Knowledge Management Foundations

Lecture 2: The Knowledge Management Cycle

Week 4: KM Cycle
Major KM Cycles
Knowledge-Information Cycle(ACIIC Knowledge Economy) Meyer and Zack KM Cycle Bukowitz and Wiliams McElroy KM Cycle Wiig KM Cycle

KM Cycle Processes
Knowledge Capture Knowledge Creation Knowledge Codification Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Access Knowledge Application Knowledge Re-Use

Knowledge-Information Cycle
The ability to manage knowledge is becoming ever more crucial in the knowledge economy
Where creation and diffusion of knowledge are increasingly important factors in competitiveness Knowledge is a commodity now
Embedded in products, especially hi-tech products Embedded in the tacit knowledge of highly mobile employees

but the ability to use it is scarce Producing knowledge resists organization Much of knowledge walks out the door at the end of the day .Knowledge Economy & the Knowledge.Information Cycle Some paradoxes of knowledge: Using knowledge does not consume it Transferring knowledge does not lose it Knowledge is abundant.

acquire. and capture the benefits of knowledge that provide a strategic advantage Clear distinction must be made between information – which is digitizable. generate.Knowledge -Information Cycle/2 Need to systematically identify. and knowledge – which exists only in intelligent systems Knowledge-information cycle looks at how information is transformed into knowledge and vice versa via creation and application processes . diffuse.

Knowledge-Information Cycle/3 .

Knowledge-Information Cycle Processes Establish appropriate information management systems and processes Identify and locate knowledge and knowledge sources within the organization Code knowledge (translate knowledge into explicit information) to allow re-use economies to operate Create networks. practices. and incentives to facilitate person-to-person knowledge transfer where the focus is on the unique solution Add personal knowledge management to the organizational repertoire (“corporate memory”) .

Zack KM Cycle .M.

Zack KM Cycle/2 .

Zack KM Cycle/3 The Meyers Zack model is an informationprocessing model Adapted to knowledge content Refinement step is a crucial one Also – the notion of renewal Based on notion of an information asset .

McElroy KM Cycle Individual & Group Learning Formulate Knowledge Claim Knowledge Claim Formulation Information Acquisition Codified Knowledge Claim Knowledge Claim Evaluation .

McElroy KM Cycle/2 Information about: •Surviving knowledge claim •Falsified knowledge claim •Undecided knowledge claim Knowledge Production Organizational Knowledge .

McElroy KM Cycle/3 Organizational knowledge is held collectively in both individuals and groups Knowledge use either meets or fails to meet business expectations Matches lead to reuse Mis-matches lead to adjustments in business processing behaviour (learning) Clear step where knowledge is evaluated and a conscious decision is made as to whether or not it should be incorporated into organizational memory .


Bukowitz and Williams /2 Get: seeking out information Tacit and explicit Being selective when faced with information overload Use: combine content in new and interesting ways to foster innovation in the organization Learn: learning from experiences Creation of an organizational memory .

Bukowitz and Williams/3 Contribute: motivate employees to post what they have learned to a knowledge base Link individual learning and knowledge to organizational memory Assess: evaluation of intellectual capital Identify assets. metrics to assess them and link these directly to business objectives .

. competitiveness Divest: should not keep assets that are no longer of any business value Transfer outside the organization e.Bukowitz and Williams/4 Build and Sustain: allocate resources to maintain knowledge base Contribute to viability.g. spin off companies etc. outsourcing Patent.

Wiig KM Cycle Processes by which we build and use knowledge As individuals As teams (communities) As organizations How we: Build knowledge Hold knowledge Pool knowledge Apply knowledge Discrete tasks yet often interdependent & parallel .

Wiig KM Cycle/2 Build Knowledge •Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media. dbase) •Groups of people.brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes Hold Knowledge Pool Knowledge Use Knowledge . books.g. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e. books) •KM systems (intranet.

books. dbase) •Groups of people.Wiig KM Cycle/3 Build Knowledge •Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media.g. books) •KM systems (intranet. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e.brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes Hold Knowledge Pool Knowledge Use Knowledge .

Building Knowledge Learning from all kinds of sources to: Obtain Knowledge Analyze Knowledge Reconstruct (Synthesize) Knowledge Codify and Model Knowledge Organize Knowledge .

Obtaining Knowledge Create new knowledge Research and development projects Innovations. other documents Transfer people between departments Observe the real world . experimentation. books. trial and error Reasoning with existing knowledge Hire new people Import knowledge from existing sources Elicit knowledge from experts Acquire from manuals.

correlation. estimate Create explicit relations between knowledge elements (e. reports about new concepts Listen to explanation and select key concepts Abstract extracted material Identify patterns to describe.Analyzing Knowledge Extract what appears to be knowledge from obtained materials Analyze transcripts.g. causal. contribution nets) Verify that extracted content is correct through observation .

coherence) Update total knowledge pool by incorporating new knowledge Discard old.Reconstruct (Synthesize) Knowledge Generalize analyzed materials to obtain broader principles Generate hypotheses to explain observed behaviour in terms of causal factors Establish conformance between new and existing knowledge (validity. false. no longer relevant knowledge . outdated.

