there are small colonies of basophilic 1-2 um diameter bacilli. Pauciseptate. Multifocally hepatocytes are swollen and have microvacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration) or are randomly hypereosinophilic. as well as markedly increased numbers of small caliber bile ducts lined by cuboidal epithelium with vesicular nuclei (bile duct hyperplasia). Morphologic Diagnosis: Rumen: Rumenitis. angular and shrunken with pyknosis (necrosis). The epithelium adjacent to the infarct is thickened up to 3 times normal with prominent anastomosing rete ridges (epidermal hyperplasia) and aggregates of nondegenerate and degenerate neutrophils (microabscesses). Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Cholangiohepatitis. with necrotizing vasculitis. Fibrinous exudate. Multifocally hepatocytes have abundant eosinophilic to markedly vacuolated cytoplasm and an extremely large nucleus up to 25um in diameter. Hyphae in necrotic/infarcted areas and within blood vessels (angiotropic) Liver: Necrotizing thrombophlebitis of portal radicles with disseminated infections Differential Diagnosis: Mycotic rumenitis Aspergillus fumigatus (Class Hyphomycetes): Hyphae are 3-6 microns wide. lymphocytes. focally extensive. submucosa. characterized by retention of tissue architecture.

rarely infiltrate the tunica muscularis and multifocally disrupt serosa and attached mesentery. Morphologic Diagnosis: Colon: Colitis. zopfii: (10-25 um) oval with larger. etiology consistent with Prototheca sp. P. cutaneous nodules Horses: Lips and pharynx.Prototheca sp. Submucosal vessels are congested. and contain either central granular amphophilic material or multiple (2-8 or more) wedge-shaped endospores admixed with moderate numbers of macrophages and plasma cells. Differential Diagnosis: Organisms that reproduce by endosporulation: Chlorella sp. Typically an infection of squamous epithelium in young animals (“thrush”) Fusobacterium necrophorum: Usually superficial. zopfii & P. Family Cryptococcaceae): Masses of branching. 3-5 microns in diameter. the mucosal epithelium is disrupted by cellular and karyorrhectic debris. enteric disease in dogs. The submucosa is expanded to twice normal thickness by algae and inflammatory cells. may be a sequel to panleukopenia. less hemorrhagic Comparative Pathology: Zygomycetes sp. gastritis. nasal mucosa Candida sp. transmural. often disseminates to lung Dogs: Disseminated mycotic enteritis with canine parvoviral enteritis (rare) Pythium sp. granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with similar organisms containing intracytoplasmic starch granules and chloroplasts. Etiologic Diagnosis: Protothecal colitis. and beaver. sheep.: Calves: Disseminated candidiasis Pigs: Often invades the parakeratotic material on the squamous gastric mucosa. The algal cell wall is PAS positive.: Cats: Mycotic ileitis and colitis.. Vizsla. wickerhamii are pathogenic. septate hyphae. and rare lymphocytes and neutrophils.34 Candida albicans (Class Blastomycetes. with pseudohyphae. P. canine. there are many extracellular and intrahistiocytic. both have been reported in dogs. cutaneous disease in horses D-F03 . and enteritis. encephalitis. ubiquitous saprophytic algae that reproduces asexually by internal septation (endosporulation) and causes disseminated infections in dogs (intestine and eye are most common sites in dogs) Only P. infection . unicellular. pneumonia. Occasionally. hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesions with a prominent cellular response. 8-20 um diameter algae that have a clear 2-4 um thick wall. Dogs: Ulcerative and granulomatous stomatitis. moderate.dog Histopathologic Description: Colon: Transmurally. round to polyhedral endospores. with mesenteric steatitis and many extracellular and intrahistiocytic algae. wickerhamii: (2-12 um) with compact round or cuboidal endospores. diffuse. Phylum Oomycetes): Tropical and sub-tropical areas. and round to oval budding yeasts (blastospores). May be inapparent Young pigs: “Thrush” (candidiasis of the oral cavity) Foals: Gastroesophageal candidiasis. which are PAS positive and anisotropic in unstained and H & E sections and evident on EM. Cause: Prototheca sp. (Kingdom Protista.: Algal organism reported in cattle. with many endospores per sporangium Rhinosporidium seeberi: Nasal mucosa. round to oval. affects papillated areas of ventral sac and occasionally rumenal pillars.colon . lymphadenopathy with calcification. nostrils. usually involves squamous epithelium. large. associated with ulceration near margo plicatus Aspergillus sp. which also moderately expand the lamina propria. mature sporangia 100-350 um diameter with . General Discussion: Achlorophyllous (colorless). green discoloration of unfixed tissue grossly Coccidioides immitis: Larger (10 60 um). histiocytic and plasmacytic.

which contains acid mucopolysaccharide Sporothrix schenkii: Pleomorphic yeast. neutrophils. and underlying extant tunica muscularis. histologically: Phaeohyphomycosis: Pigmented brown fungi with septate hyphae Blastomyces dermatitidis: Broad-based budding yeast 5-20 um in diameter with refractile. granulomatous transmural colitis Trichuris vulpis (whipworms): Presence of intraluminal nematodes. dense infiltrations of macrophages and giant cells without discrete granulomas Bovine: Bovine mammary gland nodular (granulomatous) mastitis. Eosinophils. giant cells and eosinophils common Salmon: Renal granulomatous disease D-F04 . that are further surrounded by haphazardly arranged hypertrophied fibroblasts and fibrous connective tissue admixed with previously described inflammatory cells. (M.small intestine . non-dichotomous branching. Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine: Granulomas. irregularly branching.regional lymph nodes. the lamina propria and submucosa contain moderate numbers of eosinophils. neutrophils and fewer multinucleated giant cells (both Langhans and foreign body type) with up to 15 nuclei. mature endospores 7-9 um diameter Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis: Thalli with discharge papillae in the epidermis of amphibians Granulomatous colitis in dogs: Histoplasma capsulatum.: Ulcerative. submucosa. usually affects cecum and proximal ascending colon. evolves into a granulomatous transmural condition Mycobacterium sp. and replace collagen bundles and muscle fibers of the adjacent submucosa. GMS: Scattered throughout the tissue. Granulomas are characterized by a central area of necrotic debris. Only Pythium insidiosum is pathogenic in mammals. progressive cutaneous. rarely septate hyphae with thick. single or multiple small gray-white or tan subcutaneous nodules on extremities. eosinophils. but primarily within the center of granulomas. bovis. and macrophages and there is a single. Identified as a member of the class Oomycetes. Etiologic Diagnosis: Enteric pythiosis Cause: Pythium insidiosum Condition Synonyms: Oomycosis General Discussion: A chronic. there are small to moderate numbers of GMS-positive hyphae that are 4-7um wide. canine. and tunica muscularis are multiple coalescing granulomas that expand the intestinal wall up to 4 times normal. . Multifocally within the remaining section. nonparallel walls. or multisystemic granulomatous disease of horses. Villi are often blunted and fused. tuberculosis) Leishmania sp. enlarged and pale supramammary lymph node. and macrophages with variable numbers of fibroblasts and fibrous connective tissue separate.Pythiosis . cause granulomatous dermatitis in cats Comparative Pathology: Cats: Mostly cutaneous. have nonparallel walls. overlying extant lamina propria. extending transmurally and expanding the serosa. cattle. sheep. degenerate eosinophils and neutrophils. and temperate climates. with rare intralesional hyphae. granuloma in the submucosa. neutrophils. cats. subtropical. and rare septations. GI.35 numerous round. doublecontoured wall and no mucinous capsule Cryptococcus neoformans: Budding yeast with a wide 2-6 um. 400 um. M. and humans in tropical. surrounded by numerous epithelioid macrophages. multiple. breed not specified. clear mucinous capsule. Pythium is a water mold with broad. dogs. and a focally extensive marked transmural eosinophilic and granulomatous enteritis. surround. usually confined to dermis and subcutis +/. Within the central core of granulomas there are occasional poorly discernible hyphae.: Heavy mucosal infiltrate of macrophages Fungi resembling Prototheca sp.dog Histopathologic Description: Small intestine: Focally disrupting and replacing 60% of the mucosa.

rarely septate hyphae (range 2-7um diameter) with thick. irregularly branching.Feline oral eosinophilic granuloma . primarily affecting young (<3 years old) male Siberian huskies and Cavalier King Charles spaniels. breed unspecified. . plasma cells and fibroblasts. and cranial mediastinum). mast cells. These foci consist of fragmented. lymphocytes. Occasionally mucosal epithelial cells are pale and swollen (hydropic degeneration). Saprolegnia sp. fewer neutrophils. mucocutaneous junctions and oral cavity of cats. Indolent ulcer Eosinophilic plaque Canine eosinophilic granulomas are rare.cat Histopathologic Description: Oral mucosa (per contributor): The subepithelial connective tissue is expanded by a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate centered around multifocal to coalescing scattered. Lymphatics are mildly dilated. surrounded by a rim of macrophages and foreign body giant cells. Morphologic Diagnosis: Oral mucosa: Stomatitis.36 Water molds differ from true fungi in the composition of their cell wall and plasma membrane. nodular to plaque-like lesions in the oral cavity or rarely the skin. Two forms in the dog: GI form . elevated. and in the production of motile. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Eosinophilic granulomatous to pyogranulomatous inflammation and/or granulomas associated with numerous multinucleated giant cells and epithelioid macrophages. . moderate. The surrounding connective tissue is expanded by many eosinophils.diameter range 5-20um.diameter range 5-13um. well-demarcated. is an oomycete in fish. mixed with a small amount of basophilic debris. It encompasses the following distinct clinical entities: Eosinophilic granuloma: subdivided into oral eosinophilic granuloma and linear granuloma. eosinophilic sleeve up to 25um wide D-M01A . nonparallel walls Differential Diagnosis: Histologic appearance .oomycete Lesions may be more generalized (great vessels. There is no breed or sex predilection. soft palate. Feline linear granuloma: Linear. and blood vessels are often lined by reactive endothelial cells. with collagen degeneration. firm lesion on the caudal or medial thighs. ulcerated raised nodules on the ventral tongue.most common Subcutaneous form Disseminated disease may develop from either the cutaneous or GI form but is rare. and frenulum. lung.oral mucosa . intensely eosinophilic material (degenerate collagen). General Discussion: Feline eosinophilic granuloma complex includes lesions affecting the skin. sublumbar and inguinal lymph nodes.hyphal wall surrounded by a band of eosinophilic material (eosinophilic sleeve) Conidiobolus coronatus .pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic inflammation with hyphae: Lagenidium sp. macrophages. Zygomycetes . The only other oomycete recognized to cause disease in mammals is Lagenidium. eosinophilic sleeve 5-10um wide Basidiobolus ranarum . eosinophilic and granulomatous. sharply-delineated eosinophilic foci that are up to 250 um. feline. diffuse. Hyphae have larger diameter than Pythium sp. biflagellate zoospores. or are separated by clear space (spongiosis). Pathogenesis: Cause unknown Typical Gross Findings: Feline eosinophilic granuloma Feline oral eosinophilic granuloma: Single or multiple firm. Organisms found in areas of necrosis have broad. pinkish-yellow. (range 7-25um).

focally extensive. surrounding degenerate collagen (flame figures). May also occur on paws and cause swelling of pads.oral mucosa . fewer lymphocytes. Eosinophils may extend to panniculus. Differential Diagnosis: For gross lesions in the oral cavity of cats: Neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma) Ulceration (fungal. have marked breed predilections. and hence have few differential diagnoses but consider the following: Granulomas (fungal. Cutaneous: Multiple papules. There are a few neutrophils transmigrating the remaining mucosa. viral) Feline plasma cell gingivitis-pharyngitis: Typically raised erythematous. fragmented. have eosinophils. degranulating eosinophils may be absent and there may be mild flame figure formation. Feline eosinophilic plaque: Alopecic and erosive to ulcerative erythematous. proliferative lesions. yellow to greenish-brown. D-M01B . . Canine eosinophilic granuloma: Oral: Well-demarcated. there are multifocal to coalescing nodular aggregates of eosinophils and macrophages that palisade around degenerate. Eosinophilic plaque: Severe acanthosis. Ulceration. Morphologic Diagnosis: Oral mucosa (per contributor): Stomatitis.Canine oral eosinophilic granuloma . lymphocytes and mast cells. and medial thigh regions. with numerous eosinophils.37 Feline eosinophilic granuloma – pink-yellow swelling of chin.dog Histopathologic Description: Oral mucosa (per contributor): There is a polypoid lesion covered by an extensively ulcerated mucosa. with collagen degeneration and ulceration. nasal. plasmocytoma) Comparative Pathology: Equine nodular collagenolytic granuloma (nodular necrobiosis): Nonpruritic nodules over withers. nodules and plaques. submucosal edema. Overlying epithelium may be hyperplastic and/or ulcerated. bacterial. eosinophilic and granulomatous. macrophages. melanoma. macrophages. granulomatous plaques on the ventral and lateral surfaces of the tongue or palatine mucosa. lymphoma. squamous cell carcinoma. giant cells. or solitary lesions in the external ear canal Oral and cutaneous lesions rarely coexist Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Eosinophilic granuloma: Nodular to diffuse granulomatous inflammation. usually on the abdomen. and many small caliber parallel blood vessels lined by hypertrophic endothelium (granulation tissue). and sometimes hyalinized bundles of collagen. singular to multiple plaques located on the abdomen. ectatic lymphatics. bacterial) Neoplasia (mast cell tumor. Dogs: Oral eosinophilic granulomas are often ulcerated. Ulceration is common. spongiosis. canine. back and neck. mainly in the glossopalatine arches (often bilateral) For gross lesions in the oral cavity of dogs: Oral eosinophilic granulomas are visually distinctive. and variable fibrovascular proliferation with endothelial swelling. in Siberian Huskies. and cutaneous eosinophilic granulomas are reported in Black rhinoceros. and plasma cells. Oral. Within the mass. flanks and prepuce. In Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Siberian Husky. Indolent ulcer: Erosive to ulcerative lesion on upper lip or adjacent to the upper canine tooth. eosinophilic folliculitis or furunculosis (in cutaneous lesions). vegetative. Epidermal and follicular mucinosis is common. neutrophils. severe. Indolent Ulcer: Eosinophilic inflammation with fewer neutrophils and variable fibrosis and rarely eosinophilic “flame figures”. eosinophilic exoctyosis. These foci are surrounded by abundant eosinophils. perianal. flame figures are prominent. “fat chin”. The stroma is expanded by hypertrophic fibroblasts separated by pale basophilic fibrillar matrix.

bronchial epithelium. epidermal acanthosis.Inflammatory bowel disease.horse Small intestine: Multifocally villi are blunted and fused with mucosal ulceration. and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). pyknotic. neutrophils. severe. oral cavity and skin).38 D-M02 .stomach . multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease (MEED). ferrets and humans. other chronic enteritides Comparative Pathology: Multisystemic eosinophilic disease (hypereosinophilic syndrome . pythiosis. and fibrosis Villus atrophy. exudation Differential Diagnosis: For eosinophilic enteritis . Quarter horse. mesenteric lymph nodes. and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells diffusely infiltrate the lamina propria. and idiopathic eosinophilic enterocolitis (EC). mucosa and submucosa: Enteritis. muscularis hypertrophy Skin . fundus: In one section.reported in dogs. rare multinucleate giant cells. eosinophilic and histiocytic. and concentric rings of collagen (eosinophilic granulomas). The thickened mucosa contains . giant cells. The submucosa is thickened 4-5 times by many eosinophils. Peripheral eosinophilia is absent.perivascular dermatitis. lymphocytes. ulceration. D-M03 . In some papers.Eosinophilic enteritis . parasite migration (strongyles). usually with peripheral eosinophilia Feline enteric eosinophilic syndrome is often progressive and fatal. Multifocally dense aggregates of brightly eosinophilic debris are surrounded by epithelioid macrophages. spleen. Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine. liver. General Discussion: Equine inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in which no cause has been identified include granulomatous enteritis (GE). Multifocally in the submucosa there are areas of hemorrhage. Multifocally lacteals are dilated with increased numbers of lymphocytes. diffuse. the gastric mucosa is diffusely and markedly thickened (up to three times normal) and thrown into exaggerated rugal folds supported by a submucosa thickened by abundant fibrous connective tissue. lamina propria fibroplasia.central core of eosinophils surrounded by macrophages. Chronic eosinophilic enteritis of horses is considered to be part of MEED with eosinophils infiltrating many organs (gastrointestinal tract. macrophages. macrophages. and fibrillar basophilic material (mucin).Chronic hypertrophic gastritis .dog Histopathologic Description: Stomach. The submucosal glands are mildly dilated and frequently filled with or obscured by nodular aggregates of degenerate eosinophils. EC describes IBD with intestinal eosinophilic infiltrates only.small intestine . EC and MEED describe IBD in which eosinophils infiltrate the intestine and other organs. hyperkeratosis. fibrin. eosinophils. The lumen contains focally extensive accumulations of fibrin admixed with sloughed epithelial cells and cellular debris. Many eosinophils. and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells Eosinophilic granulomas . and edema. Affected horses with EC (lesions confined to the intestinal tract) have different clinical signs and a better prognosis for survival than other forms of IBD. lymphocytic-plasmacytic enterocolitis (LPE). eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. Pathogenesis: Unknown specific cause Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Gastrointestinal tract Diffuse infiltration of enteric tunics by eosinophils. macrophages. cats. equine. mildly dilated lymphatics. with eosinophilic granulomas. admixed with many erythrocytes and small amounts of eosinophilic cellular. mast cells. plump fibroblasts and collagen. In other papers. pancreas.HES) .

expand the crypts and compress the adjacent lamina propria. Mucus cell metaplasia that gradually replaces parietal cells. nodular mucosa. . Pig: Hyostrongylus rubidus Cat: Ollulanus tricuspis Snakes: Cryptosporidium infection causes hypertrophy.Mucoid enteropathy . adenomatous hyperplasia. Lymphocytes and plasma cells expand the lamina propria at the base of glands. and abundant amphophilic fibrillar material (mucus). Condition Synonyms: Idiopathic or giant hypertrophic gastritis. often presenting with a protein-losing gastropathy similar to Menetrier’s disease in humans. macrophages. Habronema sp. The second section is within normal limits.rabbit Histopathologic Description: Ileum (per contributor): Over 95% of the mucosal epithelium is composed of goblet cells (hyperplasia) that diffusely and markedly distort the villi. diffuse. with minimal subacute enteritis. worldwide. Morphologic Diagnosis: Stomach. Menetrier's Disease General Discussion: An idiopathic condition of dogs producing marked gastric rugal hypertrophy and mucosal gland hyperplasia in the body of the stomach. cystic changes in gastric glands and focal mucosal necrosis D-M04 . replacement of granular cells by cuboidal and columnar cells resembling mucous neck cells. replacing parietal cells. mucosa: Hyperplasia. Occasionally nodular aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells expand the lamina propria. Differential Diagnosis: For thickened gastric mucosa in dogs: Chronic hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy: Involves pylorus. sessile or pedunculated polypoid masses Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: Fundic mucosal hypertrophy secondary to increased gastrin secretion from pancreatic islet cell tumor or gastrinoma Infiltrating lymphoid tumors: Monomorphic population of lymphocytes Leiomyoma: Usually well demarcated. Morphologic Diagnosis: Ileum (per contributor): Hyperplasia.ileum . and plasma cells. The Basenji. gastric polyposis. Multifocally surface and neck mucus cells extend deep into the gastric glands. Boxer and Bull terrier are predisposed. focally extensive. New Zealand White rabbit. German Shepherd Dog. severe. hyperrugosity of the stomach. hypertrophic gastropathy.39 elongated gastric glands. there are low numbers of sloughed and necrotic epithelial cells and previously described inflammatory cells. may include secondary folds of muscularis mucosa. associated with small breed dogs Adenomatous polyps: Raised. giant rugal hypertrophy. with mild lymphoplasmacytic gastritis. goblet cell. moderate. Multifocally the lamina propria contains low numbers of heterophils. absence of both inflammatory infiltrate and mucosal hypertrophy Comparative Pathology: Causes of hypertrophic/proliferative gastritis: Non-human primates: Nochtia nochti Cattle: Ostertagiasis (Ostertagia ostertagi) Sheep: Ostertagia circumcincta Horse: Trichostrongylus axei. subacute enteric condition that affects weanling rabbits between 7-14 weeks of age Pathogenesis: Cause is unknown. replace enterocytes. lymphocytes. noninflammatory. Beagle. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Hyperplastic mucosa. pseudotumoral gastritis. and thickening of gastric mucosa. canine. General Discussion: A common. lagomorph. Cystic dilatation of mucous glands may be present. edema. Multifocally within crypts and the intestinal lumen.

