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Downloaded From: http://www.upscportal.com Editorial Our thoughts influence our lives and our life circumstances Dear Aspirants, it

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Editorial

 

Our thoughts influence our lives and our life circumstances

Dear Aspirants, it is the time, when you should be serious about your goal. If you serious, things will take a shape in a way that success will be yours. But it is true that often-ordinary people lose their confidence, when it is very important to do achieve something. But you should be very clear that Civil Services is not for ordinary people, it is for the best, so you should have every- thing best in you. It may be strategy, confidence, perseverance and hard work and intellect-each of this must be of best quality in you. So at this juncture, when you are at the opening gate of success, do not lose confidence. Confidence comes from right thinking. So now have a positive attitude and it comes from right thinking.

On this point Orison Swett Marden is correct in some extent. He believed that our thoughts influence our lives and our life circum- stances. So I would like to quote him -“The finding of the larger possibilities of man, the unused part, and the undiscovered part is the function of the New Philosophy. It may be covered under all sorts of debris—doubt, lack of self-confidence, timidity, fear, worry, uncertainty, anxiety, hatred, jealousy, revenge, envy, self- ishness. These may all be neutralized by right thinking.”

He further says “How often it happens that people who have long been “down-and-out,” who have been considered “nobodies,” “good-for-nothings,” not well balanced, have changed suddenly, as though touched by a magic wand, and have quickly become men or women of power, inspirers, and helpers of others! Something hap- pened that quickened their spirit, and from miserable liabilities they have suddenly been converted into valuable assets to their community.”

In this 20th Volume of UPSC PORTAL Magazine, we have pre- sented the Articles India-America Relation, G-20 Seoul summit 2010, Burmese General Election, XVI Asian Games 2010, Strategy for Civil Services Preliminary Examination, Indo-Afghan Relation and in the section of Hot topics Malawian President Visit to India, India - Japan Annual Summit. Also Current Affairs and Sports & awards are included. And for the best preparation of Civil Serv- ices Pre examination 2011 we have presented very special package for India and Relation with Neighbour’s.

So dear aspirants have a right thinking and do the best. UPSC PORTAL Magazine is with you. Before conclude I would like to say all of you a very happy New Year.

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Ram Kumar Pandey And UPSCPORTAL Team.

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India-America Relation

American President Barak Obama Visit to India

Ram Kumar Pandey

U
U

S President Barack Obama arrived in India on 6 Nov,

2010, on a three-day visit during which about 18 announce- ments has been made on a wide range of areas covering economy, security and poli cal spheres in- cluding possible easing of export controls on dual use items. Obama, the six th US Presi- dent to visit India and the third in 10 years, arrived along with his wife Michelle, cabinet colleagues, Na onal Security Adviser Tom

Donilon and 200 business lead- ers, the largest such delega on ever.

Joint Statement

Reaffirming their na ons’ shared values and inc reasing conver- gence of interests, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Barack Obama resolved in New Delhi to expand and strengthen the India-U.S. global strategic partnership.

The two leaders welcomed the deepening rela onship be- tween the world’s two largest democ rac ies. They commended the growing coopera on be- tween their governments, c i - zens, businesses, universi es and scien fic ins tu ons, which have thrived on a shared culture of pluralism, educa on, enterprise, and innova on, and have bene- fited the people of both coun- tries. Buildin g on the transforma-

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on in India-U.S. rela ons over the past decade, the two leaders resolved to intensify coopera on between their na ons to pro- mote a secure and stable world; advance technology and innova- on; expand mutual prosperity and global economic growth; support sustainable develop- ment; and exercise global leader- ship in support of economic development, open government and democra c values. The two leaders reaffirmed that India-U.S. strategic partner- ship is indispensable not only for their two countries but also for global stability and prosperity in the 21st centur y. To that end, President Obama welcomed India’s emergence as a major re- gional and global power and af- firmed his countr y ’s interest in India’s rise, its economic prosper- ity, and its security.

A Global Strategic Partnership

Prime Minister S ingh and Presi- dent Obama called for an effi- c ient, effec ve, c redible and legi mate United Na ons to en- sure a just and sustainable inter- na ona l order. Prime Minister Singh welcomed President Obama’s affirma on that, in the years ahead, the United States looks forward to a reformed UN Security Counc il that inc ludes India as a permanent member. The two leaders reaffirmed that all na ons, especially those that seek to lead in the 21st century, bear responsibility to ensure that the United Na ons fulfills its founding ideals of preser ving peace and securit y, promo ng global coopera on, and advanc- ing human rights. Prime Minister Singh and

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President Obama reiterated that India and the United States, as global leaders, will partner for global security, especially as India ser ves on the Security Counc il over the nex t two years. The leaders agreed that their delega- ons in New York will intensif y their engagement and work to- gether to ensure that the Council con nues to effec vely play the role envisioned for it in the United Na ons Charter. Both leaders unders cored that all states have an obliga on to com- ply with and implement UN Secu- rity Council Resolu ons, including UN sanc ons regimes. They also agreed to hold regular consulta- ons on UN ma ers, including on the long -term sustainability of UN peacekeeping opera ons. As the two largest democ rac ies, both countries also reaffirmed their strong commitment to the UN Democracy Fund. The two leaders have a shared vi- sion for peace, stability and pros- perity in Asia, the Indian Ocean

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region and the Pacific region and commi ed to work together, and with others in the region, for the evolu on of an open, balanced and inclusive architecture in the region. In this context, the lead- ers reaffirmed their support for the East Asia Summit and com- mi ed to regular consulta ons in this regard. The United States welcomes, in par cular, India’s leadership in expanding prosper- ity and security across the region. The two leaders agreed to deepen exis ng regular strategic consulta ons on developments in East Asia, and decided to expand and intensify their strategic con- sulta ons to cover regional and global issues of mutual interest, including Central and West Asia. The two sides commi ed to intensif y consulta on, coopera- on and coordina on to promote a stable, democra c, prosperous, and independent Afghanistan. President Obama apprec iated India’s enormous contribu on to Afghanistan’s development and

Featured Ar ticle on in India-U.S. rela ons over the past decade, the two leaders

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welcomed enhanced Indian assis- tance that will help Afghanistan achieve self-suffic iency. In addi- on to their own independent as- sistance programs in Afghanistan, the two sides resolved to pursue joint development projects with the Afghan Government in capac- ity building , agriculture and women’s empowerment. They reiterated that success in Afghanistan and regional and global security require elimina - on of safe havens and infra- struc ture for terrorism and violent extremism in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Condemning terror- ism in all its forms, the two sides agreed that all terrorist networks, inc luding Lashkar e-Taiba, must be defeated and called for Pak- istan to bring to jus ce the per- petrators of the November 2008 Mumbai a acks. Building upon the Counter Terrorism Ini a ve signed in July 2010, the two lead- ers announced a new Homeland Security Dialogue between the Ministry of Home Affairs and the

Department of Homeland Secu- rity and agreed to further deepen opera onal coopera on, counter -terrorism technology transfers and capac ity building. The two leaders also emphasized the im- portance of close coopera on in comba ng terrorist financing and in protec ng the interna onal fi- nancial system. In an inc reasingly inter-de- pendent world, the stability of, and access to, the air, sea, space, and cyberspace domains is vital for the security and economic prosperity of na ons. Acknowl- edging their commitment to openness and responsible inter- na ona l conduc t, and on the basis of their shared values, India and the United States have launched a dialogue to explore ways to work together, as well as with other countries, to develop a shared vision for these cri cal domains to promote peace, secu- rity and development. The lead- ers reaffirmed the importance of mari me security, unimpeded

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. welcomed enhanced Indian assis- tance that will help Afghanistan achieve

commerce, and free- dom of naviga on, in ac cordance with rele- vant universally agreed principles of in- terna onal law, includ- ing the United Na ons Conven on on the Law of the Sea, and peaceful se lement of mari me disputes. The transforma on in India-U.S. defense co- opera on in recent years has strength- ened mutual under- standing on regional peace and stability, en- hanced both coun- tries’ respec ve capaci es to meet hu-

manitarian and other

   

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challenges such as terrorism and piracy, and contributed to the de- velopment of the strategic part- nership between India and the United States. The two Govern- ments resolved to further strengthen defense coopera on, inc lud ing through security dia - logue, exerc ises, and promo ng trade and collabora on in de- fense equipment and technology. President Obama welcomed India's decision to purchase U.S. high-technology defense items, which reflects our strengthening bilateral defence rela ons and will contribute to crea ng jobs in the United States. The two leaders affirmed that their countries’ common ideals, complementar y strengths and a shared commitment to a world without nuc lear weapons give them a responsibility to forge a strong partnership to lead global efforts for non-prolifera on and universal and non-discriminatory global nuc lear disarmament in the 21st centur y. They affirmed the need for a meaningful dia - logue among all states possessing nuc lear weapons to build trust and confidence and for reducing the salience of nuclear weapons in interna onal affairs and secu- rity doc trines. They support strengthening the six decade-old interna onal norm of non-use of nuclear weapons. They expressed a commitment to strengthen in- terna onal coopera ve ac vi es that will reduce the risk of terror- ists acquiring nuclear weapons or material without reduc ing the rights of na ons that play by the rules to harness the power of nu- clear energy to advance their en- ergy security. The leaders reaffirmed their shared dedica- on to work together to realize the commitments outlined at the

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April 2010 Nu-

c lear Security

Summit

achieve

to

the

goal of secur-

ing vulnerable

nuclear mate-

rials

in

the

nex t four

years.

sides

Both

ex-

pressed deep

concern re-

garding

illic it

India reaffi rmed i ts unilateral and voluntary morator ium on nuclear explosive test ing. The
India reaffi rmed
i ts unilateral and
voluntary morator ium on
nuclear explosive test ing.
The Uni ted States reaf-
firmed its testing morato-
rium and its commitment to
ratify the Compre- hensive
Test Ban Treaty and bring
it into force at an
early date.

the Chemical

Weapons Con- ven on. Both countries af- firmed their shared com-

mitment

to

promo ng the

full and effec- ve imple- menta on of the CWC. The two

and dis cussed the need for Iran to take construc ve and immedi- ate steps to meet its obliga ons to the IAEA and the UN Security Council.

Technology, Innova - tion and Ener gy

Recognizing that India and the United States should play a lead- ership role in promo ng global nonprolifera on objec ves and their desire to expand high tech- nology coopera on and trade, Prime Minister Singh and Presi- dent Obama commi ed to work together to strengthen the global export control framework and further transform bilateral export control regula ons and polic ies to realize the full poten al of the strategic partnership between the two countries. Accordingly, the two leaders dec ided to take mu- tual steps to expand U.S.-India coopera on in civil space, defense, and other high-tech- nology sec tors. Com- mensurate with India’s n o n p r o l i f e r a o n record and commit- ment to abide by mul- lateral export control standards, these steps inc lude the United States removing Indian en es from the U.S. Department of Com- merce’s “En ty List ” and realign- ment of India in U.S. export control regula ons. In addi on, the United States in- tends to support India’s full mem- bership in the four mul lateral export control regimes (Nuclear Suppliers Group, Missile Technol- ogy Control Regime, Australia Group, and Wassenaar Arrange-

leaders ex- pressed regret at the delay in star ng nego a ons in the Con- ference on Disarmament for a mul lateral, non-dis c riminator y and interna onally and effec- vely verifiable treaty banning the future produc on of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. India reaffirmed its unilateral

nuc lear traf- ficking and smug gling and resolved to strengthen interna onal cooper- a ve efforts to address these threats through the IAEA , Inter- pol and in the context of the Nu- c lear Security Summit Communiqué and Ac on Plan. The two sides welcomed the Memorandum of Understanding for coopera on in the Global Centre for Nuc lear En- ergy Partnership being established by India. Both sides ex- pressed deep concern about the threat of bio- logical terrorism and pledged to promote interna- onal efforts to ensure the safety and security of bi- ological agents and toxins. They stressed the need to achieve full implementa on of the Biological and Tox in Weapons Conven on and expressed the hope for a suc- cessful BWC Review Conference in 2011. The United S tates wel- comed India’s destruc on of its chemical weapons stockpile in ac- cordance with the provisions of

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and voluntary moratorium on nu- c lear explosive tes ng. The United States reaffirmed its test- ing moratorium and its commit- ment to ra f y the Compre- hensive Test Ban Treaty and bring it into force at an early date. The leaders reaffirmed their commitment to diplomacy to re- solve the Iranian nuc lear issue,

