Introduction Cell are the fundamental units of all living things.
All living organisms are made up of one or aggregates of cells. Cells arise only via division of previously existing cell. The common components of all cells are plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and genetic material. In selecting this project, the study team has taken the following consideration: 1. Cell structure a) Draw and label an animal cell b) Draw and label a plant cell c) Identifying the cellular components of an animal cell d) Identifying the cellular components of a plant cell e) Stating the functions of the cellular components of an animal cell f) Stating the functions of the cellular components of a plant cell g) Comparing and contrasting an animal cell and a plant cell 2. Cell organisation a) Stating why cell specialization is necessary in multicellular organisms but not in unicellular organisms b) Describing cell specialisation in multicellular organisms c) Describing cell organisation in the formation of tissues, organs and systems in humans, animals and plants d) Stating the meaning of internal environment e) Identifying the factors affecting the internal environment f) Explaining the necessity to maintain optimum environment g) Describe the involvement of various systems in maintaining optimal internal environment 3. Appreciating the Uniqueness of the Cell a) Predicting the state of state of a cell if any cellular component is missing b) Illustrating that most cells are specialised for the function that they perform As an initial step, discussion among the group members were held where several prospective projects were discuss to ensure a better understanding of the project, nevertheless to become it a success.
2.1.1 Cross Section of Plant Cell and Animal Cell a) Plant Cell
Plant cells are made up of many organelle: Plasma membrane Cell wall Nucleus Mitochondria Ribosome Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Cytoplasm Vacoule Lysosome Chloroplast
b) Animal Cell
Animal cells are mede up of many organelle: Plasma membrane Nucleus Mitochondria Ribosome Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Cytoplasm Vacoule Lysosome Centriole
2.1.2 Organelle That Contain In Plant Cell And Animal Cell Planat Cell Present Present Absent Usually a large central vacuole, contains cell sap Organelle Cell Wall Chloroplast Centriole Vacuole Animal Cell Absent Absent Present Usually small and numerous, filled with water or food
2.1.3 Structure of Cellular Components a) Plasma Membrane
Also known as cell membrane Thin, elastic and semi permeable It is composed of proteins and phospholipids
b) Cell Wall
Outer layer of plant cells that is made up of cellulose fibres This layer provides strength to the cell
The outer membrane is smooth and the inner is folded It cointains a matrix with a few ribosomes. oval or sausage shaped Mitochondria have 2 layer of membrane.c) Nucleus
A spherical organelle with a nuclear membrane. except red blood cells and seive tubes of phleom
Usually they are spherical. nucleolus and nucleoplasm that cointains chromosomes It may cointain one or more spherical bodies called nucleolus It is found in all cells. a circular DNA molecule and phosphate granules
coated with ribosomes. membrane bounded sacs called cisternae in the forms of tubes and sheets A maze of folded sheets and interlocking channels
. without ribosomes A system of flattened. and smooth ER.e) Ribosome
They are non membrane bound particles An assembly of a big and small sub unit Both of subunits are seen as solid spherical granules
f) Endoplasmic Reticulum
There are 2 types of endoplamic reticulum: rough ER.
g) Golgi Apparatus
A membrane bound structure with a single membrane It is actually a stack of membrane bound vesicles that pack macromolecules for transport elsewhere in the cell
It is jelly like substance that fills the cell Cytoplasm is the entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane It consists of about 70% to 90% water. food reserves. organelles.
. proteins and other chemical compounds.
Lysosomes are roughly spherical bodies bounded by a single membrane and cointain enzymes They are produced bt the Golgi Apparatus They cointain digestive enzymes.
Chloroplasts are found in the green parts of the plants. especially in mesophyll cells of leaves The organelles cointain chlorophyll. usually spherical in shape The membrane is called tonoplast A vacuole is filled with sugar solution.
Consist of a pair of short hollow cylinders at right angles to each other It is usually found in near the nucleus of an animal cell It can be found in most animal cell but only appear in the lower plant cells. they can move and orientate their larger surface to the sunlight. They have the shape of biconvex disc bounded by 2 layer of membrane Their locationin cells are not fixed. organic acids.i) Vacuole
Vacuole are sacs with lipoprotein membrane. enzymes and pigments.
