You are on page 1of 44

Structure of System

Simulation & Modeling

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Some of the materials in this slide are my summary from „Principle of System“ by Jay W. Forrester,
Productivity, 1971
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

„ System
„ Structure
„ System Boundary
„ Classification of Systems:
S stems
„ Open System
„ Feedback / Closed System
„ Positive feedback system

„ Negative feedback system

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

„ By the end of this lesson you should be
able to draw and define a system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

1. System
„ Definition: System is a grouping of
components or parts that operate together for
a common purpose

„ A system is a part of some potential reality

where we are concerned with space-time
effects and causal relationship among parts of
the system

„ A system may include people as well as

physical parts
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

System as a black box

„ We define a system to be a closed world
where we clearly separate items that are
integral parts of the system from items
that can affect the system from the
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: Family

„ Family is a system for living and raising

Picture source:

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: Automobile

„ Automobile is a system of components
that work together to provide

Picture Source:
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: Warehouse

„ A warehouse and loading platform is a
system for delivering goods into trucks

Picture Source:
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: management

„ Management is a system of people for
allocating resources and regulating the
activity of business

Picture source:

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of System: Web

• Web is an ecosystem
• S t
Systems within
ithi the
th web
• eBay
• Blogosphere
• Digg
• Flickr
• MySpace

Picture source:
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Discussion & Exercise

„ Can you find other system?
„ Wh t are the
What th components t off th
the system?
t ?
„ What is the purpose of the system?
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

2. Structure
„ Definition: A structure is effective
interelation and interpretation of our
observation in any field of knowledge

„ Without an organizing structure,

knowledge is mere collection of
observations, practices and conflicting

„ Structure determines behaviour

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Interacting Components
„ Any specified behavior of a system must
be produced by a combination of the
interacting components.

„ Those components lie within a boundary

that defines and encloses the system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of Structure: Physics

„ The law of Physics is a structure to
interrelate our many observations about

„ This structure of physical knowledge is

the foundation of today‘s technology

Picture source:
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of Structure: System Management

„ Management system is a structure to
unify the diverse manifestation of
psychological, industrial and economic
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Causal Thinking
„ Causal thinking is the key to organizing

„ Instead of ‘cause’, ‘affect’ or ‘influence’

can be used to describe the related
components in the system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Understand Cause & Effect

„ Some are logical (e.g. physics)
„ Food intakeÆ weight

„ Money Æ happiness

„ Fire Æ smoke

„ Some are not ((e.g.

g sociology,
gy, economics))
„ Use of seatbelts Æ reduced highway
„ Shortened daylight hours Æ increased
suicide rates
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

3. System Boundary
„ Where is the boundary, that
encompasses the smallest number of
components, within which the dynamic
behavior under study is generated?
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Self-contained system
„ Self-Contained System: nothing flow in
and out of system

„ Most system
y are not self-contained
„ They function in an environment that
affect their behavior
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Difficulty in defining Boundary

„ 1. Difficult to decide at what level the
various sub systems should be detailed
„ Subopmitization: decision that optimize
behavior of a sub system but that are less
optimal for the system as a whole
„ 2. Difficult because of interaction and
overlapping parts with other system
„ 3 Difficult
3. Diffi lt to
t d
fi the
th linkage
li k with
ith the
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Closed System
„ In concept, a feedback system is a closed

„ Its dynamic behavior arises within its

internal structure

„ Any interaction which is essential to the

behavior mode being investigated must
be included inside the system boundary
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Building Blocks
„ Within the system boundary the basic
building block is the feedback loops

„ Interconnection of feedback loops form a

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

4. Classification of System
„ System can be classified into
„ Open system
O t
„ Feedback (closed) system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

4a. Open System

„ An open system is one characterized by
output that respond to inputs but where
the outputs are isolated from and have
no influence on the input

„ It is not aware of (observe and react to ) its

own performance
„ Its past action does
d not controll future
f action
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of Open system: Watch