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ment) in a phased manner, and to consult with regime members to encourage the evolu on of regime membership criteria, con- sistent with maintaining the core princ iples of these regimes, as the Government of India takes steps towards the full adop on of the regimes’ export control re- quirements to reflect its prospec- ve membership, with both processes moving for ward to- gether. In the view of the United States, India should qualif y for membership in the Australia Group and the Wassenaar Arrangement according to exist- ing requirements once it imposes export controls over all items on these regimes’ control lists. Both leaders reaffirmed the assurances provided in the le ers exchanged in September 2004 and the End-Use Visit Arrange- ment, and determined that the two governments had reached an understanding to implement these ini a ves consistent with their respec ve na onal export control laws and polic ies. The Prime Minister and President commi ed to a strengthened and expanded dialogue on export control issues, through fora such as the U.S.-India High Technology Coopera on Group, on aspects of capacity building , sharing of best prac ces, and outreach with in- dustry. The possibility of coopera on between the two na ons in space, to advance s c ien fic knowledge and human welfare, are without boundaries and lim- its. They commended their space s c ien sts for launching new ini- a ves in c limate and weather forecas ng for agriculture, navi- ga on, resource mapping , re- search and development, and capacity building. They agreed to

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The possibility of cooperation between the two nations in space, to advance scient ific knowledge and
The possibility
of cooperation
between the
two nations in space, to
advance scient ific
knowledge and human
welfare, are wi thout
boundaries and limi ts.
They commended their
space scient ists for
launching new ini t ia -
t ives in climate and
weather forecast ing
for agriculture, naviga-
tion, resource mapping,
research and develop-
ment , and ca-
pacity building.

con nuing dis cus- sions on and seek ways to collab- orate on future lunar missions, interna onal space sta on, human space flight and data sharing , and to reconvene the Civil Space Joint Working Group in early 2011. They highlighted the just concluded Implemen ng Arrangement for enhanced mon- soon forecas ng that will begin to transmit detailed forecasts to farmers beginning with the 2011 monsoon rainy season as an im- portant example of bilateral sci- en fic coop- era on advanc ing economic devel- opment, agricul- ture and food security. The two lead- ers welcomed the comple on of steps by the two governments for implementa on of the India-U.S. civil nuc lear agree- ment. They reiter-

ated their commitment to build strong India-U.S. civil nuclear en- ergy coopera on through the par cipa on of the U.S. nuclear energy firms in India on the basis of mutually acceptable technical and commercial terms and condi- ons that enable a viable tariff regime for electricity generated. They noted that both countries had enac ted domes c legisla - ons and were also signatories to the Conven on on Supplemen- tary Compensa on. They further noted that India intends to ra fy the Conven on on Supplemen- tar y Compensa on within the coming year and is commi ed to ensuring a level playing field for U.S. companies seeking to enter the Indian nuclear energy sector, consistent with India’s na onal and interna onal legal obliga - ons. India will con nue to work with the companies. In this con- tex t, they welcomed the com- mencement of nego a ons and dialogue between the Indian op- erator and U.S. nuc lear energy companies, and expressed hope for early commencement of com- merc ial coopera on in the c ivil nuc lear energy sec tor in India, which will s mulate economic

ment) in a phased manner, and to consult with regime members to encourage the evolu

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Featured Ar ticle growth and sustainable de- Pr ime Minister velopment and Singh and Presi -
Featured Ar ticle
growth
and
sustainable de-
Pr ime Minister
velopment and
Singh and Presi -
generate
em-
dent Obama cele-
ployment
in
brated the recent growth
both countries.
in bilateral t rade and in-
Just
as
vestment , character ized
they
have
by balanced and rapidly
helped
de-
growing trade in
velop
the
goods and serv -
k n o w l e d g e
ices.
economy, India

and the United States resolved to strengthen their partnership in c rea ng the green economy of the future. To this end, both countries have undertaken joint research and deployment of c lean energy resources, such as solar, advanced biofuels, shale gas, and smart grids. The two leaders also welcomed the pro- mo on of clean and energy effi- c ient technologies through the bilateral Partnership to Advance Clean Energy (PACE) and ex- panded coopera on with the pri- vate sec tor. They welcomed the conclusion of a new MoU on as- sessment and explora on of shale gas and an agreement to establish a Joint Clean Energy Re- search Center in India as impor- tant milestones in their rapidly growing c lean energy coopera- on. The leaders discussed the im- portance of working bilaterally, through the Major Economies Forum (MEF), and in the context of the interna onal c limate change nego a ons within the framework of the UNFCCC to meet the challenge of c limate change. Prime Minister Singh and President Obama reiterated the importance of a posi ve result for the current c limate change nego a ons at the forthcoming conference of the United Na ons Framework Conven on on Cli-

mate Change

(UNFCCC) in

Mex ico

and

a ffi r m e d

their support

for

the

C o p e n h a ge n

A c c o r d

,

which should c o n t r i b u t e posi vely to

suc cessful

prosperity and s mula ng global economic recover y and growth. They emphasize innova on not only as a tool for economic growth and global compe ve- ness, but also for social transfor- ma on and empowerment of people. Prime Minister Singh and President Obama celebrated the recent growth in bilateral trade and investment, characterized by balanced and rapidly growing trade in goods and services. They noted posi vely that the United States is India’s largest trading partner in goods and ser vices, and India is now among the fastest growing sources of foreign direc t investment entering the United States. The two leaders agreed on steps to reduce trade barriers and protec onist meas- ures and encourage research and innova on to create jobs and im- prove livelihoods in their coun- tries. They also welcomed expand- ing investment flow in both direc- ons. They noted growing es between U.S. and Indian firms and called for enhanced invest- ment flows, including in India’s in- frastructure sector, clean energy,

a outcome in Can- cun. To that end, the leaders wel- comed enhanced coopera on in the area of c limate adapta on and sustainable land use, and welcomed the new partnership between the United States and India on forestry programs and in weather forecas ng.

Economic

Cooperation

The two leaders stressed that India and the United States, an- chored in democ racy and diver- sity, blessed with enormous enterprise and skill, and endowed with synergies drawn from India’s rapid growth and U.S. global eco- nomic leadership, have a natural partnership for enhancing mutual

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energy efficiency, avia on and transporta on, healthcare, food processing sector and educa on. They welcomed the work of the U.S.-India CEO Forum to expand coopera on between the two countries, including in the areas of c lean energy and infrastruc - ture development. They also en- couraged enhanced engagement by Indian and American small and medium-sized enterprises as a cri cal driver of our economic re- la onship. They looked for ward to building on these develop- ments to realize fully the enor- mous poten al for trade and investment between the two countries.

Partnership for Democracy and Development

Consistent with their commit- ments to open and responsive government, and harnessing the exper se and experience that the two countries have developed, the leaders launched a U.S.-India Open Government Dialogue that will, through public-private part- nerships and use of new tech- nologies and innova ons, promote their shared goal of de-

mocra zing access to informa on and energizing civic engagement, support global ini a ves in this area and share their exper se with other interested countries. This will build on India’s impres- sive achievements in this area in recent years and the commit- ments that the President made to advance an open government agenda at the United Na ons General Assembly. The President and Prime Minister also pledged to explore coopera on in support of efforts to strengthen elec ons organiza on and management in other interested countries, in- cluding through sharing their ex- per se in this area. Taking advantage of the global nature of their rela onship, and recognizing India’s vast develop- ment experience and historical research strengths, the two lead- ers pledged to work together, in addi on to their independent programmes, to adapt shared in- nova ons and technologies and use their exper se in capac ity building to ex tend food security to interested countries, including in Africa, in consulta on with host governments. Prime Minister Singh and President Obama concluded that

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their mee ng is a historic mile- stone as they seek to elevate the India-U.S. strategic partnership to a new level for the benefit of their na ons and the en re mankind. President Obama thanked President Pa l, Prime Minister Singh, and the people of India for their ex traordinar y warmth and hospitality during his visit. The two leaders looked for- ward to the nex t session of the U.S.-Indi a Strategic Dialogue in

2011.

India-U.S. trade transactions

As part of the Na onal Export Ini- a ve, President Obama noted that India — with its tremendous economic growth and its large and growing middle class — is a key market for U.S. exports. Those exports are genera ng jobs in ever y corner of the United States and ac ross ever y major sector. These involve some of our country ’s largest companies, but also an inc reasing number of small and medium-sized enter- prises. On the margins of the Presi- dent ’s trip, trade transac ons were announced or showcased, exceeding $14.9 billion in total value with $9.5 billion in U.S. ex- port content, suppor ng an es - mated 53,670 U.S. jobs. These cross-border collabora ons, both public and private, underpin the expanding U.S.-India strategic partnership, contribu ng to eco- nomic growth and development in both countries. Notable exam- ples include:

L Heav y Transport Airc ra :

The Boeing Company and the Indian Air Force have reached preliminary agreement on the purchase of 10 C-17 Globe- master III militar y transport

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airc ra , and are now in the process of finalizing the de- tails of the sale. Once all have been delivered, the Indian Air Force will be the owner and operator of the largest fleet of C-17s outside of the United States. Boeing , headquar- tered in Chicago, Illinois, is the aircra manufacturer. Boeing reports that each C-17 sup- ports 650 suppliers across 44 U.S. states and that this order will support Boeing ’s C-17 produc on fac ility in Long Beach, California, for an en- re year. This transac on is valued at approximately $4.1 billion, all of which is U.S. ex- port content, suppor ng an es mated 22,160 jobs. L Engine Sale for the L ight Combat Aircra : On October 1,the General Elec tric Com- pany, headquartered in Fair- field, Connec cut, was dec lared the lowest bidder and selec ted to nego ate a contract to provide the Indian Aeronau cal Development Agency with 107 F414 en- gines to be installed on the Tejas light combat airc ra . Upon finalizing the contract, General Elec tric ’s fac ility in Lynn, Massachuse s, and other sites across the United States will be posi oned to export almost one billion dol- lars in high technology aero- space produc ts. This transac on is tenta vely val- ued at approx imately $822 million, all of which is U.S. ex- port content, suppor ng an es mated 4,440 jobs. L Commerc i al Airc ra Sale :

Boeing Company, headquar- tered in Chicago, Illinois, and SpiceJet, a leading private air- line in India, concluded a de-

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Featured Ar ticle airc ra , and are now in the process of finalizing the

fini ve agreement for the sale of 30 B737-800 commerc ial aircra . SpiceJet currently op- erates 22 Boeing aircra and has several 737 deliveries re- maining from previous agree- ments. This new agreement will enable Spi ceJet to offer

more domes c routes and to begin offering interna onal flights to neighboring coun- tries. This transac on is val- ued at approx imately $2.7 billion, based on catalogue prices, with an es mated $2.4 billion in U.S. export content, suppor ng an es mated 12,970 jobs.

  • L Gas and Steam Turbine Sale: The General Elec tric Com- pany, headquartered in Fair- field, Connec cut, was selected to supply six ad- vanced class 9FA gas turbines and three steam turbines for the 2,500-megawa Samalkot power plant expansion to be construc ted by Reliance Power Ltd., a division of the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Am- bani Group, one of the largest conglomerates in India. Gen- eral Electric purchases equip-

ment from 240 suppliers across the United States—an es mated 14 percent of which are small- and medium-sized enterprises— for ever y 9FA gas-fired tur- bine, which are assembled in Greenville, South Carolina. The combined equipment and maintenance contrac ts are valued at approx imately $750 million, with an es - mated $491 million in U.S. ex- port content, suppor ng an es mated 2,650 jobs. L Reliance Power and U.S. Ex- Im Bank Agreement: Reliance Power Ltd., the flagship com-

pany of the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, and the Export – Import Bank of the United States announced a Memorandum of Under- standing (MOU). This MOU will indicate Ex-Im Bank’s will- ingness to provide up to $5 billion in financial support to Reliance Power for the pur- chase of U.S. goods and serv- ices to be used in the development of up to 8,000 megawa s of gas-fired elec- tricity genera ng units and up

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to 900 megawa s of renew- able (solar and wind) energy facili es.