Functions of Cellular Components
. lysosome. DIFFERENCES PLANT CELL Autotrophic nutrition Bigger Regular shape Cell wall is made up of cellulose that provides stability and rigidity to the cells Rarely mobile Chloroplasts usually present Large sap vacuole in the centre of cell Food storage in the form of starch grains Movement Chloroplast Vacuole Storage Granule Often able to move about (mobile) No chloroplast No large sap vacuole.2. and vacoule. mitochondria. if present is very small Food storage in the form of glycogen granules Cell Wall No cell wall CHARACTERISTICS Type Of Nutrition Size Shape ANIMAL CELL Heterotrophic nutrition smaller Irregular shape
2. golgi aparatus. nucleus.4 Comparison Between An Animal Cell And Plant Cell SIMILARITIES Both has plasma membrane. ribosome.1. endoplasmic reticulum.
c) Require energy from the cell's reserves to generate carrier protein.com Functions of lipid bilayer are:
a) the barrier that keeps ions.2.proteins and other molecules where they are
needed and prevents them from diffusing into areas where they should not be. These organelles allow the cell to function properly. Within cells there is a network of organelles that all have unique functions.
These processes are called "active transport processes".1 Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane is a very important structure which functions to allow certain substances to enter or leave the cell by:
a) Transport substance into the cell against the concentration gradient or
pump substances out of the cell.
b) allows cells to regulate salt concentrations and pH by pumping ions
across their membranes 2.An organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function.
Diagram: Simple lipid bilayer of plasma membrane Source: runningstrong-biologylibrary. and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer.
b) Occur passively without the cell needing to expend any energy to make
them happen which is also known called as "passive transport processes".blogspot. 2.2 Cell Wall
e) Tubes for long-distance transport. b) Support and mechanical strength that allows plants to get tall. The major functions are:
a) It is involved in cell division.3 Nucleus
Diagram: Nucleus structure Source: electronic.districsides. b) It stores all the information that is to be transferred to the next
generation. The chromatin is composed of DNA that contains the information for the production of proteins.
d) DNA replication and transcription processes take place inside the
nucleus.2.com The nucleus regulates all cell activity by controlling the enzymes present.
c) Prevents the cell membrane from bursting in a hypotonic medium. hold out
thin leaves to obtain light.
2. 2. d) Controls the rate and direction of cell growth and regulates cell volume.2. f) Cutinized walls prevent water loss.The cell wall is a structure that is present in plant cells which surrounds the cell membrane.
c) Assembly of ribosomes takes place in the nucleolus present inside the
nucleus. This is a special characteristic feature which helps distinguish plant cells from animal cells that normally act as :
a) Maintaining the shape of the plant cell.4 Mitochondria
e) the structural support. The function of ribosomes is to:
a) Make proteins in a process called protein synthesis.2. ATP in turn provides energy for the cell at the molecular level. They gave a role such as:
a) supplying cellular energy as it site for aerobic respiration. They are known as the powerhouse of the cell because they provide the location for the production of ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate). b) Help the nucleus down particles in the nucleolus and it is a form of
excrement from the endoplasmic retina and you must have ribosomes to live.
c) Ribosome turns RNA (Ribonucleic acid) into protein.6 Endoplasmic Reticulum
.The mitochondria provides energy for the cell. d) Storage space for energy. at which protein synthesis takes place.5 Ribosome Ribosomes are cytoplasmic granules composed of RNA and protein. the Krebs cycle and electron transport.2. cellular differentiation.
2. b) signaling. cell death. ATP is produced by aerobic respiration such as glycolysis. as well as the control of
the cell cycle and cell growth
2. and the catalyst for protein synthesis.
Diagram: Structure of endoplasmic reticulum Source: biologycorner. Releases calcium. II.
Providing an internal structural skeleton to support the cell's shape. Forming an internal network through which materials can be transported. III.
II. Providing a large surface area.com The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum vary greatly depending on the exact type of endoplasmic reticulum and the type of cell in which it resides. Packages proteins for transport. III.
b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum I.7 Golgi Apparatus
. Synthesizes membrane phosolipids. The two common varieties are called rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
2.2. Storage of the synthesised materials and minerals. a) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
8 Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is a homogeneous.2. animals. 2. b) allows the cell to take up 3-dimensional space and the cell's many
organelles to "float" freely throughout. growth and replication are carried out in the cytoplasm of the cell.2. generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells. These cell organelles contain water and different organic/inorganic molecules.2.
