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Structure of System

Simulation & Modeling


Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Some of the materials in this slide are my summary from „Principle of System“ by Jay W. Forrester,
Productivity, 1971
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Overview
„ System
„ Structure
„ System Boundary
„ Classification of Systems:
S stems
„ Open System
„ Feedback / Closed System
„ Positive feedback system

„ Negative feedback system


Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Objective
„ By the end of this lesson you should be
able to draw and define a system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

1. System
„ Definition: System is a grouping of
components or parts that operate together for
a common purpose

„ A system is a part of some potential reality


where we are concerned with space-time
p
effects and causal relationship among parts of
the system

„ A system may include people as well as


physical parts
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

System as a black box


„ We define a system to be a closed world
where we clearly separate items that are
integral parts of the system from items
that can affect the system from the
outside
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Example of System: Family


„ Family is a system for living and raising
children

Picture source: or.ucr.edu


Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: Automobile


„ Automobile is a system of components
that work together to provide
transportation

Picture Source:
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: Warehouse


„ A warehouse and loading platform is a
system for delivering goods into trucks

Picture Source:
http://www.rrii.com/images/Arlington_Warehouse_Pic.gif
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: management


„ Management is a system of people for
allocating resources and regulating the
activity of business

Picture source: http://www.ingres.com/images/about/group-pic-management.jpg


Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: Web


• Web is an ecosystem
• S t
Systems within
ithi the
th web
b
• eBay
• Blogosphere
• Digg
• Flickr
• MySpace

Picture source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b9/W
orldWideWebAroundWikipedia.png/800px-
WorldWideWebAroundWikipedia.png
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Discussion & Exercise


„ Can you find other system?
„ Wh t are the
What th components t off th
the system?
t ?
„ What is the purpose of the system?
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2. Structure
„ Definition: A structure is effective
interelation and interpretation of our
observation in any field of knowledge

„ Without an organizing structure,


knowledge is mere collection of
observations, practices and conflicting
incidents

„ Structure determines behaviour


Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Interacting Components
„ Any specified behavior of a system must
be produced by a combination of the
interacting components.

„ Those components lie within a boundary


that defines and encloses the system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of Structure: Physics


„ The law of Physics is a structure to
interrelate our many observations about
nature.

„ This structure of physical knowledge is


the foundation of today‘s technology

Picture source:
http://oz.irtc.org/ftp/pub/stills/1997-08-31/physics.jpg
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of Structure: System Management


„ Management system is a structure to
unify the diverse manifestation of
psychological, industrial and economic
processes
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Causal Thinking
„ Causal thinking is the key to organizing
ideas

„ Instead of ‘cause’, ‘affect’ or ‘influence’


can be used to describe the related
components in the system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Understand Cause & Effect


„ Some are logical (e.g. physics)
„ Food intakeÆ weight

„ Money Æ happiness

„ Fire Æ smoke

„ Some are not ((e.g.


g sociology,
gy, economics))
„ Use of seatbelts Æ reduced highway
fatalities
„ Shortened daylight hours Æ increased
suicide rates
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3. System Boundary
„ Where is the boundary, that
encompasses the smallest number of
components, within which the dynamic
behavior under study is generated?
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Self-contained system
„ Self-Contained System: nothing flow in
and out of system

„ Most system
y are not self-contained
„ They function in an environment that
affect their behavior
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Difficulty in defining Boundary


„ 1. Difficult to decide at what level the
various sub systems should be detailed
„ Subopmitization: decision that optimize
behavior of a sub system but that are less
optimal for the system as a whole
„ 2. Difficult because of interaction and
2
overlapping parts with other system
„ 3 Difficult
3. Diffi lt to
t d
define
fi the
th linkage
li k with
ith the
th
environment
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Closed System
„ In concept, a feedback system is a closed
system.
system

„ Its dynamic behavior arises within its


internal structure

„ Any interaction which is essential to the


behavior mode being investigated must
be included inside the system boundary
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Building Blocks
„ Within the system boundary the basic
building block is the feedback loops
loops.