  • L Diesel Locomo ve Manufac- turing Venture : The United States has worldwide leaders in diesel locomo ve manufac- turing , and the Indian Min- istr y of Railways announced the prequalifica on of the sole two bidders—GE Trans- porta on (Erie, Pennsylvania) and Electro-Mo ve Diesel (La- Grange, Illinois)—for a ven- ture to manufac ture and suppl y of 1,000 diesel locomo- ves over 10 years. The es - mated U.S. con- tent of this contrac t is ex- pected to exceed $1B.

  • L Motorcyc le As- sembly Plant: H a r l e y- D a v i d s o n Motor Company, headquartered in Milwaukee, Wis- consin, anno- unced that prepara ons are underway to open a new plant in India for the assembly of Harley-David- son motorcyc les from U.S.- built “complete knock-down” kits. This investment by the company entails job crea on in both the United States and India, and it will allow the company to reduce the tariff burden on its motorcycles for sale in the Indian market, driving sales growth by mak- ing its motorc yc les more ac - cessible to Indian consumers.

  • L Sale of U.S. Mining Equip- ment and Related Support Equipment : On October 21, the Export – Import Bank of

the United States announced the approval of more than $900 million in export finance

guarantees to Sasan Power Ltd., a subsidiar y of Reliance Power Ltd., suppor ng the sale of U.S. mining equipment and services from Bucyrus In- terna onal of South Milwau- kee, Wis consin, and other U.S. vendors, in assoc ia on with the 3,960-megawa coal-fired Sasan power plant in Madhya Pradesh, India. This financ ial commitment

Jaiprakash Associates, a large infrastructure conglomerate, the Robbin s Company is al- ready supplying high technol- ogy tunnel-borin g machines and technical assistance to bore some of the longest un- derground tunnels in the world underneath a pro- tec ted ger sanc tuar y in

Andhra Pradesh, which will in- crease irriga on for the pro- duc on of co on and other agricultural produc ts. The Mumbai contract alone is val- ued at $10 mil- lion, with $7 million in U.S . export content, suppor ng an es mated 35 jobs.

  • L M a h a - rashtra Home- land Security Pilot Projec ts :

Palan r Tech- nologies, a small Sili con Valley so ware

  • d e v e l o p m e n t

firm,

an-

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supports $641 million in U.S. export content, suppor ng an es mated 3,460 jobs.

  • L Tunneling Equipment for Un- derground Water Channel : On July 22,Robbins Company, headquartered in Solon, Ohio, announced an agreement with UNITY-IVRCL , a large in- frastructure engineering and construc on conglomerate, to provide tunnel-boring ma- chines, conveyer equipment, and associated technical serv- ices for the construc on of tunnels to convey water for the c ity of Mumbai. Sepa- rately, through a contrac t signed in 2008 with

nounced a strategic partner- ship agreement with the Maharashtra State Police, a

law enforcement agency in India, to conduct a pilot pro- gram, whereby Palan r ’s end- to-end analy cal so ware pla orm will be used on a trial basis to iden fy and alert authori es to security threats in order to help keep the ci - zens of Mumbai and Maha- rashtra safe. L Medanta Duke Research In- s tute (MDRI) : Duke Medi- c ine, located in Durham, North Carolina, one of the leading academic health sys- tems in the United States, and

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Medanta Medicity, located in Gurgaon, Haryana, a hospital and medical research com- plex , are announc ing a joint venture agreement to launch the MDRI, a proof-of-concept clinical research facility within Medanta’s hospital. Duke Medi c ine will provide s c ien- fic and opera onal leader- ship, while Medanta will contribute financial resources and c linical and opera onal ser vices. Duke Medicine also will be partnering with Jubi- lant Life Sciences, headquar- tered in U ar Pradesh, to conduct research studies and co-develop promising discov- eries, with significant funding and in-kind support provided by Jubilant. Subsequent com-

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mercializa on is expected to result in licensing revenue for Duke Medicine. L Long-range Antenna System for Rural Telecommuni ca-

ons : SPX Communica on Technology, a division of SPX Corpora on opera ng out of Raymond, Maine, is in the final phase of the pilot de- ployment of its long-range an- tenna system with two leading Indian mobile opera- tors. This innova ve technol- ogy has been shown to offer a significantly greater coverage area. Once implemented, it is expected to create significant economies of s cale, thereby improving the economic via- bility of rural wireless net- works and making wireless

communica ons available for people who either could not afford ser vice or who live in areas that lack coverage. The value of the ini al trial equip- ment is expected to generate approx imately $1 million, with 100 percent U.S. export content, suppor ng an es - mated 5 jobs. The pace of trade between the United States and India is ac- celera ng. Between 2002 and 2009, U.S. goods exports to India quadrupled, growing from $4.1 billion to more than $16.4 billion. Through the first eight months of 2010, U.S. merchandise exports to India totaled $12.7 billion, up 18 percent from the same period in 2009. With economic growth es mates at about 9.7 percent in

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2010, India is a key market for the Obama Administra on’s Na onal Export Ini a ve, which aims to double U.S. exports in five years. U.S., India ‘construc ng paradigm beyond Nuc lear Non-Prolifera- on Treaty' In commi ng itself to sup- por ng India's full membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group and other mul lateral export control regimes, the Obama administra- on has finally opened a door for the country to transcend the legal confines of a treaty that has de- fined global a tudes towards nu- c lear weapons for over four decades: the NPT. The American dec ision to support India's membership in the NSG, the Missile Technology Control Regime, the Australian Group and the Wassenaar Arrangement was made public on Saturday by Deputy Na onal Se- curity Adviser Mike Froman and is condi onal on these clubs de- c iding , by consensus, to change their rules on who can join. “As the membership c riteria of these four regimes evolve,” said Mr. Froman, “we intend to sup- port India's full membership in them. And at the same me, India will take steps to fully adopt the regime's export control re- quirements to reflect its prospec- ve membership.” The current membership rules of the NSG, though not for- mally stated, require adherence to the Nuclear Non-Prolifera on Treaty or a regional nuc lear weapons free zone (which in turn requires NPT membership). And the same treaty requirement ap- plies in the case of the MTCR and the Wassenaar Arrangement — a cartel of 40 states which governs the export of conven onal weapons and dual-use goods and

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technologies. But Mr. Froman said the U.S. would “encourage the evolu on of a membership criteria of these regimes consis- tent with maintaining their core principles.” Asked how the United States and India hoped to square the cir- cle of compulsory membership of the Nuc lear Non-Prolifera on Treaty that the NSG and other cartels insist on, a senior Indian offic ial told The Hindu: “ We are construc ng a paradigm beyond the NPT.” Though President Barack Obama and his senior offic ials had upset India over the past year by signing on to calls at the United Na ons and elsewhere for the universality of the NPT, Wash- ington is acutely aware that India's ac cession to a treaty which would require it to give up its nuclear weapons is an impos- sibility. It is in this light that Mr. Froman's reference to new mem- bership c riteria acquires enor- mous significance. The Bush administra on's ini- a ves from 2005 to 2008 saw the U.S. helping to peel away ex- port restric ons that were never originally a part of the NPT itself. That is why the NSG was able to give India an exemp on from its export restric ons without get- ng into the trickier issue of what India's legal status in rela on to the treaty actually was. But with NSG membership essen ally ed to the NPT, any new joining crite- ria will effec vely establish for nuclear-armed India — in clearer legal terms than anything else so far has done — a parallel status equivalent to that of the five nu- c lear weapons states which are part of the NPT. Apart from easing Indian ac- cess to sensi ve high technology

   

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items, membership of these clubs — “which will come in a phased manner ” — will give New Delhi a say in their rule-making process. Under the terms of the NSG's 2008 waiver, India is today in the anomalous posi on of being obli- gated to abide by

The pace of trade between the United States and India is ac- celerating. Between 2002 and
The pace of
trade between
the United
States and India is ac-
celerating. Between
2002 and 2009, U.S.
goods exports to India
quadrupled, growing from
$4.1 billion to more than
$16.4 billion. Through
the first eight months of
2010, U.S. merchandise
exports to India totaled
$12.7 billion, up 18 per-
cent from the same pe-
riod in 2009. With
economic growth esti -
mates at about 9.7 per-
cent in 2010, India is a
key market for the
Obama Admini stration’s
National Export Initia-
tive, which aims to dou-
ble U.S. exports
in five years.

future guidelines that NSG and even MTCR members may adopt without being part of their formal dec ision-making process. The MTCR deals the ex- port of missiles with a range greater than 300 kilometres while the Australian Group regulates the export of materials that could be used for manufacturing chem- ical and biological weapons. ˜

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G-20 Seoul Summit 2010
G-20 Seoul Summit 2010

G-20's Role in the Post-Crisis World

The 2010 G-20 Seoul Sum-
mit was the fi h mee ng of the G-20 heads of gov-

ernment, to discuss the global fi- nanc ial system and the world economy, which took place in Seoul, South Korea on November 11–12, 2010. Korea was the first non-G8 na on to host a G-20 Leaders Summit. The theme of the summit was "G-20's Role in the Post-Crisis World." The G20 leaders agree to

strengthen global financial safety nets and financial sector reform, ac cording to the joint commu- nique. "Strengthened global finan- cial safety nets can help countries to cope with financ ial vola lity, reducing the economic disrup on from sudden swings in capital flows and the perceived need for excessive reserve accumula on," said the communique. The G20 countries will

Dr. Divya
Dr. Divya

strengthen global financial safety nets through four measures, in- cluding the enhancement of the Flexible Credit Line (FCL), the cre- a on of the Precau onary Credit Line ( PCL) as a new preventa ve tool, the improvement of global capacity to cope with shocks of a systemic nature, the dialogue to enhance collabora on between regional financing Arrangements and IMF. As the global economy be-

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came more interconnec ted and integrated, the size and vola lity of capital flows increased signifi- cantly. The inc reased vola lity was a source of instability during the financ ial c risis. It even ad- versely affec ted countries with solid fundamentals and the ef- fects were greater on those with more open economies. The G20 Summit also deliv- ered the core elements of the new financ ial regulator y frame- work to transform the global fi- nanc ial system. The G20 endorsed the landma rk agree- ment reached by Basel Commit- tee on Banking Super vision (BCBS) on the new bank capital and liquidity framework, which inc reases the resilience of the global banking system. The leaders reaffirmed that no firm should be too big or too complicated to fail and that tax- payers should not bear the costs of resolu on. Collec vely, the G- 20 economies comprise 85 per- cent of global gross na onal product and 80 percent of world trade, including EU intra-trade. A ending the two-day Seoul Summit were leaders from the G20 member countries, the Euro- pean Union, the IMF, the World Bank, the UN, the World Trade Organiza on, the OECD, the African Union, and the Interna- onal Labor Organiza on, as well as from five non-G20 countries -- Ethiopia, Malawi, Singapore, Spain, Vietnam.

Agenda

The summit leaders addressed several mid- and long-term policy issues, including

  • L Ensuring global economic re- covery

  • L Framework for strong , sus-

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tainable, and balanced global growth

  • L Strengthening the interna- onal financial regulatory sys- tem

  • L Modernizing the interna onal financial ins tu ons

  • L Global financial safety nets

  • L Development issues

  • L The risk of a currency war Representa ves met in ad- vance of the leaders' summit. These sherpas were tasked to dra a closing statement for the summit. The debate over cur- rency exchange rates and imbal- ances was reported to have been "heated."

Attendance

Par cipants of the summit gather for a conven onal "family photo" The par c ipants of the Seoul summit included the leaders and representa ves of core members of the G-20 major economies, which comprises 19 countries and the European Union which is represented by its two governing bodies, the European Council and the European Commission, Rep-

   

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resenta ves from other na ons and regional organiza ons were

invited to take part in the sum- mit.