Focally a lymphatic within the subserosa contains an aggregate of eosinophilic material and degenerate leukocytes. clear cystic spaces up to 2 mm in diameter.Intestinal emphysema . constipation.40 Typical Gross Findings: Colon distended with clear. EEE. bilirubin=12. Remaining hepatocytes in these areas are shrunken and often individualized and contain pale. vacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration). which are lined by a discontinuous layer of flattened endothelium (lymphatics). macrophages can contain vacuoles (gas). and WEE. Remaining hepatic cords surrounding portal areas are mildly disrupted and hepatocytes contain . moderate numbers of macrophages and Kupffer cells that sometimes contain phagocytosed erythrocytes and minimal amounts of globular brown pigment (hemosiderin). macrophages. or mesenteric lymph nodes. The absence of inflammation is characteristic. or condensed eosinophilic cytoplasm with pyknotic nuclei or karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). eosinophils and occasional.liver .Equine serum hepatitis . Histopathologic Description: Liver: Diffusely the hepatic cord architecture is disrupted by loss of centrilobular and midzonal hepatocytes with stromal collapse. incoordination. AST=1800. plasma cells. small aggregates of multinucleated giant cells of both the Langhans and foreign body types. head pressing. severe. Eosinophils and lymphocytes multifocally infiltrate the tunica muscularis and. D-M05 .horse History: The animal was vaccinated 2 weeks prior to death for tetanus. expand the subserosa. submucosa. Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine: Emphysema. bile-stained contents. icterus. The cysts are separated by a thin to moderate collagenous stroma that multifocally is infiltrated by moderate numbers of lymphocytes.pig Histopathologic Description: Small intestine: Diffusely the submucosa is markedly expanded by multiple. porcine Cause: Unknown Condition Synonyms: Pneumatosis cystiodes intestinalis. subserosa. Hepatic cords are disrupted and separated by multifocal areas of hemorrhage. and scattered lymphocytes and plasma cells. D-M06 .small intestine . tunica muscularis. A mixed to granulomatous inflammatory reaction may be evident in the walls of the cyst-like structures. submucosal. in conjunction with edema. mesentery. gelatinous mucus. BSP more than 15 min. Differential Diagnosis: Fluid-filled lymphatics (edema or lymphatic obstruction) Empty parasitic cysts Congenital anomalies (remnant cysts of reproductive origins) Comparative Pathology: Sheep: Occasionally occurs with enterotoxemia Human: Usually asymptomatic incidental finding Rabbit: Experimentally induced through nutritional factors. Lymphatics within the tunica muscularis and serosa are also moderately ectatic. with multifocal transmural lymphangiectasia and granulomatous and eosinophilic inflammation. Colonic constipation or cecal impaction are common. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Goblet cell hyperplasia may be present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and is most severe and consistent in the ileum and colon. Small intestines generally contain watery. often coalescing. diffuse. emphysema intestinalis General Discussion: Gas-filled cystic spaces in the intestinal wall Rare. pig. breed not specified. incidental finding in healthy swine at slaughter Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Gas-filled cystic structures are dilated lymphatics of the lamina propria. Clinical findings included blindness. Cecum may contain mucus or fluid.

cat Histopathologic Description: Liver: Diffusely. The capsule is diffusely and markedly expanded by moderate amounts of clear space (edema) and few previously described inflammatory cells. D-M07 . neutrophils. markedly expanding and bridging portal areas are high numbers of lymphocytes and fewer plasma cells. severe. macrophages. severe. surrounding and replacing individual necrotic hepatocytes (piecemeal necrosis). portal lymphocytes form follicular nodules. aflatoxin): Usually centrilobular necrosis with minimal inflammation. centrilobular and midzonal. in feline leukemia virus infection and canine dirofilariasis. necrosis and loss. including tetanus antitoxin. Higher incidence in horses > 1yr Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Subacute to chronic hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis (not acute like the clinical disease) Severe fatty change affecting most hepatocytes. and rare neutrophils.e. Sporadically occurs in horses that have not received equine biological products.Lymphocytic portal hepatitis . X-disease. pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. diffuse. Generally occurs 40-70 (range of 27-165) days after receiving injections of equine-origin biologics. Portal areas are mildly expanded by clear space (edema) and contain slightly increased amounts of collagen (fibrosis). may coalesce and form fatty cysts. and fibroblasts that separate and surround bile ducts. idiopathic acute hepatic disease General Discussion: Most common cause of acute hepatic failure in horses.e. neutropenia. and urticaria of the skin. African horse sickness antiserum. About 10 days later. Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration. biliary hyperplasia. +/. increased numbers of sinusoidal Kupffer cells. macrophages.41 mildly vacuolated cytoplasm. equine. a generalized type III hypersensitivity reaction.photosensitization NOTE: Serum sickness is a different condition. and mild multifocal subacute hepatitis. there are reports of in-contact non-treated horses developing the disease. with stromal collapse. acute yellow atrophy of horses. post-vaccinal hepatitis. centrilobular fibrosis. portal and periportal. bile duct proliferation and fibrosis Equine infectious anemia (equine lentivirus): Subacute. dilated sinusoids and condensed reticulin framework Bile pigment may accumulate in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. fibrosis with chronicity. i. feline Cause: Unknown . centrilobular fatty degeneration and hepatocellular loss. i. The classic example is the acute or "single shot" serum sickness which was formerly seen in people given large doses of equine-origin antisera. breed unspecified. Diffuse mild fibroplasia primarily in portal areas Differential Diagnosis: Equine hepatic necrosis Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity: Chronic. separating. megalocytosis. individual hepatocyte necrosis. lymphocytic. with biliary hyperplasia and multifocal piecemeal necrosis. Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Hepatitis. chronic. Diffusely. plasma. there are increased numbers of branched and tortuous small bile ducts (biliary hyperplasia) and occasionally. anthrax antiserum. edema. Mortality is 50% -90% in horses that develop clinical signs. Appaloosa.liver . diffuse. Cause: Unknown Condition Synonyms: Theiler's disease. plasma cells. joint swelling and proteinuria (due to immune complex glomerulonephritis). equine encephalomyelitis antiserum. portal infiltration by lymphocytes and plasma cells very characteristic Acute toxic hepatitis (mycotoxins. compress adjacent lobules and rarely infiltrate adjacent sinusoids. few lymphocytes. Centrilobular hepatocytes and Kupffer cells often contain moderate amounts of granular to globular yellow-brown pigment (hemosiderin or bile). Acute and chronic forms may occur in animals that are continuously antigenemic. these people developed generalized vasculitis with erythema.

dog . no bile duct degeneration Chronic: Portal fibrosis with bile duct proliferation Minimal extension into the periportal hepatic parenchyma Differential Diagnosis: Acute Cholangiohepatitis (Suppurative Cholangiohepatitis): Neutrophils within walls or lumina of bile ducts. Hyperglobulinemia Commonly associated with pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease Malignant Lymphoma: No polymorphonuclear infiltrate (though may contain eosinophils). extension of inflammation into parenchyma. This is caused by Hepatitis B virus in humans. Not associated with inflammatory bowel disease or pancreatitis Typical Gross Findings: Hepatomegaly. pronounced nodularity of capsule.Uremic gastropathy . often bridges limiting plate Comparative Pathology: Dogs and Man: Chronic active hepatitis has similar hepatocellular piecemeal necrosis and destruction of the limiting plate as in chronic cholangiohepatitis. no periportal necrosis. with bile duct degeneration Marked bile duct proliferation Periportal hepatocellular necrosis Bridging fibrosis. and nodular hyperplasia Severe form called “sclerosing cholangitis”. lobular fibrosis. may be remarkable No cholangitis. less intense biliary hyperplasia.42 General Discussion: Inflammatory liver diseases are the second most common type of liver disease in cats (after hepatic lipidosis). small bile ducts are replaced by periductal “onion skin” concentric fibrosis. biliary epithelial degeneration Disruption of limiting plate.stomach . concentric layers of cells and collagen around the bile ducts. Two histologically distinct feline inflammatory liver diseases: Lymphocytic portal hepatitis Cholangiohepatitis: acute and chronic forms Mild lymphocytic portal hepatitis is common in older cats (>10 years) and may be an aging change or a subclinical form of this slowly progressive disease Pathogenesis: Unknown Immune mediated etiology is suspected because of intense lymphocytic inflammation. leading to pseudolobule formation and cirrhosis Hepatomegaly. with exaggerated lobular pattern Chronic cases: Portal fibrosis Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Subacute: Portal tracts expanded by lymphocytes with few macrophages and neutrophils Bile duct proliferation. D-M08 . periportal hepatocellular necrosis May be secondary to an ascending biliary infection Hemogram: usually neutrophilia with left shift Chronic Cholangiohepatitis (lymphoplasmacytic/nonsuppurative cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis): More common in young cats (<4 years) and Persians Generally thought to be advanced stage of acute cholangiohepatitis Mixed inflammation (equal numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes) in portal areas and in bile ducts.

thrombi. The lamina propria is expanded by abundant fibrous connective tissue that surrounds and widely separates glands. stomach and proximal intestine are edematous. stomatitis and gastritis) Altered calcium-phosphorous metabolism (soft tissue mineralization. The lamina propria contains few plasma cells. necrotizing stomatitis and glossitis (esp. but primarily affecting the middle and deep mucosa. fibrin and mineral (vasculitis and mineralization).43 Histopathologic Description: Stomach: Diffusely. there is necrosis and loss of the glandular epithelium. There is granular to globular basophilic material (mineral) within epithelial cell cytoplasm and surrounding cells. The submucosa is segmentally expanded up to three times normal by loosely arranged collagen separated by clear spaces and ectatic lymphatics (edema). Multiple submucosal vessels contain thrombi. hemorrhage. Morphologic Diagnosis: Stomach: Gastritis. macrophages and occasional neutrophils and mast cells. diffuse. or contain sloughed. and parathyroid hyperplasia) Ammonia secretion (gastritis and stomatitis) Decreased erythropoietin and increased erythrocyte fragility (anemia) Typical Gross Findings: Gastrointestinal: Ulcerative. Multifocally capillaries are ectatic and some contain fibrin thrombi. Gastric glands are torturous. . rounded chief and parietal cells with pyknosis and karyorrhexis (necrosis). plasma cells and macrophages. hypertrophy. canine. mineralization. Within submucosal arteries the endothelium is multifocally disrupted and the tunica media contains cellular and nuclear debris. and edema. lymphocytes. agranular. atrophic chief cells Swollen and fragmented parietal cells Comparative Pathology: Cats: Similar to dogs Cattle: Colitis is common. and thrombosis). moderate. atrial and aortic thrombosis. General Discussion: Uremia is a systemic toxicosis caused by renal failure and affects multiple organ systems. fibrinous pericarditis. Chief cells lining the glands are attenuated and have decreased cytoplasmic basophilia. There is multifocal mucosal hemorrhage. and often lined by. fibrous osteodystrophy.dogs and cats Ulcerative and hemorrhagic colitis . Severity of lesions depends on the duration of the uremic state (few lesions with acute renal failure. gritty. mucosal and vascular mineralization. ectatic. many with chronic renal failure). with vasculitis. Pathogenesis: Lesions associated with uremia are secondary to: Damage to endothelial cells (pulmonary edema. chronic. individualized. lymphocytes. necrotizing. and moderate numbers of neutrophils. pale (pumice) lungs Pulmonary edema and hyperemia Skeletal: Fibrous osteodystrophy Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Gastric mucosal necrosis with erosion and ulceration Atrophy of gastric glands with fibrosis and mineralization Submucosal arteriopathy (myocyte necrosis. limited to the body and fundus Shrunken. underside of tongue) Ulcerative and hemorrhagic gastritis .horses and cattle Hemorrhagic lymphadenopathy Cardiovascular: Fibrinous pericarditis Atrial and aortic thrombosis Respiratory: Subpleural intercostal mineralization Solid. Pomeranian.

caseous exudate in lower trachea and bronchi Neurologic signs: Ataxia in severe deficiency may resemble Vitamin E deficiency. bilaterally swollen conjunctiva from metaplasia of orbital gland epithelium. trachea and bronchi may be lined by a delicate pseudomembrane. pharynx. neurologic disorders. macrophages. Vit A is essential for optimal growth. White Leghorn chicken. Cause: Vitamin A deficiency (Hypovitaminosis A) General Discussion: In poultry. Typical Gross Findings: Small white nodules (1-3 mm) often with a central depression in nasal passages. esophagus. reproductive disorders (infertility and abortion. Few lymphocytes. respiratory disease Dogs: Hyperkeratosis of sebaceous gland ducts. Mucoid oronasal discharge and facial swelling Infectious coryza (Hemophilus paragallinarum): Profuse nasal discharge (“wet beak”) Infectious bronchitis (coronavirus): Swollen sinuses. Multifocally the glands are surrounded by a dense band of lymphocytes with fewer plasma cells.chicken Histopathologic Description: Esophagus: Diffusely the submucosal glands are markedly ectatic. excessive lacrimation. increased cerebral spinal fluid pressure. differentiation is by histologic examination of the brain. up to 2 mm in diameter. vision and integrity of mucous membranes. plasma cells and neutrophils are present within the lamina propria. corneal changes. genital. low to moderate numbers of necrotic heterophils. catarrhal nasal and ocular discharge. Therefore.Vitamin A deficiency . vitamin A-responsive dermatosis (Cocker Spaniel). Comparative Pathology: Reptiles: Common in turtles and tortoises. admixed with moderate numbers of pale basophilic coccobacilli. crop. and heterophils. rare in snakes. raised plaques. severe. esophagus. deafness from changes in internal auditory meatus Cattle. Morphologic Diagnosis: Esophagus. D-M09 . keratinization of the tongue. corneal opacity Typical Light Microscopic Findings: First histologic lesion is atrophy and deciliation of respiratory cells +/. epithelial linings composed of mucous membranes like the alimentary. The glandular lumina are filled with eosinophilic lamellations of keratin. swine. skeletal abnormalities. Other lesions: bone deformities. and the lining epithelium is replaced by a keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium (squamous metaplasia). and occasional foci of mineralization. and goats: Night blindness. pharynx and often into the crop Seromucoid watery masses fill turbinates and may cause facial swelling.esophagus .44 Horses: Uremic gastritis occurs occasionally (ddx: cantharidin toxicosis). submucosal glands: Squamous metaplasia and ectasia. sheep. diffuse. squamous metaplasia of respiratory and digestive mucous membranes. The paranasal sinuses. and thin cortex Differential Diagnosis: Oral lesions Fowl pox (avian poxvirus): Raised nodules with necrotic centers in oropharynx and esophagus Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas gallinae): Caseous proliferative lesions in buccal cavity. bone remodeling. urinary. especially in pigeons and raptors Thrush (Candida albicans): Crop mucosa is thickened with white circular. avian.necrosis > squamous metaplasia Bone lesions: Decreased endosteal and periosteal osteoblasts > impaired bone growth. with moderate periglandular lymphoplasmacytic esophagitis. . and respiratory systems are most often affected. mouth.

> unknown stimulus or trigger > generation of free radicals > degradation of lipoprotein membranes of hepatocyte cytoplasmic organelles > hepatocellular necrosis Muscle: Oxidative damage to myocyte membrane > massive influx of Ca++ into the cytosol and accumulation in mitochondria > decreased energy production > necrosis (white muscle disease) Heart: Oxidative damage to endothelium > thoracic/pericardial transudate. stored primarily in liver. hemorrhagic kidneys Guinea pigs and rats: There is inadequate differentiation and organization of odontoblasts leading to irregular dentin formation and enamel hypoplasia. and stromal collapse. transported in blood within chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins. Cats: Experimental (rare) loss of vision. pig. breed not specified. weakness.pig HD: Liver: There is massive necrosis affecting approximately 40% of the hepatic lobules characterized by retention of lobular architecture but with variable disruption of hepatocellular cords. incoordination. cortex and medulla there is moderate amounts of hemorrhage and fibrin.45 particularly in swine). 2.Hepatosis dietetica . bronchopneumonia. loss of central veins. with moderate lymphoplasmacytic. Lymph node: Draining hemorrhage. Diffusely there are numerous cells undergoing apoptosis. hepatocytes are individualized. acute. often with intramural and subendocardial hemorrhages and pulmonary edema . edema. exophthalmos. plasma cells. and myocardial hemorrhage > ischemic necrosis of cardiomyocyte (mulberry heart disease) Adipose tissue: Excessive peroxidation of fatty acids > free radical tissue damage > neutrophilic. massive. porcine. angular and shrunken with karyolytic to pyknotic nuclei (necrosis) and occasionally have finely granular. neutrophilic. Multifocally the capsule is indented overlying areas of fibrosis and stromal collapse. hypereosinophilic. hepatocellular drop-out. neutrophils. and hemorrhage. pulmonary edema. rapidly growing pigs with inadequate dietary protein. Liver: Necrosis. ascites.liver . multifocal. ocular exudate. Multifocally. subpleural pulmonary cysts lined with squamous epithelium. macrophages. vitamin E and/or selenium In nutritionally predisposed pigs. fibrin and hemorrhage and frequently contain low to moderate numbers of lymphocytes. salivary glands. D-M10 . corneal ulceration. and fat and scavenges free radicals. less affected lobules have small foci of necrosis. fibrosis. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. and histiocytic portal hepatitis. reactive fibroblasts and fewer eosinophils. multifocal. Lymph node: Multifocally scattered throughout the sinuses. basophilic cytoplasm (mineralization). uterus. Cause: Vitamin E/selenium deficiency General Discussion: A disease of young. and respiratory tract Fish: Poor growth. mild. faded hair and seborrheic skin diseases In male calves stenosis of the optic foramen > atrophy of the optic nerve and blindness The pathognomonic lesion in cattle is squamous metaplasia of the parotid gland. it may be precipitated by stressful conditions Deficiencies cause multisystemic disease in many species Vitamin E and selenium act synergistically to prevent oxidative damage to cell membranes. squamous metaplasia of the conjunctiva. deficiency of one or both may lead to necrosis of tissues Pathogenesis: Vitamin E is absorbed from the intestine. Within necrotic lobules. Portal areas are moderately expanded by edema. then granulomatous inflammation (steatitis) Typical Gross Findings: Massive hepatic necrosis Pale streaks on the myocardium. particularly in membranes Selenium is a cofactor in the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (reduces hydroxyl radicals and H2O2) Liver: Vit E/Selenium def. muscle.

