Aesthetical changes, in Brazilian pop-music. © Copyright by Victor Aquino, 2001, 2006 WEA Books & Publishing Inc. Monroe, LA USA

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One of the several studies dedicated to analyze the appearance and decline of Punk movement, in consideration with that which would have been an apparent device of personal objective of his partisans emphasizes: “If the adult world politics is confused, do not demand for political coherence of this movement”. In reality, besides differences between the latter and Hippie movement, salient previously in another work from our pen, there is age aspect which must be considered. Hence, in the XX Century, while at 60's participants' age comprised extensive range; proximate or superior to thirty years, at the 70's this age was restricted to twenty years at the maximum. A generation unsatisfied utilized a variant of rock style protest. For that reason aggressiveness as an element with the world to mark out its we can see of its lifestyle.


Bivar, on the other hand, also remembers the famous speech of Johnny Rotten, one of the most expressive persons of Punk movement, founder of Sex Pistols, internationally known for irreverence: “we are not interested in music, we are interested in chaos”. The aggressiveness distinguishes Punk movement in the whole world, besides animating a great portion of its handwritings and designating the style of its music, also determining the kind of vesture that originated from itself. The same genre would he expropriated by identical models disseminated from clothing industry. The model reproduced industrially from the form adopted by the partisans of the movement, before creating the original idea of social no satisfaction and expressing its authenticity, is deprived of its appropriate sense. In this manner, clothes, shoes, ornaments and an enormous variety of accessories placed for sale at that period only reflected a simulacrum of a re-creation, including all that were essential to the origin of the movement: phonographic production. Everything according to their market exploitation reflected a re-creation without their original essence, while the content is empty or without exponent and natural manner, that unchained the movement: a social protest against unemployment, quality of life and solution for unsuccessful politics.


If we have to consider purism the protest of the first integrant of the Punk movement, we will he forced to exclude all commercial currency after its explosion. Even because of specific relations with phonographic production and all that which are not restricted to the single recorded by Sex Pistols: Never Mind the Bollocks. The first and only recording of that group, it can be considered as embryo of the whole movement, an outcome of influence by marginal groups of London on the movement that transformed the original song for all manifestation. This influence occurred from periphery to downtown in one of the most aggressive manifestation ever suffered by traditional standards. For all that indicates, this is an explanation for such disagreement or for transformation of something that, against its own nature, in something totally suitable, lies in the very essence of capitalism. For that reason its principal objective is its own growth and, for that to he possible, all is permitted and possible to happen. As there is only two unique forms for its expansion, one is always an approximation with an object which justify its growth. We know, for example, that the capitalist system create permanently necessities of consumption or appropriate itself to necessities never previously cogitated such as


commodities. It is precisely of this medium that the system advance over any tendencies, which results in the manifestation practiced against itself. So it ends in transformation of more products for sale, among an enormous mass of consumers, total lack of information as such as its origin, nature and objectives. And that either we like it or not, it is concerned with aleatory occurrences.



If we take into consideration that whichever manifestation of protest against the system, generically, can be absorbed through medium that is used in disseminating its versions (freed of its original sense) we will reach a conclusion that majority of people, that have posterior knowledge of this manifestation, knows the versions and never the original fact. At this point, even up to utilization of particulars of this manifestation can contribute to arise false expectation as much as its origin and objectives. “Thanks to alienation, we can see consumption like something apart of production, or in other words to see it dissociated of facts that gave its origin”. Naturally, the bizarre relation that is established between a consumer and a producer who attracts his attention and desire of purchase, far away to justify his identity from the object consumed, separates him every time from it, at


the chance of re-creations by duty of those we referred as agents of cultural market. We have up to this moment insisted in denomination of cultural market for knowing that it is very important that implications of cultural industry properly said, in relation to demand and consumption of products after apprenticeship of manufacture, says more to our objectives. For this reason we must consider the space on which the process of “buying and selling” of those called “cultural products” occurs likewise a cultural market. For Teixeira Coelho, for example, cultural industry is not only the events of the capacity possessed by communication media, in the sense of placing same message within the reach of great number of people. It's before anything else, a product of liberal capitalist society in which economy is characterized by monopolist action, and the society by the scale consumption. But above all there must be an opposition between culture, “said” superior, and other inferior, or of the mass. These observations are necessary in the sense they make possible to associate the meaning of mass culture, likewise manifestation capacity to supply the whole society for products, whose nature arise of interest generalized by its “cultural” content. The whole essence of the question resides in specific condition of mass culture. Beyond a proper


characteristic, related to numerous populations it is composed, there's other related to generalization of collective interest for same object. The “neuralgic” point of this question that whichever by form, depends on how such interest is manifested. When we speak of music, for example, we must consider a certain control over audience. Adorno said that “the promoters of commercial diversion wash their hands confirming that they are giving masses what they really want? Since this appears to he appropriate for commercial finality, justifying “authenticity without quality” for an apparent satisfaction of the audience in an instant of ephemeral identity towards the object of musical creation.