The South Korean govern-

ment dec lined to invite the Netherlands, which had been in-

vited to a end all four previous

G20 summits. A Korean

spokesman said that "a certain region had been over-repre- sented" in the past; and for this Asian summit, Singapore was in- vited. This was the first summit at which there were four women among the leaders. In addi on to President Kirchner of Argen na, Prime Minister Gillard of Aus- tralia, and Chancellor Merkel of Germany, the president-elec t of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, accompa- nied her na on's delega on. The was the first G-20 summit for Australia's Prime Minister Gillard, who was only elected shortly be- fore the Toronto summit. This was also the first opportunity for Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong of Singapore to listen and to make his voice heard at the G-20 leaders' mee ngs.

came more interconnec ted and integrated, the size and vola lity of capital flows increased

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Legacies of the G20 Seoul Summit

The G20 Seoul Summit drew to a close on Nov. 12, 2010 with world leaders adop ng a communiqué that contained new guidelines on sustainable and balanced growth. Agreements were reached on various agenda items, but the search for a resolu on to the cur- rency dispute, whi ch was the most important issue, was post- poned un l the next G20 Summit in Cannes, France next year. The communiqué only says G20 member countries vowed to start "moving toward more mar- ket-determined exchange rate systems, enhanc ing exchange rate flexibility to reflect underly- ing economic fundamentals, and refraining from compe ve de- valua on of currenc ies. " While reconfirming the agreements made at the G20 Finance Minis- ters and Central Bank Governors Mee ng in Gyeongju last month, it added a new pledge to enhance "exchange rate flexibility." The world leaders agreed to come up with guidelines by the

first half of nex t year on how to manage their current ac count surpluses or deficits, which would offer a solu on to the currency dispute. Although they managed to take one step further from the points agreed in Gyeongju, con- crete agreements have been put off.

For Korea as the host, the re- sults leave something to be de- sired. But solving the currency dispute and se ng guidelines for current ac count balances were not the only goals of the summit. Milestones were set by ghtened regula ons to prevent another

global financial crisis, and agree- ments to create a global financial safety net, seek macroeconomic policy coordina on among differ- ent countries, and get the ball rolling on economic support for developing countries. Regarding a coopera ve sys- tem for " sustainable and bal- anced growth" as agreed at the G20 Summit in Pi sburgh last year, world leaders included in an annex to the communiqué policy pledges by individual countries for currency, trade, fiscal budgets, financ ial reforms and struc tural changes. Individual countries

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have embarked on coopera ve efforts to correct the imbalances of the global economy. Policy rec- ommenda ons were made to ghten regula ons governing large banks. There was notable progress in the crea on of a global finan- cial safety net and providing sup- port for developing countries, which had been proposed by Korea. World leaders fine-tuned the Interna onal Monetar y Fund's loan system so it can pro- vide emergency rescue funds be- fore financ ial c rises break out, and they also agreed to boost co- opera on between the IMF and regional financial safety nets. The first-ever G20 Business Summit was another notable event. It was a ended by 120 top CEOs from around the world, and brought poli cal leaders and business execu ves under one roof to discuss the direc on the global economy should take. IMF stake reforms that were agreed in Gyeongju last month are being hailed as the first step toward remapping the global power structure. The communiqué dubbed the Seoul Declara on contains meas- ures to realize the agreements reached during four G20 summits that were held since November 2008, when the first summit was held in Washington just a er the global financ ial c risis erupted. While reflec ng changing global economic condi ons since the fi- nanc ial c risis, it also contains measures aimed at embracing a majority of the world's emerging and developing countries. But it remains to be seen whether the G20 will truly be- come the world's top economic dec ision-making body, because consensus about the economic

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c risis and a sense of urgency among G20 countries are dimin- ishing. The Seoul Summit was the first G20 summit hosted by a country not in the old G7 that en- compassed the U.S., Japan, Ger- many, France, the U.K., Italy and Canada. The foreign press said the event was a " coming-of-age ceremony" for Korea in the global arena. It was an historic event for a countr y that rose from the ashes of war and colonial occupa- on to be able to provide the set- ng for the dis cussion of global economic policies. Korea also demonstrated leadership by media ng and fine- tuning conflic ng issues between major countries. It showed the world that it can play a central role in global diplomacy and was a huge confidence builder. Those are probably the biggest legacies of the G20 Seoul Summit. Highlights of G20 Seoul Declara-

   

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perts. While the Seoul dec lara on may fall short of expecta ons in the Western Hemisphere, with some media calling it "toothless," those in the emerging market group seem to be rela vely sa s- fied with it. Adding some 12 more states to the ex is ng G7 governance, the G20 structure was shaped to be er reflect a change in global governance, be er serving the in- terest of emerging countries. On the back of their be er- than-ever performance in terms of economic and financial dimen- sions, emerging countries sought a bigger say in the global commu- nity, which contributed to the birth of the G20 and further to the Seoul Declara on. Despite some harsh c ri que on the communiqué, it is hard to deny agreements in Seoul is good news to emerging countries in many ways, or "big progress" as

have embarked on coopera ve efforts to correct the imbalances of the global economy. Policy

on

The long- awaited commu- niqué of the G20 Seoul Summit is announced, but didn't get to put off controversies around the globe. Rather, the conflic t over major agenda items now evolved to contradictory evalua ons over the outcome by media and ex-

the South Korean President has put it.

Restr ucturing IMF Gover nance :

Changes Spread to Substr ucture

Achieving at the latest ministerial mee ng a quota share shi and a

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change in board composi on, the G20 got to guarantee emerging market and developing countries with quota shares of over 6 per- cent and two seats at the Execu- ve Board. In line with such moves, the IMF's doubl ing quota was also agreed upon in Gyeongju, allow- ing the Fund with greater power than ever. Meanwhile, making the agreement more conc rete, the G20 financ ial leaders were also specified a meline, recommend- ing a review of the quota formula by Januar y 2013 and the nex t general review by January 2014. All the amendments were en- dorsed at the IMF's board meet- ing , held a week ahead of the Seoul Summit, brightening the process of IMF reform discussion on the summit discussion table. Ac cordingl y, on the Seoul communiqué, more provisions were se led regarding the issue, recommending the IMF to report on the progress to period G20 ministerial mee ngs. Conc luding the Gyeongju mee ng , IMF Managing Director Strauss- Kahn told reporters it was the biggest-ever change the Fund met with. The chairman's remarks can be interpreted in various view- points, inc luding that of global governance. "Over a long period of me, the core of the global governance has been dominated by advanced na ons," Yoon Deok-r yong , sen- ior research fellow and head of G20 research team at the Korea Ins tute for Interna onal Eco- nomic Policy (KIEP), told Xinhua. "While the launch of the G20 system reflects that the growing power of emerging countries started being reflected in global

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governance, the recent IMF re- form indicates that the mood began to spread to the substruc- ture from the top level, " Yoon said, evalua ng the change as a posi ve sign. Possibly with the help from a renewed IMF, enabled by the G20's ac ve interven on, emerg- ing economies are eyeing to speak out in the global commu- nit y and to add more inputs in terms of policy coordina on.

Forex Rate to Remain as Key Issue

Held amid a deepening conflic t over currency debates, the Gyeongju mee ng reached a compromise on the exchange rate issue, crossing out the term "market-oriented exchange rate" from the Toronto communiqué and instead inser ng a fresh term of "market- determined exchange

The currency standoff, de- spite the official's comments, did not seem to end even a er the Gyeongju mee ng , with the quan ta ve easing of the U.S. pumping more hot money into global financial markets and caus- ing vola le moves in small-sized emerging markets. Thus, the leaders con nued the heated debate in Seoul, which gave birth to a new agree- ment "to enhance exchange rate flex ibility to reflec t underlying economic fundamentals and re- frain from compe ve devalua - on of currencies." Although leaders once con- templated the controversial phrase of "under valua on, " the wording was changed at the last minute as its advocates seem- ingly gave into requests from those who opposed the under- valua on theory, local media re- ports said.

Ar ticle change in board composi on, the G20 got to guarantee emerging market and

rate." "Although changes seem triv- ial to many stakeholders, it is a dras c change if seen from an economic perspec ve, " Lee Chang- yong , vice- chief of the G20 prepara on commi ee, ex- plaining it narrowed room for au- thori es to intervene.

As for all the more controver- sial issue, indica ve guideline, the Seoul communiqué stated that it should be composed of a range of indicators "to ser ve as a mecha- nism to facilitate mely iden fi- ca on of large imbalances that require preven ve and correc ve ac ons, " without c larif ying the

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components, or even possible candidates. One important step for ward over the issue can be the me frame, making it mandatory for a working group to develop more concrete versions of the guideline and report it to the finance minis- ters and central bank governors by the first half of 2010. In light of such points, it may seem as if the Seoul communiqué does not contribute to ending the currency war or lead to any vir- tual outcome at all, contrar y to what South Korean President told the public in his closing remarks. "The big gest har vest of the Seoul Dec lara on is that we started linking the exchange rate issue with trade imbalance, which is broader in scope and ad- dresses the core of the problem," Lee Chang-yong told reporters, opposing against such views. "Unless we came up with the idea of indica ve guidelines re- garding trade imbalance, the cur- rency debate may have ended in a disrup ve way, " added Lee, highligh ng the currency debate can now be solved in a more mac roeconomic approach through con nued dialogue. Whatever ra onale is used to evaluate the results, it seems ob- vious the G20 leaders s ll has a long way to go before it finally hits a breakthrough in the debate - either it is of exchange rate or trade imbalance.

Macropr udential Policies Allowed in Financial Market

Added to the exchange rate clause on the Seoul Declara on is a new concept of "macro pruden- al measures, " to which not much a en on has been given.

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addresses countries with 'over- valued flex ible exchange rates,' expanding the issue from ex- change rates to capital market stability," added Lee.

Emer ging Market Friendly Korea Initiatives

"South Korea, as chair, wants to be a representa ve of emerg- ing countries, " Sakong Il, presi- dent of the prepara on commi ee, repeatedly told re- porters before the Summit started. The chairman also pointed to agenda items categorized as the so- called Korea Ini a ves, devel- opment and global financ ial safety nets (GFSN), through which the chair country sought to reflect emerging countries' needs in the global agreements. With respec t to develop-

Ac cording to the Seoul Ac- on Plan, emerging mar- ket economies with "adequate reserves and in- creasingly over- valued flex ible exchange rates" are allowed to

conduc t poli cy responses, in- c luding " care- fully designed mac ro pruden- al measures."

Earlier

in

the day, at a briefing before the release of the commu- niqué, Shin H y u n - s o n g , senior advisor to the president, emphasized "mac ro pruden al policy frameworks to mi gate the impac t of excessive capital flows, " hin ng that a major change will be added to the state- ment regarding the issue. The talks on macro pruden al policy frameworks regarding cap- ital overflows were brought to the dis cussion table in order to address the perspec ve of emerging countries in financ ial regulatory reforms, Shin said. Shin, however, warned that the new recommendator y regu- la on has li le to do with capital control, but is more dealing with financ ia l market stabiliza on, par cularly of emerging markets. "The c lause has reflec ted greater voice from the emerging market group, " Lee Chang-yong said, pu ng stress on the change. "This c learly is 'shocking news' and a radical change, as it

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ment, the leaders endorsed the Seoul Development Consensus for Shared Growth and its Mul - year Ac on Plan on Develop- ment, both of which addresses leaders' will to strengthen and leverage development efforts. Also, as for GFSN, the leaders ac cepted the mandate to en- hance the exis ng Flexible Credit Line (FCL), while crea ng the Pre- cau onary Credit Line (PCL) as a new, ex-ante tool. Newly added during the Seoul talks was a provision to allow " synchronized approval of the FCL s for mul ple countries, by which a number of countries affec ted by a common shock could concurrently seek access to FCL." While there has been opposi- on among some advanced countries, who argued the change may provoke a problem of moral hazard, South Korea pushed through the deal, achiev- ing results obviously more bene- fic ial to small-sized, open economies, offic ials said at a closed-door briefing. It is true some stakeholders may not welcome the news from Seoul, but one thing is c lear:

emerging countries will con nue to be advocates of the G20 framework, with more power and benefits given to them through the Seoul communiqué.

G -20 Major Economies

The Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Gov- ernors (G20, Group of Twenty) is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 economies: 19 countries plus the European Union, which is repre- sented by the President of the European Council and by the Eu- ropean Central Bank. Their heads of government or heads of state have also periodi cally conferred at summits since their ini al mee ng in 2008. Collec vely, the G-20 economies comprise 85% of global gross na onal produc t, 80% of world trade (including EU intra-trade) and two-thirds of the world popula on. The G-20 was proposed by former Canadian Finance Minis- ter Paul Mar n (later, Prime Min- ister) for coopera on and consulta on on ma ers pertain- ing to the interna onal financial

system. It studies, reviews, and promotes discussion (among key industrial and emerging market countries) of policy issues per- taining to the promo on of inter- na onal financ ial stability, and seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibili es of any one organiza on. With the G-20 growing in stature since the 2008 Washington summit, its leaders announced on September 25, 2009, that the group will replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy na ons. The heads of the G-20 na- ons have met semi-annually at G-20 summits since 2008. The most recent was held in Seoul on November 11–12, 2010. Star ng in 2011, G-20 summits will be held annually.