2. Mainly the roles are:
a) Isolating materials that might be harmful to the cell b) Containment of waste products c) Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell d) Maintaining an acidic internal pH e) Exporting unwanted substances from the cell. The cytoplasm is the site where most cellular activities are done. salts and organic molecules and many enzymes that catalyze reactions. Functions as:
a) site of many cellular reactions Cytoplasm offers support to the cell. b) Modifies proteins (adds sugar and makes glycoproteins).
c) acts as a medium for transport inside the cell.9 Vacuole The vacuole is an important organelle present in the cells of plants. The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins and lipids. protists. pakage and distribute the molecules made in the cell and used elsewhere by: a) Separates proteins according to their destinations.10 Lysosome
. The cytoplasm consists ofcytosol and the cellular organelles. after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination.The Golgi apparatus is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. except the nucleus.
2. c) Packages materials into vesicles which are exported outside the cell. it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion. The vacuoles also contain enzymes. All the functions for cell expansion. The cytosol is made up of water. fungi and bacteria. Their functions are to collect.
2. which acts as the center for producing microtubules.
2. b) conduct photosynthesis.Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of enzymes capable of breaking down all types of biological polymers.2. b) elps in the organization of Mitotic spindle fibers and in the completion
2. Act in the cell as:
a) organizing center for microtubules. a single celled organisms which can produce energy. which produce food for a plant through the process of photosynthesis. b) destroy worn-out or damaged organelles. c) capture light energy which causes photolysis of water to conserve free
energy in the form of glucose which the plant uses for food.3
. which are the component of cytoskeleton which is the skeleton of the cell that provides both shape and structure to a cell.12 Centriole Centrioles line up the chromosomes inside the cell and then they pull the chromosomes apart during cell replication. Lysossome functions as:
a) the digestive system of the cell. Chloroplasts are somewhat similar to mitochondria. Plant cells and fungi do no contain centrioles.11 Chloraplast Chloroplast are those sub-units in a plant cell.2. Functions as:
a) strores chlorphyll. c) engulf foreign invaders. Centriole is a structure found in eukaryotic animal cells. Centriole is the part of the cell.
it can perform all the living process just like any other multicellular organisms.
. 3. These characteristics are similar to multicellular organisms which are made up of more than one cell. In addition to the small size of the cell. Unicellular organisms have little problem acquiring and utilizing the natural resources freely available on earth. Unicellular organisms feed.In this sub-chapter. excrete and reproduce. respire. Examples of unicellular organisms :
2. and the external environment they are in would have to be favourable to their needs. 4. 1. A variety of organisms are made up of only one cell. another useful strategy to efficiently use to natural resources to fulfil the needs of the cells would be for an organism to become bigger and to have specialized structures that do specialized functions. we will learn that although a unicellular organism is made up of only a single cell. They are called unicellular organisms. But they have to be tiny. grow. respond to stimuli. move.
we have mouth.1 Living processes of unicellular organisms
. plants have roots. stomach. Since cells should not be big. lungs and so on .
2. the organism would have to consist of many cells.For example.3. multicellular organism evolved and it is in itself a strategy to efficiently use the natural resources to fulfil the needs of the cells. 5. nose. stems. Thus. leaves and so on.
more watery endoplasm. and Amoeba sp. firmer ectoplasm and an inner. are unicellular organisms. The Amoeba sp. 4.25 mm in length and is barely visible to the naked eye.
. engulfing them with a drop of water to form a food vacuole. The cytoplasm is made up of an outer. Food vacuoles and contractile vacuoles are found in the cytoplasm. aquatic organism that does not have a definite shape. feeds on bacteria. algae and other microorganisms. Unicellular organism are single-celled organisms that are capable of carrying out all basic life processes such as nutrition.
Diagram: Amoeba sp. Protozoans like Paramecium sp. It is about 0. (b) it extends its pseudopodia to surround the food. (c) it then secretes enzymes into the food vacuole to digest the food. excretion. It is a mass of protoplasm surrounded by the plasma membrane. reproduction. growth and response to stimuli. locomotion. is a unicellular. Feeding (a) the Amoeba sp. 3. This is called phagocytosis. 5. The protoplasm consists of the cytoplasm and an oval-shaped nucleus. 2. (d) the digested food is absorbed into the cytoplasm while the undigested materials are expelled. respiration.1.
respires when oxygen in the water diffuses into the cytoplasm and the carbon dioxide produced diffuses out into the water.6.
