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Chapter 13 Statistical Foundations: Nominal and Ordinal Data Analysis I. Analyzing Nominal Data A. Introduction 1. Nominal Data a. Nominal data consists of names, labels, or categories only. Data can’t be arranged in an ordering scheme. Categories must be mutually exclusive. Boy/Girl European African Asian

b. What is actually analyzed are raw frequencies, i.e., the number of boys, girls or the number of Europeans, Africans, and Asians. 2. There are 3 statistical procedures which are applied to analyze nominal data. a. Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit b. Chi-Square Test of Independence (Also called Association) c. Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity B. Chi-Square Introduction 1. Chi-square has a distribution but is classified as a nonparametric statistical test by tradition (Daniel, 1990, pp. 178-179). Nonparametric tests are distributionfree statistics which are used when a population's (or a sample's) distribution is substantially non-normal and parametric tests are not suitable. 2. Chi-square can be used to test whether a. Observed nominal data conforms (or is statistically different) to some theoretical or expected distribution (Daniel, 1990, p. 306; Morehouse and Stull, 1975, p. 311). b. Two variables within a sample are related (Daniel, 1990, p. 181). c. Two or more samples, drawn from different populations, are homogenous on some characteristic of interest (Daniel, 1990, pp. 192-93). 3. The chi-square distribution approaches the normal distribution as n increases (Daniel, 1990, p. 180). When the sample size is N > 30, the chi-square is approximately normal (Morehouse and Stull, 1975, p. 313). 4. The null (or statistical) hypothesis (Ho) states that there is either “no differences between observed or expected frequencies" (Goodness of Fit) or "the variables or samples are not related, i.e., are independent" (Test for Independence) or are homogeneous (Test of Homogeneity). a. As normally applied, the X2 is not directed at any specific alternative hypothesis (Reynolds, 1984, p. 22).

266

b.

Degrees of freedom, alpha, and power must be specified or determined. The applicable degrees of freedom (df) depends on the test applied. Alpha is specified, a priori, usually at the .05 or .01 level.

5. While a statistically significant X2 establishes a relationship between two variables, it reveals little else (Reynolds, 1984, p. 20). a. A statistically significant chi-square is not a measure of the strength of an association (Daniel, 1990, p. 400; Reynolds, 1984, p. 30; Welkowitz, Ewen, & Cohen, 1991, p. 298; Udinsky, Osterlind, & Lynch, 1981, p. 214). b. Hence, when a relationship has been established additional analysis must be conducted. c. Subsequent analysis may be accomplished through partitioning X2, which is a detailed, time intensive task (Reynolds, 1984, pp. 23-30) or applying measures of association (Reynolds, 1984, pp. 35-44; Welkowitz, Ewen, & Cohen, 1991, pp. 298-301; Siegel, 1956, pp. 196-202). 6. Assumptions a. The distribution is not symmetric. b. Chi-square values can be zero or positive but never negative. c. Chi-square distribution is different for each degree of freedom. As the number of degrees of freedom increase, the distribution approaches the SNC. d. Degree of freedom (df) varies depending on the chi-square test being used. e. Measurements are independent of each other. Before-and-after frequency counts of the same subjects cannot be analyzed using χ 2 . 7. Chi-Square Issues a. Expected frequency cell size (1) The greater the numerical difference between observed and expected frequencies within cells, the more likely is a statistically significant X2. Cells with estimated frequencies (<5) may yield an inflated X2. (2) There is considerable debate concerning small cell expected frequencies (Daniel, 1990, p. 185). Various authors have proposed guidelines depending on the specific test. (3) Welkowitz, Ewen, & Cohen (1991, p. 292) offer general advise: (a) for df = 1, all expected frequencies should be at least 5; (b) for df = 2, all expected frequencies should be at least 3; and (c) for df = 3, all but one expected frequency value should equal 5. (4) If cells are to be combined, then there should be a logical reason for any combination effected, otherwise interpretation is adversely affected. Morehouse and Stull (1975, pp. 320-321) advocate the use of Yates' Correction for Continuity when expected cell sizes are less than 5. However, Daniel (1990, p. 187) reports that based on research there is a trend away from applying Yates' Correction. Spatz (2001, p. 293) advises against using the Yates correction.