Yet in this manner, it's worth to emphasize that all this apparent authority turns possible in view of linking together elements, which compose diffusion of contemporary popular music, and the whole of the remaining elements, present in the rest of products that are concomitantly consumed. One same record is executed in different ways, simultaneously, in innumerable channels of radio. Likewise, the interpreter of his music, reproduced in a great number of models “live”, appears also simultaneously in television channels and his image, besides an identity position of interest attached by audience, also focus the products announcement at the same period. Finally, the personification of the music in video clips includes the audience in the context of musical composition. And the cycle when the audience acquires the record or whatever other product that's associated to it, although indirectly. Large scale consumption, a characteristic of cultural industry, also serves to establish proportion of respective market, as long as space to offer products related to expectative identification in mass. This same scale consumption also serves to justify market ideology, whose main attribute is to guarantee reduction of stocks by a cycle of rapid sale with profits and yet an apparent satisfaction of


consumers. Such satisfaction, in return, will guarantee reward, briefly, of consumers in process, when purchasing other goods. As affirmed by Adorno, “at the moment commodities assure the life of its producers in the market, they are already contaminated for this motivation”. In other words, whichever the product, including cultural goods, only turns to be market object at the moment that its manufacture justifies the investment demanded. In the same way that consumption justifies the profit expected. In this sense, it is not important which objective is initial, that produce its production. The important is the certainty of an easy profit, rapid and secure. For this reason, we must bear in mind that all that stimulates commercial interest of investors, independent of origin or nature of the object, fatally will be reproduced in series for scale consumption. Henceforth because in any way it's not possible to imagine that a supposed ethics will regulate production source, avoiding this veridical advance over whichever occurrence of activities or human manifestation, with the purpose of transforming in product. Not only the great movement of political contention stopped to be converted in piece of publicity and consumption, producing a misunderstood in this contention is incorporated to the own system.


In a clear demonstration of efficiency, the capitalist system has a trick to take advantage of the whole occasion or motives to create condition of profit. For such it takes advantage of all that emerges from the very social context. The utilization that gives rise to social movements in the 60's and 70's at XX Century can be considered as a classic example. At the point of transforming those movements, that were of noted confront with actual system or of total rupture with the existent standard of them, in objects of generalized consumption. This way, also the resistance finishes being absorbed by the system, incorporated with turns to be standard superimposed to the anterior ones. In this manner, such as we can see, rock represents today a varied range of styles, justifying this occurrence with multiple ruptures, reproducing a landscape of ambiguities. Such styles, in their time, cause the existence of a varied discography, representative of all tendencies evidenced since their original manifestation.



Starting from Elvis Presley, no doubt, the context of popular music in the whole world suffered a great impact and strong influence of American popular music. It is clear that this influence does not occur only in function of characteristics of style that, then also, stopped being a manifest for lack of interpreters adequate to the success reached afterwards. No. A great evidence of rock, likewise contemporary popular musical gender, must be the fact of its emergence as expression of disagreement of youth to stop the existing standards, with basis in anterior gender that already served as manifestation of protest or social disagreement. At the moment in which social and political episodes operated manifestations unchained in the 60's coinciding with expansion of this gender, we can see that they can properly be presented such as one of the more adequate tongue to the protest that started delineating.


If on one hand its roots indicate the whole as a past of protest or social “reclamations” against racial discrimination, against the war and against domination, on the other it turns to be the best language for expression of the inconformity, likewise to local politics, as regards of repression to movements against an undesired war. This mode will lead to the agglomeration of thousands of youth in turn embracing a cause that was common to them. Lately music appeared as the translation of the sense of the whole rebellion. For this reason, the by gender which expresses such music. The music itself demonstrated as mark of a rupture, that started to occur not only from the point of view of its lyrics, to manifest the “displeasure”, but fundamentally from the part of musical style, for improving an execution of displeasure in a form of totally margin of anterior standards. The rupture was total. Not only to promote free harmony of standard and musical composition then being played, but how to promote a new form to present respective interpretation. Starting with the voluptuous movements of Presley, passing to deafening volume of electric drum kits and electric guitars, up to exaggerated noisily vocalizations, all these contributed for the new music, since its principle is known as a rupture of itself.