. Respiration The Amoeba sp.
8. can extend a few pseudopodia out at one time. This type of movement is called the amoeboid movement. (b) the pseudopodium is formed when the endoplasm flows into the ectoplasm. (c) the pseudopodia are also known as ‘false feet’ (d) the Amoeba sp. moves by extending its pseudopodia out towards the direction it wants to move. its irregular shape. (e) the irregular extension of the pseudopodia gives the Amoeba sp.7. Locomotion (a) the Amoeba sp. Reproduction
. It withdraws the pseudopodium that does not carry it towards the direction it intends to go.
regulates the amount of water in the cytoplasm with its contractile vacuole. 10. forms spores when conditions are unfavourable. for example.
9. The contractile vacuole contracts to expel excess water from its cytoplasm. reaches its maximum size. (c) the Amoeba sp. reproduces by binary fission.(a) the Amoeba sp. The spores germinate when conditions become favourable again. to form the new daughter cells. does not reproduce sexually.
. (b) when the Amoeba sp. when the condition is dry and there is insufficient food. the nucleus divides into two. followed by the cytoplasm. The Amoeba sp. The Amoeba sp.
4. Cells work in groups.
. Each group of cells depend on other groups to work.3. For example. 3. contraction of a single muscle cell is not able to cause significant movement. For example. In a plant. skeletal muscles depend on information coming from nerve cells before they can contract. This means that the cells have to be well organised in an organism in terms of structure and function as well as in terms of interaction amongst the various types of cells. A good strategy to fulfil the needs of constituent cells in a multicellular organism is to have cells that specialise in carrying out specific functions. This is known as division of labour. The function of an individual cell in an organism is not really significant. whereas epidermal cells are for protection of other cells.2.2 Cell specialization in multicellular organisms 1. 5.
Cells Cells that cover the whole body Red blood cells Muscle cells
Functions Protect the body Transport oxygen Contract and produce movement and/or create force
Cells in the retina of the eyes Nerve cells in the brain
Recognise external and internal stimuli Conduct nerve impulses
2. mesophyll cells found in the leaves are specialised in carrying out photosynthesis.
(c) a circulatory system to supply the requirements to each cell. They are organised into tissues.2. breaking down fuel molecules to obtain energy and synthesising proteins. For example. cells in organism are specialised to carry out specific functions. A good strategy to solve the problem of meeting the cells needs is for the organism to have specialised structures formed into system. 3. the respiratory tract and the lungs. 5. 2.organs and organ systems.3 Cell organisation in a multicellular organism 1. connective tissue. For example. In each system. 4. besides carrying out general functions like transporting substances across the cell membrane. in the respiratory system we have the nose. muscle tissue and nerve tissue. The hierarchy of cellular organization is : Cells – Tissues – Organs – Organ systems – Multicellular organism
. the nose consists of epithelial tissue.3. (b) a respiratory system to bring in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. A tissue is a group of cells that perform similar specialised functions. Each of the organs consists of tissues. For example. In short. there are specialised organs that carry out more specific functions. we have : (a) a digestive system to bring in nutrients from the environment.
Organisation of animal cells into tissues 1. consisting of connective tissue. containing muscle tissues and connective tissue. muscle and nerve tissues. nerve tissue and blood capillaries. connective. 3. This layer consists of epithelial tissue.
Diagram: Cross-section of skin
. (c) underneath the dermis is the hypodermis. A group of cells that have similar structures and perform similar functions form tissues. 2. (b) the middle layer is the dermis. Animal tissues can be divided into four types. namely epithelial. The skin is basically made up of three layers : (a) the outermost layer is the epidermis.
the skin. oesphagus and lungs. blood vessels. for example sweat glands in the skin and exocrine glands (the glands that secrete substances such as enzymes via ducts) in the digestive tract. Epithelial tissue consists of cells closely packed to form one layer or several layers lining the outer body surface.
3. mouth cavity and nasal cavity. For example. 4. trachea. It also covers the outer and inner surfaces of organs such as the digestive tract.Epithelial tissue 1.