and consequently. Siegel." However.. often with several levels. The Chi Square Goodness of Fit Test is a one variable procedure. it is expected that there will be a reasonable "fit" between the sample frequencies and those found in the population across some characteristic of interest (Daniel. c. 42-47) refers to this type of test as “The χ 2 One Sample Test. Theory and Formula a. or commonly accepted standard. p. states the opposite. & Cohen (1991). 1991. H1. then the conclusion is that the data didn’t fit the model. there are observed and expected frequencies (Table 13. E = expected frequencies d. 289-291). p. & Cohen. their use will result in errors in conclusions.. Welkowitz. Siegel (1956. Ewen. hypothesis. (3) In other words. The alternative hypothesis. C. 320) disagree. 307.” b.e. Percentages and ratios are not independent. & Cohen. p. pp. if one is drawing a random sample from a population.. 1956.1 Chi-Square Goodness of Fit (Spatz. (2) Reynolds (1984. 280) χ =∑ 2 [ (O − E ) 2 E ] where: χ2 = chi-square value.and [that] percentages are particularly useful in 2 X 2 tables. Ewen. "the direct numerical counts or raw data should always be used as a basis for the calculation of chi-square. 36) argues for 2 X 2 contingency tables that “percentages permit one to detect patterns of departure from independence. Percentages (1) There is some disagreement among authors as whether or not percentages may be included in chi-square computations. and Udinsky. i. Welkowitz. but none of their examples contain percentages. Osterlind. O = observed frequencies. 2001. There is only one variable. p. . pp. Reynolds.” If the null is rejected. In a goodness of fit test.267 2. Ewen. 43.1). there are no measures of association as it’s a one variable test. 1984. p. the expected frequencies (Welkowitz. Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test 1. & Lynch (1981) are silent on the subject. Siegel (1956). 289-292). Morehouse and Stull (1975. 17. p." (3) Daniel (1990). For Goodness of Fit test. Formula 13. (1) Expected frequencies are derived from a theory. 1991. pp. 1990. (2) The null hypothesis is that the collected data “fit the model.

ϖ = . Peach. there are computationally convenient alternative effect size indices. For Chi-square. 2.. and time consuming to compute by hand. Index of Effect Size a. At the α = . For the Chi Square Test of Association or Heterogeneity. b. pp. Thus.. 4. the greater the chances of rejecting the null hypothesis). SPSS or SAS.1. large sample equal large computed X2 value and the larger the computed X2.g. Apply Classical Hypothesis Testing Method (1) Are product purchases related to taste preference? (2) ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ3 = ρ4 (3) ρ1 ≠ ρ2 ≠ ρ3 ≠ ρ4 (4) Ho: ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ3 = ρ4 (5) H1: ρ1 ≠ ρ2 ≠ ρ3 ≠ ρ4 (6) α = 0. test the claim that product purchase is unrelated to taste preference.05 . 216-218) ( P i − Poi ) 2 ϖ= ∑ 1 P0i i =1 m Where: P0i = proportion in a cell.e. use a statistical computer program. Cherry. You have randomly identified 88 customers and learned which oatmeal product they last purchased. P1i = proportion in a cell posited by the alternative hypothesis. pp. we say when ϖ = . For the Goodness of Fit Test.50 (large effect).2 Index of Effect Size Cohen (1988. d. e. there is “perfect fit.05 level. 224-225) recommends ϖ = . You have been asked to verify these data. b. Formula 13. Your company produces four types of microwave oatmeal products: Apple. Cohen (1988. c. when ϖ = 0. Case 1: Oatmeal and Taste Preference a.10 (small effect). we’re comparing how an observed distribution “fits” an “expected” distribution. As ϖ increases the degree of departure from “a perfect fit” increases.30 (medium effect) and ϖ = . and Prune. Formula 13. The vice-president for sales has received marketing data that suggests the purchasing decision is not based on fruit taste preference. and m = # of cells. (2) One reason the X2 Goodness of Fit test is not used as a measure of association is that its magnitude depends on sample size (i. posited by the null hypothesis. there is a small effect or small departure from “fit”. tedious.268 (1) We are concerned only with whether or not the observed data “fit” the expected.2 is quite complicated.