„ Interconnection of feedback loops form a


system
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4. Classification of System
„ System can be classified into
„ Open system
O t
„ Feedback (closed) system
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4a. Open System


„ An open system is one characterized by
output that respond to inputs but where
the outputs are isolated from and have
no influence on the input

„ It is not aware of (observe and react to ) its


own performance
„ Its past action does
d not controll future
f action
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of Open system: Watch


„ A watch, taken by itself, is an open
system because it does not observe its
own inccuracy and adjust itself

Picture source: http://www.37signals.com/svn/images/watch-panel.jpg


Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of Open System: Car


„ A car is an open system which by itself is
not governed by where it has gone in the
past nor does it have a goal of where to
go in the future

Picture source: http://www.global-rental.com


p g
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Discussion: open system


„ Can you find other open system?
„ E l i why
Explain h do
d you think
thi k it is
i an open
system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

4b. Feedback System


„ It is also called Closed System

„ A feedback system has a closed loop structure


that bring the results from past action of the
system back to control future action

„ Feedback system control action is influenced by the


results of its own previous action or past behavior
„ Its past action control present and future action
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Feedback Loop
„ Well conceived systems contain feedack loop.

„ Feedback involves monitoring the actual


behavior of a system and comparing its
behavior to standards

„ Information about deviation from standard is


transmitted to the appropriate point in the
system so that effective action can be taken
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Category of Feedback System


„ There are two classes of feedback
system:
„ Positive feedback: growth
„ N
Negative
ti ffeedback:
db k goall seeking
ki
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4b1. Positive Feedback System


„ Positive feedback generates growth
processes wherein action builds a results
that generate still greater action

„ It is in the positive feedback form of


system structure that one finds the forces
of growth
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example (+) Feedback System


„ Bacteria multiply to produce more bacteria
which increase the rate at which new bacteria
are generated

Picture source:
http://www.scharfphoto.com/fine_art_p
rints/archives/199812-053-Soil-
Bacteria.jpg

„ In this positive feedback system the generation


of new bacteria depends on the bacteria
accumulated from past growth of bacteria
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

4b2. Negative Feedback System


„ Negative feedback system seeks a goal
and responds as a consequence of failing
to achieve the goal

„ It is in the negative feedback, or goal


seeking, structure of systems that one
finds the causes of fluctuation and
instability
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example (-) Feedback System: AC


„ Air conditioning system of a house is controlled
byy a thermostat which reponds
p to the heat
previously produced by the AC

Picture source:
http://www.rd.com/images/tfhimport/2001/May01_Air_Conditioner_Cl
ean/20010501_Air_Conditioner_Clean_page002img001_size2.jpg
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

AC (cont)

„ Because the heat already produced by


the system controls the forthcoming
generation of heat, the AC system
represent a negative feedback that seeks
the goal of proper temperature
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example (-) Feedback System


„ A watch and its owner form a negative
feedback system when the watch is
compared with the correct time as a goal
of proper time and is adjusted to
eliminate error

Picture source:
http://www.geekologie.com/2007/12/10/imobile-watch-phone.jpg
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

View Point
„ Whether a system should be classified as an
open system or a feedback system is not
intrinsic to the particular assembly of parts but
depend
p on the observer‘s view p
point in defining
g
the purpose of the system

„ You can always broaden the scope and purpose


of the system to change from open to feedback
system and from feedback to open system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Review Classification of Systems


„ System:
„ O
Open system:
t
Past action does not control future action
„ Feedback or Close systems:
Past action controls future action

„ Positive feedback loop


„ Negative
g feedback loop
p
„ Depend on observer‘s viewpoint
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Summary
„ You have learned in this lesson about
„ System
S t thi
thinking
ki
„ System definition
„ S
System structure
„ System boundary
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Discussion & Exercise: System Structure


„ Please select any system that interesting
for your group
„ Can you draw the system structure?
„ Specify the parts or components of
system as variables of the system
„ Then draw arrow to connect the influence
of one p
part to the other part
p
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Discussion: Boundary
„ Define from your system:
„ How th
H the variables
i bl influence
i fl other
th variable?
i bl ?
„ Is it a closed or open system?
„ C you find
Can fi d some feedback
f db k loop?
l ?
„ Can you draw the system boundary (to make
it a closed
l d system)?
t )?
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Discussion Points
„ Define from your system:
„ System boundary
„ Is it open or feedback system?
„ Variables in the system
„ How the variable influence other variable
„ Can you change viewpoint to form feedback
loops

„ Keep your discussion for next week


Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Tips
„ When there is a double arrow in the influence
line it indicates there are more variables inside
line,
that have not been specified

„ Select variables that can be measured


quantitativelyy (by
q ( y anyy means))

„ Influence should be able to be measured as


direct effect (increase or decrease). Indirect
effect indicates lack of variables in between
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Tips
„ Change level of details of some variables to
obtain feedback loop (change viewpoint)