. The function of epithelial tissue depends on its locaton in an organ. 2. Some are specialised to form glandular tissues.
for example the plasma of the blood (b) soft solid.
. The matrix could be in the form of (a) liquid. Connective tissue is made up of a variety of cells embedded in a large amount of intercellular substance called matrix. (c) hard solid. 2. for example the chondrin of the cartilage.Connective tissue 1. for example the inorganic matrix of the bone 3. Connective tissues are the most varied in terms of structure and function.
Types of muscle tissues :
. cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle. Ligaments : Connect bones to bones Stores fat Protect the organs.
Adipose tissue Bones
Form the skeleton
Consists of two major cell types
Forms smooth and flexible surfaces
Muscle tissue 1.Types of connective tissue Loose connective tissue Fibrous connective tissue
Description Found in the spaces between organs Forms tendons and ligaments
Function Holds the organs together Tendons : Connect bones to muscles. In the nose and ear : forms the shape of the organs. The three types of muscles are smooth muscle. Muscle tissue consists of cells that are able to contract and produce motion. 2. involved in body movement Red blood cell : carries oxygen White blood cell : involved in community Between bones : acts like cushion.
Contraction of the cardiac muscle that produces heartbeat and contraction of the smooth muscle of the blood vessels that controls of the blood pressure occur every second of your life without your conscious control. It is impossible for us to control the blood pressure consciously every second of our lives.3. 5. 4. whereas smooth muscle and cardiac muscle are involuntary muscles. That is why it is under involuntary control.
For example. Other organs like the skin. These cells are specialised in transmitting nerve impulses. A group of different tissues that work together to carry out a specific function form an organ. blood vessels and so on are also formed from tissues. There are 11 major organ system in a human body. An organ system consists of a group of organs that work together to produce major functions like respiration. digestion. (b) epithelial tissue that lines the inner and outer surfaces of the heart (c) connective tissue that makes the heart elastic and strengthens the heart walls and valves. Nerve tissue consists of cells called neurons. excretion and circulation. stomach. intestine.
Diagram: Nerve tissues Organisation of animal tissues into organs 1. 2. lungs. the heart is an organ that consists of : (a) muscle tissue(cardiac muscle) that contracts and causes the pumping action of the heart. liver. Organisation of animal organs into systems 1. kidneys. (d) nerve tissue that regulates the heart rhythm and controls the strength of contractions of the heart.
. 2.Nerve tissue 1.
voluntary attached to the skeleton by Tendon IV. forms blood Composed of bones. multinucleated. generates heat Skeletal Muscle – striated. provides support. helps control body temperature. protects tissues. and nerves V. memory. stores minerals.2.3. Endocrine System Functions to control body functions through chemical messengers called hormones Directs long term changes in other organs VI. and monitors internal and external environment.4 Organ Systems and their functions I. and Joints III. spinal cord. Directs immediate response to stimuli. Skeletal System (206 bones) Functions to provides support. returns tissue fluid to the blood stream
. Nervous System Functions to control body movements and functions. Integumentary System Functions to protects against environmental hazards. cartilages. II. Lymphic System Function to defend the body against infection and disease. Muscular System (600 muscles) Functions to produces movement and locomotion. Composed of skin and derivates. usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems Composed of brain.
including nutrients. Development of gametes. sexual characteristics. Urinary System Functions to Eliminates excess water.VII. Digestive System Functions to process food. Respiratory System Functions to Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood IX. Reproductive System Functions to pass genetic information on to the next generation. absorbs nutrients. and care for offspring.
. development of offspring. salts and waste products XI. Separated into male and female. wastes and gases and to protect the body from infections Contains the heart. eliminates waste products Chemical digestion (breaking chemical bonds) and mechanical digestion (breaking large pieces into small pieces) X. Cardiovascular System Functions to transports dissolved materials. and blood VIII. blood vessels.
Diagram: The human body system
organs. A plant meristem is a group of cells that retain the ability to divide by mitosis. Meristematic tissue 1.
Diagram: The types of meristematic tissues 3.2. The tissue is located at the growing shoot and root apex. systems 1. Meristematic cells are responsible for growth by dividing and differentiating to form specialised cells.5 Organisation of plant cells into tissues.