skeletal muscle changes. vacuoles of adjacent hepatocytes coalesce. piscivorous birds: Nutritional panniculitis +/.muscle degeneration due to accumulation of ceroid (diets high in fish meal or other highly unsaturated fats and a vitamin E deficiency). Chickens: Skeletal myopathy (thighs>breasts). actually due to an accumulation of ceroid pigment in the myocytes of the tunica muscularis. and usually calcification (nutritional muscular dystrophy and mulberry heart disease) Arterioles: Fibrinoid necrosis common in small arterioles in many tissues (mesentery. cardiac toxicity from increased potassium released into the circulation Comparative Pathology: Sheep: Nutritional muscular dystrophy. poor wool production.46 Yellow fat Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Liver: Massive coagulative necrosis and stromal collapse.donkey HD: Liver: Diffusely the hepatocytes are markedly enlarged by a discrete clear cytoplasmic vacuole (lipid) that flattens and displaces the nucleus to the periphery (vacuolar degeneration. hemorrhage. encephalomalacia in chicks ("crazy chick disease"). usually not all lobes affected (hepatosis dietetica) Muscle: Myocyte degeneration and necrosis. retained placenta. skeletal and cardiac muscle) Fat: Steatitis (yellow fat disease) Differential Diagnosis: Differentials for toxic hepatic necrosis Gossypol toxicosis: Uniformly distributed submassive hepatocellular necrosis. There are few hepatocytes that are shrunken. chronic low-grade or subclinical mastitis associated with inadequate selenium Horses: Skeletal and cardiac myopathy in foals. equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and associated retinal degeneration. decreased egg production and hatchability. apparently due to iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes and skeletal muscle. myocardial degeneration and necrosis Xanthium sp. edema. liver necrosis. in cats. symmetrical. hypereosinophilic and pyknotic (necrosis). Multifocally. globules of extracellular ceroid in interstitial tissue or ingested by macrophages and giant cells.liver . lipid type). infertility Hamsters: Spontaneous Hemorrhagic Necrosis (SHN) of the central nervous system of fetal hamsters. most cases involve decreased vitamin E absorption: manifestations include spinocerebellar degeneration. infertility (embryonic death). slowed growth Cattle: Nutritional muscular dystrophy. Diffusely sinusoids are collapsed.Hepatic lipidosis . intestinal lipofuscinosis (“brown dog gut”). non-human primates. mink. muscular dystrophy of gizzard. foals. encephalomalacia in chicks . Portal areas . testicular degeneration Humans: Dietary deficiencies are rare. unthriftiness. pancreatic necrosis Turkeys: Encephalomalacia with hemorrhage (cherry red cerebellum). (cocklebur) toxicosis: Similar to gossypol without cardiac lesions Cresol toxicosis: Centrilobular hepatic necrosis. periodontal disease. without cardiac lesions Iron dextran toxicosis: Suckling pigs with marginal vitamin E/selenium levels. enlarged hocks Ducks. rainbow trout: Skeletal myopathy Rats and mice: Muscular dystrophy. liver necrosis. pigs. can also see retinal degeneration and steatitis Cats. exudative diathesis. subependymal vascular degeneration with edema and hemorrhage into adjacent neuropil Guinea pig: Nutritional muscular dystrophy. steatitis Dogs: Cardiac and skeletal myopathy. and hemolytic anemia in infants D-M11 . intestines.

stress (increased cortisol) and increased progesterone during pregnancy may exacerbate the problem. VLDL is the primary lipoprotein in the blood of hyperlipemic ponies. Comparative Pathology: Feline fatty liver syndrome is an idiopathic syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that typically affects obese and anorectic cats. Watanabe rabbit: single-gene defect in the gene encoding for low-density lipoprotein receptor. and is a characteristic finding in rabbits with gastric trichobezoar Pathogenesis: Hepatic lipidosis occurs when triglycerides. severe. neutral fats and cholesterol accumulate faster than metabolic degradation or release as lipoproteins. the continual demand for glucose and amino acids may result in ketosis when fat metabolism becomes excessive. diffuse. In pregnant and lactating ruminants. ferrets and mink. cats and sheep that are pregnant. camelids. periparturient dairy cattle and rarely beef cattle and is precipitated by an event that causes anorexia. Hepatotoxins usually cause necrosis in addition to fatty change. Bovine fatty liver syndrome (physiologic fatty liver/fat cow syndrome) occurs most often in obese.47 contain few lymphocytes and plasma cells. These cats develop hepatic failure. aflatoxicosis) Impaired combination of triglycerides and protein from lipoprotein (uncommon) Impaired secretion of lipoproteins from the hepatocyte (uncommon) Insulin resistance is a proposed underlying cause in ponies. Hepatic lipidosis can occur as the result of one of five mechanisms: Excessive delivery of free fatty acids either from the gut or from adipose tissue Increased mobilization of fat is the most common cause of lipidosis in domestic animals Decreased beta-oxidation of fatty acids to ketones and other substances because the mitochondrial injury (toxins. Sudan IV Differential Diagnosis: Hyperlipidemia and fatty liver may occur with endocrinopathies: diabetes mellitus. The capsule is mildly thickened by fibrous connective tissue. hypoxia) Impaired synthesis of apoprotein (CCL4 toxicity. Insulin resistance results in increased lipolysis and free fatty acids. cattle. Anemia and icterus are common. White liver disease of sheep and goats is caused by dietary deficiencies of Vitamin B12 and cobalt. hypothyroidism. Pregnant bison: Hepatic lipidosis is similar to beef cattle. breed unspecified. lipid-type. Special stains: Oil red-O. donkeys. admixed with rare neutrophils. Condition Synonyms: Hyperlipemia syndrome. due to . obese or lactating. Ketosis results from impaired carbohydrate and volatile fatty acid metabolism. hyperadrenocorticism. subcutaneous and intracavitary fat necrosis and pancreatic acinar degeneration Pregnancy toxemia: Periparturient disease in ruminants. Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver. leading to hypertriglyceridemia. weight loss or experimentally by severe feed restriction and an increased metabolic demand. obese females that are stressed and anorectic. Hepatic lipidosis and ceroid deposition start in the centrilobular areas. equine hyperlipidemia General Discussion: Hepatic lipidosis is the abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within hepatocytes and most often affects ponies (Shetland ponies are predisposed). equine. donkey (Equus asinus). develop hypercholesterolemia on a low-cholesterol diet Fatal fasting syndrome of obese macaques: Usually older. hepatocytes: Vacuolar change. these excess lipids are deposited as intra hepatocellular droplets. miniature horses. Increased steroid hormones interfere with insulin function. and the liver has a rounded contour. Hepatic lipidosis is accompanied by renal tubular fatty change. Camelids: Hepatic lipidosis may be induced by anorexia. rodents. icterus and hepatic encephalopathy.

and multifocal hemorrhage.Congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS) . Australian Cattle Dogs. Central veins are often indistinct.liver .dog History: The animal presented for acute onset of ataxia. There are multifocal small aggregates of viable and degenerate neutrophils and macrophages. there is a welldemarcated area of coagulative necrosis (infarct). mandibular: Coagulative necrosis (infarct). with ductular hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. canine. Breeds at increased risk include Irish Wolfhound. collapse. Diffusely portal triads contain multiple arterioles. portal and central. Condition Synonyms: Salivary gland infarction Differential Diagnosis: Grossly enlarged and hemorrhagic salivary gland: Salivary neoplasia (adenocarcinoma. small hepatocytes. Ascites is present. Fatty liver is normal in neonates of species in which the milk is rich in fat.48 negative energy balance and mobilization of fatty acids. and fat accumulates in the liver. breed unspecified. There is rare individualization and rounding of brightly eosinophilic hepatocytes that contain karyorrhectic debris (individual cell necrosis). Maltese. A similar episode occurred again 1 week later. vomiting. . There are multiple extrahepatic shunts between the portal vein and caudal vena cava. and nuclear and cellular debris. sialocele. multifocal. 2.dog HD: Salivary gland. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. Liver: Venous hypoplasia. lymphangiectasia and hepatocellular hypoplasia. Morphologic Diagnosis: Salivary gland. mandibular: Affecting 50% of the normal tissue architecture. canine. and Old English Sheepdogs. Liver: Hepatitis. bile ducts and mildly dilated lymphatics. proliferation of hepatic arterioles and neurologic signs Congenital hypoplasia of the portal vein > portosystemic shunt (dogs) Acquired portosystemic shunts are caused by prolonged portal hypertension often secondary to chronic liver disease or chronic passive congestion. diffuse. and increased proximity of hypercellular portal triads. Yorkshire Terriers. Hepatic lipidosis is a characteristic finding in rabbits with gastric trichobezoar (hairballs) D-M12 . portal veins are inapparent. adenomas) Sialoadenitis. severe. and Persian and Himalayan cats. Multifocally there is mild extramedullary hematopoiesis. neutrophilic and histiocytic. mild. The interlobular interstitium and capsule of the affected area are minimally to greatly expanded by degenerate neutrophils. Types of congenital shunts: Intrahepatic: Failure of closure of the ductus venosus (large breeds) Extrahepatic: Portal vein shunts to the caudal vena cava or azygous vein (small breed dogs and cats) Arterioportal shunts: An uncommon condition in dogs only resulting from connections between the hepatic artery and portal vein > portal hypertension > acquired portocaval shunts and ascites > liver atrophy. General Discussion: Congenital portosystemic shunts occur most commonly in purebred female dogs and mixed breed male cats. with lobular atrophy. disorientation. macrophages. Golden Retriever. with few lymphocytes. Within the interstitium and peripherally. Cairn Terriers. carcinoma. and "blindness" one week earlier. drooling.Canine necrotizing sialometaplasia . Miniature Schnauzers. loss of portal veins. are increased numbers of ducts lined by multiple layers of epithelial cells (regenerative hyperplasia) that are often vacuolated. however. Hepatic pathways for oxidation of fatty acids and VLDL formation are overwhelmed. or have prominent intercellular bridges and are luminally attenuated and elongate (squamous metaplasia). salivary mucocele D-M13 . HD: Liver: There is diffuse lobular atrophy characterized by small lobules.salivary gland . Peripherally sinusoids are mildly congested. The capsule is also markedly thickened by granulation tissue characterized by increase in fibrous connective tissue and varisize blood vessels. focally extensive. Golden and Labrador Retrievers.

hypoalbuminemia. up to 1. therefore often has inflammation). Hyperammonemia: Ammonia is produced in the gastrointestinal tract by enteric microflora and is transported to the liver via the portal circulation for conversion into urea. hypoglobulinemia. foamy cytoplasm (Chief cells). Clinically similar to PSS but milder. leading to portal hypertension. hepatitis. The gastric mucosa is composed of tightly packed glandular structures. lightly eosinophilic.leptocytes on cytology Typical Gross Findings: Microhepatica. Cause unknown.g. and the lamina propria of these villi are moderately expanded by increased numbers of mostly lymphocytes and macrophages with .polydipsia/polyuria (dogs) Elevated postprandial serum bile acids. Arises from chronic liver disease secondary to chronic passive congestion. Typical Clinical Findings: Stunted growth. Elevated bile acids: Portosystemic shunts bypass the liver and deliver bile acids directly to the systemic circulation. hypocholesterolemia. nodular regeneration.dog HD: Jejunum: Multifocally replacing intestinal mucosa are foci of gastric mucosa. the lumina of which are lined by pyramidal to cuboidal cells with basally positioned nuclei and apical. Ascites always present.49 Pathogenesis: Abnormal vascular channels bypass the liver and shunt blood from the portal venous system directly into the systemic circulation. decreased BUN. usually more peripherally. cystic or urethral ammonium biurate calculi Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Congenital shunts: Lobular atrophy.jejunum . which are fairly distinctly demarcated from adjacent intestinal mucosa. small hepatocytes. and amino acids bypass the liver and are diluted by the total blood volume. usually with a single relatively large anomalous vessel +/. coma and seizures +/. the concentration in blood that reaches the liver is ineffective. Shunting of blood from the portal to the systemic circulation results in elevated blood ammonia levels. Hepatic hypoplasia due to lack of primary portal perfusion. intrahepatic shunting of blood. are round to polygonal cells with round nuclei and abundant eosinophilic. Comparative Pathology: Shunts have been reported in cats. fibrosis Differential Diagnosis: For histologic features of congenital PSS: Hepatic microvascular dysplasia (HMD)/Microvascular portal dysplasia (Congenital vascular anomaly of dogs and cats): Microscopic. failure to gain weight Hepatic encephalopathy: Depression. tortuous vessels. hepatotrophic factors such as insulin.Gastric heteropy . or primary liver disease (e. incoordination. cattle and horses. hypoglycemia. granular cytoplasm (parietal cells). hyperammonemia with formation of ammonium biurate crystals in alkaline urine +/. Also lining glands. Because of the decreased hepatic mass.5 mm wide. there are fewer hepatocytes available to remove bile acids or convert ammonia to urea.renal. Portal areas: Reduplication of arterioles and small to absent portal veins Acquired shunts: Chronic inflammation. D-M14 . Transcolonic scintigraphy needed to differentiate. Acquired PSS.. Villi overlying and immediately adjacent to gastric mucosa are blunted and fused. Present with congenital PSS or alone. Bile acid removal by hepatocytes from the systemic circulation is less efficient than uptake from the portal circulation. glucagon.

Acute pancreatic necrosis . diffuse. trauma). At the interface of the less affected lobules and areas of necrosis. with sinus histiocytosis and hemosiderosis. coagulation. . and clotting cascades which leads to thrombosis. multifocal to coalescing.pancreas . there are high numbers of erythrocytes (draining hemorrhage) and macrophages. Occasionally. repeated acute episodes lead to chronic fibrosing pancreatitis in some survivors Also known as acute pancreatitis Pathogenesis: The cause is unknown. with hemorrhage and peripancreatic fat necrosis. abdominal trauma. Cassia occidentalis. Lymph node: Within the subcapsular and medullary sinuses. with goblet cell hyperplasia. breed not specified. and increased clear space and mildly ectatic lymphatics (edema). Lymph node: Draining hemorrhage. Morphologic Diagnosis: Jejunum: Heterotopic fundic gastric mucosa. Beagle. hemorrhage. often with light brown granular to globular intracytoplasmic pigment (hemosiderin).g. complement. pancreatic calculi). severe. replacing 30% of the pancreatic parenchyma. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. Markedly increased numbers of goblet cells line the villi and crypts in adjacent intestine. abundant fibrin. Consumption of plasma protease inhibitors > free proteases > activation of kinin. moderate. toxin. acute. corticosteroids). 2.g. Initiating event (high fat meal. and extending into peripancreatic adipose tissue are multifocal to coalescing areas of lytic necrosis characterized by loss of tissue architecture and replacement by abundant eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris admixed with moderate numbers of degenerate neutrophils. fewer macrophages. Pancreas: Expanding the interlobular septa and capsule up to 10 times normal. 2) direct injury to acinar cells (e. General Discussion: Important disease of dogs characterized by secretion of activated pancreatic enzymes that lead to autodigestion of the pancreas and peripancreatic adipose tissue May be acute fatal disease. and loss of cellular detail of the peripheral rim of cytoplasm.g toxins [e. There is coagulative necrosis of peripancreatic fat characterized by retention of tissue architecture.50 fewer neutrophils and plasma cells. necrosuppurative. zinc. and inflammatory cells. vacuolated cytoplasm (degenerate) or are shrunken with pyknotic nuclei (necrotic). hemorrhage. Condition Synonyms: choristoma General Discussion: Extremely rare in animals but has been noted in the dog and cat Choristoma is defined as normal mature tissue in an ectopic location Differential Diagnosis: Intestinal Masses (gross): Intestinal neoplasms Hyperplastic polyps Inflammation (Pythiosis) D-M15 . corticosteroids) > pancreas releases enzymes into pancreatic parenchyma > trypsinogen activated to trypsin which activates proelastase and prophospholipase > digestion of pancreatic tissue and peripancreatic adipose tissue > release of inflammatory mediators > inflammatory cells > amplification of the process. 3) disturbances of enzyme trafficking within the cytoplasm of acinar cells (e.dog Histopathologic Description: 1.g. canine. loss of nuclei. Trypsin also activates prekallikrein causing involvement of the kinin system. Pancreas: Pancreatitis. acinar cells are swollen with pale eosinophilic. Three proposed mechanisms: 1) obstruction of the ducts (e. canine. necrotic adipocytes contain intracytoplasmic eosinophilic or basophilic wispy fibrillar material and acicular clefts (cholesterol). 2. parasites. T-2]. segmental.

or lacy intracytoplasmic substance. T-2 (trichothecene mycotoxin) toxicosis New World monkeys: Trichospirura leptostoma found in pancreatic ducts Cats (types of pancreatitis): Acute necrotizing form similar to dogs. zinc toxicosis Histologically – zinc toxicosis Zinc toxicosis is a cause of pancreatic necrosis in dogs. plasma cells and eosinophils within the lamina . Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine: Lymphangiectasia.small intestine . edema. In the Lundehund and Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier. amorphous. villi are blunt or clubshaped and are expanded by dilated lacteals up to 400 microns in diameter. the tunica muscularis. and mesentery are expanded by moderate numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells and increased fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis). obscuring and replacing lymphatics in the tunica muscularis. tunica muscularis. centrilobular tissue intact Necrotic adipocytes with acidophilic. General Discussion: Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is the most commonly reported cause of malabsorption/proteinlosing enteropathy in the dog. calves. canine. Multifocally. or basophilic fibrillar or granular mineralized substance Chronic lesion: Fibrosis and atrophy of remaining parenchymal remnants with random foci of inflammation and necrosis Liver may be involved. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: There is dilation of the lacteals and often lymphatics of the submucosa.Lymphangiectasia . Randomly. and mesentery are varisized. fewer lymphocytes. plasma cells.5 mm diameter foci composed of many lipid-laden macrophages. sheep. opaque. sheep. and serosa are also moderately dilated. up to 0. and occasional foreign-body type multinucleated giant cells that surround amorphous pale eosinophilic to clear material (lipogranulomas). serosa. moderate. muscularis. necrosis and inflammation of peripancreatic adipose tissue. HD: Small intestine (multiple sections): Multifocally. with granulomatous lymphangitis. The small intestine and attached mesentery were grossly thickened. lipid-laden macrophages may be present. multifocal. Lacteals and lymphatics often contain abundant fibrin admixed with few erythrocytes. Differential Diagnosis: Gross – nodular exocrine hyperplasia. it is part of an inflammatory bowel syndrome. dogs: Zinc toxicosis. fibrinous exudate. Lymphatics in the submucosa.dog History: This animal had a protein losing enteropathy. Shetland Sheepdog. serosa. with some hypertrophy of crypts Possible mild increase in numbers of lymphocytes. and waterfowl Comparative Pathology: Causes of pancreatitis: Horses: Migrating strongyles Calves. affecting 30% of villi. pancreatic calculi Pigs: Cassia occidentalis (shrub in Southeastern US) intoxication.51 fibrinolytic. and complement cascade systems > DIC and shock Less severe disease may result in repeated acute episodes or a chronic smoldering process > ultimately destroys the exocrine and endocrine pancreas > pancreatic insufficiency and diabetes mellitus Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Acute lesion: Coagulation necrosis at the periphery of affected pancreatic lobules with numerous degenerating neutrophils. Blunt villi. with or without fibrosis Suppurative pancreatitis involving inflammation rather than necrosis D-M16 . and mesentery.

liver . pyknotic. surrounding. The capsule is irregular with previously described inflammatory cells replacing subcapsular hepatocytes. Certain dog breeds have a hereditary or familial predisposition for excessive accumulation of copper in the liver that may cause the condition. with biliary hyperplasia. Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers have a familial predisposition for protein-losing nephropathy. and cytoplasm that is either vacuolated or contains eosinophilic granular material and karyolytic. or karyorrhectic nuclei (degeneration and necrosis).cholesterol clefts Comparative Pathology: Secondary or acquired intestinal lymphangiectasia occurs in many animals such as nonhuman primates. lymphangiectasia. which does not always correlate with the condition in dogs. moderate. lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic. renal lesions include chronic glomerulonephritis/glomerulosclerosis. cats. Multifocally. HD: Liver: Diffusely there is marked expansion and bridging of portal areas by large numbers of neutrophils. there are moderate numbers of fibroblasts admixed with collagen (fibrosis). Condition Synonyms: Canine chronic-active hepatitis. and abundant hepatocellular and intrahistiocytic copper. Intestinal lesions include inflammatory bowel disease. Some of the hepatocytes in these areas are swollen. or both. persistent inflammation of the liver. histiocytic. and replacing hepatocytes.dog History: This dog presented with anorexia. hepatic degeneration and necrosis. with loss of cellular detail. canine. and scattered macrophages and hepatocytes that contain golden brown cytoplasmic globules (hemosiderin or bile). proteinlosing enteropathy. with fewer plasma cells and fibroblasts. inflammatory cells disrupt the limiting plate and extend into the adjacent hepatic parenchyma separating. and macrophages. swine. Doberman Pinscher. Clinically normal dogs can have a wide range of hepatic copper concentrations and the majority of dogs with chronic hepatitis do not have increased concentrations of hepatic copper. Liver (Rhodanine): Diffusely. Focally compressing a large caliber vessel.52 propria Lipogranulomas: collar of lipid-laden macrophages that surround centrally located amorphous lipid material +/. ALKP and total bilirubin. cattle. D-M17 . chronic. lymphocytes. The cause is often unknown The term "chronic active hepatitis" was previously used as a descriptor for this condition but developed into a name for the condition. There are dilated lymphatics (edema). macrophages and hepatocytes contain abundant red globular pigment (copper). icterus and elevated ALT. chronic progressive hepatitis. and lipogranulomatous lymphangitis. Recommendations have been made to discontinue the use as a name of the condition because it is a descriptive term and is the name for the human condition involving the Hepatitis B virus. portal and periportal. seen with Warthin-Starry stains Canine acidophil cell hepatitis virus – acidophilic periportal hepatocytes Copper accumulation . There are increased numbers of small bile ducts (biliary hyperplasia). Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Hepatitis. lobular dissecting hepatitis General Discussion: CCH is a long term (4-6 months). Differential Diagnosis: Causes of chronic hepatitis in dogs: Unknown Infectious agents Infectious canine hepatitis virus (Canine adenovirus type 1) – basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies may be seen in the first ten days of infection Leptospira infections – spiral bacteria.Canine chronic hepatitis (CCH) . diffuse. etc. Some authors suggest the elevated copper may be the result of the CCH and not the cause of the condition.

Fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin (fibromatous epulis) is a tumor composed primarily of periodontal ligament-type stroma. there is neutrophilic exocytosis. Cocker Spaniel. diethylcarbamazine/oxibendazole combination Alpha-1-antitrypsin anomaly – English Cocker Spaniel Autoimmunity Comparative Pathology: Feline – Copper-associated chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis (rare) D-N01A . Doberman Pinscher. canine. and multifocally epithelial cells are markedly vacuolated (intracellular edema).Fibromatous epulis . recurrent tumors more aggressive and anaplastic.gingiva . smooth fibrillar collagen matrix. hyperplastic. benign Local excision curative Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma (acanthomatous epulis) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium without odontogenic mesenchyme. and fibrous hyperplasia (fibrous epulis). West Highland White Terrier. There is moderate acanthosis and spongiosis. forming anastomosing rete ridges up to 2 mm in length. Dalmation.anticonvulsants. smooth. The mass may displace teeth. clean margins mandatory Recurrence common. often lobulated mass that are always adjacent to teeth. Morphologic Diagnosis: Gingiva: Fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin. General Discussion: Epulis is a nonspecific and clinical term for an inflammatory. Aggressively infiltrative. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin: This is a periodontal ligament-type stromal tumor consisting of regularly positioned stellate mesenchymal cells. and extending to cut borders is an unencapsulated neoplasm composed of loosely arranged streams of evenly spaced spindle to stellate cells separated by an abundant collagen matrix within a well vascularized stroma. neoplastic cells are within lacunae and are widely separated by a deeply eosinophilic woven matrix (osteoid/dental hard substance). Common. and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor.dog HD: Gingiva: Expanding the lamina propria. There is focal erosion. pink. Focally. Copper associated hepatitis (mechanisms unknown) – Skye Terrier. Neoplastic cells have indistinct borders with scant to moderate amounts of eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm. and can often recur as squamous cell carcinoma Typical Gross Findings: Fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin: Hard. giant-cell epulis. Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma: Papillary to sessile mass most commonly found in the mandibular incisor-premolar region and often associated with local invasion of alveolar bone. Nonneoplastic epulides include pyogenic granuloma.53 Hereditary copper storage disease in Bedlington Terriers – mutation of the MURR1 gene that is associated with copper excretion in hepatocytes. Neoplastic epulides include fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin. but it does not invade bone. The mitotic rate is less than 1 per 10 high power fields. and Labrador Retriever Drug-associated . fewer lymphocytes and occasional neutrophils. elevating the overlying hyperplastic mucosa. The overlying epithelium is moderately hyperplastic. There are multiple small subepithelial and perivascular accumulations of plasma cells. or neoplastic mass of the gingiva that is common in dogs and infrequent in cats. Localized deposition of . canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. and regularly positioned dilated and usually empty blood vessels. no metastatic potential With surgical excision. Multifocally within the mucosa. Boxer. Nuclei are irregularly oval to elongate with moderately stippled chromatin and an indistinct nucleolus.

54 collagen matrix is often seen and can have characteristics of osteoid/bone. well-vascularized stroma with hemosiderin and numerous multinucleated giant cells with overlying hyperplastic epithelium. widely dilated. rare with little chance of recurrence Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Unencapsulated. vascular granulation tissue covered by gingival epithelium. second most common oral malignant neoplasm in cats Comparative Pathology: Cats: Epulides occur less frequently in cats as compared to dogs. moderate amounts of eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. Diffuse gingival hypertrophy is familial in boxer dogs. with trabeculae of osteoid/dentinoid and deposits of amyloid. often infiltrates underlying bone but no evidence of distant metastasis. and is usually located on the frenulum of the tongue. It is common in dogs and usually does not recur following surgical excision. cementum. Neoplastic cells are polygonal with distinct cell borders. The mitotic rate is less than 1 per 10 high power fields. moderately cellular neoplasm composed of anastomosing cords. with multiple epulides. rare. and usually empty blood vessels Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma: Sheets and cords of nonkeratinizing odontogenic epithelium with prominent intercellular bridges and distinguishable peripheral palisading of epithelial cells that have antibasilar nuclei. rare. dense. Cords of odontogenic epithelium are frequently seen and are considered a secondary feature.dog HD: Gingiva: Expanding the lamina propria and multifocally extending from a hyperplastic mucosa. recurrence following excision is more common in cats than in dogs. Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma in dogs resembles peripheral ameloblastoma in form but intraosseous ameloblastoma in biologic behavior. nests. SCC is the most common oral malignancy in cats. gums. recurrence not reported Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): In dogs it usually involves the gingiva or tonsils and locally invades bone and metastasizes to regional lymph nodes (second most common oral tumor). is an unencapsulated. usually does not recur Giant cell epulis: Smooth and sessile or pedunculated. strands. cyst formation is a common feature Neoplastic epithelium of odontogenic origin has the following characteristics: Peripheral palisading of epithelial cells with antibasilar nuclei Nucleus of palisading cells located at apical pole (antibasal) Basilar epithelial cytoplasmic clearing Nonbasilar epithelial cells (acanthocytes) have long intercellular bridges Differential Diagnosis: For oral/gingival mass: Fibrous epulis (fibrous hyperplasia): This occurs secondary to localized chronic inflammation that produces a mass of mature fibrous tissue often with a band of plasma cells adjacent to the overlying hyperplastic epithelium. ribbons. up to 90% metastasize to regional lymph nodes or lungs Fibrosarcoma: Occur on the gums of the upper molars and anterior half of the mandible. more common in younger dogs. and trabeculae of well-differentiated squamous epithelial cells separated by an abundant dense and well vascularized stroma. and palate. associated with the site of tooth extraction. about 35% metastasize to regional lymph nodes or lungs. often mineralized. and irregularly round to oval nuclei that have finely stippled chromatin and 1-2 magenta nucleoli. usually located on the gingiva. lips. infiltrative. Human: Fibromatous epulis in dogs is similar to the rare peripheral odontogenic fibroma in humans. Pyogenic granuloma: Bright red or blue mass. Palisading neoplastic cells along the edge of trabeculae are cuboidal to columnar . D-N01B .gingiva . However. buccal mucosa. Melanoma: It is the most common oral tumor of dogs. or masses of epithelium. Characteristic features of periodontal ligament stroma: Dense fibrillar collagen Regularly positioned stellate mesenchymal cells Regularly positioned.Acanthomatous ameloblastoma . or dentin.

Classification: Epithelial (not inductive): Ameloblastoma/Keratinizing Ameloblastoma Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor/Amyloid-Producing Odontogenic Tumor Acanthomatous Epulis/Canine Acanthomatous Ameloblastoma Mixed Epithelial and Mesenchymal (Inductive): Ameloblastic odontoma/Ameloblastic Fibro-odontoma Ameloblastic fibroma Feline Inductive Odontogenic Tumor/Inductive Fibroameloblastoma Complex odontoma Compound odontoma Tooth Development (Brachydont): Develops from two embryonic tissues: Dental laminae that forms enamel cap and embryonic mesenchyme that forms dentine. infiltrative neoplasm composed of islands and lobules of neoplastic cells that incompletely recapitulate dental elements. Morphologic Diagnosis: Gingiva. The neoplastic stellate cells have distinct cell borders. tooth: Ameloblastic odontoma. moderate amounts of pale eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm. including ameloblastic odontomas. and pulp . but they can be locally aggressive and displace/destroy bone and teeth. non-human primate. abundant viable and degenerate neutrophils. Diffusely the epithelium is hyperplastic with prominent rete ridge formation. homogenous to lamellated material (mineral or enamel). and 1-2 distinct nucleoli. fibrin. there is neutrophilic exocytosis. Most tumors of dental tissues are benign. and an irregularly round to oval nucleus. a pale. islands have central cystic spaces up to 3 mm in diameter. often anastomosing rete ridges (gingival hyperplasia). occasionally lined by neoplastic cells.rhesus monkey HD: Gingiva. and disrupting alveolar bone. alveolar bone. oval to elongate. is an unencapsulated.55 with antibasilar nuclei and frequently. which often blend into the underlying mesenchymal tissue. Morphologic Diagnosis: Gingiva: Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The odontoblasts have distinct cell borders. rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). are uncommon in animals. alveolar bone. basillar nucleus. with finely stippled chromatin. canine. acanthosis and spongiosis. amorphous. The islands are composed of palisades of tall columnar cells (ameloblasts) on a fine fibrovascular stroma that often surround a central focus of loosely arranged small spindle to stellate cells (stellate reticulum) on a pale myxomatous matrix. Multifocally.Ameloblastic odontoma . hemorrhage. D-N02 . with finely stippled chromatin and a variably distinct nucleolus. tooth: Expanding the lamina propria. There is prominent intercellular bridging between nonbasilar neoplastic cells. with prominent. Occasionally. basilar cytoplasmic clearing. Focally there is an ulcer with replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. scant eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm. adjacent to the ameloblasts are columnar cells (odontoblasts). cementum. Condition Synonyms: Odontoameloblastoma. The term “odontoma” specifies induction of both dentin and enamel. Multifocally within the mucosa. The overlying gingival epithelium is expanded to 20 cell layers thick. small amounts of eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. fewer lymphocytes. and an oval to elongate nucleus. elevating the overlying moderately hyperplastic epithelium and a tooth. plasma cells and neutrophils. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma General Discussion: Odontogenic tumors. poorly circumscribed. There are multifocal aggregates of eosinophilic homogenous to fibrillar material (dentin) often with prominent dentin tubules and basophilic. The neoplastic ameloblasts have distinct cell borders. breed unspecified.gingiva . and reactive fibroblasts. Multifocally infiltrating the lamina propria are large numbers of macrophages. with finely stippled chromatin and an indistinct nucleolus. Mitoses are rare in all cell populations.

Odontoblasts remain viable for the life of the tooth. Dental epithelium can induce maturation of undifferentiated mesenchyme of the dental papilla. Stellate reticulum and multinucleate cells may be present. Pathogenesis: Odontogenic tumors originate from dental epithelium. Differential Diagnosis: Ameloblastoma (Adamantinoma): No enamel. Acanthomatous form has broad sheets of epithelium with central acantholytic formation. Basal lamina between epithelium and mesenchyme Complex odontoma: All dental tissues are present. except enamel and dentin are present Cords of epithelium resembling the enamel organ associated with spindle cells resembling dental pulp Structures may appear like normal or atypical tooth germs. Usually in maxilla Compound odontoma: Most differentiated of the odontomas . Differences between odontogenic tumors depend on the degree or extent of interaction between the epithelium and mesenchyme. or cementum Usually intraosseous. Ameloblastic fibroma: No enamel. Resembles ameloblastic fibroma. or cementum Often in bone or soft tissue of maxilla Similar to ameloblastoma. Dentin is prominent. ameloblasts continue producing enamel after eruption. Ameloblasts disintegrate once tooth erupts.56 Odontogenic induction: Ameloblastic epithelium induces differentiation of dental papilla mesenchyme into odontoblasts > odontoblasts form dentin > dentin induces ameloblasts > ameloblasts form enamel. but in disorganized patterns. more often in mandible Islands and irregular anastomosing cords of odontogenic epithelium with peripheral palisades of polarized cuboidal to columnar cells (resembling inner enamel epithelium) enclosing stellate reticulum Basal lamina separates stellate reticulum from fibrous connective tissue. except a primitive mesenchymal stroma rather than mature fibrous connective tissue Both components are neoplastic. dentin. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Usually extraosseous Interconnected cords and lobules of pleomorphic epithelial cells separated by a moderate fibrovascular stroma No basement membrane between epithelium and stroma Amyloid may be present in the epithelium or stroma and is occasionally mineralized in concentric rings (Liesegang rings). enamel is incapable of repair. May have keratinization or cysts Stromal osteoid and bone may develop. In hypsodont (continuously erupting) teeth. with or without calcified dental tissue. Typical Gross Findings: Firm. more common in the mandible May have a hard white material resembling teeth with the mass May have multiloculated cysts on cut section Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Ameloblastic odontomas are the least differentiated of the odontomas. hard swelling on posterior jaw. dentin.

woodchuck (Marmota monax). diffuse. Comparative Pathology: Ameloblastoma: More common in dogs and cattle than cats and horses. Multifocally. The mitotic rate averages 1 per 10HPF.AC (v-Ha-ras) mice have a high incidence of odontogenic tumors D-N03 . differentiate from fibromatous epulis Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Dogs. strongly associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma Hepadnaviruses also cause hepatitis and increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in other species. and man Ameloblastic fibroma: Rare in calves. and odontomas also occur. plasma cells and neutrophils that bridge portal areas. cows. hepatocytes contain microvacuolated. and necrosis. The woodchuck is a valuable animal model for studying the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis and viral hepatocarcinogenicity. 2. There are numerous small bile ducts (hyperplasia) and numerous oval cells (hyperplasia). an epithelium-lined cyst forming around tooth remnants Transgenic TG. Etiologic Diagnosis: Hepadnaviral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is moderate anisocytosis. portal.57 Normal or near normal denticles containing dentin. Classifications of hepatocellular carcinoma Trabecular Most common form More differentiated (closely resembles normal liver Thickened trabeculae are frequent feature . glycogen type). with biliary and oval cell hyperplasia. Multifocally there are up to 2mm areas of loss of differential staining with retention of hepatic architecture (coagulative necrosis). lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic. and enamel Little epithelial tissue Both complex and compound odontomas are often referred to as hamartomas. rodent. Cause: Woodchuck hepadnovirus (Woodchuck hepatitis virus) General Discussion: Family Hepadnaviridae: DNA virus Genus Orthohepadnavirus: Affects mammals Genus Avihepadnavirus: Affects birds Causes hepatitis in wild American woodchucks. anisokaryosis and multifocal cytomegalic cells that occasionally contain multiple nuclei. have variably distinct cell borders. and occasional acini supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Liver: Hepatitis. There is diffuse moderate congestion. non-human primates. cats. trabeculae (5-10 cell layers thick).Hepatocellular carcinoma . pulp. rodents. ameloblastomas. fish Complex odontoma: Dogs. The adjacent compressed hepatic parenchyma contains moderate to high numbers of portal and periportal lymphocytes. and rodents (incisors) Rats commonly present with odontogenic (dental) dysplasia secondary to trauma and/or fracture of teeth. Diffusely. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. often near ear. Dentigerous cysts: Young horses. unencapsulated. Liver: Hepatocellular carcinoma. adult horses. chronic. there are areas of necrosis and cystic spaces filled with amorphous eosinophilic material and hemorrhage. ameloblastic odontomas. lacy cytoplasm (vacuolar change. moderate. Neoplastic cells are polygonal. multilobulated neoplasm composed of cords.liver . including man and chimpanzees (human hepatitis B virus).woodchuck HD: Liver: Effacing 60-70% of normal tissue architecture is an expansile. occurs more often in young cats (feline inductive odontogenic tumor) Compound odontoma: Young dogs. bridging fibrosis. abundant eosinophilic granular to vacuolated cytoplasm and a round vesiculate nucleus with one to two prominent magenta nucleoli.

most common lobe is left lateral liver lobe Chronic inflammation and hepatitis virus are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Hepadnaviruses cause hepatitis in man and chimpanzees (HBV). acinar.Mast cell tumor . or solid patterns. rare in dogs Primarily located in the small intestine. D-N04 . breed unspecified. often fatty and pale with normal cords (1-2 cells thick) and recognizable portal areas Regenerative nodules: Usually found in damaged. dogs and cats.small intestine . dogs. usually multiple. neoplastic cells are admixed with low numbers of eosinophils and rare lymphocytes and plasma cells. surrounding and replacing smooth muscle bundles. Neoplastic cells have variably distinct cell borders. loss of normal lobular architecture. submucosa. General Discussion: Feline mast cell tumors occur in two distinct forms: Cutaneous: one or more tumors that originate in the skin. woodchucks. blunting and fusing the villi. cells similar to fetal hepatocytes. Diffusely. Beechey ground squirrels. sheep. ducks (DHBV). tunica muscularis. rodents. rarely in colon . finely granular cytoplasm. including fulminant hepatitis and an asymptomatic carrier state. compresses adjacent liver without invasion Hepatoblastoma: Rare benign neoplasm. expanding and infiltrating the lamina propria. separating.58 Adenoid Crude acini formed by neoplastic hepatocytes Neoplastic hepatocytes have no apparent pattern Solid Poorly differentiated and pleomorphic Differential Diagnosis: Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of hepatocyte origin in domestic animals: Nodular hyperplasia: Middle-aged to old dogs.cat HD: Small intestine: Focally elevating the mucosa. cats. tree squirrels. In man. clearly demarcated. and trout Dog . cows. extramedullary hematopoiesis within mass Comparative Pathology: Hepatocellular carcinomas reported in humans. process occurs with significant fibrosis and disruption of normal parenchyma Hepatocellular adenoma: Trabecular. Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine: Mast cell tumor. and woodchucks. usually in lambs. sometimes unencapsulated. clearly circumscribed. feline. pigs. and extending into the serosa is an 8 X 4 mm unencapsulated. cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells stain metachromatically (magenta). HBV infection produces a wide spectrum of hepatic disease. rare in swine. Mitoses average 1 per 10 HPF. ducks (Pekin and others) and herons. poorly circumscribed neoplasm arranged in sheets and cords of round to occasionally spindle cells. Giemsa: Multifocally. usually single. moderate amounts of pale eosinophilic. There may be similar viruses in marsupials. metastasize to regional lymph nodes or viscera Visceral: Arise in the internal organs without obvious cutaneous tumors 3rd most common primary feline intestinal tumor (after lymphoma and adenocarcinoma) Most frequent in aged cats. WHV and HBV have also been associated with glomerulonephritis in woodchucks and humans. respectively. Viral or chemical (aflatoxin or nitrosamines) etiologies are suggested in laboratory and domestic animals. there is a focally extensive area of hemorrhage. Within the inner circular layer of the tunica muscularis. fowl. fibrotic livers. irregularly round central nuclei with finely-stippled chromatin and one variably distinct nucleolus.