Measure of Association: The phi φ Coefficient (1) The phi coefficient is a symmetric index with a range between 0 and 1. pp. (2) Formula 13.05 & df = 3 (Triola 1998. It seems that customers prefer to purchase the Apple and Cherry brands of oatmeal. p. pp. (a) Maximum value is attained only under strict perfect association.545 Prune 19 22 -3 9 0. (11)Effect Size Estimate: In this case an effect size could be computed and then interpreted using Cohen’s (1988. (a) Data Table Table 13.1 Taste Preference Case Data Taste 0 E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E Apple 36 22 14 196 8.045 Cherry 12 22 -10 100 4. Ewen. 716) (9) Apply Decision Rule: Since χ 2 = 13. 224-225) criteria.815 at for ∂ = .908 (d) Critical Value: 7. (1) The Test of Independence can be computed in the same manner as the Goodness of Fit. & Cohen (1991. . 293-297) and Daniel (1990. p. 181-185) report that this test is applied when two variables from the same sample are to be tested. Theory and Formulae a.908 ≥ 7. reject Ho: ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ3 = ρ4. Welkowitz.3 Chi-Square Test of Independence (Spatz. where zero equals statistical independence. 2001.815.409 χ 2 =13.909 Peach 21 22 -1 1 0.1: See Data Table where χ 2 = 13. Chi-Square Test of Independence (Also called Association) 1.05. pp.908 (b) Compute Degrees of Freedom: df = 3 (k-1 or 4-1) (c) Substitute into Formula 13. 280) χ =∑ 2 [ (O − E ) 2 E ] b. p < . (10)There appears to be a relationship between purchase decision and taste preference. D.269 (7) Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test (8) Compute the test statistic and select the relevant critical value(s).

p. 178) d. (c) When r = c. p. (2) Before the phi coefficient is applied. pp. It is applied as a measure of association when “r x c” or “i x j” tables larger than the 2 x 2 Contingency Table are tested.270 (b) The phi coefficient is depressed by skewed marginal totals. there should be a statistically significant chi-square value where a 2 x 2 contingency table has been applied. 291) is applied as a measure of association when “r x c” or “i x j” tables larger than the 2 x 2 Contingency Table are tested. C = 0. Spatz 2001. p. imbalanced marginal totals).e. 1990. (3) Formula 13. Measure of Association: Contingency Coefficient (CC) (1) Siegel (1956. p. 2001. The greater the skewness is the greater the depression. Measure of Association: Cramer’s C or V Statistic (1) Cramer’s C or V statistic (Daniel. a perfect correlation is indicated by C = 1.” (b) Where no association is present. 403-404.4 phi Coefficient (Spatz.. 284) φ = where: χ N 2 φ = phi coefficient Χ2 = Χ2 test statistic N = total number of subjects c. (d) When r ≠ c. (i. . Apply the phi coefficient only to a 2 x 2 Contingency Table. 1991. The “r x c” or “i x j” terminology is used interchangeably. (3) Formula 13.5 Cramer’s C or V Statistic (Daniel. 196) describes the contingency coefficient. 1990. p. a perfect correlation may not be indicated even when C = 1. “a measure of the extent of association or relation between two sets of attributes [variables]. 403) C= χ2 n(t − 1) where: χ 2 = computed χ 2 test statistic n = sample size t = the number of r or c whichever is less (4) If χ 2 is significant. (2) Characteristics (a) Value varies between “0” and “1. then Cramer’s C is significant (Ewen.

2 Training Sales Approach Case Data Variable Men Women Row Total Like Sales Approach 43 35 78 (38. 1956.6 The Contingency Coefficient (Siegel. 284). where df = (r-1)(c-1).5 (Spatz.05 (7) Chi-Square Test of Association (8) Compute the test statistic and select the relevant critical value(s). p.271 (2) CC will have the same value regardless of how the categories are arranged in the columns or rows. the phi coefficient does double duty as a measure of association and effect size (Spatz.12) Disliked Sales 109 118 227 Approach (113. p. 2.87) (39. for the (3) ρ1 ≠ ρ2 Test of Independence: (4) Ho: ρ1 = ρ2 (5) H1: ρ1 ≠ ρ2 Expected = (row total) (column total) (grand total) (6) α = 0. Effect Size Index (1) For a 2 x 2 Contingency Table.3 Chi-Square Test of Association . use Formula 13. 2001. 2001. (3) Formula 13. asked them to evaluate current product sales approach.13) (113. (a) Data Table Table 13. Example: A product manager within your training organization has recommended that your company’s historically most successful product needs new sales approach to boost sales. One demographic variable you assessed was gender. You randomly selected 305 former trainees and through the mail. 291). This is a two variable analysis. (2) For “r x c” tables with more than one degree of freedom. Case 1: Training Product Sales Approach a. 196) CC = χ2 N + χ2 where: CC = contingency coefficient Χ2 = Χ2 test statistic N = total number of subjects e. Apply the Hypothesis Testing Model (1) Is there a difference in packaging preference based on gender? (2) ρ1 ≠ ρ2 To compute expected frequency. b.87) Column Total 152 153 305 (b) Compute Degrees of Freedom: df = 1 (r-1)(c-1) (c) Substitute into Formula 13.