Summits

The G-20 Summit was created as a response both to the financial c risis of 2007–2010 and to a growing recogni on that key emerging countries were not ad- equately included in the core of global economi c dis cussion and

governance. The G-20 Summits of heads of state or government were held in addi on to the G-20 Mee ngs of F inance Ministers and Central Bank Governors who con nued to meet to prepare the leaders' summit and implement their dec isions. A er the debut summit in Washington, D.C. dur- ing 2008, G-20 leaders met twice a year in London and Pi sburgh in 2009, Toronto and Seoul in

2010.

Beginning in 2011, when France will chair and host the G- 20, the summits will only be once a year. Mexico will chair and host the leader ’s summit in 2012. ˜

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Ar ticle

Burmese General Election

Now Burma is on Track of Democracy
Now Burma is on Track of Democracy

Sant Prasad Gupta

Mul -party general elec ons were held in Burma (offic ially Myanmar) on 7 November 2010, in accordance with the new con- s tu on which was approved in a referendum held in May 2008. The date of the elec on, 7 No- vember, was announc ed by the SPDC on 13 August. The general elec on forms the fi h step of the seven-step " roadmap to democ racy" pro- posed by the State Peace and Devel- opment Counc il (SPDC) in 2003, the six th and sev- enth steps being the convening of elec ted represen- ta ves and the building of a mod- ern, democ ra c na on, respec - vely. However, the Na onal League for Democ racy boy- co ed the elec - on. The Union Sol- idarity and Devel- opment Party dec lared vic tor y, a er at least two opposi on par es conceded. The United Na ons and Western

countries have condemned the elec ons as fraudulent.

Background

Ar cle 59F of the new cons tu- on bars from the Presidency (not public office in general) peo- ple who are married to ci zens of states other than Myanmar. Some commentators c laim that

but since her husband is de- ceased, she would not appear to be barred on this basis. The United Na ons, members of ASEAN and Western na ons have insisted that the elec ons will not be credible without the par cipa- on of Suu Kyi. The Na onal League for Democ- racy (NLD) had set a number of condi ons for par cipa ng in the

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle Burmese General Election Now Burma is on Track

this means Aung San Suu Kyi will be unable to contest the elec on,

poll, inc luding changes to the cons tu on to reduce the army's

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influence, interna onal supervi sion for

free and fair polls, and freeing all po- li cal prisoners including Suu Kyi. Sen- ior General Than Shwe, leader of the ruling military junta, has pledged to re- lease poli cal prisoners in an amnesty before the elec on, though he has not stated when this would occur. On 11 August 2009, Suu Kyi was sentenced to imprisonment for three years with hard labour over a trespass incident. This sentence was commuted by the military rulers to further house arrest of eighteen months. The NLD later an- nounced they would not take part in the elec on due to the elec on laws. Key ministries including jus ce, de- fence and the interior will remain under the control of the military and under the 2008 cons tu on, a quarter of the 440 parliament seats will be re- served for the military officials. People holding military posi ons are not per- mi ed to contest the elec on; as such, 20 members of the junta, inc luding Prime Minister Thein Sein, re red from their posts to par cipate in the elec on.

New election laws

The first of five elec on laws was an- nounced in March 2010, concerning the c rea on of an elec on commis- sion. The Union Elec on Commission

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Law states that the military government will ap- point all members of the commission and have the final say over the elec on results. Members of the commission must be "an eminent person, to have integrity and experience, to be loyal to the state and its ci zens". A 17-member elec on commission was later named, headed by a for- mer military officer. The second law bans anyone currently serving a prison term from belonging to a poli - cal party, and therefore over 2,000 poli cal pris- oners will not be able to par c ipate, possibly inc luding Aung San Suu Kyi (depending on whether her house arrest is deemed to fall under the defini on of "serving a prison term"). The Po- li cal Par es Registra on Law also bars members

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of religious orders, members of insurgent groups 'as defined by the state' and foreigners from joining poli cal par es. This sep- ara on of Buddhism and poli cs is a long-standing feature of Burmese poli cs, da ng back to before independence, and was incorporated in the 1947 inde- pendence Cons tu on at the re- quest of the monkhood. The other laws s pulate that anyone currently serving a prison term is barred from running or vo ng in the elec ons for the upper and lower houses. A 224- member House of Na onali es will have 168 elected candidates and 56 nominated by the military chief, while the 440-member House of Representa ves will have 330 elec ted c ivilians and 110 militar y representa ves. At the same me, the results of the 1990 elec ons were annulled as they did not comply with the new elec on laws. The new laws have been de- scribed as a "farce" by the Philip- pines and a "mocker y" by the United States.

Political Parties

Par es are required to have at least 1,000 members to par c i- pate in the elec on and had to register by 6 June. 40 par es have been approved by the Elec toral Commission to contest the elec- ons, some of which are linked to ethnic minori es. The Na onal League for Democ racy, which over whelm- ingly won the previous 1990 elec- ons but were never allowed to take power, decided not to par c- ipate. Nonetheless, some senior members have formed the Na- onal Democ ra c Force to con- test the elec ons, claiming that a

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boyco would play into the hands of the government. The government has estab- lished the Union Solidarity and Development Party, the suc ces- sor to the mass organiza on Union Solidarity and Develop- ment Assoc ia on, which c laims to have around half the popula- on as members. The Na onal Unity Party, which contested the 1990 elec on as the main pro- government party and won 10 seats, has also registered to run. Reuters es mates that six par es in total are allied to the govern- ment. The new Democ ra c Party, established by Mya Than Than Nu, the daughter of former Prime Minister of Burma, U Nu and Nay Ye Ba Swe, the daughter of for- mer Prime Minister Ba Swe, is aiming to take part in the elec- on. Mya Than Than Nu will run as General Secretary of the party. Media coverage of the party has been banned by the military gov- ernment. Another new party is being formed comprising members of a ceasefire group and a party that won seats in the 1990 elec ons.

   

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Five former members of the New Mon State Party (NMSP) and five members of Mon Na onal Demo- c ra c Front (MNDF) together with five other Mon elites, who make up the new party, founded a 15-member commi ee and later announced that they are not going to par c ipate in the up- coming elec on. The Shan Na onali es League for Democracy, a Shan po- li cal party that came second in the 1990 elec on, is par cipa ng in the elec on as the Shan Na- onali es Democra c Party. The SPDC has not answered opposi on calls to amend the 2008 cons tu on or state clearly how the electoral process will be managed and the terms that new poli cal par es can organise. In a speech to military re rees, Than Shwe said that the transi on to a parliamentary system meant var- ious par es with different opin- ions would appear, but he warned that the new par es should "avoid anything that leads to harming state interests". The cons tuenc ies available for contes ng are 330 civilian seats in the House of Representa ves

of religious orders, members of insurgent groups 'as defined by the state' and foreigners from

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(out of 440) and 168 civilian seats in the House of Na onali es (out of 224). The remaining seats are designated for militar y offic ials and to be selected by the military chief. During an East Asian summit in Vietnam, Foreign Minister Nyan Win confirmed Than Shwe would not be running in the elec- on.

Exter nal Political Responses

The United Na ons has ex- pressed concern about the fair- ness of the elec on and United Na ons Secretary-General Ban Ki- moon expressed "grave concern" that Aung San Suu Kyi would not be released before the elec on and thus it would "lack credibil- ity." He accused the government of being " slow and incomplete " to meet poli cal commitments, and said it was "deeply frustrat- ing" that the government would not hold talks with the "interna- onal community."

The Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswomen, Jiang Yu, com- mented on the elec on during Than Shwe's visit to China. "The interna onal community can pro- vide construc ve help and refrain from any nega ve impact on the domes c poli cal process of Myanmar and on regional peace and stability." The following day, US Secre- tary of State Hillary Clinton spoke to the US Senate Appropria ons Commi ee Subcommi ee on State and Foreign Affairs where she men oned that the trial against Aung San Suu Kyi was al- legedly "baseless charges. " She also added that the government was " con nuing resistance to a free and open electoral process. If they stay on the track they're on, their elec ons in 2010 will be totally illegi mate and without any meaning in the interna onal community." UK Foreign Minister William Hague said that "holding flawed elec ons does not repre- sent change."

Monitors

Burma barred for- eign obser vers and the interna onal media from the elec- on. The elec on commission chief, Thein Soe, did add, however, that diplo- mats and represen- ta ves from UN organisa ons in the country would be al- lowed to obser ve the elec on. He jus- fied the dec ision saying "We are hold- ing the elec on for this country. It's not for other countries We will have c redibility a er

... holding the elec on in front of all the people."

Election

The elec on was held amid ght security. Ini al reports pointed to a light turnout across the country, possibly as low as 20% in some areas, and the possibility of irreg- ulari es. The Guardian reported that independent local observers were repor ng "widespread voter in mida on and bribery" in the elec on. The Union Solidarity and De- velopment Party (USDP) took 80 percent of the seats that were up for elec on. The two largest op- posi on party, the Na onal Dem- ocra c Front and the Democra c Party (Burma) conceded defeat, however, along with four other opposi on par es, filed formal complaints about fraud with the elec on commission. On November 11, state radio announced the results for 147

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Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. cons tuenc ies in the Lower House, with the USDP

cons tuenc ies in the Lower House, with the USDP winning 133. The USDP won 81 of 86 races newly announced for the Upper House. The new and previously an- nounced results show the USDP gained majori es in both houses of parliament: 190 out of the 219 (86%) seats announced for the 330-seat lower house, and 95 out of 107 (88%) seats announced for the 168-seat upper house.

Reactions

Than Nyein, the chairman of the Na onal Democ ra c Force, claimed the elec on was marred by irregulari es. "We have our evidence. Some candidates com-

plained

because there was

... vote chea ng." Khin Maung Swe, the leader of the opposi on Na- onal Democra c Force alleged:

"We took the lead at the begin- ning but the USDP later came up with so-called advance votes and that changed the results com- pletely, so we lost." UN Secretary-General Ban Ki- moon claimed vo ng condi ons had been "insufficiently inclusive, par cipatory and transparent." The People's Republic of China's Foreign Ministry said the elec on was "a c ri cal step for

Myanmar in implemen ng the seven-step road map in the tran- si on to an elected government, and thus is welcome." India was conspicuously silent with segments of the In- dian media ques oning if princi- ple gave way to expediency. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov welcomed the vote

and charac terized it as a " step forward in the democra sa on of Burmese society." During a speech to the Indian parliament, US President Barack Obama said of the elec on that "When peaceful democ ra c movements are suppressed – as in Burma – then the democracies of the world cannot remain silent

It is unac ceptable to steal an

... elec on as the regime in Burma has done again for the world to see."

Analysis

The relevance of Aung San Suu Kyi was ques oned in light of the elec on. Prior to the elec on, she was regarded to be " the icon of the countr y's strug gling democ - racy movement " outside the country. It was asked that follow- ing the elec on: "How much power and reach would she s ll have to rally her followers barely

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a week a er the south-east Asian na on's first general elec on in two decades?" One such reason was because the NLD's boyco may have failed if it does not play the right cards in dealing with at least a semblance of an elec ted opposi on in a "semi-legi mate" parliament. Pending her release from jail, the poli cal atmos- phere would have changed be- cause of a new militar y leadership that may not be as "cosmopolitan" and "prac cal" in dealing both with her and exter- nal players. The Bri sh ambassa- dor to Myanmar, Andrew Heyn, also said: "What they [the junta] do when Suu Kyi is released will send a message. She is well in- formed and commi ed and wants to stay involved."