CD8 alpha alpha Tumors of globule leukocytes: Thought to be either of mast cell or lymphoid origin. loss of acinar cells (atrophy). . Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). chronic. Additional Diagnostic Tests: Metachromatic stains to highlight granules: Acid toluidine blue (pH 2. rarely effaces gut-associated lymphoid tissue. well demarcated but not encapsulated Arranged in whorls of spindled cells with indistinct cell borders or as compact nests of uniformly polygonal cells. Ulceration may be present in feline systemic mast cell tumors and large canine cutaneous mast cell tumors. oval or indented. and blood eosinophils. compressing the subjacent pancreas and extending into the duodenal lumen is a unencapsulated infiltrative neoplasm composed of columnar to cuboidal cells arranged in tubules and acini supported on a moderately dense fibrovascular stroma. necrotic debris. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. immunoreactivity for CD3 epsilon. do not stain with Alcian blue. bone marrow. may have marginated chromatin or prominent nucleolus. Frequently within the adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa.duodenum. 2. and occasionally degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils. The mitotic rate is 4 per 10 HPF. nonhuman primate. CD103. Giemsa or PAS and are brown or black with PTAH Eosinophilic inflammatory bowel disease: Usually high numbers of tissue. multifocal. Eccentric. spleen. and rarely the lungs. pancreas . pale eosinophilic and granular. tubular. Scattered throughout the fibrous stroma there are aggregates of plasma cells and lymphocytes. Duodenum: Adenocarcinoma. low mitotic rate Often infiltrates among tunica muscularis cells. eosinophils are uncommon. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Less well-differentiated than those of cutaneous tumors. characteristic granules on EM Adenocarcinoma: Usually form acini with mucin production Intestinal carcinoid: Arise from neuroendocrine cells. Multifocally within the pancreas there are small aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. with ductular hyperplasia. arranged in nests and packets Comparative Pathology: Intestinal mast cell tumors are rare in other species. Tubules are often surrounded by increased fibrous connective tissue (desmoplasia). granules may be difficult to identify even with special stains. round. acinar. and filled with sloughed neoplastic cells. followed by liver.rhesus monkey HD: Duodenum: Transmurally infiltrating and effacing the normal tissue architecture. Mucosal ulceration is rare in feline primary intestinal mast cell tumors. irregularly round nuclei with clumped chromatin and up to two distinct nucleoli. occasional cases have been reported in cattle and dogs. moderate. Wright-Giemsa Differential Diagnosis: For gross appearance of thickened intestines: Lymphoma: Monomorphic population of small or large lymphocytes Granulated round cell tumors (GRCT): Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphoma: Small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte. a moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm. This is thought to be because of low cellular histamine levels. or clear. and pile up to 4 cell layers thick. Neoplastic cells have indistinct borders. there are ectatic lymphatics and increased clear space (edema). uniform cells with fewer and larger eosinophilic granules which are indistinct with H&E. may extend into lamina propria Fibrosis is common. hyperchromatic nucleus. Pancreas: Atrophy. Focally within the pancreas there is marked decrease in zymogen granules.59 Metastasis occurs most often to mesenteric lymph nodes. Frequently neoplastic cells lack polarity. and increased numbers of small pancreatic ducts (hyperplasia).Adenocarcinoma . 10-20 um diameter with indistinct cell borders Cytoplasm may be vacuolated.5). Giemsa. D-N05A .

Intestinal adenocarcinoma with intraepithelial viral particles resembling type A retroviral particles D-N05B . Nuclei are oval with finely stippled chromatin and one prominent nucleolus. pale epithelial cells that produce large lakes of mucin Signet ring: Isolated or nests of cells with a large globule of mucin in the cytoplasm. Neoplastic have indistinct cell borders and a small amount of lightly basophilic. most common in dogs and cattle Adenoma – Similar pattern. rarely in the large intestine. poodles and German shepherd dogs predisposed Cats . but lacks malignant features (invasiveness. isolated from CTT is a proposed cause through promoting inflammation and hyperplasia in the GI epithelium. and a peripherally placed nucleus Some classifications include a solid type composed of nests and sheets of anaplastic epithelial cells. marked nuclear atypia. swine.60 Pathogenesis: Arise from undifferentiated cells in the crypts of Lieberkuhn Cotton-top tamarins (CTT) Fifty percent of laboratory maintained CTT develop diffuse colitis. Novel Helicobacter sp. granular to vacuolated cytoplasm. boxers. and there is moderate anisokaryosis. Mitoses average 2 per 10 high power fields. vesiculate nuclei with prominent nucleoli Undifferentiated carcinoma (solid carcinoma. enteroendocrine and goblet cell differentiation Syrian hamster . Environmental factors..Adenocarcinoma . collies. etc. Repeated inflammatory episodes cause distortion and atrophy of crypts and surface epithelium. and horses . average age of 8-9 years old.Usually arise in small intestine.Rivals lymphoma as the most common intestinal tumor in cats.) and desmoplasia Carcinoid (Tumors of neuroendocrine origin) – Nests ribbons and rosettes divided by a fine fibrovascular stroma. most frequently in the ileum. surrounding neoplastic cells there is increased amount of fibrous connective tissue (desmoplasia). Sheep – Suspected to be caused by bracken fern or other dietary carcinogen Cattle – Suspected to be related to bracken fern and/or papillomavirus Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Four types of adenocarcinoma based on the predominant cell type: Papillary: Papillary projections usually covered by anaplastic epithelial cells with a high mitotic rate.Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with helicobacter has been reported Emerald tree boa . medullary carcinoma) – Nests of epithelial cells.colon . and adenocarcinoma arises from the distorted crypts. desmoplasia not a common feature Tubular: Irregularly branching tubules lined by flattened to columnar cells. unencapsulated. immune system disorders. poorly circumscribed neoplasm composed of polygonal cells arranged in disorganized tubules and supported by a fine fibrous stroma. frequently scirrhous Opossum – Gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma described with Paneth. 25-40% develop multicentric adenocarcinoma after 2-5 years of captivity. Siamese predisposed Ruminants. without glandular and papillary formation Comparative Pathology: Dogs – Most often in the rectum and colon. average age of 10-11 years.cotton-top tamarin HD: Colon: Multifocally expanding and infiltrating the mucosa and submucosa is a moderately cellular. Cats and ruminants: +/. fibrovascular stroma Mucinous: Anaplastic. Multifocally. and genetics are also proposed etiologies. Campylobacter sp.Osseous metaplasia and mineralization Differential Diagnosis: Hyperplastic polyp – Tubular or papillary proliferation resembling normal adjacent tissue. Occasional cells are rounded with . granular to vacuolated cytoplasm.

packets. plasma cells. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. with crypt hyperplasia and crypt abscesses. canine. Colon: Colitis. and hemosiderinladen macrophages in connective tissue stroma. Multifocal neoplastic tubules are dilated and contain a mixture of neutrophils. Multifocally. Multifocally crypts are mildly ectatic and contain crypt abscesses. and tubuloacinar structures separated and supported by fine fibrovascular stroma. diffuse. Colon: Adenocarcinoma. fine fibrovascular stroma Rosette type: Rosette formation with basilar nuclei Tubular type: Multiple tubular lumina containing eosinophilic secretions Variable amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm Minimal to prominent desmoplastic response Bland monomorphic population despite the malignant behavior The stratified squamous lining of the anal sac is often highly melanized while the surrounding tumor is white. and infiltrating adjacent skeletal muscle is an unencapsulated. and the lamina propria is moderately expanded by numerous previously described inflammatory cells and ectatic lymphatics (edema). are polygonal to columnar with variably distinct cell borders and a moderate amount of eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. chronic-active. occasional eosinophilic amorphous material (secretory product) in tubuloacinar lumina. There is rare scattered single cell necrosis. cords. D-N06 . neoplastic cells are within lymphatic vessels. well encapsulated. Morphologic Diagnosis: Anal sac: Anal sac gland adenocarcinoma (Adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac). There is mild anisokaryosis. Nuclei are often basilar and round to oval with coarsely stippled chromatin. Neoplastic cells often pile up. Diffusely within adjacent normal tissue. epithelial cells.anal sac gland . mucin. and up to two nucleoli. nonhuman primate. signet-ring. multilobulated. General Discussion: Most common malignant perineal neoplasm of dogs with higher incidence in old females and neutered males. Differential Diagnosis: Perianal neoplasia Anal sac gland adenoma: Little mitotic activity. little atypia Hepatoid gland epithelioma: Mostly basaloid cells with mitotic activity but little atypia . Multifocally.61 abundant foamy amphophilic cytoplasm that peripheralizes the nucleus (signet ring cells). proliferative. similar inflammatory cells infiltrate the subepithelial connective tissue of the anal sac. and cellular debris. rare Hepatoid gland adenoma: Common in old intact male dogs. well organized trabeculae of polygonal cells with abundant granular cytoplasm and peripheral reserve cells. and scattered low numbers of lymphocytes. Neoplastic cells. commonly metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and then to abdominal and thoracic viscera Neoplastic cells produce parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) which results in hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia (humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM)) Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Three patterns: One or more pattern can be seen in a single tumor Solid type: Sheets of tumor cells. Highly malignant: Highly invasive. the mucosal epithelium is uneven with papillary hyperplasia. infiltrative neoplasm composed of cells arranged in nests. compressing adjacent anal sac glands. Shepherd-cross. which often form rosettes or rare pseudorosettes. moderate. Subjacent lymphatics are ectatic (edema).Anal sac gland adenocarcinoma . Mitoses average 2 per HPF with occasional bizarre mitoses. cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). and remaining apocrine glands are moderately ectatic. 2. rare in cats Arises from the anal sac glands (apocrine secretory epithelium) located on the ventral lateral aspect of the anus as intradermal and subcutaneous masses.dog HD: Anal sac: Expanding the subepithelial connective tissue.

invasive growth Sebaceous and apocrine tumors Hypercalcemia (“HARDIONS”): H Primary hyperparathyroidism A Addison’s or Acidosis R Renal Disease (Renal failure in horses. highly cellular neoplasm arranged in small. canine.dog HD: Cecum: Infiltrating and replacing the tunica muscularis. Within the mass. blastomycosis. rare in dogs) D Hypervitaminosis D. closely packed nests and packets separated by a fine. surrounded by low numbers of macrophages. metastatic bone tumors S Spurious = Granulomatous disease. edema. multiple myeloma. Neoplastic cells are polygonal with distinct borders and abundant lightly eosinophilic to clear.e. Multifocally. Cestrum diurnum. e. Diffusely. General Discussion: Arise from neuroendocrine cells in a variety of organs. CD3. vessels multifocally contain fibrin thrombi that adhere to the vessel walls and nearly occlude the lumen. omentum. acicular clefts (cholesterol). Mitotic figures average 2 per 10 HPF. and lymph nodes Typical Light Microscopic Findings: 3 distinct histologic patterns: Solid groups or nests of cells with palisading of peripheral cells along the stroma Groups of rosettes or acinar-like structures Anastomosing groups and rows of cells forming ribbons All three patterns separated by fine fibrovascular stroma Polygonal cells with abundant finely eosinophilic granular cytoplasm Vesiculate nuclei and prominent nucleoli Occasional amyloid. cows and horses Malignant. lymphocytes. multinucleated giant cells. Vitamin D glycoside plants (Solanum malacoxylon.Carcinoid .g. Trisetum flavescens) I Immobilization O Osteolytic lesion N Neoplasm (lymphoma. Anal sac gland carcinoma from dogs is used in nude mice models for the study of human HHM. CD79a . D-N07 . Calciferol rodenticides. fibrin. and plasma cells expand the submucosa.cecum . Nuclei are round with finely stippled chromatin and 1-2 indistinct nucleoli. neoplastic cells are widely separated by aggregates of clear. rare in cats.62 Hepatoid gland carcinoma: Pleomorphic basaloid cells and hepatoid cells with mitotic activity. lymphocytes. moderate numbers of neutrophils and fewer macrophages. Multifocally. occasionally granular. including the stomach and intestine Rare tumor of domestic animals Reported mainly in old dogs. multinucleate giant cells Differential Diagnosis: Lymphoma: Positive for lymphocyte markers i. slow growing neoplasms that metastasize through hematogenous and lymphatic routes In dogs the duodenum. fibrovascular stroma. pleura. and local lymph nodes Cats: Mesentery. is an unencapsulated. Morphologic Diagnosis: Cecum: Carcinoid. neoplastic cells infiltrate the tunica serosa and invaginate into the subendothelial space of lymphatics and vessels. hyperproteinemia and hemoconcentration Comparative Pathology: HHM has also been reported in cats and horses. and rectum are the most frequent sites Metastatic sites: Canine: Lung. liver. cytoplasm. colon. Bichon Frise. pancreas. minimal hemorrhage and occasional hemosiderin-laden macrophages. and plasma cells further bound by a thin rim of fibrous connective tissue (cholesterol granulomas) separated by clear space and ectatic lymphatics (edema).

cyanosis. Although primary gastrointestinal neoplasia is rare. eosinophilic. vesiculate and contain a single. The mitotic rate averages 2 per HPF. concentrically arranged fibrillar cytoplasm (individual cell keratinization or dyskeratosis). Multifocally. Multifocally. synaptophysin) Plasma cell tumor: Round cells with plasmacytoid appearance i. Churukian-Schenk Mast cell tumor: Round cells. the colon of a cow. Morphologic Diagnosis: Stomach: Squamous cell carcinoma. muscle specific actin and smooth muscle actin Comparative Pathology: "Carcinoid Syndrome" in humans includes diarrhea.e. NSE. Multifocally. within the stroma. submucosa and tunica muscularis is a multicentric. three cases in the maxillary sinuses of horses.63 Adenoma/Carcinoma: May contain argyrophilic cells (exclude with neurendocrine markers i. the multimammate rat (Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis) has a high prevalence of carcinoids of the gastric epithelium There is one report of a spontaneous gastric carcinoid in a Sprague-Dawley rat Other reports in laboratory animals have been only after long-term treatment with various chemical agents Carcinoid tumors have also been reported in a mare with chronic colic. flushing of the skin. positive for desmin. There is abundant desmoplasia characterized by large bands of anastomosing fibrous connective tissue separating neoplastic lobules. anisokaryosis.Gastric squamous cell carcinoma . There is marked anisokaryosis and anisocytosis. nests. eosinophilic cytoplasm and exhibit prominent intercellular bridging.e. General Discussion: Horses have a squamous epithelium-lined esophageal (cardiac) region to the stomach. the foregut in a domestic cat. large pale nuclei with clumped chromatin and prominent variably sized nucleoli Anisocytosis. Multifocally. Arise from the large stratified squamous gastric cardiac component and may extend into the esophagus Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Islands. there are variably-sized accumulations of extracellular.e. exclude with silver stains i. a moderate amount of granular to fibrillar. infiltrative. gastric squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common in the horse. chromogranin. variation in chromatin pattern i. unencapsulated. C-kit positive Leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma: Spindle-shaped cells. neoplastic cells are shrunken and have hypereosinophilic.horse HD: Stomach: Expanding the lamina propria. in a cynomolgus monkey. neoplastic cells invade into blood vessels. breed unspecified.stomach . poorly circumscribed neoplasm composed of polygonal cells that form packets and cords supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma. bronchoconstriction. Neoplastic cells have distinct cell borders. prominent intercellular bridging Well-differentiated tumors form keratin pearls whereas poorly differentiated tumors may show only keratinization of individual cells Desmoplastic reaction with plasma cells and extensive infiltrates by neutrophils in highly keratinized areas Tumor cells infiltrate lymphatics and blood vessels. prominent. Nuclei are round to oval. equine. magenta nucleolus.e. cords and trabeculae of invasive epithelial cells Large cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. eccentric nuclei with perinuclear hoff. granules stain with Toluidine Blue. hypotension and right-sided valvular disease. The syndrome is caused by tumor production of histamine and/or serotonin (5-HT) In captivity. “clockface” or “cartwheel” nuclei. and in an elephant D-N08 . . there are areas of hemorrhage and edema. homogenous to vacuolated and often lamellated material (keratin pearls).

General Discussion: Cholangiocarcinoma is the most common avian hepatic neoplasm. Spindle cell SCC can be difficult to distinguish from stromal cells because of the fusiform appearance. Liver: Cholangiocarcinoma. Cells have variably distinct cell borders. round to elongate nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and 1 distinct nucleolus. rarely scattered throughout the neoplasm there are degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes and low numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells.Cholangiocarcinoma/papilloma . supported by a moderate to dense fibrovascular stroma (desmoplasia). surrounding and effacing.liver. Military macaw (Ara militaris). often vacuolated cytoplasm. Internal papillomatosis and cholangiocarcinoma have been reported to occur concurrently. Scirrhous (desmoplasia) response is common. oropharynx (per contributor): Papilloma. infiltrative neoplasm composed of polygonal cells arranged in irregular. stratum basale through a thickened stratum spinosum (acanthosis) and stratum granulosum. proventriculus or ventriculus papillomas. and an etiologic agent is not often identified.Military macaw HD: Liver: Separating. oropharynx . composed of epithelial cells. Mucosa. crop. Neoplastic cells have variably distinct cell borders. Comparative Pathology: Rats have a stratified squamous cardiac component to the stomach. and is responsible for the dense white fibrous gross appearance Papillomas are most commonly reported in psittacine birds. resulting in cyst formation with a single layer of neoplastic cells. SSC may occur spontaneously or be induced in toxicologic studies. Mitotic figures average 1 per 10 HPF. finely stippled chromatin and a single. D-N09 . scattered within the dermis are low numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells and fewer heterophils.64 Differential Diagnosis: Acantholytic SCC exhibits dyshesion and degeneration of neoplastic cells. Mitotic figures average 1/10 HPF. oropharynx (per contributor): Extending from a fibrovascular stalk. Mucosa. approximately 80% of hepatic architecture is an unencapsulated. which form papillary frond like projections. Cells of the stratum basale are often elongate and aligned perpendicular to the stroma. 2. Pathogenesis: Cholangiocarcinoma: A specific cause of avian biliary carcinomas has not been determined Papillomas: Papillomaviral etiology suspected Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Cholangiocarcinoma Infiltrative cords. Neoplastic cells progress from a hypertrophied. supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma. branching and anastomosing tubules and occasional small acini. Multifocally. No definitive correlation is known. there is an exophytic neoplasm. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. Multifocally. producing a pseudoglandular pattern. moderates amount of eosinophilic. but they also occur individually. Oral cavity and cloacal papillomas are more common than esophagus. tubules or ducts of columnar to cuboidal cells Mitotic figures are few May induce scirrhous reaction Papillomas: Papillary mass with fibrovascular connective tissue stalk Heavily keratinized stratified squamous epithelium . distinct basophilic nucleolus. a moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm. round to oval nuclei. avian.