057 0. 716) (9) Apply Decision Rule: Since χ 2 = 1. p. (11)Effect Size Estimate: Doesn’t apply. Apply the Hypothesis Testing Model (1) Are education (high school or college graduate) and training preference (active or traditional learning) related? (2) ρ1 ≠ ρ2 (3) ρ1 ≠ ρ2 (4) Ho: ρ1 = ρ2 (5) H1: ρ1 ≠ ρ2 (6) α = 0. p.174 (d) Critical Value: 3.05 & df = 1 (Triola 1998.7 2 x 2 Contingency Table (Spatz.174 is < 3.12 -4.434 M/Dislike 109 113.057 0.13 17.150 χ 2 =1.87 4.87 4.841 at ∂ = .3 Training Sales Approach χ 2 Data Taste 0 E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E M/Like 43 38. The 2 x 2 or Contingency Table (1) The Contingency Table can be used when two categorical variables with two levels each are being tested for an association. 284) χ2 = N ( AD − BC ) 2 ( A+ B )( C + D )( A+C )( B + D ) b.974 0.057 0.12 16.05 (7) Chi-Square Test of Association (2 x 2 Contingency Table) (8) Compute the test statistic and select the relevant critical value(s). (a) Data Table . (2) Formula 13. (10)There is insufficient evidence to conclude that there is a relationship between liking product packaging and gender.439 W/Like 35 39.272 Table 13. 3.05. It appears that both men and women disliked the training product’s sales approach.13 -4. retain Ho: ρ1 = ρ2 as p > .13 17. Case 2: Education Attainment and Training Preference a.151 W/Dislike 118 113. 2001.13 17.841.

retain Ho: ρ1 = ρ2.. 4. as p > . p..273 Table 13. 716)..841. Case 3: Age and Environmental Preference (urban vs.05 & df = 1 (Triola 1998. (11)Effect Size Estimate: Does not apply.841 at ∂ = .05 (7) Chi-Square Test of Association (2 x 2 Contingency Table) . (10)There is insufficient evidence to conclude that there is a relationship between education attainment and training preference.•208. (9) Apply Decision Rule: Since χ 2 = 2.000 62 χ 2 = 2.34 is < 3.05. Apply the Hypothesis Testing Model (1) Are age and environmental preference related? (2) ρ1 ≠ ρ2 (3) ρ1 ≠ ρ2 (4) Ho: ρ1 = ρ2 (5) H1: ρ1 ≠ ρ2 (6) α = 0.208.000 62 800 000 χ 2 = 145. suburban) a.7 2 x 2 Contingency Table χ = 2 N ( AD − BC ) 2 ( A + B )( C + D )( A + C )( B = D ) 810 000 χ 2 = 180.4 Training Preference Case Data Preference High Sch College Row Total Active Learning 45 (A) 55 (B) 100 Traditional 27 (C) 53 (D) 80 Column Total 72 108 180 (b) Compute Degrees of Freedom: df = 1 (always) (c) Substitute into Formula 13.34 (d) Critical Value: 3.

People 40 and younger prefer the suburban environment. 250 . 500 (d) Critical Value: 3. 26 (b) This appears to be a moderate positive association. (a) Data Table Table 13.274 (8) Compute the test statistic and select the relevant critical value(s). .895 χ2 = 42 . 06895 = .841.895 is > 3. reject Ho: ρ1 = ρ2.5 Age and Environment Case Data Preference ≤ 40 ≥ 41 Row Total Urban 15 28 43 Suburban 35 22 57 Column Total 50 50 100 (b) Compute Degrees of Freedom: df = 1 (always) (c) Substitute into Formula 13. 000 6 .05 & df = 1 (Triola 1998.26. we will use the phi-coefficient. p > . 895 100 = . as Φ = .05. (a) Substitute into Formula 13.841 at ∂ = .127 .4 φ = χ N 2 = 6 . (11)Apply Measure of Association: Since this is a 2 x 2 contingency table.7 2 x 2 Contingency Table χ = 2 N ( AD − BC ) 2 ( A + B )( C + D )( A + C )( B = D ) 100 (15 • 22 − 28 • 35 ) 2 ( 43)( 57 )( 50 )( 50 ) χ = 2 χ 2 = 6. (10)There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a relationship between age and environmental preference. 716) (9) Apply Decision Rule: Since χ 2 = 6. p.

