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# Structure of System

## Simulation & Modeling

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Some of the materials in this slide are my summary from „Principle of System“ by Jay W. Forrester,
Productivity, 1971
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Overview
 System
 Structure
 System Boundary
 Classification of Systems:
S stems
 Open System
 Feedback / Closed System
 Positive feedback system

##  Negative feedback system

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Objective
 By the end of this lesson you should be
able to draw and define a system
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1. System
 Definition: System is a grouping of
components or parts that operate together for
a common purpose

##  A system is a part of some potential reality

where we are concerned with space-time
p
effects and causal relationship among parts of
the system

##  A system may include people as well as

physical parts
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## System as a black box

 We define a system to be a closed world
where we clearly separate items that are
integral parts of the system from items
that can affect the system from the
outside
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## Example of System: Family

 Family is a system for living and raising
children

## Picture source: or.ucr.edu

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Example of System: Automobile

 Automobile is a system of components
that work together to provide
transportation

Picture Source:
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Example of System: Warehouse

system for delivering goods into trucks

Picture Source:
http://www.rrii.com/images/Arlington_Warehouse_Pic.gif
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Example of System: management

 Management is a system of people for
allocating resources and regulating the

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## Example of System: Web

• Web is an ecosystem
• S t
Systems within
ithi the
th web
b
• eBay
• Blogosphere
• Digg
• Flickr
• MySpace

Picture source:
orldWideWebAroundWikipedia.png/800px-
WorldWideWebAroundWikipedia.png
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Discussion & Exercise

 Can you find other system?
 Wh t are the
What th components t off th
the system?
t ?
 What is the purpose of the system?
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2. Structure
 Definition: A structure is effective
interelation and interpretation of our
observation in any field of knowledge

##  Without an organizing structure,

knowledge is mere collection of
observations, practices and conflicting
incidents

##  Structure determines behaviour

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Interacting Components
 Any specified behavior of a system must
be produced by a combination of the
interacting components.

##  Those components lie within a boundary

that defines and encloses the system
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## Example of Structure: Physics

 The law of Physics is a structure to
nature.

##  This structure of physical knowledge is

the foundation of today‘s technology

Picture source:
http://oz.irtc.org/ftp/pub/stills/1997-08-31/physics.jpg
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Example of Structure: System Management

 Management system is a structure to
unify the diverse manifestation of
psychological, industrial and economic
processes
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Causal Thinking
 Causal thinking is the key to organizing
ideas

##  Instead of ‘cause’, ‘affect’ or ‘influence’

can be used to describe the related
components in the system
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## Understand Cause & Effect

 Some are logical (e.g. physics)
 Food intakeÆ weight

 Money Æ happiness

 Fire Æ smoke

##  Some are not ((e.g.

g sociology,
gy, economics))
 Use of seatbelts Æ reduced highway
fatalities
 Shortened daylight hours Æ increased
suicide rates
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3. System Boundary
 Where is the boundary, that
encompasses the smallest number of
components, within which the dynamic
behavior under study is generated?
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Self-contained system
 Self-Contained System: nothing flow in
and out of system

 Most system
y are not self-contained
 They function in an environment that
affect their behavior
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## Difficulty in defining Boundary

 1. Difficult to decide at what level the
various sub systems should be detailed
 Subopmitization: decision that optimize
behavior of a sub system but that are less
optimal for the system as a whole
 2. Difficult because of interaction and
2
overlapping parts with other system
 3 Difficult
3. Diffi lt to
t d
define
fi the
li k with
ith the
th
environment
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Closed System
 In concept, a feedback system is a closed
system.
system

##  Its dynamic behavior arises within its

internal structure

##  Any interaction which is essential to the

behavior mode being investigated must
be included inside the system boundary
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Building Blocks
 Within the system boundary the basic
building block is the feedback loops
loops.