Codify and Model Knowledge Represent knowledge in our minds by building mental models Model knowledge by assembling declarations and relational statements into a coherent whole Document knowledge in books and manuals Encode knowledge into knowledge bases (computerized KBS tools) .

. sequence for diagnostics.Organize Knowledge Organize new knowledge for specific uses E. help desk. FAQs Organize new knowledge according to an established framework Categorize according to organizational standards Taxonomy. ontology. official list of key words. linguistic/translation guidelines….g. attributes.

Building Knowledge Examples Market research Focus groups Surveys Competitive intelligence Data mining on customer preferences Synthesis of lessons learned (what worked. what didn’t) – generate hypotheses Validate using customer satisfaction questionnaire and interviews Document as training manual for marketing to this specific target market .

books. dbase) •Groups of people. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e.g.Wiig KM Cycle/4 Build Knowledge •Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media.brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes Hold Knowledge Pool Knowledge Use Knowledge . books) •KM systems (intranet.

computerized knowledge bases. Remember knowledge – internalize it Cumulate knowledge in repositories (encode it) Embed knowledge in repositories (within procedures) Archive knowledge Create scientific library.Holding Knowledge In people’s minds. etc. books.) . subscriptions Retire older knowledge from active status in repository (e. etc.g. store in another medium for potential future retrieval – cd roms.

Holding Knowledge Examples Company owns a number of proprietary methods and recipes for making products Some knowledge documented in the form of research reports. tips. technical papers. tricks of the trade Videotapes of specialized experts explaining various procedures Task support systems . patents Other tacit knowledge can be elicited and embedded in the knowledge base in the form of know-how.

brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes Hold Knowledge Pool Knowledge Use Knowledge . books.Wiig KM Cycle/5 Build Knowledge •Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e. dbase) •Groups of people.g. books) •KM systems (intranet.

expert networks and formal work teams Pooling knowledge consists of: Coordinating knowledge of collaborative teams Creating expert networks to identify who knows what Assembling knowledge – background references from libraries and other knowledge sources Accessing and retrieving knowledge Consult with knowledgeable people about a difficult problem.Pooling Knowledge Can take many forms such as discussions. second opinions Obtain knowledge directly from a repository – advice. explanations . peer reviews.

consults the knowledge repository and makes use of an expert advisory system to help her out She organizes all this information and has subject matter experts validate the content .Pooling Knowledge Examples An employee realizes he or she does not have the necessary knowledge and know-how to solve a particular problem She contact others in the company who have had similar problems to solve.

books.Wiig KM Cycle/6 Build Knowledge •Personal experience •Formal education and training •Intelligence sources •Media. peers •In people •In tangible forms (e. dbase) •Groups of people. books) •KM systems (intranet.brainstorm •In work context •Embedded in work processes Hold Knowledge Pool Knowledge Use Knowledge .g.

identify knowledge sources Observe and characterize the situation. provide standard services Use general knowledge to survey exceptional situations. consequences Use knowledge to describe situation and scope problem Select relevant special knowledge to handle situation. judge what needs to be done . identify problem.Using Knowledge Use established knowledge to perform routine tasks. determine patterns. compare with others. make standard products. collect and organize information Analyze situation.

create new solutions Evaluate potential alternatives. appraise advantages and disadvantages of each. determine risks and benefits of each Use knowledge to decide what to do. distribute it. which alternative to select Rank alternatives & test that each is feasible. acceptable Implement selected alternative Choose and assemble tools needed Prepare implementation plan.Using Knowledge (con’t) Synthesize alternative solutions. authorize team to proceed with this solution . identify options.

Using Knowledge . standard ones .Examples Expert mechanic encounters a new problem Gathers info to diagnose and analyze Synthesizes a list of possible solutions with the tools he knows are available to him Decides on the best option and uses it to fix the part Non-routine tasks are approached in a different way than familiar.

alternatives to manage that knowledge Elicit and codify knowledge before person retires Expected value-added of improving the situation Valuable knowledge is not lost to organization .Five Critical Knowledge Functions for each KM Cycle Step Type of knowledge or skill involved Securities trading expertise Business use of that knowledge Increase the value of a retirement fund portfolio Constraint that prevents knowledge from being fully utilized Expert will retire at the end of the year with no successor Opportunities.

Next: Selected knowledge management models .

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