0 χ 2 = 8.8 R/B 8 8 0 0 0. p.50 . 284). (a) Data Table Table 13. 716) (9) Apply Decision Rule: Since χ 2 = 8. 2001. Φ = . 5.6 Mastery and Teaching Style Case Data Mastery Status Style (A) Style (B) Style (C) Row Total Master (L) 36 (30) 12 (12) 12 (18) 60 Non-Master (R) 14 (20) 8 (8) 18 (12) 40 Column Total 50 20 30 100 (N) (b) Compute Degrees of Freedom: df = 2 (r-1)(c-1) or (2-1)(3-1) = 2 (c) Substitute into Formula 13..05 (7) Chi-Square Test of Association (3 x 2 Contingency Table) (8) Compute the test statistic and select the relevant critical value(s). passing a test) and teaching style? (2) ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ3 (3) ρ1 ≠ ρ2 ≠ ρ3 (4) Ho: ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ3 (5) H1: ρ1 ≠ ρ2 ≠ ρ3 (6) α = 0. Interpretation guidelines are (Spatz.7 Mastery and Teaching Style Case Data Category O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E L/A 36 30 6 36 1. Φ = . Φ = .0 (d) Critical Value: 5.3 Chi-Square Test of Association Table 13.0 R/A 14 20 -6 36 1.10 (b) Medium Effect. .05 & df = 2 (Triola 1998.” The Φ coefficient is also an index of effect size for the contingency table.0 is > 5.99 so reject. Ho: ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ3 as p < .30 (c) Large Effect. the preference appears to be “medium.0 L/C 12 18 -6 36 2. p. Apply the Hypothesis Testing Model (1) Is there a relationship between type of mastery (e.g. Case 4: Mastery Status and Teaching Style a.2 L/B 12 12 0 0 0.0 R/C 18 12 6 36 3. (a) Small Effect.275 (12)Effect Size Estimate: Using the guidelines.05.99 at ∂ = .

192-194) and Siegel (1956 pp. E. 196-198). 175-179). p.5. Applying Cohen’s (1988.e. b.. not the same) samples (Daniel 1990. 195-196) asserts that three or more populations can be tested in an r X 2 Contingency table. The usual X2 assumptions hold.291) offers Cramer’s C as an effect size index. This version of the chi-square test is applied when data are drawn from two or more independent (i. three or more r populations can be tested across three or more c categories of classification in a r X c table (Daniel. Further. Daniel (1990. C= χ2 n(t − 1) = 8. p. (Hint: Compare observed to expected) (11)Apply Measure of Association: Since more than one degree of freedom is involved. 1990. 3. we will apply Cramer’s C or V Statistic. where r and c have the same definitions as above.276 (10)There is sufficient evidence to conclude that type of teaching style is related to student/trainee mastery. 104-111. See any introductory statistics book for more computational exercises. 4. where r = the number of populations from which the r samples have been drawn and c = the two mutually exclusive categories of interest. Strongly disagree is an opinion which is very different from strongly agree. (a) Substitute into Formula 13.08 = . Analyzing Ordinal Data A. the effect of teaching style on trainee mastery is medium. II. Masters seemed to prefer Style A. Ordinal data are ordered categories. The computation process is the same as for the Test for Independence. but distances between categories can’t be determined.283 100(1 − 1) 100 The strength of the association is moderate. 2. Two sample comparisons can be displayed and tested in a 2 X 2 Contingency Table as well. (b) Effect Size Estimate: Spatz (2001. . Introduction 1. pp.0 = = . pp. The df are computed by (r-1)(c-1) [r = # rows & c = # columns] and e = (row total)(column total)/N. 5. 224-225) criteria. Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity 1. We know an “A” is higher than a “C”. pp. but exactly how different is unknown. while Non-masters preferred Style C.0 8. The ordering has significance. but we don’t know by exactly how many points.

The rank of “1” goes to the smallest difference.” The critical value is drawn from the critical values for the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank T table. find D.) a. c. Subtraction order is not important. twins). b.e. Scores from the two groups must be logically paired. it is common practice to “convert” the ordinal Likert or Likert style scale data into interval data by assigning numbers. The test statistic is “T. However. 4. the difference between each pair. Recall that there are three dependent designs: natural pairs (e. pp. it is widely used. For nonparametric statistics. 3. Computational Procedure (See Table 13. b. It is the differences that are ranked not the values of the differences. A nonparametric correlation test (Spearman Rank Order Correlation Test) has been previously presented. the Mann-Whitney U Test is profiled. and repeated (before and after).” Among researchers. Many nonparametric procedures do not have corresponding effect size indices. For two independent samples. matched pairs.277 Income High Middle Low Grades A B C D F Likert Scale Strongly Disagree Disagree No Opinion Agree Strongly Agree 2. this practice is controversial. not SNC). 2001. In many social science disciplines. and evaluators. The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test is the nonparametric equivalent to the dependent samples t-test and is applied to ordinal data (Spatz. the null hypothesis is that population distributions being tested are equal in shape and variability.8 below. 3. B.g.. 5. These are: a. For two dependent samples. For each pair of scores. the Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test will be presented. such as “1” for “Strongly Disagree” or “5” for “Strongly Agree. Rank each difference based on the absolute value of each. statisticians. Three nonparametric tests will be examined which test instances where the dependent variable is measured in ranks. The rank of “1” always goes to the smallest difference. . Two Dependent Samples: Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks “T” Test 1. 309313). the rank of “2” goes to the next highest difference and so on. 2. but the populations’ distributions are asymmetrical (i.