. 2. Plant tissues can be divided into two main groups : meristematic tissue and permanent tissue.3.
In the roots. A few epidermal cells on the leaves are modified to form guard cells that can open and close stomata. 2. stems and roots. the epidermal cells are modified to form root hairs. Permanent tissues are differentiated tissues. the epidermal cells secrete a waxy layer called cuticle. protecting the underlying tissues.Permanent tissue 1.
Diagram: Guard cell
6. Vascular tissues are those involved in transport of water and other substances from the roots to the leaves and vice versa. It is analogous to the epithelial tissue in animals. 5. 4. The epidermal tissue covers the outer surfaces of leaves. Epidermal tissue consists of specialised parenchyma cells. 3.
Diagram: Root hair 7. In the leaves. They can be divided into epidermal tissue. ground tissue and vascular tissue. which reduces loss of water via transpiration.
Xylem. 12.8. a hollow tube is formed from elongated dead cell walls that connect to one another end to end from the roots to the leaves. 16. 15. The ground tissue consists of parenchyma. just like little pieces of polystyrene filling up the spaces between glass materials in a box. Besides transporting water and nutrients. 11. facilitated by transpiration. 10. The vascular tissues form continuous vessels in all parts of a plant and can be divided into xylem and phloem. some store food materials and some provide strength to plants. 13. living cells that connect end to end from a cell to another forming a tube. Its function is to transport nutrients from the leaves to other parts of the plant. Once matured. The function of xylem is to transport water and mineral salts from the roots up to the leaves via capillary action. the vascular tissue also provides strength to the stem and branches of a plant.
Diagram: Xylem and phloem 9. vascular and meristematic tissues belong to the ground tissues. Ground tissue fills up to the spaces between the epidermal and vascular tissues. Phloem consists of elongated. The cell walls of the dead cells provide support and strength to the plant. chollenchyma and sclerenchyma cells. 14. some cells of the ground tissue die and some remain alive. Some of the cells carry out photosynthesis. Cells other than those in the epidermal.
The nature of the cellular enviroments in plants and in animals 1. the chemical parameters such as blood glucose level. Thus. Systems in plants include circulatory. stems and leaves. 3. The extracellular fluid of animals consists of interstitial fluid. homeostasis is a process that regulates the chemical and physical parameters in the internal environment so that the conditions are always suitable to meet the needs of the cells. they must also be regulated. The chemical and physical parameters of the internal environment are regulated via a process called homeostasis. Since the biochemical reactions depend on the physical parameters such as body temperature and blood pressure. plants do not have very distinct organs and organ systems. Unlike animals. concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. all of which consist of all types of tissue. waste product and pH of the internal environment must be regulated so that they always meet the requirement of the cells. 7. blood plasma and other body fluids that stay outside the cell. Since the cells get the substances required to run the biochemical reactions from the internal environment. The intercellular space in plants is filled with air. 5. reproductive and photosynthetic systems. 2. 4. 2. The extracellular fluid is the internal environment of animal.Diagram: The ground tissue 17. Plant organs include roots. 6.3. whereas the intercellular space in animals is filled with liquid.6 Regulation of the internal environment in human beings and animals
the excretory system. circulatory and digestive systems Respiratory. Regulation of chemical and physical parameters in the internal environment is quite complex. circulatory and nervous systems Respiratory.1. circulatory and excretory systems Nervous.1 Unique properties of stem cells and circulatory. including the respiratory system.4. the circulatory system. circulatory.4 The Uniqueness of the Cell 2. the nervous system. endocrine
Systems involved in maintaining optimal internal environment : Parameter Blood glucose level Concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream pH Body temperature System that control Endocrine. the endocrine system and the muscular system. excretory and circulatory Waste product (urea) systems Excretory. nervous. 2. It involves all the organ systems. nervous systems. 2. endocrine. muscular and Blood pressure integumentary systems Endocrine.
or proliferate.Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. and they can give rise to specialized cell types. which do not normally replicate themselves. like the parent stem cells. All stem cells—regardless of their source—have three general properties: they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. or nerve cells. Stem cells may replicate many times. Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. blood cells. Unlike muscle cells. the cells are said to be capable of long term self-renewable. A starting population of stem cells that proliferates for many months in the laboratory can yield millions of cells. If the resulting cells continue to be unspecialized. they are unspecialized.