Key facts about Myanmar

Myanmar's militar y rulers freed long-detained Nobel Peace Prize laureate and democ racy cam- paigner Aung San Suu Kyi on Nov 13, 2010 a er her house arrest term expired. Here are some key fac ts about Myanmar, a resource-rich former Bri sh colony that has spent most of its post-indepen - dence histor y under authoritar- ian military dictatorships. COUNTRY NAME: It was changed last month to the Re- public of the Union of Myanmar. Previously it was the Union of Myanmar, having been changed from the Union of Burma in 1989 in what the junta said was to ap- pease minority non-Burman eth- nic groups. A new flag and na onal anthem were also intro- duced last month. POPULATION: About 50 mil-

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lion: es mates vary from 48 mil- lion to 58 million. The big gest ethnic group is Burman (about 68 percent), followed by Shan (9 percent) and Karen (7 percent). The popula on is mostly Ther- avada Buddhist (89 percent), the rest being Chris an, Muslim, Hindu and animist. AREA : At approximately 678,000 sq km (261,800 sq miles), it is the second largest countr y in Southeast Asia. Less than two percent of land is under permanent c rops and pasture. About 15 percent is arable. Forests make up nearly 50 per- cent. BORDERS : Myanmar has borders with Bangladesh (193 km, 120 miles), China (2,185 km, 1,360 miles), India (1,463 km, 910 miles), Laos (235 km, 145 miles) and Thailand (1,800 km, 1,120 miles). It also has nearly 2,000 km (1,240 miles) of coastline on the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal. CAPITAL : Naypyitaw. In 2005, the militar y government moved the capital 390 km (240 miles) north from colonial-era Yangon (formerly known as Rangoon) to remote, purpose-built Naypyitaw. However, Yangon remains the economic hub. ARMED FORCES : Ac ve forces es mated at 375,500 in 2006, making the country's mili-

tar y one of Asia's largest a er China and India. The military re- lies mostly on older Russian and Chinese technology and enjoy a huge slice of the na onal budget. ECONOMY : Long-isolated Myanmar joined the Associa on of South East Asian Na ons (ASEAN), comprising its major trade partners, in 1997. It em- barked on a market economy in 1988 a er 26 years of central planning. Though impoverished, Myanmar is rich in natural re- sources, inc luding petroleum, natural gas, mber, n, zinc, cop- per and prec ious stones. The economy relies heavily on the ex- port of natural gas, agricultural, marine and forest produc ts and tex les. Its biggest trade partners are Thailand, China and India. The country's proven gas re- ser ves doubled in the past decade to 570 billion cubic me- ters, equivalent to almost a fi h of Australia's, according to the BP Sta s cal Review. Revenues from those reser ves are ghtly held among the ruling militar y elite whose c ronies dominate other businesses. There are few ac curate eco- nomic sta s cs available and the country has a large black-market economy. Independent econo- mists say decades of corrup on and mismanagement by the mili-

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tary have le Myanmar with neg- ligible growth, rampant infla on and a currency, the kyat, consid- ered worthless outside the coun- tr y. Myanmar has undergone a big sell off of hundreds of state assets in recent months, but the process has been highly opaque and it appears most have ended up in the hands of junta cronies. POL ITICS : Myanmar has faced poli cal and economic iso- la on since the militar y refused

to recognize the results of a dem- ocra c elec on in 1990, won by Suu Kyi pro-democracy Na onal League for Democracy. It held its first elec on since then. The parliamentary poll was won convincingly by the military- backed Union Solidarity and De- velopment Party, whose vic tor y will ensure the armed forces has control of the new legislature. Cri c s say the poll was hugely flawed and the poli cal process is a facade of democ racy that will bring no real change to the status quo. Foreign donors are reluctant to help Myanmar, saying its human rights record is abysmal. Many Western countries, includ- ing members of the European Union, the United States and Aus- tralia, maintain economic and military sanc ons on the country, but they could be reviewed now that Suu Kyi, who has reversed her pro-sanc ons stance, has been released. Neighboring China is its big gest poli cal and economic ally and has capitalized on the West's reluc tance to trade with the junta. It relies heavily on Myanmar for its energy needs and has ensured the regime has its backing in the interna onal

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X V I A s i a n G a m e s 2 0 1
X V I
A s i a n
G a m e s
2 0 1 0
Avadhesh Kumar Pandey
T
he 2010 Asian Games,
also known as the XVI
Asiad, is a mul -sport
event in Guangzhou, China that
began on 12 November and fin-
ished on 27 November 2010.
Guangzhou is the second Chinese
city to host the Games, a er Bei-
jing in 1990. A total of 476 events
in 42 sports have been contested
by athletes, making it the largest
event in the histor y of the
Games. It was also be the last it-
era on of the Games to have fea-
tured such big events, as the
Olympic Counc il of Asia (OCA)
have enforced new hos ng rules
for future games, beginning with
the 2014 Games.
Guangzhou was awarded the
right to host the Games on July 1,
2004, as the sole bidding city. This
came a er the withdrawal of sev-
eral ci es, Amman, Kuala Lumpur
and Seoul. The games were also
be co-hosted by Dong guan, Fos-
han and Shanwei, the three
neighbouring ci es.
Or ganisation
Bid
On July 1, 2004, The Guangzhou
was awarded the right to host the
Games; the dec ision was an-
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e x - penditure at about US$420 million and
e x -
penditure at
about US$420 million and

nounced in Doha, Qatar. This decision came a er several other c i es withdrew due to separate reasons. Seoul withdrew a er considering the short span of me between 2002 and 2010, because South Korea hosted the 2002 Games eight years before in Busan. Kuala Lumpur was forced to withdraw its bid a er it was boyco ed by the cabinet due to the high cost of hos ng the Games, leaving Guangzhou as the sole bidder.

Marketing

The 2010 Asian Games' offic ial emblem was unveiled at Sun Yat- sen Memorial Hall on November 26, 2006. It is a stylized goat, which, in Chinese tradi on, is a blessing and brings people luck. It is also a representa ve symbol of the host city Guangzhou, which is called the "City of Rams" or "City of the Five Rams". Five sporty rams, dubbed "Le Yangyang ," will serve as the mas- cots of the Games. They were un- veiled on April 28, 2008 at the Guangzhou Baiyun Interna onal Conven on and Exhibi on Cen- ter. The five rams are named A Xiang , A He, A Ru, A Yi and Le

Y a n g y a n g , and are a play on Guangzhou's ni ckname, "City of Goats " . Moreover, the Chinese charac ter "yang , " or "goat, " is also an auspi c ious symbol be- cause, when read together, the Chinese names of the five rams are a message of blessing , liter- ally meaning "harmony, bless- ings, success and happiness".

Costs

Several statements were made prior to the offic ial statement about the cost. On March 11, 2005, L in Shusen of the Guangzhou Municipal Commi ee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) said the Games "will not cost more than 2 billion" , in stark contrast to an earlier report, which had claimed that the cost could exceed 200 billion. In March 2009, the direc tor of the marke ng department of the Games, Fang Da’er, claimed that the Games were short of funds, due to lack of sponsorship and the global financial crisis. An in- formal es mate put the Games'

revenue at US$450 million. On Oc tober 13, 2010, Mayor of Guangzhou Wan Qingliang offi- cially revealed in a press confer- ence that the total cost of staging the Asian Games and Asian Para Games is about 122.6 billion ($17 billion), with 109 billion spent on infrastructure, 6.3 bil- lion on the venues and some 7.3 billion spent on Games' op- era on.

Venues

There were 53 compe on ven- ues and 17 training venues avail- able for the Games, with four venues held outside the Guangzhou. These inc lude the Asian Games Town, which con- sists of the Athletes' Village, Tech- nical Offic ials' Village, Media Village , Main Media Center and Interna onal Broadcast Center. Organisers revealed that the total investment is over 15 billion.

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Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle On April 19, 2009, organisers chose Haix insha

On April 19, 2009, organisers chose Haix insha Island, along with the Pearl River, as the venue for the opening and closing cere- monies, the only venue which not serve as purpose for compe on. The offic ial theme song was released on September 30, 2010, and is called "Reunion" (in Chi- nese, "Chongfeng" ), and was composed by Wu L iqun, with lyric s wri en by Xu Rongkai, while the English version was translated by Chen Ning Yang , a Chinese-American physicist, and his wife, Weng Fan. The song was also performed by Sun Nan and Bella Yao. Sun Nan then per- formed it again with Mao Amin for a music video.

Torch relay

Two torch designs were short- listed in September 2009 for the 2010 Asian Games. A design named The Tide was chosen over one named Exploit by the organ- isers as the torch of the Games. The Tide weighs 98g and is 70 cm long , and is tall and straight in shape, while dynamic in terms of image. The torch relay route was un- veiled on March 4, 2010. For fi- nanc ial reasons, the torch relay dura on around Guangdong and

two other ci es off Guangdong are 30 days. The flame of the torch was lit in the Great Wall of China on Oc- tober 9, 2010, and travelled around the Temple of Heaven in Bei- jing. 21 c i es

were present in the list of relay, with 2,010 torchbearers expected to carry it from October 12 to No- vember 12, 2010; however, two c i es were added later in the route for a single day on October 15, 2010, the host of 2007 Asian Winter Games and 2012 Asian Beach Games, making the num- ber of torchbearer inc rease to 2,068 people. The relay in Harbin was held in the main venue of the 1996 Asian Winter Games, the Harbin I ce Hockey Rink, while the relay

Sports

Compared to the 28 events in the Olympic Games, the 2010 Asian Games were featured 42 events throughout the 16 days of the compe on, with added dis c i- plines in some events. 28 and five gold medalists are emerged dur- ing the opening day and final day respec vely, while a total of 48 gold medalists have been awarded on November 25, 2010, the most in single day.Twenty20 cricket was among the debutant sports, with dance sport, dragon boat, weiqi and roller sport added as unique to the Games. Bodybuilding was dropped due to judging controversy in the 2006 Games.

Participation

All 45 members of Olympic Coun- c il of Asia par c ipated in the Games. All Na onal Olympic Commi ees were ordered to have submi ed their entry before September 30, 2010. Organisers

allow each NOC to submit addi onal en- tries and in- j u r y r e p l a c e m e n t s a er the dead- line. A er the final registra- on deadline, some 9,704 athletes, as well as some

4,750 team of- ficials, took part in the Games, an increase of 184 athletes from pre- vious Asian Games in Doha. Ac- cording to the Games' offic ial website, Kuwai athletes par ci- pated the Games under the Olympic flag because the Kuwait Olympic Commi ee was sus-

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle On April 19, 2009, organisers chose Haix insha

on October 22, 2010 was affected by Typhoon Megi as it was held under the rain. The relay from November 6–8 was ac ted as demonstra on relay.

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pended due to poli cal interfer- ence in January 2010.

Cricket Absences

Cricket was among the five debu- tant sports in the Games. How- ever, India, despite its historical record, dec ided not to send its c ricket team to the Games. Ac- cording to the Board of Control for Cricket in India, the decision was due to earlier "interna onal commitments " . However, its main rivals, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, confirmed their par cipa- on.

Asian Games

The Asian Games, offic ially known as Asiad, is a mul -sport event held ever y four years among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federa on (AGF ) from the first Games in New Delhi, India, un l the 1982 Games. Since the 1982 they have been organised by the Olympic Counc il of Asia (OCA), a er the break up of the Asian Games Fed- era on. The Games are recog- nised by the Interna onal Olympic Commi ee (IOC) and are des c ribed as the second largest mul -sport event a er the Olympic Games. Thailand has hosted four Asian Games, more than any other na on, a er twice having secured the Games from crisis. In its history, only nine na ons have hosted the Asian Games. 46 na- ons have par c ipated in the Games, inc luding Israel, which was exc luded from the Games

a er their last par c ipa on in

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H I S T O R Y
H I S T O R Y

Prior For mation

Before the Asian Games were held, there was a gathering known as the Far Eastern Games which was first mooted in 1912 between Empire of Japan, the Philippine Islands and China. The first Games were then held in Manila in 1913 and ten further gatherings were held un l 1934. However, against the backdrop of the second Sino-Japanese War in 1934, in the face of Japan's insis- tence on inc luding Manchu Em- pire as compe tor na on in the Games, China announced its withdrawal from par c ipa on. The Games s cheduled for 1938 were cancelled and the organisa- on was discon nued therea er.