5 6 23 21 2 1. 726).8 data but the decision was made to test the rankings of the scores and not the scores themselves. (1) When a “D” value equals zero..ranks) = -11 T = 11 (smallest absolute value) (1) Since the test statistic T = 11 is > the critical value T = 2. Computation and Null Hypothesis Decision-Making Table 13.5 and +1. then one is given a +1.5 7 25 18 7 6 6 Σ (+ ranks) = 15 Σ (. Sum the positive and negative ranks separately.5 ranking. If the test statistic “T” is less than (<) the critical value “T”. there are no real differences) the absolute values of the positive and negative sums will be equal and any differences are due to sampling fluctuations. it is not assigned a rank and N is reduced by one. one would use this test. If three “D” values equal zero.5 (Triola 1998. e. (3) The rationale for the Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test is that if the populations are truly equal (i.5 ranking. T is the absolute value of the smaller of the two sums. . If two “D” values equal zero.278 c. In cases where there is reason to believe that the populations are not normally distributed and do not have equal score variances.8 Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test Pair Variable A Variable B D Rank Signed Rank 1 18 26 -8 7 -7 2 16 19 -3 4 -4 3 25 20 5 5 5 4 25 24 1 1 1 5 24 22 2 1. we retain the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the rankings.5 ranking and the second is given a -1. p.8. negative (-) or positive (+) which is usually left off as it is understood. d. the mean of the ranks which would have been received is given to each of the tied ranks. To each value of D attach the sign of its difference. the null hypothesis is rejected. See how pairs 5 and 6 are treated in Table 13. for a 2-tail test where ∂ = 0. (2) When “D” values are tied.5 1. then one is dropped (reducing N by one) and the other two are assigned -1. (2) Remember that the dependent samples t-test could have been applied to these Table 13. f.5 1.e.

312-313) N ( N +1) 4 (3) Formula 13.279 g. it was noted that the scores were not normally distributed. Case: Eleven training assistants completed a teaching methods workshop. pp. (4) α = 0.96 and +1. a. When the sample size is greater than 50. (1) Formula 13.8b The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test N > 50 (Spatz. Applying the Adapted Hypothesis Testing Model (1) Did the workshop improve teaching skills? (2) Ho: Population distributions are not equal. 312-313) δT = Where: N(N+1 N+1 )(2 ) 24 T = Smaller sum of the signed ranks c = 0.8a The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test N > 50 (Spatz. 312-313) z= µT = (T + c ) −uT δT (2) Formula 13. 2001.05. 2001.01. When examining dependent samples t-test assumptions. Each was pre-tested before and post-tested after the workshop. reject the null hypothesis (Ho) if the computed test statistic “z” falls outside the interval -2. the T statistic is approximated using the z-score and the SNC.58 and +2. reject the null hypothesis (Ho) if the computed test statistic “z” falls outside the interval -1.9.58 at ∂ = . pp.8c The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test N > 50 Formula (Spatz. 2001.96 at ∂ = .05 for a two-tail test (5) Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test . pp.5 N = number of pairs (4) Decision Rules (a) For a 2-tail test. (3) H1: Population distributions are equal. (b) For a 2-tail test. 4. So the scores were converted to ranks as found in Table 13. A Higher score on the tests indicates better teaching skills.

