Knowledge Management Foundations
Lecture 2: The Knowledge Management Cycle
Week 4: KM Cycle
Major KM Cycles
Knowledge-Information Cycle(ACIIC Knowledge Economy) Meyer and Zack KM Cycle Bukowitz and Wiliams McElroy KM Cycle Wiig KM Cycle
KM Cycle Processes
Knowledge Capture Knowledge Creation Knowledge Codification Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Access Knowledge Application Knowledge Re-Use
The ability to manage knowledge is becoming ever more crucial in the knowledge economy
Where creation and diffusion of knowledge are increasingly important factors in competitiveness Knowledge is a commodity now
Embedded in products, especially hi-tech products Embedded in the tacit knowledge of highly mobile employees
but the ability to use it is scarce Producing knowledge resists organization Much of knowledge walks out the door at the end of the day
.Knowledge Economy & the Knowledge.Information Cycle
Some paradoxes of knowledge:
Using knowledge does not consume it Transferring knowledge does not lose it Knowledge is abundant.
generate. and knowledge – which exists only in intelligent systems
Knowledge-information cycle looks at how information is transformed into knowledge and vice versa via creation and application processes
.Knowledge -Information Cycle/2
Need to systematically identify. acquire. and capture the benefits of knowledge that provide a strategic advantage Clear distinction must be made between information – which is digitizable. diffuse.
Knowledge-Information Cycle Processes
Establish appropriate information management systems and processes Identify and locate knowledge and knowledge sources within the organization Code knowledge (translate knowledge into explicit information) to allow re-use economies to operate Create networks. practices. and incentives to facilitate person-to-person knowledge transfer where the focus is on the unique solution Add personal knowledge management to the organizational repertoire (“corporate memory”)
M. Zack KM Cycle
Zack KM Cycle/2
Zack KM Cycle/3
The Meyers Zack model is an informationprocessing model
Adapted to knowledge content Refinement step is a crucial one Also – the notion of renewal Based on notion of an information asset
McElroy KM Cycle
Individual & Group Learning Formulate Knowledge Claim Knowledge Claim Formulation Information Acquisition Codified Knowledge Claim Knowledge Claim Evaluation
McElroy KM Cycle/2
Information about: •Surviving knowledge claim •Falsified knowledge claim •Undecided knowledge claim
McElroy KM Cycle/3
Organizational knowledge is held collectively in both individuals and groups Knowledge use either meets or fails to meet business expectations Matches lead to reuse Mis-matches lead to adjustments in business processing behaviour (learning) Clear step where knowledge is evaluated and a conscious decision is made as to whether or not it should be incorporated into organizational memory
Bukowitz and Williams
ASSESS GET USE
Bukowitz and Williams /2
Get: seeking out information
Tacit and explicit Being selective when faced with information overload
Use: combine content in new and interesting ways to foster innovation in the organization Learn: learning from experiences
Creation of an organizational memory
metrics to assess them and link these directly to business objectives
.Bukowitz and Williams/3
Contribute: motivate employees to post what they have learned to a knowledge base
Link individual learning and knowledge to organizational memory
Assess: evaluation of intellectual capital
.g. outsourcing Patent. competitiveness
Divest: should not keep assets that are no longer of any business value
Transfer outside the organization e. spin off companies etc.Bukowitz and Williams/4
Build and Sustain: allocate resources to maintain knowledge base
Contribute to viability.
Wiig KM Cycle
Processes by which we build and use knowledge
As individuals As teams (communities) As organizations
Build knowledge Hold knowledge Pool knowledge Apply knowledge
Discrete tasks yet often interdependent & parallel
books) •KM systems (intranet. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e.Wiig KM Cycle/2
•Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media.g.brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes
. dbase) •Groups of people. books.
peers •In people •In tangible forms (e.Wiig KM Cycle/3
•Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media. dbase) •Groups of people.brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes
. books. books) •KM systems (intranet.g.
Learning from all kinds of sources to:
Obtain Knowledge Analyze Knowledge Reconstruct (Synthesize) Knowledge Codify and Model Knowledge Organize Knowledge
Create new knowledge
Research and development projects Innovations. experimentation. trial and error Reasoning with existing knowledge Hire new people
Import knowledge from existing sources
Elicit knowledge from experts Acquire from manuals. other documents Transfer people between departments
Observe the real world
g. contribution nets) Verify that extracted content is correct through observation
. reports about new concepts Listen to explanation and select key concepts
Abstract extracted material Identify patterns to describe. estimate Create explicit relations between knowledge elements (e.Analyzing Knowledge
Extract what appears to be knowledge from obtained materials
Analyze transcripts. correlation. causal.