dog HD: Rectum: Expanding the submucosa and elevating the overlying ulcerated mucosa is a well circumscribed. less common in the esophagus. but can occur to regional lymph nodes. There is moderate anisokaryosis. diethylnitrosamine) Papillomas: Bovine cutaneous papillomatosis Equine cutaneous papillomatosis and sarcoids caused by bovine papillomavirus Inverted papillomata and oral lesions in dogs Papillomavirus disease in aged Persian cats as well as Asian lions D-N10 .rectum . Neoplastic cells have distinct cell borders and moderate amounts of eosinophilic. Admixed with neoplastic cells are multiple foci of hemorrhage. aflatoxicosis) Papilloma (for gross findings): Nodular forms of avian pox .Plasmacytoma .65 May see koilocytes (keratinocytes with clear or gray cytoplasm and small smudged or vesicular nuclei with marginated chromatin) or basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies at junction of keratinized and non keratinized epithelium Giant cytoplasmic keratohyaline bodies within stratum spinosum In GI tract. fewer lymphocytes and hemosiderin-laden macrophages and rare neutrophils. edema. usually not affecting the overlying mucosa Pleomorphic round cells with variable amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm. one centimeter diameter neoplasm composed of sheets and vague packets of round cells separated by a fine fibrous connective tissue. commonly solitary neoplasm. fibrin. Submucosal tissue surrounding the neoplasm contains hemorrhage. unencapsulated. more commonly in dogs and cats. more differentiated cells may have perinuclear clear zone (Golgi complex) . stomach. Bile duct hyperplasia associated with hepatic lipidosis or portal fibrosis Chronic hepatotoxin-induced bile duct proliferation (e. The overlying mucosa is eroded with multifocal dilated crypts and a focally extensive area of ulceration that is replaced by hemorrhage. cats and dogs.diagnosed by histologic visualization of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) Comparative Pathology: Cholangiocarcinoma: Cholangiocarcinoma occurs in all species. Mitotic figures average 1 per 10 HPF. Morphologic Diagnosis: Rectum: Plasmacytoma. Chemically induced biliary carcinomas (i. Nuclei are eccentrically located. may contain mucous glands Inflammatory cells in the stroma Differential Diagnosis: Cholangiocarcinoma (for gross findings): Cholangioma is a benign. Metastasis is rare. mixed breed. and brain. multifocal karyomegaly and rare multinucleate cells. Condition Synonyms: Plasma cell tumor General Discussion: Generally benign neoplasm of older dogs resulting from monoclonal proliferation of B cells Most common in the rectum or ileocecal-colic junction.e. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Well circumscribed. fibrin and moderate numbers of plasma cells. granular cytoplasm. edema and fibrosis. kidney. cholangiocarcinoma has been associated with infections by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. lung. fibrin and edema that extends into the lamina propria. unencapsulated mass within the submucosa.g. vertebral canal. highly cellular. spleen. occasionally indented with finely clumped chromatin and one prominent nucleolus. Cutaneous plasmacytomas occur most often on pinnae and digits. irregularly round to oval. canine. In man.

necrosis.and extracellular coccidia. round to irregularly shaped. scattered hemorrhage. eccentrically placed. multifocally the tunica muscularis. Etiologic Diagnosis: Cecal coccidiosis (Eimeriosis) Cause: Eimeria tenella Condition Synonyms: Eimeriosis Lifecycle: Sporulated oocysts ingested > enzymatic degradation > free sporocytes > free sporozoites invade mucosa > schizogony (intracellular growth. etiology consistent with Eimeria tenella. African hedgehog. There is a heterophilic granuloma in the submucosa with a central zone of degenerate heterophils and cellular debris surrounded by macrophages. >30% of nucleated cells Monoclonal gammopathy Bence-Jones proteinuria Comparative Pathology: Has been reported in the dog. subacute. AL) is rarely present. lined by attenuated epithelium. The cecal lumen is filled with necrotic debris. sloughed enterocytes. Few crypts are mildly to moderately ectatic. fibrovascular stroma. There is mild multifocal degeneration. no mass affect Melanoma: Staining of melanin granules for S-l00 protein. hyperglobulinemia and monoclonal gammopathy. lymphoplasmacytic. lambda light chains. fibrin. Melan-A and Fontana-Masson Plasma cell myeloma (multiple myeloma): Hallmarks are hyperproteinemia. and Syrian hamster (cutaneous and salivary gland) D-P01 . crescent-shaped merozoites. oocysts. Rare Russell bodies: Intracytoplasmic eosinophilic globules of immunoglobulin Amyloid (primary. sloughed enterocytes. Coccidial forms include: numerous round 30 um diameter macrogamonts with a single central nucleus and a peripheral ring of 2 um diameter eosinophilic granules. macrophages. periodic release of merozoites into lumen) > gamogony (sexual reproduction) intracellular gametocyte development > differentiation into micro.cecum . and edema with few coccidial organisms in the lamina propria. and loss of enterocytes. lymphocytes and an outer layer of reactive fibroblasts and collagen. and to a lesser extent the serosa. The lamina propria. fibrin. or are lined by epithelial cells up to 5 cell layers thick with few mitotic figures (crypt hyperplasia). submucosa. round to oval 15-20 um diameter microgamonts with multiple nuclei. asexual multiplication. coccidia. chicken (breed unspecified). inflammatory cells. or necrotic debris (crypt abscess). plasma cells. Cells are vaguely packeted by fine. and low numbers of 40-60 um diameter schizonts with many basophilic. multinucleate and karyomegalic cells are frequent. avian. more differentiated cells at periphery with a "clock-face" pattern Binucleate. diffuse. and clusters of basophilic cocci and bacilli. Mitotic rate may be high. hemorrhage. 15-20 um diameter thick-walled oocysts. sheep. marked. are expanded by lymphocytes. horse. and contain variable amounts of heterophils.(males) and macrogametocytes (female) > released microgametes . often indented Variable chromatin pattern. Two of the following required for diagnosis: Radiographic evidence of osteolysis Plasma cells in the bone marrow.Coccidiosis . with necrohemorrhagic luminal exudate and numerous intra. fewer heterophils.66 Nuclei are round to oval. Morphologic Diagnosis: Cecum: Typhlitis. cat. Differential Diagnosis: For histologic appearance: Mast cell tumor: Toluidine blue or Giemsa positive Lymphoma: Sheets of lymphocytes Plasmacytic inflammation of the digestive tract: Mixed cell population.chicken HD: Cecum: Diffusely the mucosa is thickened up to 3 times normal and approximately 90% of enterocytes are swollen and contain coccidial organisms in various stages of development that peripheralize nuclei.

15-25 um. petechiae E. Epithelial cells frequently have pyknotic nuclei or karyorrhexis and karyolysis (necrosis). felis SI.liver .Jejunum . The microgametes are round. on the duodenal mucosa E. discrete focal hemorrhagic lesions. bakuensis SI E. ninakohlyak-imovea LI E. The unsporulated oocysts . colon occasionally E. 22um x 19um oocyst E. prominent nucleolus. Christenseni SI E. thickened cecal wall (edema and cellular infiltrates). 20-50 um. gametocytes and cellular debris. ahsata SI E. dysentery. maxima: Mid-intestine. reichenowi cranes E psittaculae Parrots Cattle Sheep E. Many epithelial cells contain macrogametes and microgametes in various stages of gametogony. red and white (clumps of schizonts) foci. bovis Goats Equine Swine Canine Feline Mice Rabbit 1st gen schizont . tenella: Ceca filled with caseous cores mixed with blood. leukarti SI I. Ducts are lined by columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells that form branching papillary projections supported by a delicate fibrovascular stroma. The macrogametes are round. with peripheral lightly basophilic granules. flavescens Ileum & cecum D-P02 . associated with gamonts and oocysts. acervulina: Duodenum with white irregular linear lesions (zebra stripping) to coalescing white plaques. with a golden brown oocyst wall. Within the lumen there are few oocysts.Cecal & colonic glands E. petechiae visible from serosal surface. soft mucoid salmon-pink colored feces. canis Ileum. ovinoidalis Ileum/LI E.lacteal endothelium 2nd gen schizont . ballooning intestinal walls. largest species. stiedae Bile ducts E. warm soil > sporocysts > sporulation (sporogony) > sporulated oocysts Typical Gross Findings: E. arloingi SI E. colon occasionally I.67 migrate to macrogametocytes > macrogamete > fertilization > zygote > oocyst > discharge in feces > sporulation in wet. truncata Sandhill/whooping E. with a central nucleus. falciformis Colon E.rabbit HD: Liver: Multifocally bile ducts are greatly enlarged (up to 4 mm) and compress the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. suis SI I. 31um x 21um oocyst Differential Diagnosis: Necrotizing typhlitis: Histomonas meleagridis: Similar cecal lesion. intestinalis Ileum & cecum E. also causes necrotizing hepatitis Comparative Pathology: Animal Coccidia Organ affected Kidney Disseminated Intestine Birds Geese & ducksE. necatrix: Mid-intestine distended with yellow to orange mucus. and brightly eosinophilic 3-4 um peripheral granules.Hepatic coccidiosis .

necatrix. eosinophils and few neutrophils Late stage lesions become fibrotic and may mineralize. and desquamated epithelial cells. Pathogenesis: Schizogony in biliary epithelium induces bile duct necrosis and subsequent hyperplasia. raised. truncata (kidney tubules) . macrophages. Typical Gross Findings: Lesions generally limited to the liver Classic: Multiple. E. bitis in gallbladder and bile duct Ferret: E. and Lepus). circumscribed hepatic lesions (yellow inspissated material on cut section) Typical Light Microscopic Findings: In later stages: Proliferation of the biliary epithelium. reichenowi: These parasites develop in multiple organs or tissues in infected cranes. parasitizes bile duct epithelium in both domestic and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus. There is moderate lymphangiectasia with periportal edema surrounding the ectatic ducts. E. Etiologic Diagnosis: Hepatic eimeriosis Cause: Eimeria stiedae General Discussion: Eimeria stiedae. later an admixture of lymphocytes. Ophidian snakes: E. thus lacking the specificity of infection sites shown by other Eimeria sp. Inflammation initially neutrophilic. Severe portal fibrosis with nonsuppurative biliary hepatitis is common. etiology consistent with Eimeria stiedae.68 are 20-40 um in diameter with thick refractile walls that are often collapsed and contain lightly basophilic. chronic. Diffusely there are low numbers of similar inflammatory cells in portal and periportal areas and mild bile duct hyperplasia Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Cholangiohepatitis. there is marked thickening of the basement membrane with deposition of immunoglobulins. Lifecycle: Life cycle for each species of Eimeria (>1000) is host specific and direct. Sylvilagus. in spite of morphologic similarity. and is an important cause of mortality in commercial rabbitries. lagomorph. E. severe. hiepei in biliary ducts Chicken: E. and enter the intrahepatic biliary epithelium > Trophozoites (intracellular) undergo nuclear division (schizogony) > Merozoites released from asexual stages eventually form sexual stages (male=microgamete. a coccidian in the protozoal phylum Apicomplexa. acervulina (small intestine) Goose: E. granular cytoplasm with a nucleus. each with 2 sporozoites) > Ingested sporozoites excyst in the intestine and invade epithelial cells > Sporozoites penetrate the duodenal mucosa. tenella (cecum). and the lumen contains oocysts. with ductular ectasia. stiedae oocysts are shed in feces and sporulate in 3 days (sporulated oocysts contain 4 sporocysts. Comparative Pathology: Crane: Eimeria gruis. proliferative and lymphoplasmacytic. furonis in gallbladder and bile duct Mink: E. New Zealand White rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Ectatic bile ducts are surrounded by a narrow rim of fibrous connective tissue with few to many infiltrating lymphocytes. pass via the lymphatics and portal circulation to the liver. plasma cells. multifocal. bile ducts enormously enlarged with long fronds (papillary folds) of hyperplastic cells Many cells contain various stages of gametogony. plasma cells and degenerate neutrophils. Severely affected livers have functional abnormalities attributable to the compression of liver parenchyma and bile duct obstruction. gametocytes. E. linear bosselated (knob-like). and numerous intraepithelial and intraluminal protozoa. female=macrogamete) which unite to form oocysts Oocysts are released into the bile and shed in the feces. yellowish-white to gray.

Liver: Affecting 50% of normal tissue architecture. necrotizing. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1. and other animals Pathogenesis: Amebae are usually nonpathogenic inhabitants of the large bowel lumen. and parenchymal and intravascular amebae and coccobacilli. vasculitis. ovinoidalis (terminal ileum). diffuse. random.Amebiasis . Eimeria does affect adult pigs but rarely causes clinical disease. Etiologic Diagnosis: Amebic hepatitis Cause: Entamoeba invadens General Discussion: Obligate protozoan parasites with direct life cycle Entamoeba invadens Causes ulcerative colitis and hepatitis with high morbidity and mortality in snakes and lizards Most turtles and crocodiles are resistant. Mesentery: Steatitis. leuckarti (small intestine) Sheep: E.Pilot black snake HD: 1. arloingi In the dog. Pilot Black snake (Elaphe obsoleta). serve as reservoirs Entamoeba histolytica Causes amebic dysentery in humans and nonhuman primates (especially Old World). epithelial cells are swollen and vacuolated (degeneration). tubular. and other organs through blood vessels and lymphatics and produce large. and hemorrhage. Multifocally. There are rare fibrin thrombi within glomeruli. heterophils. caviae (large intestine) Cattle: E. Blood vessels are congested and contain few trophozoites and rare bacterial emboli. macrophages. acute. are more important pathogens. with hemorrhage. rare heterophils. and scattered colonies of coccobacilli. 2. cattle) Many infections are asymptomatic. cats. fibrin thrombi. there are many 10-20um diameter amebic trophozoites with a thin cell wall. kidney . E. multifocal to coalescing. Mesentery: The fibroadipose tissue is moderately expanded by clear space and dilated lymphatics (edema). E. Trophozoites may disseminate to brain. E. 3. cats. lytic lesions (amebic abscesses). dogs. there are many colonies of coccobacilli. or are shrunken and hypereosinophilic with pyknosis (necrosis). fibrin. Vessel walls are multifocally disrupted by heterophils and karyorrhectic debris (necrotizing vasculitis). Diet. mesentery. immune status. Kidney: Degeneration and necrosis. necrotizing. fibrin. the interstitium is mildly expanded by hemorrhage. and a 57um round to oval nucleus with marginated chromatin and a lightly basophilic karyosome. and edema. fibrin. Multifocally. or lytic necrosis (loss of cellular and tissue architecture with replacement by karyorrhectic and cellular debris) and few. ovina Goat: E. and lymphocytes. Multifocally. Isospora sp. Multifocally. christenseni. abundant granular to vacuolated basophilic cytoplasm. with necrotizing vasculitis. and rarely infects other species (dogs. and parasite species and virulence influence pathogenicity. few degenerate heterophils. There are scattered colonies of 1 x 2um coccobacilli. Typical Gross Findings: . and colonies of coccobacilli. falciformis (small and large intestine) Guinea pig: E. karyorrhectic debris. ahsata. moderate. acute. Zoonotic in human beings. moderate. Kidney with spermatic ductules: Within 50% of the renal tubules. liver. 2. with hemorrhage.liver. vessel walls are disrupted by heterophils and karyorrhectic debris (necrotizing vasculitis). Liver: Hepatitis. cat and pig. D-P03A . bovis (small and large intestine) Horse: E. nonhuman primates. pigs. 3. zuernii.69 Mouse: E. ninakohlyakimovae (cecocolic area). there are multifocal to coalescing areas of degeneration (cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolization) and coagulative necrosis (pyknosis or karyolysis with loss of cellular detail and maintenance of cellular borders). diffuse. E. ophidian. E.

usually invades cribriform plate. differentiate with culture Salmonella enteritidis. liver. so generally not considered a public heath hazard Gastric amebiasis due to E. histolytica reported in a wallaby Gastric amebiasis due to E. suppurative enterocolitis and possibly septicemia. Silverleafed monkey) due to higher stomach pH that is conducive to survival of amebae. but 10-35um with darker cytoplasm and agranular at one pole Differential Diagnosis: Other causes of colitis in primates: Shigella flexneri. S. reported in sheep. histolytica also occurs in leaf-eating primates (Colobus monkey. 10-50 um. most human cases occur in healthy young individuals Acanthamoeba sp. Isospora sp. dogs and cats rarely pass cysts in feces. birds Balamuthia mandrillaris: Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and respiratory infections in humans. +/. typhimurium: Necrotizing. invadens in snakes Infections by free-living amebae are relatively rare. histolytica: Spherical to irregular. pseudotuberculosis: Necroulcerative enterocolitis. and a South American tapir. Y. usually invades olfactory mucosa and migrates to brain via olfactory nerves. with a narrow neck through the mucosa and a broad base in the submucosa Amebae commonly present in small clusters in mucus on colonic surface.enteritis. but increasingly reported. signs and lesions similar to those in primates. spiral bacteria evident with silver stains. ciliated trophozoites 40-60um in diameter. lungs.. affects both small and large intestine. Proteus sp. large colonies of gramnegative bacteria in necrotic centers nearly always diagnostic Balantidium coli: Ulcerative colitis.e. coli: Lesions usually less severe. and keratitis. granulomatous nephritis and meningoencephalitis in a dog Sappinia diploidea: Necrohemorrhagic amebic meningoencephalitis in humans . and kidneys Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Diffuse necrohemorrhagic colitis. and mucus Necrosis and abscesses in brain. reported in humans (primary amebic meningoencephalitis or PAM). invadens: Similar to E. and sheep. surrounded by a clear halo. nucleus with a central dense karyosome and chromatin plaques at the periphery. sonnei: Necrohemorrhagic colitis. Coccidia (Eimeria sp.70 Necrohemorrhagic and ulcerative colitis frequently with a fibrinonecrotic membrane. may cause fatal disease. in necrotic exudate. gastritis Thickened and friable intestinal wall. light staining. and in adjacent viable tissue E. especially in immunosuppresed patients: Naegleria fowleri: Acute fatal necrohemorrhagic meningoencephalitis. granular cytoplasm with remnants of erythrocytes and glycogen (PAS positive) E. cattle. dogs. acute and necrotizing meningoencephalitis in gorillas and other Old World primates. dissemination rare. in humans. necrotic debris. histolytica. cows.) Comparative Pathology: Dogs and cats: Clinical disease rare. C. usually with immunosuppression (i. kidney-shaped macronucleus Other causes of gastroenteritis in snakes: Salmonella sp. a baboon.. usually not pathogenic. distemper infection). pyogranulomas in other organs Campylobacter jejuni. necrosis down to the muscularis mucosa Flask-shaped ulcers in colon. colonic mucosa sometimes hyperplastic Yersinia enterocolitica. S. erosion and ulceration. covered by a necrotic membrane Lumen filled with blood. usually infected via cysts in human feces. orangutan. erosive and ulcerative gastritis Amphibians: Several species susceptible to Entamoeba ranarum.: Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and pneumonia. Caryospora sp. signs and lesions similar to those in E.