For mation

A er World War II, a number of Asian countries became inde- pendent. Many of the newly in- dependent Asian countries wanted to see a new type of com- pe on where Asian dominance

mutual understanding. During the 1948 Summer Olympic s in London, a conversa on between sportsmen from China and the Philippines raised the idea of restoring the Far Eastern Games. However, the Indian Interna onal Olympic Commi ee representa- ve Guru Du Sondhi thought that the restora on of the Games would not be suffic ient to show the spirit of unity and level of achievement in Asian sports, so proposed to sports leaders the idea of having discussions about holding a wholly new compe - on — the Asian Games. This gave rise to the agreement to form the Asian Athle c Federa- on. A preparator y commi ee was set up to dra the charter for this new body. On 13 Februar y 1949, the Asian Athle c Federa- on was formally inaugurated in New Delhi, alongside the name Asian Games Federa on, with New Delhi announced as the first host c ity of the Asian Games which were scheduled to be held in 1950. In the event, the planned first Asian Games were delayed un l 1951 due to prepara on prob- lems. However, they were suc -

  • 1974. would not be shown by violence but would be strengthened by

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cessfully organised from 4-11 March 1951 with 489 athletes from 11 countries taking part. The Games grew from one meet- ing to the nex t. In 1958, the mo o "Ever Onward" was offi- c ially announced as the offic ial slogan of the Games.

Crisis, Reor ganisa - tion, Expansion

Star ng in 1962, the Games were hit by several c rises. First, the host countr y Indonesia, refused to permit the par cipa on of Is- rael and the Republi c of China due to poli cal and religious is- sues. As a result, the IOC re- moved its sponsorship of the Games and terminated Indonesia as one of the IOC members. The Asian Football Confedera on (AFC), Interna onal Assoc ia on of Athle c s Federa ons (IAAF) and Interna onal Weightli ing Federa on (IWF), also removed their recogni on of the Games. In 1970, South Korea dropped its plan to host the Games declined due to na onal security crisis, however the main reason was due to financial crisis, forc ing the previous host Thai-

land to administer the Games again in Bangkok using funds transferred from South Korea. Prior to the Games, Japan was asked to host the Games, but de- clined due to Expo '70 in Osaka. This edi on also marked the first me the Games have a television broadcas ng throughout the world. In 1974, the Games for- mally recognized the par c ipa- on of China, North Korea and Mongolia. Israel was allowed to par c ipate despite the opposi- on from Arab World, while Tai-

wan was permi ed to take part despite its status was abolished in general mee ng on November 16, 1973 by Games Federa on. The last is 1978, Singapore dropped its plan to the Games in

  • 1973 due to financ ial problems.

And then Islamabad also dropped its plan to host the Games in

  • 1975 due to financ ial c risis and

poli cal issues. 1978 Asian Games was in jeopady of dying. Thailand offered to help and the Games were once again held in Bangkok. However once again, like in 1962, Taiwan and Israel were refused the par cipa on by Games Federa on, amid poli cal issues and security fears. Several

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. cessfully organised from 4-11 March 1951 with 489 athletes from

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Ar ticle

governing bodies protest the ban, like IAAF, threaten to barred the par c ipated players from 1980 Summer Olympic s, this cause several teams withdrew prior to the Games. Following this series of crises, the Na onal Olympic Commi ee in Asia decided to revise the con- s tu on of the Asian Games Fed- era on. A new assoc ia on, named the Olympic Counc il of Asia, was c reated in November 1981 with the exc lusion of Is- rael.[19] India was already sched- uled to host the 1982 Games and the OCA decided not to drop the old AGF metable. The OCA for- mally super vised the Games star ng with the 1986 Asian Games in South Korea. In the suc-

ceeding Games, Taiwan (Republic of China) was re-admi ed, but compete with the name Chinese

Taipei. In 1994, the Games were first me included the na ons of for- mer Republic s of the Soviet Union of Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Also to note it is the first me that the Games were held outside the capital c ity of host country. However, Iraq was suspended from the Games due to Gulf War in 1990, while North Korea boyco ed the Games due to rela on problems. It is also marred by the death of Nepalese delega on Nareshkumar Adhikari during the Games's opening cere- mony. The 1998 Games marked the fourth me held in Bangkok, Thailand in history. Differ to De- cember 6 as opening ceremony date to previous three occasions on December 9, the Games were closing on same day all me, De- cember 20, while all opened by Bhumibol Adulyadej.

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Future Changes

The number of compe on events is s cheduled to shrink down to just 35 sports at the 2014 Games to be held in In- cheon, South Korea. 2014 will also see the Games hosted in even-numbered year, as the Olympic Counc il of Asia pushed the subsequent Games to just one year ahead of the Olympic Games. This means the 18th Asian Games which were origi- nally planned for 2018 will be pushed to 2019.

Participation

All 45 members affiliated to the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) are eligible to take part in the Games. In histor y, 46 Na onal Olympic Commi ees (NOCs) have sent compe tors to the Games. Israel has been excluded from the Games since 1976, the reason cited as being due to se- curity reasons. Israel requested to par cipate in the 1982 Games, but the request was rejected by

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Ar ticle Future Changes The number of compe on events is s cheduled to shrink

the organisers due to incident in 1972 Summer Olympics. Israel is now a member of the European Olympic Commi ees (EOC). Due to its con nuing ambigu- ous poli cal status, Taiwan has par cipated in the Games under the flag of Chinese Taipei since 1990. Macau is allowed to com- pete as one of the NOCs in Asian Games, despite not being recog- nised by the Interna onal Olympic Commi ee (IOC) for par- cipa on in the Olympic Games.

In 2007, the President of OCA , Sheikh Ahmed Al-Fahad Al- Ahmed Al-Sabah, rejec ted the proposal to allow Australia to par c ipate in the Games. He stated that while Australia would add good value to the Asian Games, it would be unfair to the other NOCs in Oceania. Only seven countries, namely India, Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Thailand have competed in all edi ons of the games. ˜

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Strategy for Civil Ser vices Preliminar y Examina on

Changes in syllabus and pa ern from 2011

By: Dr. Sachchidanand
By: Dr. Sachchidanand
Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle Strategy for Civil Ser vices Preliminar y Examina

A s per the decision of Gov- ernment of India, there

shall be change in the syl- labus and pa ern of the Prelimi- nar y Examina on from 2011 in the scheme of the Civil Ser vices Examina on. The Preliminary Ex- amina on shall now comprise of two compulsor y Papers of 200 marks each and of two hours du- ra on each. Detailed below is the new syllabus and pa ern of the Preliminary Examina on, which is

brought to the no ce of the prospec ve candidates intending to appear at the Civil Services Ex- amina on (CSE) in 2011 onwards:

Paper I - (200 marks) Duration: Two Hours

  • L Current events of na onal and interna onal importance

  • L Histor y of India and Indian Na onal Movement

  • L Indian and World Geography

- Physical, Soc ial, Economic geography of India and the World.

  • L Indian Polity and Governance – Cons tu on, Poli cal Sys- tem, Panchaya Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

  • L Economic and Social Develop- ment – Sustainable Develop- ment, Poverty, Inc lusion, Demographics, Social Sector Ini a ves, etc.

  • L General issues on Environ-

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mental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specializa- on

  • L General Science.

Paper II- (200 marks) Duration: Two hours

  • L Comprehension

  • L Interpersonal skills including communica on skills;

  • L Logical reasoning and analy - cal ability

  • L Decision making and problem solving

  • L General mental ability

  • L Basic numeracy (numbers and their rela ons, orders of magnitude etc .) (Class X level), Data interpreta on ( charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. -Class X level)

  • L English Language Compre- hension skills (Class X level).

  • L Ques ons rela ng to English Language Comprehension skills of Class X level (last item in the Syllabus of Paper-II) will be tested through passages from English language only without providing Hindi transla on thereof in the ques on paper.

  • L The ques ons will be of mul- ple choice, objec ve type.

  • L The prospec ve candidates are advised to note that no changes are being introduced at this stage in the Civil Serv- ices (Main) Examina on and Personality Test in the s cheme of Civil Ser vices Ex- amina on (CSE).

What strategy should be adopted?

Modifica on made to the new syllabus of Civil Services Prelimi- nary Examina on 2011 has more

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focus on general studies. It re- quires early prepara on and a re- laxed approach. The recent announcement of the

new syllabus for Civil Ser vices

need for study ing an op onal subject has been dispensed with for the preliminary. But they have to complete two op onal sub- jects for the mains. So balancing

Ar ticle mental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specializa-

Preliminary Examina on 2011 by

the Union Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions is

likely to create ji ers among as- pirants. A c loser look at the syllabus and pa ern of the examina on men oned in the tex t only stresses the need for more focus on general studies and revision of mathema cs learned at the sec- ondary school level. Aspirants an-

alyzing recent ques on papers of other examina ons conducted by

the UPSC will have a be er un- derstanding of the new pa ern and syllabus. According to Union Ministr y of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the Civil Ser vices Preliminary examina on will con- sist of two papers with a total of 400 marks. This is different from the earlier pa ern that had one op onal subject paper along with a general studies paper. Herea er, the c ivil ser vices aspirants can be much more re- laxed in their approach as the

the main and prelims in the com- ing months will be the challenge before them.

Analysis of the changes in IAS

Exams Syllabus

Paper I is worth 200 marks and has been allo ed two hours. Ear- lier the pa ern was 150 marks for the general studies. In paper I, candidates will be tested on their knowledge of current events of na onal and interna onal impor- tance. Emphasis will be on Indian histor y, Indian na onal move- ment, Indian and world geogra- phy, including the physical, social and economic geography of India and the world. The candidates can start prepara on as soon as possible by reading newspapers and other periodicals to enrich their knowl- edge of current affairs. Ques ons on current affairs are likely to play a key role in scoring the required marks in the new pa ern. Ques-

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ons will also be asked on Indian polity and governance as well as the Cons tu on, the poli cal sys- tem, panchaya raj, public policy and rights issues. Apart from NCERT books, the Union government publica ons that have informa on on latest developments on these subjects are also important. India 2011 year book published by the Publi- ca on Division, Ministry of Infor- ma on and Broadcas ng may con nue to be of use to answer a large number of ques ons. The new system is going to iden f y the comprehensive knowledge of an aspirant and his / her ability to apply it in dec ision making. The focus will be more on tes ng the personality of the candidate.

Study Material

Candidate s will have to prepare for ques ons on economic and social development, sustainable development, poverty, inclusion,

demographic s and soc ial sec tor ini a ves. NCERT books will pro- vide a chunk of answers to ques- ons pertaining to general issues on environmental ecology, bio-di- versity, climate change and gen- eral s c ience. Candidates are advised to revise the class X Eng- lish language books for English language comprehension skills of Paper II. Appropriate IGNOU study material on interpersonal skills, inc lud ing communica on skills may be useful. Study material used by aspi- rants of banking ser vices are enough to tackle ques ons on logical reasoning and analy cal ability, decision making and prob- lem solv ing as well as general mental ability. Class X books of NCERT should be studied in detail for solving ques ons on basic nu- meric skills such as numbers and their rela ons, orders of magni- tude and data interpreta on. Solving the paper is likely to be easy for the aspirants who go

though the previous ques ons asked by the UPSC for other ex- amina ons such as NDA, par cu- larly those conducted recently. Spending at least six hours a day for solving such ques ons is c ruc ial. Analysing the previous ques ons of examina ons con- ducted by Reser ve Bank of India and other banks is also likely to throw light on the new pa ern of examina on.

What has not changed in the new syllabus?

Some things which many candi- dates for the IAS exam were fear- ing have fortunately remained untouched. Here is a short list. Age limit remains 30 yrs. Older candidates can heave a sigh of re- lief. Number of a empts have not been reduced. So those on the 3rd and 4th a empts can rejoice. IAS mains exam pa ern has not been changed from 2011 but will be changed a er a few years most probably. The name of the exam. This is the big gest joke. Ever yone roo ng for CSAT and all those who started web sites on this tle might be curs- ing themselves now. General Studies paper or Paper 1 is more or less the same. Only thing is that mental ability has now been in- c luded in Paper 2 instead.

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle ons will also be asked on Indian polity

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Ar ticle
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Benefits

Candidate s who were against UPSC's scaling system due to vari- able difficult y level of op onal papers can feel happy now as op- onals have been removed from 2011 IAS prelims. As both papers will be common to all, there will be fair play and equal opportu- nity to all candidates. From now on what you s core is what you see in terms of final results (whether qualified or not for IAS mains). Candidates who could not mug up or rote will also cheer the changed IAS syllabus as now wide studies on different topics is required and second paper will focus on decision making , logical reasoning , mental ability, English comprehension. None of these can be mugged up but have to be prac- ced, understood, tackled using common sense and presence of mind but not mugging up. Finally, candidates who haven't taken coaching can also feel relieved as coaching will make less of a dif-

ference now than in the past where op onals could be cracked simply by mugging up the coach- ing class notes. Now paper 2 will require indi vidual efforts rather than coaching notes.