Reconstruct (Synthesize) Knowledge
Generalize analyzed materials to obtain broader principles Generate hypotheses to explain observed behaviour in terms of causal factors Establish conformance between new and existing knowledge (validity. outdated. false. coherence) Update total knowledge pool by incorporating new knowledge
Discard old. no longer relevant knowledge
Codify and Model Knowledge
Represent knowledge in our minds by building mental models Model knowledge by assembling declarations and relational statements into a coherent whole Document knowledge in books and manuals Encode knowledge into knowledge bases (computerized KBS tools)
official list of key words. attributes.g. help desk. sequence for diagnostics.Organize Knowledge
Organize new knowledge for specific uses
. linguistic/translation guidelines…. FAQs
Organize new knowledge according to an established framework
Categorize according to organizational standards Taxonomy.
what didn’t) – generate hypotheses
Validate using customer satisfaction questionnaire and interviews Document as training manual for marketing to this specific target market
.Building Knowledge Examples
Focus groups Surveys Competitive intelligence Data mining on customer preferences
Synthesis of lessons learned (what worked.
brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes
. dbase) •Groups of people. books) •KM systems (intranet.g.Wiig KM Cycle/4
•Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media. books. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e.
In people’s minds.g. etc.
Remember knowledge – internalize it Cumulate knowledge in repositories (encode it) Embed knowledge in repositories (within procedures) Archive knowledge
Create scientific library. store in another medium for potential future retrieval – cd roms. computerized knowledge bases. etc.)
. books. subscriptions Retire older knowledge from active status in repository (e.
patents Other tacit knowledge can be elicited and embedded in the knowledge base in the form of know-how.Holding Knowledge Examples
Company owns a number of proprietary methods and recipes for making products Some knowledge documented in the form of research reports. technical papers. tips. tricks of the trade
Videotapes of specialized experts explaining various procedures Task support systems
books) •KM systems (intranet.Wiig KM Cycle/5
•Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media. books.g. dbase) •Groups of people.brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes
. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e.
second opinions Obtain knowledge directly from a repository – advice.Pooling Knowledge
Can take many forms such as discussions. explanations
. expert networks and formal work teams Pooling knowledge consists of: Coordinating knowledge of collaborative teams Creating expert networks to identify who knows what Assembling knowledge – background references from libraries and other knowledge sources Accessing and retrieving knowledge
Consult with knowledgeable people about a difficult problem. peer reviews.
Pooling Knowledge Examples
An employee realizes he or she does not have the necessary knowledge and know-how to solve a particular problem She contact others in the company who have had similar problems to solve. consults the knowledge repository and makes use of an expert advisory system to help her out She organizes all this information and has subject matter experts validate the content
brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes
. dbase) •Groups of people. books) •KM systems (intranet.Wiig KM Cycle/6
•Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e.g. books.
consequences Use knowledge to describe situation and scope problem Select relevant special knowledge to handle situation. provide standard services Use general knowledge to survey exceptional situations. judge what needs to be done
. identify problem. compare with others. determine patterns. identify knowledge sources Observe and characterize the situation. collect and organize information Analyze situation.Using Knowledge
Use established knowledge to perform routine tasks. make standard products.
which alternative to select
Rank alternatives & test that each is feasible. acceptable
Implement selected alternative
Choose and assemble tools needed Prepare implementation plan. distribute it. identify options. appraise advantages and disadvantages of each. authorize team to proceed with this solution
.Using Knowledge (con’t)
Synthesize alternative solutions. create new solutions Evaluate potential alternatives. determine risks and benefits of each Use knowledge to decide what to do.
Expert mechanic encounters a new problem Gathers info to diagnose and analyze Synthesizes a list of possible solutions with the tools he knows are available to him Decides on the best option and uses it to fix the part Non-routine tasks are approached in a different way than familiar. standard ones
.Using Knowledge .
alternatives to manage that knowledge
Elicit and codify knowledge before person retires
Expected value-added of improving the situation
Valuable knowledge is not lost to organization
.Five Critical Knowledge Functions for each KM Cycle Step
Type of knowledge or skill involved
Securities trading expertise
Business use of that knowledge
Increase the value of a retirement fund portfolio
Constraint that prevents knowledge from being fully utilized
Expert will retire at the end of the year with no successor
Selected knowledge management models