subacute. plasma cells. Morphologic Diagnosis: Liver: Granulomas.colon . acute. Multifocally and randomly within the parenchyma there are lobulated protozoal cysts (merocysts) ranging from 300-1800 um in diameter.snake HD: Colon: There is diffuse loss of mucosal architecture with replacement by a coagulum of fibrin. nonhuman primate. multifocal. Etiologic Diagnosis: Amebic colitis Cause: Entamoeba invadens D-P03C . Diffusely hepatocytes have foamy to clear cytoplasm (vacuolar change. There are multifocal portal and perivascular lymphocytes. PAS: Amoebae have PAS positive cytoplasmic granules. cervical lymphadenitis in sheep Willaertia sp. plasma cells. Cysts have a thin eosinophilic hyaline capsule. 3-4um diameter nucleus with a karyosome. plasma cells. glycogen type). Golden Lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). Transmurally but primarily in the submucosa and serosa. necrohemorrhagic. and an eccentric. pyknotic nuclei. macrophages. with mild multifocal lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis. Intestinal crypts contain numerous filamentous bacteria and necrotic debris. Larger.liver . the colon is expanded by clear space and dilated lymphatics (edema). eosinophilic. diffuse. lymphocytes. Adjacent to and admixed with necrotic debris there are small to moderate numbers of lymphocytes. there is necrosis and loss of the mucosa with replacement by abundant eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris admixed with numerous 1 x 2um bacilli. snake. cellular and karyorrhectic debris. and neutrophils that extend into the tunica muscularis. etiology consistent with Hepatocystis kochi. Multifocal blood vessels contain small amounts of fibrin and/or trophozoites. There is atrophy of mesenteric adipocytes. ophidian. and hemorrhage admixed with 10-20 um diameter amebic trophozoites with a nucleus and karyosome. Etiologic Diagnosis: Hepatic hepatocystosis Cause: Hepatocystis kochi General Discussion: . Adjacent hepatocytes are shrunken and hypereosinophilic with hyperchromatic nuclei (degeneration). necrotizing and pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis in pronghorn antelope fawns D-P03B . necrotizing. plasma cells and eosinophils. nonhuman primate. macrophages. many epithelioid macrophages. there are few 10-25 um diameter amebic trophozoites with clumped to globular basophilic cytoplasm. and few heterophils. and contain myriad 2-3 um merozoites. Within necrotic areas. The lumen contains a small amount of fibrinonecrotic exudate. bounded by a layer of deeply eosinophilic hyalinized material. and mesenteric fat atrophy. lymphocytes. Etiologic Diagnosis: Amebic colitis Cause: Entamoeba histolytica D-P04 . edema.: Gangrenous pneumonia in a bull. Morphologic Diagnosis: Colon: Colitis. fewer neutrophils. fibrin. severe. disrupting and replacing 15% of the hepatic parenchyma there are scattered.Amebiasis . more mature merocysts have a large central cavity of fibrillar eosinophilic material (colloid). African Green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops).Golden Lion tamarin HD: Colon: Multifocally. Morphologic Diagnosis: Colon: Colitis.colon .African green monkey HD: Liver: Randomly. with PASpositive amebae and few bacterial colonies. variably sized granulomas characterized by a central area of eosinophilic cellular debris admixed with abundant degenerate eosinophils and neutrophils. and protozoal merocysts with myriad merozoites.71 Hartmanella sp. eosinophils. with transmural and intravascular amebae. moderate.Hepatocystis kochi infection .Amebiasis . random. and occasional multinucleate giant cells.: Reported in a dog with gastric ulcers Entamoeba bovis: Nonsuppurative ileitis and typhlitis. and amebic trophozoites. affecting 50% of normal tissue architecture.

and bacteria Aflagellate .liver. and heterophils. there are large numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Infectious enterohepatitis General Discussion: Histomoniasis is a disease of gallinaceous birds (e. chicken. and heterophilic. Two forms of the organism: With flagella (in cecal lumen) and without flagella (tissue forms) Flagellated form . cecum . lateral alae. form pseudopods . usually low mortality Turkey poults 3-12 weeks old are most susceptible. also includes the genera Plasmodium. there is a 100 um ascarid characterized by a 1 um cuticle. occasionally with centrally located 3-5 um diameter basophilic nuclei. and many protozoal trophozoites. Cecum: Diffusely expanding the lamina propria. multifocal to coalescing areas of necrosis. Diffusely there are many 15-20 um diameter. Haemoproteus. necrotizing and granulomatous.chicken HD: Liver: Involving approximately 50% of normal tissue architecture are random. fibrin. moderate. coelomyarian-polymyarian musculature. scattered foreign body-type multinucleate giant cells with up to 7 nuclei. Within the lamina propria and rarely the submucosa. granules. with fewer macrophages and heterophils. Focally within the cecal lumen. Cecum: Typhlitis. guinea fowl.g. erythrocytes. diffuse. and numerous rods (cecal core). pseudocoelom. may contain cytoplasmic food vacuoles. high morbidity. peafowl. multifocal to coalescing. pheasant. with high mortality if untreated. separating cecal glands and extending into the submucosa and tunica muscularis.Histomoniasis . Ubiquitous in chickens. – do not form mature merocysts with a central area of colloid Tuberculosis . similar inflammatory cells. Morphologic Diagnosis: 1.: Multiple nonhuman primates of Africa Fruit bats Oriental squirrels Deer mice Hippopotami D-P05 . The cecal lumen is filled with a dense core of eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. round. lateral chords and an intestine lined with many uninucleate columnar cells. avian. Etiologic Diagnosis: Hepatic histomoniasis Cause: Histomonas meleagridis Condition Synonyms: Blackhead. there are numerous 10-20 um diameter protozoal trophozoites.3-16um diameter with a single flagellum. etiology consistent with Histomonas meleagridis. with fibrinonecrotic core. and quail) and is caused by Histomonas meleagridis.basal granule near the nucleus Invasive . turkey. Trophozoites within the cytoplasm of macrophages and multinucleate giant cells are often surrounded by a clear zone. moderate.72 Most common malarial parasite of African primates Family Plasmodiidae. chicken.granulomas without merocysts Comparative Pathology: Species infected by different Hepatocystis sp. with loss of hepatocytes and replacement with eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris. histiocytic. amoeboid. 2. Multifocally the crypt glands are hyperplastic characterized by piling 2-3 layers deep with increased numbers of mitotic figures. a flagellated amoeboid protozoan. Primary lesions are in the liver and ceca. with many protozoal trophozoites.at periphery of lesion (8-17um). lymphoplasmacytic. and Leucocytozoon Its primary effect is interference in research data Typically the infection is asymptomatic Differential Diagnosis: Plasmodium sp. numerous macrophages and lymphocytes. Liver: Hepatitis. lightly eosinophilic to amphophilic protozoal trophozoites.

in older parts of lesion (4-11um).g. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Hyperplasia of mucus neck cells of the gastric glands Replacement of the granular cells by mucus cells Edema of lamina propria and muscular tunics +/. more numerous Resistant .inflammation and necrosis In mammals: Villus atrophy with blunting and fusion and hypertrophy of crypt epithelium Numerous organisms attached to brush border of epithelial cells Comparative Pathology: Ruminants: C. pale amphophilic to basophilic protozoa with variably distinct 1-2 um basophilic nuclei. cellular debris and few basophilic. Etiologic Diagnosis: Gastric cryptosporidiosis Cause: Cryptosporidia sp. parvum. 1 X 6 um bacilli. andersoni (abomasum) Other mammals: C. Respiratory disease is most significant in birds while enteric disease predominates in mammals. diffuse. moderate. Clostridium perfringens) play a role in the development and severity of lesions. Multifocally the lamina propria contains small numbers of lymphocytes. a cecal nematode.Cryptosporidia sp. ophidian. causing intestinal (cloaca and bursa of Fabricius) and respiratory infections Reptiles: C. granulomatous inflammation in more chronic lesions Liver: Histomonads as individual or clusters within macrophages. heterophils. round. C. few multinucleated giant cells D-P06 . most infections are asymptomatic. baileyi.boa constrictor HD: Stomach. baileyi most common in chickens and turkeys.73 Vegetative . with myriad free and apically attached protozoa. nasorum Cryptosporidium sp. . Lining apical and luminal glandular epithelium and free within the lumen are myriad 2-6 um diameter. become infected with trophozoites (mechanism unknown) > infective eggs passed in feces > earthworms (paratenic or transport hosts) ingest infective nematode eggs > birds ingest infective nematode eggs or earthworms > in bird cecum. C. eosinophilic Certain bacteria (e. C. etiology consistent with Cryptosporidium sp. Lifecycle: In the bird cecum. Occasionally gastric glands are distended by sloughed epithelial cells. granulomatous inflammation. However. pale. compress and replace granular cells of gastric glands. infection . trophozoites released from nematode egg > penetrate cecal wall > lose flagella (appear amoeboid) > vascular invasion > dissemination to the liver Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Cecum: Fibrinonecrotic to hemorrhagic cecal core. serpentis Fish: C. muris generally asymptomatic Birds: C. ovoid histomonads in lacunae in the lamina propria and muscularis mucosa. smaller. C. meleagridis. plasma cells and fewer heterophils. eggs of Heterakis gallinarum (intermediate host). glandular portion: Diffusely the gastric mucosa is expanded up to ten times normal thickness by a proliferation of mucus neck cells that often separate. Morphologic Diagnosis: Stomach: Gastritis. macrophages.in vacuoles near center of lesions (12-21um). chronic. The parasite is engulfed by the epithelial cell membrane forming a parasitophorous vacuole where the organism resides in an intracellular but extracytoplasmic environment. slightly blue.. and lymphocytes Kidney and spleen: Necrosis. parvum (intestine).stomach . amorphous substance (edema). proliferative. gastric glands are separated by clear space and multifocally lymphatics are ectatic and contain an eosinophilic. Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor). are zoonotic but oocysts from birds do not generally infect humans. Diffusely. Escherichia coli.

falciformis. C. and numerous parasites. Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine. cellular debris. ectatic crypts contain lymphocytes. crypts and lumen: Extracellular piriform flagellated protozoa. the organisms may invade the mucosa and lamina propria. flagellated protozoal organisms that are approximately 2 x 7um and contain two indistinct.mouse HD: Small intestine: Mucosal glands are multifocally mildly ectatic and contain numerous eosinophilic. inapparant infection in adults and marked colitis in juveniles Cryptosporidium sp. parvum) epithelium.small intestine . musculi.25cm multilobular fibrous inflammatory nodule. (E.S. krijgsmanni.Spironucleus muris infection . E. E.stomach . C. C. etiology consistent with Spironucleus muris. Pentatrichomonas. coelomyarian/polymyarian musculature. parvum. E.Draschia megastoma infection . plasma cells. piriform to spindled. Etiologic Diagnosis: Intestinal spironucleosis Cause: Spironucleus muris General Discussion: An elongate. parvum associated with cholangiohepatitis with focal hepatic necrosis in nude and SCID mice Comparative Pathology: Spironucleus meleagridis: Infectious Catarrhal Enteritis of Poults. (C. rats. history. E. containing multiple irregularly shaped cavitated lobules. and Trichomonas) Found in up to 80% of healthy. muris usually nonpathogenic. Differential Diagnosis: Gastrointestinal protozoa in mice: Giardia muris. an intestine lined by many uninucleate cells. hamsters and various wild rodents worldwide. a muscular esophagus with a triradiate lumen and . Pale eosinophilic trophozoites are present in the intervillous spaces. schueffneri.horse HD: Stomach: Expanding the submucosa and elevating the overlying mucosa. Hexamitidae family: Usually in the lumen. numerous. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Often no associated inflammation In acute infections. has a rolling motion (as opposed to spiral motion) on direct smears Eimeria sp. humans and monkeys infected with HIV and SIV. Rarely. mouse. there is an oval 3x1. keilini. murine. immunosuppressed or immunodeficient Infected mice may be unsuitable for immunologic experiments since they may respond poorly to antigens. hindlei): Oocysts in mucosa. more common in wild mice. binucleate protozoan found in the small intestine or cecum of mice. watery to catarrhal inflammation and atony of the upper intestine Spironucleus columbae: Catarrhal enteritis in pigeons Spironucleus elegans: Enteritis in fish D-P08 .74 Severe fatal infections occur in Arabian foals with CID. D-P07 . muris): Attach to the brush border of gastric (C. Central cavities contain multiple sections of adult nematodes and few mixed bacilli. basophilic nuclei. respectively. flagellated. adult mice May cause disease in juveniles or adults who are stressed. and humans with drug-induced immunosuppression. parvum was responsible for the largest waterborne outbreak of diarrhea in U. muris) or small intestinal (C. In chronic infections. cultured macrophages from infected mice are sometimes incapable of normal RNA synthesis. the lamina propria and submucosa may be edematous and contain neutrophils. E. C. prominent lateral cords containing excretory canals. 7-9 x 2-3um. Member of the Hexamitidae family (with Giardia. Nematodes have a smooth cuticle with two symmetrical lateral alae. Smaller numbers of similar organisms are present in the lumen and lining villar epithelium.

Pathogenesis: Habronema sp. Eyes: Larvae at the medial canthus in the conjunctival sac Wart-like red or yellow lesion which may caseate or calcify Raised yellow gritty plaques (“clinically pathognomonic”) on the conjunctiva. breed not specified. Nematodes are surrounded by thick walls of eosinophilic cellular debris and dense collagen with centrally radiating capillaries (granulation tissue). live free in the gastric lumen and on the gastric mucosa. Ollulanus tricuspis Horse: Trichostrongylus axei. equine.. infiltrated by many plasma cells. Hemorrhage or gastric perforation can occur. Etiologic Diagnosis: Gastric draschiaiasis Etiologic Synonyms: formerly Habronema megastoma Cause: Draschia megastoma General Discussion: D. particularly penile squamous cell carcinoma Comparative Pathology: Stomach worms in domestic animals Dog: Physaloptera sp. majus uses the stable fly.. Draschia sp. penetrate deeply into the glandular mucosa in the cardia near the margo plicatus and produce 2. majus penetrate gastric glands or lie in the lumen.75 eosinophilic material in the pseudocoelom. and eosinophils. Swine: Hyostrongylus rubidus. Adult worms in stomach > larvated eggs > hatch (L1) in the intestine > passed in feces and ingested by the larvae of the intermediate host fly (H.. exuberant granulation tissue.. equine sarcoid. onchocerciasis. nodular collagenolytic granuloma Common secondary infection of many cutaneous lesions. nodular. squamous cell carcinoma. Aberrant deposition of larvae on skin and eye may cause hypersensitivity reaction with granulomatous and eosinophilic dermatitis and conjunctivitis. raised. Musca domestica and other Musca sp. submucosa: Gastritis.5-10 cm diameter tumor-like nodules containing worms. summer sores. There are few scattered perivascular lymphocytes and plasma cells within the less affected adjacent submucosa. . with many adult nematodes. Draschia sp. H. burrows into the submucosa forming granulomatous nodules.. Gastrophilus sp. muscae and D. Simondsia sp. Lifecycle: Seasonal occurrence corresponds with that of the fly intermediate host. megastoma. and pus.. Gnathostoma sp. Females have a large uterus containing many larvated eggs with a thin shell. muscae rarely affects cecum Larvae of all 3 species can infect the skin (“summer sore”) and conjunctiva Flies act as intermediate hosts. Physocephalus sp. granulomatous and eosinophilic. Habronema muscae and Habronema majus Stomach nematodes of equids Draschia can infect the intestine. swamp cancer Differential Diagnosis: Cutaneous lesions: Pythiosis. red granulomas 1-5cm from the medial canthus Skin: Synonyms: Cutaneous habronemiasis. Gnathostoma sp. etiology consistent with Draschia megastoma. Gnathostoma sp.. H. Morphologic Diagnosis: Stomach. There are occasional free larvae. Stomoxys calcitrans) > develops into infective L3 in the fly larvae > fly develops to adult > L3 migrate from hemocele into the proboscis > deposited around the horse’s mouth > swallowed and mature in the stomach Typical Gross Findings: Stomach: H. Cat: Physaloptera sp. lymphocytes. macrophages. large numbers of worms may cause inflammation and chronic erosive gastritis. botryomycosis. Ascarops sp. megastoma use the housefly. muscae and H. caseous material. Cylicospirura felineus.

neutrophils. goats: Haemonchus sp. The parasite has a thin outer cuticle and a thick hypodermis (up to 150 um) composed of a felted layer and cross fibers containing lacunae channels..Moustached tamarin HD: Ileum. Focally the mucosa is ulcerated with replacement by karyorrhectic and cellular debris and degenerate neutrophils. spirula). cecum and colon with numerous deep ulcers containing adult parasites with a hook-laden proboscis embedded deep in the intestinal wall Ulcers extend into submucosa and tunica muscularis and are surrounded by necrotic debris and fibroblastic tissue containing focal and diffuse aggregates of neutrophils. Ostertagia sp. trunk transversely wrinkled. pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic. marmosets. sheep. Etiologic Diagnosis: Intestinal prosthenorchiasis Cause: Prosthenorchis elegans General Discussion: P. and a pseudocoelom containing lemnisci with compressor muscles. central embryo with a central mass containing numerous nuclei Differential Diagnosis: Intramural nodules in New World monkeys: Prosthenorchis spirula: Lacks a collar Molineus torulosus: Characteristic strongyle intestine . Spider monkeys. D-P09 .75 mm cross section of an adult acanthocephalid parasite. nodular. lymphocytes. Morphology of acanthocephalids: Cylindrical pseudocoelomates. Fibrous connective tissue is multifocally mildly separated by increased clear space (edema) and inflammatory cells. also known as thorny. eosinophils. Intermediate host: Several species of cockroaches and certain beetles Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Ileum. lymphocytes and plasma cells that are enmeshed in thick concentric bands of mature fibrous connective tissue (pyogranuloma). 42X65 um. Moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax).Prosthenorchis elegans infection .or spiny-headed worms. outer circular and inner longitudinal muscle layers. which are further surrounded by a zone of epithelioid macrophages. and Cebus monkeys). nonhuman primate. macrophages. plasma cells and occasionally colonies of bacteria. tamarins. elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala.ileum . males 18-25 mm long. Mecistocirrus sp. separate sexes Retractable proboscis armed with rows of hooks (spines) Hypodermis thicker than muscle layers. and adult acanthocephalid parasites.76 Ollulanus tricuspis Cattle. Anterior end has a distinctive collar with 18-20 festoons (not in P. Within the ulcerated area is a partial section of an adult acanthocephalid parasite.. Pygmy marmosets. The parasite is surrounded by a thin layer of degenerate neutrophils and eosinophils. double-shelled. not pseudosegmented. consists of two layers (felted layer and cross fibers containing lacunar channels) Two layers of somatic muscles: outer circular and inner longitudinal Absent digestive tract (nutrients absorbed through thin cuticle) Lemnisci with compressor muscles (may function in proboscis extrusion) Prosthenorchis elegans: Females up to 50 mm long. and is an important parasite of native and wild-caught New World monkeys from Central and South America (Squirrel monkeys. two sections: Transmurally disrupting the intestinal wall and elevating the overlying ulcerated mucosa is a 5mm nodule that contains a central cavity with a 1 X 1. with focal ulceration. eosinophils. Eggs: Brown. Titi monkeys. narrow neck with 6 spiral rows of 5-7 curved hooks. Morphologic Diagnosis: Ileum: Enteritis. which occasionally form aggregates. transmural.