„ A watch, taken by itself, is an open
system because it does not observe its
own inccuracy and adjust itself

Picture source:

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example of Open System: Car

„ A car is an open system which by itself is
not governed by where it has gone in the
past nor does it have a goal of where to
go in the future

Picture source:

p g
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Discussion: open system

„ Can you find other open system?
„ E l i why
Explain h do
d you think
thi k it is
i an open
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

4b. Feedback System

„ It is also called Closed System

„ A feedback system has a closed loop structure

that bring the results from past action of the
system back to control future action

„ Feedback system control action is influenced by the

results of its own previous action or past behavior
„ Its past action control present and future action
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Feedback Loop
„ Well conceived systems contain feedack loop.

„ Feedback involves monitoring the actual

behavior of a system and comparing its
behavior to standards

„ Information about deviation from standard is

transmitted to the appropriate point in the
system so that effective action can be taken
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Category of Feedback System

„ There are two classes of feedback
„ Positive feedback: growth
„ N
ti ffeedback:
db k goall seeking
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

4b1. Positive Feedback System

„ Positive feedback generates growth
processes wherein action builds a results
that generate still greater action

„ It is in the positive feedback form of

system structure that one finds the forces
of growth
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example (+) Feedback System

„ Bacteria multiply to produce more bacteria
which increase the rate at which new bacteria
are generated

Picture source:

„ In this positive feedback system the generation

of new bacteria depends on the bacteria
accumulated from past growth of bacteria
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

4b2. Negative Feedback System

„ Negative feedback system seeks a goal
and responds as a consequence of failing
to achieve the goal

„ It is in the negative feedback, or goal

seeking, structure of systems that one
finds the causes of fluctuation and
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example (-) Feedback System: AC

„ Air conditioning system of a house is controlled
byy a thermostat which reponds
p to the heat
previously produced by the AC

Picture source:
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

AC (cont)

„ Because the heat already produced by

the system controls the forthcoming
generation of heat, the AC system
represent a negative feedback that seeks
the goal of proper temperature
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Example (-) Feedback System

„ A watch and its owner form a negative
feedback system when the watch is
compared with the correct time as a goal
of proper time and is adjusted to
eliminate error

Picture source:
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

View Point
„ Whether a system should be classified as an
open system or a feedback system is not
intrinsic to the particular assembly of parts but
p on the observer‘s view p
point in defining
the purpose of the system

„ You can always broaden the scope and purpose

of the system to change from open to feedback
system and from feedback to open system
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Review Classification of Systems

„ System:
„ O
Open system:
Past action does not control future action
„ Feedback or Close systems:
Past action controls future action

„ Positive feedback loop

„ Negative
g feedback loop
„ Depend on observer‘s viewpoint
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

„ You have learned in this lesson about
„ System
S t thi
„ System definition
„ S
System structure
„ System boundary
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Discussion & Exercise: System Structure

„ Please select any system that interesting
for your group
„ Can you draw the system structure?
„ Specify the parts or components of
system as variables of the system
„ Then draw arrow to connect the influence
of one p
part to the other part
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Discussion: Boundary
„ Define from your system:
„ How th
H the variables
i bl influence
i fl other
th variable?
i bl ?
„ Is it a closed or open system?
„ C you find
Can fi d some feedback
f db k loop?
l ?
„ Can you draw the system boundary (to make
it a closed
l d system)?
t )?
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

Discussion Points
„ Define from your system:
„ System boundary
„ Is it open or feedback system?
„ Variables in the system
„ How the variable influence other variable
„ Can you change viewpoint to form feedback

„ Keep your discussion for next week

Kardi Teknomo, PhD

„ When there is a double arrow in the influence
line it indicates there are more variables inside
that have not been specified

„ Select variables that can be measured

quantitativelyy (by
q ( y anyy means))

„ Influence should be able to be measured as

direct effect (increase or decrease). Indirect
effect indicates lack of variables in between
Kardi Teknomo, PhD

„ Change level of details of some variables to
obtain feedback loop (change viewpoint)