Diagram: Long-term self-renewal
Diagram: Embryonic stem cells proliferate
Scientists are trying to understand two fundamental properties of stem cells that relate to their long-term self-renewal: 1.
. but most non-embryonic stem cells cannot What are the factors in living organisms that normally regulate stem cell proliferation and selfrenewal? Discovering the answers to these questions may make it possible to understand how cell proliferation is regulated during normal embryonic development or during the abnormal cell division that leads to cancer. 2. Why can embryonic stem cells proliferate for a year or more in the laboratory without differentiating. Such information would also enable scientists to grow embryonic and non-embryonic stem cells more efficiently in the laboratory.
.The specific factors and conditions that allow stem cells to remain unspecialized are of great interest to scientists.
Stem cells are unspecialized. When unspecialized stem cells give rise to specialized cells.
. it took two decades to learn how to grow human embryonic stem cells in the laboratory following the development of conditions for growing mouse stem cells. For example. blood cells.It has taken scientists many years of trial and error to learn to derive and maintain stem cells in the laboratory without them spontaneously differentiating into specific cell types. However. For example. While differentiating. unspecialized stem cells can give rise to specialized cells. the cell usually goes through several stages. or nerve cells. becoming more specialized at each step. the process is called differentiation. Therefore. a stem cell cannot work with its neighbors to pump blood through the body (like a heart muscle cell). and it cannot carry oxygen molecules through the bloodstream (like a red blood cell). Such information is critical for scientists to be able to grow large numbers of unspecialized stem cells in the laboratory for further experimentation. One of the fundamental properties of a stem cell is that it does not have any tissue-specific structures that allow it to perform specialized functions. understanding the signals in a mature organism that cause a stem cell population to proliferate and remain unspecialized until the cells are needed. Stem cells can give rise to specialized cells. including heart muscle cells.
which are interspersed across long strands of DNA. The interaction of signals during differentiation causes the cell's DNA to acquire epigenetic marks that restrict DNA expression in the cell and can be passed on through cell division. The internal signals are controlled by a cell's genes. and carry coded instructions for all cellular structures and functions. The external signals for cell differentiation include chemicals secreted by other cells. physical contact with neighboring cells.
.Scientists are just beginning to understand the signals inside and outside cells that trigger each stem of the differentiation process. and certain molecules in the microenvironment.
are the internal and external signals for cell differentiation similar for all kinds of stem cells? Can specific sets of signals be identified that promote differentiation into specific cell types? Addressing these questions may lead scientists to find new ways to control stem cell differentiation in the laboratory. thereby growing cells or tissues that can be used for
Diagram: Specific purposes such as cell-based therapies or drug screening. For example.Many questions about stem cell differentiation remain.
a blood-forming adult stem cell in the bone marrow normally gives rise to the many types of blood cells.Adult stem cells typically generate the cell types of the tissue in which they reside. For example. such as nerve cells in the brain. It is generally accepted that a blood-forming cell in the bone marrow— which is called a hematopoietic stem cell—cannot give rise to the cells of a very different tissue. Experiments over the last several years have purported to show that stem cells from one tissue may give rise to cell types of a completely different tissue. This controversy demonstrates the challenges of studying adult stem cells and suggests that additional research using adult stem cells is necessary to understand their full potential as future therapies.
. This remains an area of great debate within the research community.
endoplasmic reticulum. Characteristics of the living processes of Amoeba are locomotion (move using pseudopodium).