##  Interconnection of feedback loops form a

system
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4. Classification of System
 System can be classified into
 Open system
O t
 Feedback (closed) system
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## 4a. Open System

 An open system is one characterized by
output that respond to inputs but where
the outputs are isolated from and have
no influence on the input

##  It is not aware of (observe and react to ) its

own performance
 Its past action does
d not controll future
f action
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## Example of Open system: Watch

 A watch, taken by itself, is an open
system because it does not observe its

## Picture source: http://www.37signals.com/svn/images/watch-panel.jpg

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Example of Open System: Car

 A car is an open system which by itself is
not governed by where it has gone in the
past nor does it have a goal of where to
go in the future

## Picture source: http://www.global-rental.com

p g
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## Discussion: open system

 Can you find other open system?
 E l i why
Explain h do
d you think
thi k it is
i an open
system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## 4b. Feedback System

 It is also called Closed System

##  A feedback system has a closed loop structure

that bring the results from past action of the
system back to control future action

##  Feedback system control action is influenced by the

results of its own previous action or past behavior
 Its past action control present and future action
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Feedback Loop
 Well conceived systems contain feedack loop.

##  Feedback involves monitoring the actual

behavior of a system and comparing its
behavior to standards

##  Information about deviation from standard is

transmitted to the appropriate point in the
system so that effective action can be taken
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Category of Feedback System

 There are two classes of feedback
system:
 Positive feedback: growth
 N
Negative
ti ffeedback:
db k goall seeking
ki
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## 4b1. Positive Feedback System

 Positive feedback generates growth
processes wherein action builds a results
that generate still greater action

##  It is in the positive feedback form of

system structure that one finds the forces
of growth
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## Example (+) Feedback System

 Bacteria multiply to produce more bacteria
which increase the rate at which new bacteria
are generated

Picture source:
http://www.scharfphoto.com/fine_art_p
rints/archives/199812-053-Soil-
Bacteria.jpg

##  In this positive feedback system the generation

of new bacteria depends on the bacteria
accumulated from past growth of bacteria
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## 4b2. Negative Feedback System

 Negative feedback system seeks a goal
and responds as a consequence of failing
to achieve the goal

##  It is in the negative feedback, or goal

seeking, structure of systems that one
finds the causes of fluctuation and
instability
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Example (-) Feedback System: AC

 Air conditioning system of a house is controlled
byy a thermostat which reponds
p to the heat
previously produced by the AC

Picture source:
http://www.rd.com/images/tfhimport/2001/May01_Air_Conditioner_Cl
ean/20010501_Air_Conditioner_Clean_page002img001_size2.jpg
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AC (cont)

##  Because the heat already produced by

the system controls the forthcoming
generation of heat, the AC system
represent a negative feedback that seeks
the goal of proper temperature
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Example (-) Feedback System

 A watch and its owner form a negative
feedback system when the watch is
compared with the correct time as a goal
of proper time and is adjusted to
eliminate error

Picture source:
http://www.geekologie.com/2007/12/10/imobile-watch-phone.jpg
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

View Point
 Whether a system should be classified as an
open system or a feedback system is not
intrinsic to the particular assembly of parts but
depend
p on the observer‘s view p
point in defining
g
the purpose of the system

##  You can always broaden the scope and purpose

of the system to change from open to feedback
system and from feedback to open system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Review Classification of Systems

 System:
 O
Open system:
t
Past action does not control future action
 Feedback or Close systems:
Past action controls future action

##  Positive feedback loop

 Negative
g feedback loop
p
 Depend on observer‘s viewpoint
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Summary
 You have learned in this lesson about
 System
S t thi
thinking
ki
 System definition
 S
System structure
 System boundary
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

## Discussion & Exercise: System Structure

 Please select any system that interesting
 Can you draw the system structure?
 Specify the parts or components of
system as variables of the system
 Then draw arrow to connect the influence
of one p
part to the other part
p
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Discussion: Boundary
 How th
H the variables
i bl influence
i fl other
th variable?
i bl ?
 Is it a closed or open system?
 C you find
Can fi d some feedback
f db k loop?
l ?
 Can you draw the system boundary (to make
it a closed
l d system)?
t )?
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Discussion Points
 System boundary
 Is it open or feedback system?
 Variables in the system
 How the variable influence other variable
 Can you change viewpoint to form feedback
loops

##  Keep your discussion for next week

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Tips
 When there is a double arrow in the influence
line it indicates there are more variables inside
line,
that have not been specified

##  Select variables that can be measured

quantitativelyy (by
q ( y anyy means))

##  Influence should be able to be measured as

direct effect (increase or decrease). Indirect
effect indicates lack of variables in between
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Tips
 Change level of details of some variables to
obtain feedback loop (change viewpoint)