However, besides it, the form of how its interpreters exceed to present themselves is also an evidence of flagrant rupture to stop with the standard even up to the predominant ones. The first indication of this rupture, following the musical rupture, would express in the clothes used by the interpreters of the new genders of the music. It turns to be unnecessary to remember, however, that nobody with age over 15 years around the 50's was left out to use some part of characteristics of that musical gender: socks, close fitting trousers in vogue, blouses (sometimes made of leather) carelessly unbuttoned, edge of trousers substituted by negligent folds falling over unpolished shoes, and so on. Naturally, without explaining the mode of hair dress. If a boy, he display “overcast” of brilliantine, well lobed on both sides, and purposely puff at forehead. If a girl, she uses it invariably fixed at the back of the head. Who remembers, knows that to chew gum in public, especially in the classroom, religious ceremonies or even during movie sessions, was an act of aggression to older people. In the meantime, conduct such as this occurred miles and miles distant of downtown, where the principal style of rupture was developed, nothing more than a reproduction of “new models”, rendered possible thanks mainly to cinema and international magazines in circulation, such as Life.


This is nothing more than a reproduction began by the media of a model created, starting from its authors and interpreters of rock. Soon this “revolt” against the existent standards, formulating its own concept, not only the musical gender, likewise the form to present it, was transformed in a new fashion. From this form transmitted to audiences. Audiences that were an immense contingent of youths who in it newness, transformed the whole integrant elements of the rupture in something to be followed or imitated.



Of such luck, that prognosticated the social movement of the 70's, already incorporated to the first rupture, it was necessary to unloose all another in the interior of proper music, for possible use like common language of a new generation, concerned in other manifestation. In the same mode, also the forms of visual identity turn possible starting from a new conception of dress appear modified to unroll by manifestation. Not for that, however, the industry stops the object to he object of use, wrathful from the media that disseminate it like a new tendency, to transform it in product of scale consumption. In this manner, another cycle of generation of models completes a rupture with former standard followed or maintained, disseminated by the media which reproduce in scale objects, materialized by style, in substitution to the earlier and, naturally, the consequent consumption that justifies the


dissemination. Thus, the whole of that which represented an act of breaking with standards is transformed in another standard. For this only, to the extreme end of some time, requires for a new “metamorphosis”. Along the last three decades that has occurred. In a much particular mode, while manifestations that arise against the form of fruition and enjoyment of music, also in the field of respective exhibition arise manifestation, as to dress and conduct. In one way, generally, the Hippie movement came to inaugurate a radical form of clothing, breaking simultaneously the field of music, with former standard. But such evidence encounters a similar experience, more presently, when Punk movement turns up. The evidence that the rupture occurs in parallel respect of musical manifestation and in reference of the form of expression. Thus, the confront established between the conventional sonorous standard and the innovations in this area, proposes more than a rupture in the whole directions. At such mode that the whole standards are broken, not only at the musical point of view, but extremely about the form of interpreting the new style, product of this confront. This form involves conditions at which the artists dispose to disseminate their compositions. And, it's obvious, such conditions without relations with the phonographic market.


In this form, when we referred that the youth of the gender promoted the principal revolution in popular music, we credited specially to this particular condition of exercising influence over new generation. So the youth of musical gender, flanked by characteristics and surround it, contributed overall for influence of youths always alive of newness. In the same direction, it must be emphasized that the rupture with the whole standard presents itself for changes in forms of creation, production, interpretation, and audience in popular music, turned possible thanks to the spirit of rock, that foresees its possibility of permitting a rupture even in itself. What, in other words, can he expressed in different currents and style that at three decades, happened like a result, for that matter, of rock'n'roll of 50's. That most protrudes in whichever observation over this gender, such as present in our days, is respect to its characteristic essentially new or young. Or, in other words, principally the new generation, besides they are equivalent to appeals of gender, also they are responsible for assimilation of styles that is over put, assuming its particularities and all of that expression. This is possible thanks to assimilation of rhythms almost immediate, fruition probably of


the act that proceeds between the youth and rock. Besides, it's obvious, the reason of inexistence of bond between them and possible national identities. This turns it an international gender, unsatisfied by whichever defensive politics or party, such as independent of systems or governments in any place of the world.