. smooth endoplasmic reticulum. electron microscope. cell wall. tonoplast. carbohydrate storage and lysosome. Golgi apparatus. rough endoplasmic reticulum. The characteristics of living processes of Paramecium are quite similar to Amoeba. cell wall. nucleoplasm. reproduction. chromosomes. it can be conclude that there are basic skills. mitochondria and endosplasmic reticulum. spores). chloroplasts. nuclear membrane. and osmoregulation. The density of a particular organelle increases to support the particular specialised function of the cell. reproduction (binary fission. types of vacuole. flight muscle cells. The living processes of unicellular organisms are : feeding. excretion (diffusion). and endoplasmic reticulum. respiration. ribosome. Cellular structures of cells include plasma membrane. Some basics of microscopy include light microscope. osmoregulation (contractile vacuole). The density of chloroplast is high in palisade mesophyll cells. centriole. electron micrograph. Golgi apparatus (body). has a more advanced “mouth part” for taking in food . Differences between animal cells and plant cells are : size. ribosomes. cytoplasm. form food vacuole). Similarities between animal and plant cells are nucleus. lysosomes. nucleus. Organelles are “little organs” performing specialised functions. mitochondria. meristemic cells. and guidelines to follow for biological drawings. magnification. shape. excretion. respiration (simple diffusion). cytoplasm. mitochondrion. growth. growth (limited by surface/volume ratio). can reproduce sexually by conjugation. centrioles and vacuoles. and has an anal pore. except that : Paramecium swims with cilia. feeding (phagocytosis. Types of organelles are nucleus. nucleolus.Conclusion After going through the project. Golgi apparatus. sensitivity. Density of organelles is equal to the total number of a particular organelle per cell. locomotion. sensitivity (whole cell). liver cells and kidney cells. and magnification. cell membrane. The density of mitochondria is high in active cell such as in : sperm cells.
The twelve human organ systems are : skeletal. coordination and integration. The tissues fluid is an organisms internal environment. its life processes also increase in quality and complexity – specialisation of cell functions helps in overcoming this problem. Homeostasis is the maintenance of this constant internal environment. circulatory.
. division of labour. have complex bodies and have easy access to other environmental resources. circulatory and excretory systems The cell is unique because it is only one of its kind . sensory. digestive. pH. divison of labour. The state of a cell without a particular cellular component can be predicted based on these principles : specialisation. Advantages of specialisation in multicellular organisms : adapt easily and live in a wider range of environment. An organ consists of two of more types of tissues performing a specific activitiy. it is special . nervous. and skeletal systems b) Osmotic pressure – nervous and endocrine systems c) Glucose level – endocrine and circulatory systems d) pH – respiratory. osmotic pressure and glucose level. cooperation and coordination. allows for increase in size. and its size is bigger. respiratory. Organ systems involved in the maintenance of optimal internal environment are : a) Temperature – circulatory. muscular. The five levels of cell organization from simple to complex of multicellular organisms are cells tissues organ systems organism. A system consists of two or more organ performing a specific function. reproductive and excretory. lymphatic. It is necessary to maintain an optimal internal environment be cause life can only tolerate a limited range in the fluctuations of temperature pH. osmotic pressure and glucose level. When an organism grows bigger. Tissues is a collection of cells of similar structure and function. gives a wider range of food. and it belongs to or is connected with other cells. integumentary. A cell is unique in terms of it specialisation. integumentary.A multicellular organism has more cells. endocrine. The factors affecting the internal environment are : temperature. An organism refers to all the organ system within a living thing.
Dr. Focus Super Hot SPM Biology. Pustaka Sistem Pelajaran Sdn. Marshall Cavendish ( Malaysia ) Bhd. Whizz Thru Biology SPM.H. Pearson Malaysia Sdn. Essential Biology SPM. Hamdari Mohd. 2006. Peter Ling Chee Chong. Bhd. Betsy Teh Lay Hong. 2008.com http://www.districsides. Nalini T. Bhd. Choo Yan Tong.thinkquest. Nexus Pro Biology SPM. Wahida Abdullah. Mah Chee Wai. Mahadiah Muda.Bibliography Gan Wan Yeat.org http://www. Kanaga . Bilingual Express Biology Form 4. Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn.buzzle. Lee Ai Noi. Chook Jack Bee. 2008.com http://www. Bhd. Xpress Pro Biology SPM. 2010. 2010.electronic.runningstrong-biologylibrary. Bhd. Dr. Oxford Fajar Sdn. Balachandran. Ace@Work Biology Form 4. 2010. Bhd. SNP Panpac ( M ) Sdn. S. Guan. Sasbadi Sdn. Sasbadi Sdn. Quek Yoke Hua. 2010. Bhd. Nor. Bhd.biologycorner. 2008.blogspot.com http://library. New Vision Biology Form 4. 1001 Series The Exam Companion Biology.com Sdn. Oxford Fajar Sdn. http://www. Kee Bee Suan. Bhd. 2009. Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. 2010. B. SUCCESS BIOLOGY SPM. Tan Kim Low. Bhd.
. Tina Lim Swee Kim.