p. Introduction a. the null hypothesis is rejected.280 (6) Compute the Test Statistic (a) Construct Data Table: Table 13. 726) (7) Apply Decision Rule: Since the test statistic of T = 5 is less than the critical T value of T = 8. c. (8) It appears that the workshop does not improve teaching skills.9 Teaching Workshop Case Data Pretest Posttest D Rank Signed Rank 10 14 -4 5 -5 11 19 -8 10 -10 9 13 -4 5 -5 11 12 -1 1 -1 14 22 -7 9 -9 6 11 -5 7 -7 13 17 -4 5 -5 12 18 -6 8 -8 19 19 0 Deleted Deleted 18 16 2 2 2 17 14 3 3 3 Compute Number of Pairs N (#of pairs) . (9) Effect Size Estimation: Does not apply. pp. A significant “U” is typically attributed to difference in central tendency between the two groups. b. Most researchers using the Mann-Whitney test assume that the two distributions has the same form (shape) but most likely differ in central tendency. . C. To detect errors. the two U value sums in the Mann-Whitney U Test equals the product of (N1)(N2).ranks) = -52 T = 5 (smallest absolute value) (d) Critical “T” Value: = 8 at ∂ = . In the Mann-Whitney U Test it makes no difference whether the highest or lowest score (should you have to rank scores) is given the rank of 1. 303-308).05 in a 2-tail test with N = 10 (Triola 1998. 2001.(# of deleted) or N = 10 Subject A B C D E F G H I J K (b) (c) Compute the test statistic “T” Σ (+ ranks) = 5 Σ (. “U” actually compares distributions. d. The Mann-Whitney test produces the U statistic which is based upon the U distribution (Spatz. Independent Samples: The Mann-Whitney U Test 1. Like all distributions for small samples (N1 ≤ 20 and N2 ≤ 20) the distribution shape depends on the sample size.

some freshman had completed an academic competence course where they were exposed to study habits. 594) should be applied. (4) α = 0. Computational Process for Small Sample a.05 for a two-tail test (5) Mann-Whitney U Test (6) Compute the Test Statistic (a) Construct Data Table: . If the ties are in the same group.9b The Mann-Whitney U Test Small Sample) for R2 (Spatz. Ties between ranks are handled in the same manner as in the Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks test. Case: Eleven freshmen students were collectively ranked by a team of three professors as to their academic competence.281 e. f. and managing for productive academic relationships.9a The Mann-Whitney U Test Small Sample for R1 (Spatz. If there are several ties across both groups. academic culture. Formula 13. 304) U = (N1)(N2 ) + N1(N1 +1) − ∑R1 2 Where N1 = Number comprising group one N2 = Number comprising group two ΣR1 = sum of ranks for group one b. 2001. 2001. p. (3) H1: Population distributions are equal. then the U value is not affected. Hint: The smaller the U value. 2. p. 304) U=(N )(N2)+ 1 N2(N2 +1 ) −∑R 2 2 Where N1 = Number comprising group one N2 = Number comprising group two Σ R2 = Sum of ranks for group two 3. p. (a) Applying the Adapted Hypothesis Testing Model (1) Does the freshman workshop improve academic competence? (2) Ho: Population distributions are not equal. the correction suggested by Kirk (1999. time management. the more different the two groups are. Formula 13. Unknown to the professors.

p. 304) U = (N1)(N2 ) + U = (5)(6) + U = 30 + U = 23 N1(N1 +1) − ∑R1 2 5(5 + 1) − 22 2 30 − 22 2 U = 45 − 22 [2] Apply Formula 13. 2001.282 Data Table 13. p.9a for the no group (Spatz.9a for the yes group (Spatz. 2001. 304) U = (N1)(N2) + N2(N2 +1) −∑R2 2 .10 Academic Competence Case Data Students Ranking Course A 4 Yes B 9 No C 7 No D 6 Yes E 5 No F 3 Yes G 2 No H 10 No I 11 No J 1 Yes K 8 Yes (b) Determine N’s: N1 = 5 N2 = 6 (c) Compute the test statistics “U” ΣR1 (yes) = 22 ΣR2 (no) = 44 U = 7 (smallest absolute value) [1] Apply Formula 13.

2001.58| at ∂ = . p. p. 2001. a.05. the null hypothesis is retained. in either N1 or N2. reject the null hypothesis (Ho) if the computed test statistic “z” ≥ |2. . > 21 (Spatz.10 “c” is a . reject the null hypothesis (Ho) if the computed test statistic “z” ≥ |1. reject the null hypothesis (Ho) if the computed test statistic “z” ≥ 2.01. p.05 correction factor. 377) (7) Apply Decision Rule: Since the test statistic of U = 7 is greater than the critical U value of U = 3. reject the null hypothesis (Ho) if the computed test statistic “z” ≥ 1.10 The Mann-Whitney U Test For N1 or N2. (9) Effect Size Estimation: Does not apply. In Formula 13. the U test statistic is approximated using the z-score and the SNC.05 in a 2-tail test at the intersection of column N1 = 5 and row N2 = 6 in the Mann-Whitney Critical Value Table (Spatz. 4. 2001. z= (U + c ) − uU δU µU = δU ( N1 )( N 2 ) 2 ( N1 )( N 2 )( N1 + N 2 + 1) = 12 b. Decision Rules (Spatz.96| at ∂ = .65 at ∂ = . Formula 13. 306). (8) It appears that the workshop does not improve academic competency as the distributions of the two groups are statistically equal.05. When the sample size is greater than 21.33 at ∂ = . (3) For a 1-tail test. 306) (1) For a 2-tail test.01.283 U = (5)(6) + U = 30 + U =7 6(6 + 1) − 44 2 42 − 44 2 U = 30 + 21 − 44 (d) Critical “U” Value: = 3 at ∂ = . (4) For a 1-tail test. (2) For a 2-tail test.