Naturally, the fact is always associated to artists, groups of interpreters of currents or style, more diverse than particularized, contributes expressively to turn it in easy target and vulnerable medium. This condition of vulnerability, as we can see, is the weak point. It's sufficient that one of these artists converts in easy success, for immediate rise of multiple forms at will be passed to audience. The form that is established, in other words, is a new dimension and a new sense for that whichever artists express originally. Consequently the whole of that which surrounds of those particular movements of rock, transformed by success, represents a component of dissemination. Almost always dissemination is associated to scale of consumption, starting by proper record, that divulgates the music and all that it signifies. Principal product of the industry in this process it represents, only a period, vehicle of diffusion


of the music (or the musical gender), and of the fashion. In this context, all reproduction of models, likewise manifestation that expresses to different styles of rock is transformed in a medium to offer new products associated to music. The record, that previously was only a product requested for diffusion of music, is converted into instrument of acceleration of consumption. Principally, that which the market collects among the stars of new music, altering them in object of reference to parallel market. The principal of these objects, as it could not be left to be, is the vesture used by interpreters of new music. Which, transformed in fashion by the media, pass to represent the reference of music style? Could it be then the case of enquire the reason of these characteristics, borrowed to record from a transitory market, starting from an industry that is supported by rock, but which is destined to foment a fashion associated. The answer can be encountered in five points, over which the structure of record market is based. This market, likewise vehicle of diffusion to popular music, is also an instrument of acceleration of consumption, and it depends on youth, social inconsistency, absence of tradition, necessity of constant renewal, and possibility of market articulation.


Youths are an unconditional basis for record market, likewise space of circulation and diffusion of new styles, to find support in new generation to growth. A support that brings an additional guarantee of subjective quality of song that sales the new record. Enough if it represents a new style. Social inconsistency is in respect of easy alteration of standards. With this, not only a renewal of music style is easy, but also the whole extension of this style over all turns to be more efficient. So vestures and ornaments which the interpreters of rock use, beyond the posture that they assume, are easily converted in fashion. Absence of tradition reproduces a necessary basis to permanent renovation of phonographic market, once without it becomes easy to promote a rupture of traditions and an acceptance of new standards. Thai means no musical standard achieves an establishment on rock. Necessity of constant renewal for its time arises as a result of absence of tradition. Since if that is inexistent, likewise musical forms define, it turns to be necessary for establishment of alternative form superposed one over another, producing by itself that which we could nominate renovation as norm.



Possibility of market articulation, the last of these points, relates to interdependency which between record and other products circumstantiated in the market. Occurs that is to say that a record of rock is not an attractive product only, in an industry where predominates the transitoriness. In other works it signifies that it reinforces the dissemination of other products, as it is reinforced by these same products. Precisely starting from articulation of the market where these products of transitory nature are made and consumed, rock stopped being a musical gender only to turn a product. A product that is consumed in a back scale. At this point all that rejection of the gender is converted in product, which was established as language of disagreement expression and which was changed in the common site of advertising, accelerating the consumption and creating a new “manière d'être”, nothing consonant with its objective.


Of equal mode, this market establishes a new scale of values, where the elements which were the basic of the protest lose their space. Slowly all were substituted for others whose main characteristics say in respect of recreations processed for a greedy market, that returned only to receive practical result of opportunities encountered in all the social manifestation.



Finally, if the record market disposes of a market support, offered by articulation of products which are fabricated to present its styles of rock, it also suffers the influences of whatever products. Since the vesture of an artist passes to represent an element of identity between the style which he performs rock, and the audience which surround him, new artist and new recording inspired in initial style that tends to influence, every time, the form of exhibition of this musical gender. An evidence, consequently, of transformation of musical gender in product of consumption. A cultural product that is consumed in a wide scale, such as any other.



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CODO, Wanderley. O que e alienacao. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1985. p. 34. COELHO, Teixeira. O que e industria cultural. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986. p. 29. CORREA, Tupa Gomes. Mercado do musica: disco e alienacao. São Paulo: Expert Editora Tecnica, 1987. CORREA, Tupa Gomes. Rock - nos passos da moda. Campinas: Papirus, 1989. KAISER, Rolf Ulrich. O mundo da musica pop. Translation by Joao Marcelino. Porto: Livraria Paisagem, 1973. p. 144-45. PALMER, Myles. New wave explosion. London: Proheus, 1982.