and/or chemical substances). Comparative Pathology: Parasites associated with neoplasia (Mnemonic SOCCS) Spirocerca lupi: Esophageal sarcomas in dogs Opisthorchid flukes: Cholangiocarcinoma in man. stomach. however. in that they are not double shelled. etiology consistent with Spirocerca lupi. coyote.Spirocerca lupi infection . hemosiderin-laden macrophages and eosinophils admixed with reactive fibroblasts. subcutaneous tissue. no distinctive scalloped collar in the neck region Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (thorny-headed worm of swine): Wild and domestic swine. Morphologic Diagnosis: Esophagus: Esophagitis. jackal) and some wild felids (lynx. wolf.dog HD: Esophagus: Focally expanding and disrupting the tunica muscularis and elevating the mucosa and submucosa is a 14 x 8 mm nodule composed of cross and tangential sections of an adult nematode surrounded by an inflammatory infiltrate composed of abundant plasma cells. dung beetle intermediate host. separated by variably sized bands of collagen and many small caliber blood vessels. gibbons.77 Intramural nodules in Old World monkeys: Oesophagostomum (nematode): Adults are extremely small and totally embedded in the parasitic nodule. Comparative Pathology: In captivity. Many factors may play a role (parasitic metabolic products. arthropod intermediate host. and Filicolis sp. lupi is associated with esophageal osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma. and chimpanzees may become infected if housed in close proximity with infected animals. ingens: Foxes. Eggs easily distinguishable from Prosthenorchis sp. other locations possibly involved (urinary bladder. Smaller acanthocephalans: Polymorphus sp. The mechanism of neoplastic transformation is unknown. very long (up to 32 cm). wolves. smooth. and reproductive organs. artica (northern Russia) Lesions usually in the esophagus. armadillo paratenic host. canine. cats . prominent microvilli (brush border). affects small intestine Oncicola campanulutus: Domestic cats D-P10 . lesions similar to Prosthenorchis in NHP Other acanthocephalans that parasitize mammals: Moniliformis moniliformis: Wild rodents and great apes. coelomyarianpolymyarian musculature. spinal vertebrae) because of aberrant larval migration S. affects small intestine Macracanthorhynchus catalinum and M. a large digestive tract lined by uninucleate columnar epithelium with long. kidneys. mink. viruses. marked. chronic. coyote. bobcat. pseudosegmented (easy to misdiagnose as a cestode). neutrophils. breed unspecified. occasionally the dog Oncicola canis: Dog. fewer lymphocytes. with adult nematode. Sarcomas may be extensive and may metastasize to the lungs and elsewhere. domestic cat. moles. lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic. lupi (tropics and the US) and S.: Waterfowl and fishes. nodular. lemurs. bush babies. pig-tailed macaques.esophagus . fox. badgers. The nematode is 1 mm in diameter and has a 8 um thick. lynx. a pseudocoelom containing small amounts of eosinophilic granular material. There is a report of a pulmonary fibrosarcoma associated with an ectopic worm. prominent lateral cords. Etiologic Diagnosis: Esophageal spirocercosis Cause: Spirocerca lupi General Discussion: Spirurid nematode of canids (dog. snow leopard) and other carnivores Two species: S. muscular tunics and serosa. Multifocally there are moderate numbers of similar inflammatory cells within the submucosa. intermediate host=crustacean. and aorta. skunk. cockroach intermediate host. raccoons. pigmented cuticle.

and occasional heterophils. Etiologic Diagnosis: Cecal heterakiasis Cause: Heterakis isolonche General Discussion: Most heterakids are non-pathogenic. Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus). multifocal.Pinworm infection . Multifocally numerous small coccobacilli adhere to the luminal epithelium. discrete. surrounded by a thin rim of epithelioid macrophages. a pseudocoelom. lymphocytes and plasma cells.colon . a pseudocoelom Polymyarian/coelomyarian musculature Intestinal tract: Cuboidal to columnar uninucleate cells with a brush border Ovary and a uterus contains developing eggs Comparative Pathology: Heterakis gallinarum: No significant pathology. no malignant transformation has been reported. prairie chickens and quail. H.cecum . multinucleated giant cells. Several submucosal arteries are lined by hypertrophied endothelial cells. This nodular proliferation is not seen in quail and grouse. up to 2mm. The nodules are composed of spindle cells arranged in whorls and interlacing bundles with varying numbers of macrophages. lymphocytes. Vessels are congested and there are occasional hemosiderin-laden macrophages and free red blood cells. the etiologic agent of blackhead in gallinaceous birds Rodents: Heterakis spumosa D-P12 . up to 750um. Morphologic Diagnosis: Cecum: Typhlitis. an ovary and a uterus containing developing ova. Parasite morphology Thin smooth cuticle.78 Cysticercus fasciolaris (Taenia taeniaeformis): Hepatic sarcoma in rats Clonorchis sinensis: Cholangiocarcinoma in man. Diffusely in the lamina propria there are moderate numbers of lymphocytes. cross sections of an adult nematode with a thin smooth cuticle. cuticular alae. and adult and larval nematodes. granulomatous. Granulomas form in response to dead parasites. Within the . avian. grouse. isolonche reported in ducks. Within several nodules are multiple. there is a decrease in number of colonic crypts. Within some nodules there are granulomas with a central core of eosinophilic and karyorrhectic debris. with atypical nodular mesenchymal proliferation. with occasionally transmigrating eosinophils within the tunica media. it has been considered granulomatous. etiology consistent with Heterakis isolonche. lateral cords. Nodules of spindle cells arranged in whorls and interlacing bundles have been described as “sarcomatous” or “pseudoneoplastic”. extending into the submucosa and multifocally cuffing vessels are many lymphocytes.chimpanzee HD: Colon: Diffusely. circular nodules. with the exception of Heterakis isolonche. is a mass composed of multiple. and plasma cells. and fewer fibroblasts.Heterakis isolonche infection . Although the nodules are highly cellular and show a striking sarcomatous appearance. There is a single cross section of a nematode larva. Infiltrating and expanding the lamina propria. plasma cells. cuticular alae. lateral cords.Golden pheasant HD: Cecum: Focally within the submucosa and elevating the mucosa. fibroplastic or neoplastic. pheasants. and eosinophils. multinucleated giant cells. plasma cells. polymyarian/coelomyarian musculature. moderate. an intestinal tract lined by cuboidal to columnar uninucleate cells with a brush border. but carries Histomonas meleagridis. cats Schistosoma haematobium: Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in man D-P11 . most common in the pheasant Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Lymphoplasmacytic to granulomatous typhlitis Nodules of proliferating fibrous tissue induced by larvae The nature of this reaction is controversial.

Distal intestine. Multifocally there are a few lymphoid nodules in the deep lamina propria. platymyarian/meromyarian musculature. infections of the female reproductive tract. Small intestine: Multifocally many eosinophils. less common in sheep and goats. separating and surrounding the glands. great apes. Morphologic Diagnosis: Colon. D-P13 . chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). are lined by attenuated epithelium. small intestine: Colitis and enteritis. moderate. macrophages. Focally in the deep mucosa there is a 60 um diameter adult nematode with a 10 um-thick cuticle.ox HD: Abomasum: Multifocally the mucosa is thickened up to twice normal by elongate and occasionally tortuous glands lined by tightly packed mucous cells that frequently pile up on one another and replace parietal cells. probably transmitted by man. moderate. and there is mild congestion. Most common worm infection in western man. Heavy infectious associated with rectal prolapse. chronic. with mucous neck cell hyperplasia. and gonads that contain eosinophilic globular material. there are few eosinophils. Multifocally. diffuse. Family Trichostrongylidae O. and death Syphacia obvelata. breed unspecified. etiology consistent with Enterobius sp. and trichostrongylid nematodes. lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic. poor breeding performace.: Causes iIntramural nodules in the cecum.79 colonic lumen.. Oxyuris equi: Most common pinworm in domestic animals. plasma cells and macrophages. parietal cell loss. obvelatainfected mice there is increased myelopoiesis and erythropoiesis with displayed altered sensitivity to IL-17 Pinworms do NOT infect the dog and cat. multiple longitudinal cuticular ridges. proliferative and eosinophilic. Within the lumen there are cross-sections of nematodes as described above. Heavy infectious cause impaired weight grains. colon and adjacent mesentery of wild-caught monkeys Comparative Pathology: Enterobius anthropopitheci: Nonhuman primates. and a muscular esophagus with a triradiate lumen. there are few cross sections of a 150-200 um diameter nematode with a thin cuticle. with rectal pruritus in horses Skrjabinema ovis: Sheep & goats Passalurus ambiguus: Ceca of rabbit. nonhuman primate. ostertagi: Cattle. intestinal abscesses. lymphocytes and plasma cells expand the lamina propria and submucosa. Condition Synonyms: Oxyuriasis Differential Diagnosis: Prosthenorchis elegans: Causes pyogranulomatous enteritis with acanthocephalid parasites Oesophagostomum sp. fecal impaction and diarrhea. prosimian primates Enterobius vermicularis: Old World monkeys. a pseudocoelom. bovine. lymphocytes. and are filled with eosinophils. and nephritis in captive chimpanzees. peritonitis. In the lamina propria. Etiologic Diagnosis: Intestinal enterobiasis Cause: Enterobius sp. Aspicularis tretraptera: Common in laboratory mouse. public health concern. intussusception. and cells with round to oval nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasmic globules (globule leukocytes). Associated with appendicitis. Aspicularis tetraptera: Ceca and colon of rats Syphacia obvelata. plasma cells and eosinophils.Ostertagiasis . glands are dilated up to 200 um. Etiologic Diagnosis: Abomasal ostertagiasis Cause: Ostertagia sp. with few intraluminal nematodes. and cellular debris. digestive tract. etiology consistent with Ostertagia ostertagi. chimpanzees. platymyarian-meromyarian musculature. lateral alae.abomasum . rare in horses . submucosal vessels are cuffed by few lymphocytes. Morphologic Diagnosis: Abomasum: Abomasitis. In S. multifocal.

Comparative Pathology: Other causes of mucous neck cell hyperplasia and parietal cell loss Chronic hypertrophic gastritis: Idiopathic. intraepithelial tunnels. usually occur with other GI parasites. smooth cuticle (lack ridges). Etiologic Diagnosis: Gastric nochtiasis Cause: Nochtia nochti . multifocal mild lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic gastritis. platymyarian/meromyarian musculature. may also infect small intestine. usually occur with other GI parasites. thin-shelled. (mucous metaplasia/hyperplasia.stomach . occurs in dogs (giant hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy of older small dogs. red males. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). sheep.Rhesus monkey HD: Stomach: Focally there is a polypoid thickening of the mucosa up to 5x normal by hyperplastic mucous neck cells which alter normal architecture. may also infect small intestine Differential Diagnosis: For gross lesions: Multi-nodular lymphoma: Multiple nodules variable in size Abomasal coccidiosis: Eimeria sp. reddish brown/bloody abomasal contents Trichostrongylus axei: Cattle.80 O. red and white females. and submucosal blood vessels that are mildly congested. goats and horses. causes thin sow syndrome Nochtia nochti in nonhuman primates D-P14 . erosions. replace parietal cells. etiology consistent with Nochtia nochti. external. similar lesions to Ostertagia sp. trifuncata: Sheep. Ostertagia sp.Nochtiasis . goats and horses Ostertagia circumcincta in sheep Hyostrongylus rubidus in swine. and an intestine with indistinct morphology. leptospicularis: Deer. and Trichostrongylus sp. hypoproteinemia/edema. (HOT). sheep. smooth cuticle (lack ridges). eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation). (mucous metaplasia/hyperplasia. degenerate inflammatory cells. 2cm long. Focally in a longitudinal section there are immature ova within the ovary. possibly immune mediated Ollulanus tricuspis in cats and swine Trichostrongylus axei in cattle. moderate. longitudinal cuticular ridges. placei (cattle): “Barber pole worm”. 30 X 50um. morulated eggs. and scattered 150-500um cross sections of adult nematodes. decreased parietal cells. goats and horses. giant hypertrophic gastropathy of Basenjis and humans (Menetrier disease). and form long arborizing pits supported by a well vascularized fibrous stroma. and adult nematodes and eggs. decreased parietal cells. intraepithelial tunnels. Multifocally the lamina propria and submucosa contain many lymphocytes and plasma cells. focally extensive. erosions. circumcincta: Primarily sheep and goats O. anemia. mucosal. edematous and hemorrhagic abomasal rugae. goats and cattle O. similar lesions to Ostertagia sp. eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation). with mucus cell metaplasia. All trichostrongyles with similar morphology Hemonchus contortus (sheep and goats) and H. rare in cattle Ruminant abomasal nematodes: Hemonchus sp. Focally crypts are herniated into the submucosa and ectatic. For gross and histologic lesions: Trichostrongylus axei: Cattle. non-human primate. fewer neutrophils and eosinophils. Adult nematodes have evenly spaced. and aggregates of oval. Morphologic Diagnosis: Stomach: Hyperplasia.. adults and L-4 attach to mucosa and suck blood. Multifocally gastric pits are dilated and contain abundant eosinophilic cellular debris.

ellipsoidal. Beagle. fissispina) . Nematodes have a 3 um cuticle and a pseudocoelom containing abundant homogenous brightly eosinophilic material (proteinaceous fluid). uteri containing numerous 25 x 50um. large nematodes resembling ascarids attached by the head to the mucosa with protrusion of the body into the gastric lumen. a digestive tract lined by many uninucleate cuboidal cells with a brush border containing abundant brown pigment. Reproductive tract (ovary or testis) Eggs are thin-shelled. nochti: Free parasites are not found in the gastric lumen. evenly spaced. other felids and swine Hypertrophic gastritis: Horses – Habronema sp. longitudinal cuticular ridges flared near lateral cords Pseudocoelom Platymyarian . tubular glands and lumen: Duct ectasia. pigeon (Columba livia). embryonated). oval.81 Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Gastric lesions: Marked hyperplasia of mucus neck cells that are tall-columnar and palisade along papillary projections Mucous metaplasia of fundic or pyloric glands Paucity of parietal cells N. with intraductal and luminal adult nematodes. unknown etiology D-P15 . avian. Spirurids: Physaloptera tumefaciens: More common in macaques than N. in ruminants Hyostrongylus rubidus in swine Ollulanus tricuspis in cats. and lung: Essentially normal tissue. ventriculus. occasionally with polar filaments. lined by attenuated epithelium. cockroach intermediate host Comparative Pathology: Trichostrongyloid gastritis in other species: Trichostrongylus axei in cattle. goats and horses Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle Ostertagia circumcincta in sheep Haemonchus sp. Heart. indistinct musculature. Morphologic Diagnosis: Proventriculus.e. Boxer. and variably sized ovaries with ova. Trichostrongylus axei (diffuse) Dogs – Chronic giant hypertrophic gastropathy (Basenji. (focal). thick shelled.proventriculus . great vessel. esophagus. moderate. etiology consistent with Tetrameres sp. pale. breed unspecified.. Bull terrier). red worms found on the mucosa. Differential Diagnosis: Trichostrongylids: Molineus sp. and contain many cross sections of adult female nematodes that are approximately 1. americana or T. Multifocally within the lamina propria of the primary ducts are several small aggregates of lymphocytes and rare heterophils.: Submucosal granulomatous inflammation and serosal nodules in the pyloric region and small intestine of New World monkeys. morulated (i. and are 60-80 x 35-42 um. slender. Etiologic Diagnosis: Proventricular tetrameriasis Cause: Tetrameres sp.Tetrameriasis . Sixteen distinct.pigeon HD: Proventriculus: Multifocally. nochti. (T. small. embryonated eggs.meromyarian musculature Intestine is large and composed of few multinucleate cells. multifocal. compound tubular glands are markedly dilated.. gastritis and gastric hyperplasia.5 mm in diameter which compress adjacent glands and elevate the overlying mucosa.

pileata: Bobwhite quail. Molineus torulosus is the only pathogenic species. rarely chickens.Trichostrongylosis . . and an intestine lined by few multinucleate cells with a low brush border. ignotus): Fish eating birds. spherical. can cause severe ulceration with chronic diffuse fibrosis. gizzard. platymyarian/meromyarian musculature.: Lobate. obliterates the tunica muscularis.small intestine . eosinophils. colini: Various North American gallinaceous birds. Dispharynx spiralis (D. nasuta. blood-red worms in the wall of the proventriculus and that distend glands Microtetrameres sp. worms are not found in the terminal jejunum or ileum. eggs with thick pitted shells. most severe in young birds and the main cause of grouse disease in USA Echinuria uncinata: In esophagus. a pseudocoelom. which can obstruct the passage of food Eustrongylides papillosus (E. may cause nodules in the proventricular glands Comparative Pathology: Tetrameres americana: Poultry. wide.: Fat. coiled. Morphologic Diagnosis: Small intestine: Granuloma. cramii: North American ducks T. EDX: Enteric trichostrongylosis Cause: Molineus torulosus GD: Class Secernentea. This is further surrounded by numerous lymphocytes and plasma cells bordered by a 25-30 um thick fibrous capsule. The nematodes are up to 120 um diameter. adults up to 30mm long. swan. suborder Trichostrongylida Molineus sp. longitudinal cuticular ridges. etiology consistent with Molineus torulosus. numerous nondegenerate and degenerate neutrophils. geese. helix: Russian and North American crows and pigeons) Cyrnea sp. focal. and markedly elevates the serosa. are small slender pale red worms of the upper digestive tract. order Strongylida. Eggs are 30-50 um in diameter and are thin shelled and non-larvated. do not attach to mucosa or live in glands C. which expands the submucosa. proventriculus. pylorus. turkey. turkeys. do not suck blood. fissispina: Ducks. and small intestine of the duck. quail. and rarely intestines of various species of pigeons. grouse pigeons. worldwide distribution T. Diffusely there is mild follicular hyperplasia of the gutassociated lymphoid tissue. turkeys. goose. Previously described inflammatory cells infiltrate the overlying serosa and superficial submucosa and mildly expand the lamina propria. chickens. have a 5 um thick eosinophilic cuticle with evenly spaced.Cebus monkey HD: Small intestine: Focally there is a single 4 mm diameter granuloma. but lack the marked sexual dimorphism of the Tetramitidae.82 Differential Diagnosis: For nematodes in proventriculus: Tetrameres sp. penetrate deep into the mucosa forming large nodules with caseous centers. and occasionally pancreas and mesentery of nonhuman primates. Acuraria spiralis): Lives on the mucosa of the proventriculus. mainly USA and South Africa T. blood red worms in the wall of the proventriculus (M. pattersoni: Only in bobwhite quail D-P16 . and epithelioid macrophages. and other birds. ducks and geese. ducks and geese.). C.: Spirurids. nonhuman primate. pigeons. The granuloma is composed centrally of multiple cross and tangential sections of adult nematodes and eggs surrounded by eosinophilic cellular debris. eosinophilic. and guinea fowl worldwide. with adult trichostrongylids and eggs. esophagus. Cebus monkey (Cebus sp. nonpathogenic.

Nodules contain a mass of sexually mature. Molineus torulosus has the following characteristics: Conspicuous external longitudinal ridges projecting from the cuticle. a unique feature of Nochtia Prosthenorchis: Acanthocephalan. lemnisci and a thick hypodermis are unique microscopic features Intramural granulomas caused by schistosomes may appear as intestinal nodules. a spirurid. produces papillomatous mucosal nodules in the stomach of Old World monkeys.: Cause serosal nodules predominantly in the colon of Old World monkeys. . attached to the mucosal surface. copulatory bursa in males Differential Diagnosis: Oesophagostomum sp. worms and eggs possibly intravascular within fibrin thrombi Neutrophilic and lymphocytic periductular pancreatitis with intraductular nematodes and eggs.83 Unknown life cycle Pathogenesis: Infective L3 penetrates epithelium and burrows into the submucosa > larvae mature and deposit eggs > formation of submucosal granulomas > eggs are expelled through channels from granuloma into the intestinal lumen Invasion of the host’s vascular system > fibrin thrombi or direct penetration or dissemination via portal vein > pancreatic ducts > chronic pancreatitis Typical Clinical Findings: Usually inapparent disease Typical Gross Findings: Duodenum and proximal jejunum 2-6 mm gray-green/black-brown serosal nodules. cuticular ridges external to the lateral cords fused and divergent from one another. intestine composed of few multinucleate cells with shorter thinner microvillar layer and fewer nuclei than strongylids. Typical Light Microscopic Findings: Submucosal eosinophilic granulomas surrounded by a rim of fibrous connective tissue Parasitic granulomas associated with large mesenteric blood vessels and vessels at the periphery of the granuloma. platymyarian-meromyarian musculature. large paired excretory gland cells. very rare in New World species. gray-yellow nodules. chronic – pancreatic fibrosis. Mesenteric lymph nodes enlarged and reddish Pancreas may contain numerous small. Subacute mesenteric and pancreatic lymphadenitis may be present. Pancreatic lesions must be differentiated from similar lesions caused by other worms such as Trichospirura leptostoma. occasionally the terminal ileum or ileocecal region of New World monkeys. produces serosal nodules in the large intestine. histologically only larvae present in nodules Nochtia nochti: Trichostrongyle. marbled on cut surface Nodules communicate with the lumen by 1 mm brownish-red ulcers. but can be easily differentiated histologically. hair-like worms that measure 1 cm in length.

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