Challenges

GS

has

always

been

a

tough

paper to

c lear and now

candi-

dates will have to c lear two GS

papers with more

ques ons in less

me

( just

two

hours). So me management will be the most crucial fac tor in IAS pre- lims from now on. Also, the second paper will be tougher for those who ignored men- tal ability and were never too keen on data analysis and logical reasoning. These cannot be skipped any longer but will need to be a empted in order to c lear the IAS prelims. Candi- dates from non-English back- ground will face a tough challenge as there will be English comprehension passages and no transla on will be provided for the same so they need to be read in English only. Ques ons on inter-personal skills and commu- nica on skills will test a candidate further and only those who are good at both can now answer ques ons confidently. ˜

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle Benefits Candidate s who were against UPSC's scaling
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Ar ticle

Indo-Afghan

Relation

Reaching out to Afghanistan

Dr. Sachchidanand

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle Indo-Afghan Relation Reaching out to Afghanistan Dr. Sachchidanand
I
I

ndia and Afghanistan are building a partnership be-

tween the world’s largest and most recent democ rac ies. Both countries are composed of myriad tradi ons and are joined together by histor y and c ivilisa - onal contacts. Their close rela- ons are based on cultural affini es, the shared values of

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mul ethnicity and pluralism and the common quest of our peo- ples for peace and development. India has been one of Afghanistan’s foremost develop- ment partners since end-2001. India shares the collec ve commitment of the interna onal community to the unity, integrity and prosperity of Afghanistan. A

peaceful and stable Afghanistan is in India’s interest, as also the in- terests of the region and the World. The trauma and the de- struc on Afghanistan faced in the 1990s requires a comprehensive effort to rebuild and reconstruct a war torn society and economy. India as a c lose neighbour and friend has sought to play its role

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in this effort. India’s expanding partnership with Afghanistan has grown into mul -sec toral ac vi es in all parts of Afghanistan. India’s re- construc on and developmental programmes in Afghanistan fol- low priori es of the Afghan Gov- ernment and people. These encompass educa- on, medical services, transport, telecom- munica ons, civil avi- a on, agriculture, irriga on, power gen- era on, industry, and rural development. India is build ing in Afghanistan struc - tures from public toi- lets to transmission lines. A strong poli cal rela onship under- writes this partner- ship. One of India’s important in- frastruc ture projec ts in South- Western Afghanistan, the highway from Zaranj to Delaram, was inaugurated by President Hamid Karzai and India’s External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukher- jee on 22nd January, 2009. Built at the cost of prec ious Afghan and Indian lives lost in the course of its construc on, the highway is a symbol of India’s commitment to Afghanistan.

India in Afghanistan

India and Afghanistan are not just neighbours, joined together by history and civilisa onal contacts stretching over the millennia, but also strategic partners. Our close rela ons are based on cultural affini es, the shared values of mul ethnicity and pluralism and the common quest of our peo-

ples for peace and development have ensured that the rela on- ship between our two peoples re- mains warm and friendly. A prime example of India’s partnership with the people of Afghanistan is the construc on of a 218-km road between Delaram in Afghanistan to Zaranj on

by war. With the fall of the Taliban regime, India immediately reached out to the friendly peo- ple of Afghanistan involving itself with its civilian prowess: helping Afghanistan reconstruct itself, re- build its sha ered economy, in- frastructure and ins tu ons, help Afghans find a place for themselves, free of externally-imposed ex tremist religious ideology. As a large, diverse, mul cultural and mul -ethni c country with a millen- nia-old ethos of toler- ance, India supported the Afghans in mak- ing their own reli- gious, soc ial and economic choices. Over the years, India has become the six th largest donor in Afghanistan, with a bilateral assis- tance programme of $1.3 billion. The bo omline for Indian proj- ects is that they have to benefit the common man, and benefit all sec ons of the society.

Go to school, beat the hunger

The Indian assistance programme can be broadly classified into four categories. The first is humanitar- ian, which includes medical and food assistance. Among the first things that India sent to Afghanistan in the winter of 2001-2002, was protein-for fied biscuits. These were high-protein biscuits sent via the World Food Programme, which had the salu- tar y effec t of sending children, par cularly girls, back to school in various parts of Afghanistan, be- cause these biscuits provide chil-

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle in this effort. India’s expanding partnership with Afghanistan

Afghanistan’s border with Iran which began in 2005. The road was an ambi ous projec t and would link up to the “garland” highway stretching all the way to Kabul. The road would be Afghanistan’s “ lifeline” to Iran, giving the land-locked country an extra avenue to reach out. Over the next few years, India and Afghanistan to ed up a grim sta s c: roughly one human life was lost to Taliban a acks for ever y 1.5 km of road built. But when Pranab Mukherjee, then External Affairs Minister, handed over the road to Afghan President Hamid Karzai in Januar y 2009, India kept the faith with almost a dozen Indians and 130 Afghans who sacrificed their lives during the project. It was the strongest tes - mony to India’s commitment to helping Afghanistan find its feet a er decades of being ba ered

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dren the necessar y nutrients to prevent short-term hunger and encourage school a endance. Every day, over 2 million chil- dren get a supply of 100 gms of these for fied biscuits under the WFP ’s School Feeding Pro- gramme. It started, ironically, with a resource c runch by the WFP - India suggested conver ng its wheat dona on into high-pro- tein biscuits. It was done by an In- dian biscuit company, and started a trend. By 2008-09, 32,000 tons of biscuits were supplied to chil- dren in 33 out of 34 provinces in the country. In Januar y 2009, as Afghanistan ba led with a food crisis, India announced assistance of 250,000 metric tons of wheat, of which 150,000 tons would add to Afghanistan’s strategic re- ser ves. The grain could not be transported overland through Pakistan because of that coun- try ’s intransigence, even in a hu- manitarian ma er of this nature. Transporta on proved to be a lo- gis c s nightmare, because the only alternate route would have involved movement by sea to Iran and then overland to Afghanistan, by the same road that India built. Foreign secretar y, Nirupama Rao elaborated on the ra onale behind India ’s assistance to Afghanistan. “India is engaged in developmental and humanitarian work to assist the Afghan people as they build a peaceful, stable, inclusive, democra c and plural- is c Afghanistan. The landscape of destruc on must change. India neither sees Afghanistan as a bat- tleground for compe ng na onal interests nor assistance to Afghan reconstruc on and development as a zero sum game.” It is an important statement,

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because India’s efforts in Afghanistan are not aimed at un- dermining anybody. The bo om- line for India’s involvement remains the fac t that India con- siders extremist ideologies to be very dangerous and a na onal se- curity threat. To that extent, India wants to u lize its development programme in Afghanistan to (deny such ideologies space to grow) help Afghanistan stabilize and emerge as an economic hub linking South and Central Asia through a network of trade and transit linkages that would bene- fit the people of the en re re- gion.

Humanitarian

Assistance

In 2002, when Afghanistan was s ll in the throes of war, India had rushed ac ross 13 doc tors and p a r a m e d i c s , which went on to give ar fic ial limbs to war- wounded and landmine vic - ms throughout

A f g h a n i s t a n . Since then, 5 In- dian medical missions have been at work in Kabul, Herat, Jalalabad, Kan-

dahar

and

M a z a r- e - S h a r i f

a ending to pa- ents and giving out medic ines to over 30,000 pa ents ever y month. They target the poor- est sec ons of society, even as they fac ilitate

those be er off to make the trek to India for further, more sophis- cated treatment. In 2009, over 310,000 Afghans, par cularly women and children have trekked long distances to avail of free medical treatment. The Indira Gandhi Ins tute for Child Health (IGICH) in Kabul is a unique treasure - the largest pediatric hospital in Afghanistan. With a three-storied surgical block ( completed in 2005), a polyc linic and now a diagnos c block with CT scan and MRI facil- i es, this is an important part of Kabul’s health infrastruc ture. To the ex tent that Kabul doc tors (many being trained by the All India Ins tute of Medical Sc i- ences) actually asked Indian engi- neers to change the colour of the walls from the standard issue pale green to a bright and happy pink!

dren the necessar y nutrients to prevent short-term hunger and encourage school a endance. Every

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Afghans understand their na on and future best.

Roads to a better future

The Zaranj-Delaram highway will be a true logis cal boon when it connec ts up to the Chahbahar port in Iran. That will give Afghanistan a shorter ac cess to the sea, inc rease its a rac ve- ness as a trade and transit hub as

land prices there have gone up now, while the popula on of Zaranj town inc reased from 55,000 in 2004 to over 100,000 today. Buses and taxis are always on the road, and the journey, which was comparable to a bone- c rushing ride of over 12 hours, now takes barely more than a couple of hours. Trucks and con- tainers are the heaviest users, as was expected, averaging over 50 trucks a day, which also means higher customs rev- enues at Zaranj. As Ex ternal Af- fairs Minister S.M Kr- ishna said in January, “Afghanistan should emerge as a trade, transporta on and energy hub linking together the coun- tries of the region, from Central to South Asia. Unfet- tered transit and transport linkages

b e t w e e n Afghanistan and the

countries of SCO and SAARC could provide

larger markets for Afghan produc ts. Growing economi c i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e could catalyze peace

and prosperity in the region at large and in Afghanistan in par c- ular.”

Powering lives

In 2005, India began construc on of an ambi ous projec t – a 220 KV double c ircuit transmission line (202 km) from Pul-e-Khumri to Kabul and a sub-sta on in Chimtala near Kabul. The line tra- versed heavily snowed-in areas and passes over the Salang range at a height of 4000 m. The project

Security imperatives

Foreign Sec retar y Rao stressed the security impera ves that un- derline India’s development assis- tance in Afghanistan. “ The security of Afghanistan and what happens there impac ts us, as a country in the region, as a close neighbour whose es with the Afghan people stretch into an q- uity. A stable and se led Afghanistan, where the rank and file of the Tal- iban has given up vio- lence against the government, and the people, cut all links with terrorism, sub- scribe to the values of the Afghan Cons tu- on and its laws, and where development is the hard ra onale, is what we seek and quest for. It is impor- tant also that for such a struc ture to be durable and enduring , Afghanistan’s neigh- bours, and regional partners, will need to be in the pic ture – both by consulta on and by adherence to the principle of non-inter- ference in the countr y ’s affairs, ensuring that it thrives as a trade and transit hub for the region, and by eradica ng transna onal terrorism.” Underlining the Indian pres- ence is India’s strong poli cal partnership with the Afghan gov- ernment. India has stood solidly behind the government, under- taking its development projec ts only in consulta on with the Gov- ernment and as per the wishes of its people. India is convinced that

Specially designed for UPSCPORTAL.COM Members. Ar ticle Afghans understand their na on and future best.

well. But quite apart from the highway, Indian teams have built 58 km of inner-city roads, 40 km in Zaranj, 10 km in Gurguri and 8 km connec ng Gurguri to Razai. The road building itself was a huge exercise in logis cs: 339 en- gineers and workers from India and many more in Afghanistan were involved. But they kept costs down – the projec t cost a mere $150 million. As a result of the highway,

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had been turned down as being too difficult by other countries, but it took intrepid engineers from India to step up to the task. Kabul was lit up with elec tric ity from Uzbekistan with this project in summer of 2009. External Af- fairs Minister SM Krishna said, “ This is an outstanding example of regional and interna onal co- opera on in Afghanistan.” Meanwhile, a er being re- quested by the Afghan govern- ment, India started construc on of the Salma Dam Power project on river Hari Rud east of Herat. This will be commissioned in 2011 and will provide 42 MW electricity. A er the presiden a l elec- ons of 2004, the Afghan cons - tu on struck roots and the need was felt to build a parliament building that would be the ex- pression of Afghan’s democra c processes. In 2005, Zahir Shah, Baba-e-Millat laid the founda on stone of the building. Among the art that will decorate the building will be examples of Gandha ra school of Buddhist art, emphasiz- ing Afghanistan’s ancient histori- cal moorings. The design was approved by Afghan designers, but the contours are c lear: the Kabul building , unlike the one in Delhi, the Kabul building will have three blocks, housing two houses of parliament and a secretariat. The Wolesi and Meshrano Jir- gas have maintained regular con- tacts with the Indian parliament, while officials are being trained in India’s Bureau of Parliamentar y Study and Training. In fact, as India’s coopera on with Afghanistan matures, India is now turning to assist building ins