are independent" (Test for Independence) or are homogeneous (Test of Homogeneity). When the sample size is N > 30. As normally applied. 4.30 (medium effect) c. Apply the phi coefficient only to any chi-square problem. it reveals little else. The phi coefficient is a symmetric index with a range between 0 and 1. Before the phi coefficient is applied. c. where zero equals statistical independence. b.80 (very large effect) 6. c. 5. Degree of freedom (df) varies depending on the chi-square test being used. c. Chi-square distribution is different for each degree of freedom.05 or . ω = . Which one of the following statements about the phi ( φ ) is not accurate? a. The distribution is symmetric.50 (large effect) d. As the number of degrees of freedom increase. Maximum value is attained only under strict perfect association. Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test 2. d. a. the distribution approaches the SNC. Degrees of freedom.10 (small effect) b. d. Which one of the following statements concerning Chi-square is not accurate? a. b.284 Review Questions 1. the X2 is not directed at any specific alternative hypothesis. Mann-Whitney U Test Small Samples b.e. Each statement is in correct. Mann-Whitney U Test Big Samples d. Chi-square Goodness of Fit c. While a statistically significant X2 establishes a relationship between two variables. The applicable degrees of freedom (df) depends on the test applied. A statistically significant chi-square is a measure of the strength of an association. a priori. b. there should be a statistically significant chisquare value. ω = .. usually at the . Chi-square values can be zero or positive but never negative. . Which one of the following statements concerning Chi-square is not accurate? a. d. ω = . Which statistical test would be applied to assess differences in frequencies based on gender? a. i. and power must be specified or determined. 3. Chi-square can be used to test whether observed nominal data conforms to some theoretical or expected. the chi-square is approximately normal. The null (or statistical) hypothesis (Ho) states that there is either “no differences between observed or expected frequencies" (Goodness of Fit) or "the variables or samples are not related. b. ω = . d. Alpha is specified. Which index of effect size is correct? a. Chi-square assumptions include all but…. c. alpha.01 level.

). 6. Elementary statistics (7th ed. Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test Answers: 1. W. C. a.. (1990). F. (1981). 40 b. T. a. 30 d. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 9. 70 9. Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test 8. 7. Mann-Whitney U Test Big Samples d. Analysis of nominal data (2nd ed). 60 b. a. a. Spatz. d. A. 20 c. 50 10. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. & Stull. Mann-Whitney U Test Small Samples b. (1984). Statistical principles and procedures with applications for physical education. F. G. The statistical test where the null hypothesis is rejects when the test statistic is less than the critical value is _______. 3. Publishers.) Reading. Morehouse. (1998). Evaluation resource handbook. d. Reynolds. Basic statistics: Tales of distributions (7th ed. d. Hillsdale. Boston: PWS-Kent. Mann-Whitney U Test Small Samples b. Which one of the following tests is appropriate for the “before and after” design? a. (1988). Mann-Whitney U Test Big Samples d. Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. b. Triola. When the sample size is > _______ for both N1 and N2 the U statistics is approximated by the z-score and the normal curve. (2001). CA: Sage Publications. M. 5. S. Osterlind. 10. J. d. J. W. & Lynch. MA: Addison-Wesley. W. the T statistic is approximated by the z-score and the normal curve. 50 d. Daniel. C. San Diego. Udinsky. d. Siegel. B. S. Beverly Hills. 40 c. 8. d. A. S. CA: Wadsworth. a.285 7. Chi-square Goodness of Fit c. 4. H.). References Cohen. . (1956). a. Chi-square Goodness of Fit c. When the sample size is > ______. CA: Edits Publishers. Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed. Belmont. (1975). New York: McGraw-Hill. 2..).

). Introductory statistics for the behavioral sciences (4th ed. J.. (1991). & Cohen. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. B. . R. J.. Ewen.286 Welkowitz.

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