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Facilities Management Scope of Services

The scope of services for FM varies base on organisation specific requirement. It is likely
to be case-specific by nature and generally covers all aspects of non core activities within
the organisation. Practically, it deals with the diversities of facility, organizations,
business sector, surrounding environment, context, and circumstances (Chotipanich,

FM is the process of managing all aspects of real estate and facility assets from
acquisition to disposition. The domain of FM has been wider than the past. FM
encompasses workplace, facility, support service, property, corporate real estate, and
infrastructure. Today, FM involves in the management of organisation’s facility resources
and support services at three levels; strategic, operational and tactical.

At the strategic management level, a facility manager is required to participate in

planning, design, construction, operation and demolition of the facility. Rondeau et al.
(1995) summarises the strategic FM functions as the following:

1. protection of the market value of the real estate inventory.

2. assisting in capital accumulation.
3. origination of strategic moves.
4. information networking among divisions and operations which provides basis for:
 annual operating plan
 Long- Range Business Plan
 Strategic business plan
 Long-range facilities plan
5. risk assessment and control
6. deal structuring
 Lease versus buy
 Specific project assignments including making hold versus sell decision
 Acquisition and divestitures
 Buy or sell
 Lease arbitrage
 Market studies
 Highest and best use analyses
 Strategic management reports on the inventory status and forecast
 Miscellaneous studies
7. facility design
8. construction
9. maintenance and operation
10. administration services

Operational management involves primarily with more detailed, specific aspects of

implementing the strategic plans or changing current operating activity. This includes the
detailing of operational needs such as manpower and financial resource planning,
budgeting, scope of works definition, utilisation of system and processes, logistic
preparation and mobilization planning. Generally operational activities will look into
matters relating to the success in delivering the services which can be divided into the
following key functions:

1. manpower and financial resource planning

2. establishing budget and cost control programme
3. establish and implement procurement and purchasing policies
4. plan, execute and monitor operation, maintenance and repair activities
5. plan, execute and monitor refurbishment, upgrading and retrofitting activities
6. administration and management of other support services

Finally the tactical management level will be focusing on key functions to achieve the
operational efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of the FM scope of works. In FM,
the common tools used to achieve this objective are the performance management system
using service level agreement and key performance indicators. Value enhancement
programme (e.g. utilisation of building automation system, supervisory control and data
acquisition system, and online system performance monitoring equipment) and
implementation of computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) are seen to
be the key factor in achieving the highest return in FM investment.

In Malaysia, a comprehensive FM service contract is the most widely implemented FM

agreement between the government and the service provider. The detailed scope of works
for a successful delivery of FM services will consist of a service level agreement and key
performance indicators defined for all technical and non-technical aspect of services
rendered by the FM service provider. Typical comprehensive FM scope of services can
be divided into the following categories and sub-categories:

1. facilities Strategic management

a. Establishment of facilities operation and maintenance management policy,

strategy, quality management system & work processes.
b. Establishment and implementation of Safety, Health, and Environmental
policies that are fully in compliance with statutory requirement and
client’s standards.
c. Establishment of maintenance management information systems and
reporting procedures.
d. Establishment of Service Level Agreement (SLA)/Key Performance
Indicators (KPI) and development of the appropriate monitoring and
analysis processes.
e. Management of Customer Care Centre.
f. Management of facilities technical documentation and record including
archiving and updating.
g. Establishment of comprehensive facilities inventory system
h. Establishment of formal auditing process of the service delivery and
customer satisfaction review.
i. Establishment of procurement and inventory system of parts and
consumable items required for the service.
j. Establishment of Security Handbook/Standard Operating Procedures
k. Establishment of staff administration system that includes recruitment,
training & development and performance review process.
l. Liaison with the appropriate statutory authorities on matters relating to the
services and their provisions.
m. Performance management of sub-contractor/supplier and specialist service
n. Project Management
o. Warranty Management

2. Operation, Maintenance and Repair

a. Mechanical Systems
 Centralised air conditioning and mechanical ventilation system
 Air conditioning units (Air Handling Unit, Fan Coil Unit, Split
Unit and Pecision Unit)
 Cooling towers
 Water pump system (chilled and condenser water)
 Fans and filters
 Pressurization System
 Smoke Spill System
 Fire Alarm, Protection and Fighting System
 Fire Alarm, Monitoring and Detection System
 CO2 and gas extinguishers
 Clean Agent (Argonite)
 Central Monitoring System
 Lift (including passenger, service and fireman)
 Escalator and Travelator
 Weighbridges
 Overhead Cranes
 Liquid Petroleum Gas Supply
 Sewerage Treatment Plan (including strainers, gates, pumps and
 Domestic/Cold Water Supply and Booster Pump System
 Vehicle Platform Ventilation System (including smoke control
system- Carbon Dioxide sensors and Diesel Particle sensors)
 Gondola System
 Cold Room
 Grease Interceptor with automatic dosing system
 Other mechanical equipment or system such as Irrigation
System, Roller Shutters, and Fountains.
b. Electrical Systems
 External High Tension Reticulation and Distribution System
(33kv substation)
 External and Internal Low Voltage External Installation (11kv
 External Lighting System (including Hi-mast, street lighting,
tunnel-sensor lighting, security fencing lighting)
 Earthing, Lightning arrestor (Faraday Cage type) & Transient
Voltage Surge Suppression Systems
 Standby Diesel generation set
 Uninterrupted Power Supply
 Internal Lighting and power system
 Special Lighting (including LED façade, LED colour change,
Floodlight, Hot re-strike, Water Features, Cold Cathode)
 Landscape Lighting
c. Electronic Systems
 Public Address System
 Building Management System
 Information, Technology and Communication System
 Security System including Card Access System, Intrusion
Detection System, Automatic Gates and Barriers.
d. Civil, Structure and Architectural
 Road, Hump/Bump, Hard Standing and Footpath/Walkway
 Slopes and Earth Retaining Structure
 Drains, Sumps, Gratings and Culverts
 Fences and Gates
 Bridges and Underpass
 Sewer Lines ad Manholes
 Water Tank (including domestic and fire)
 Building and Roof Structures
 Floor
 Ceiling
 Doors (including fire door), windows and Grille
 Internal Partitions
 Furniture (common areas built –in)
 Signage (including road marking, parking lots and
 Plumbing and Sanitary System
 Rainwater Goods (symphonic system, gutters, down pipes)
 Internal and External Wall Finishes (including cladding,
paintworks and plaster)

e. Custodial Services
 General Cleaning (including internal and external/building
 Landscape and Ground Maintenance
 Pest and Domestic Animal Control
 Hygiene Services (including sanitary bin and disposal)
 Solid Waste Disposal
f. Support Services
 Event Facilitation
 Catering services
 Facilities Security Services

3. Workforce and Supervision - provision of qualified personnel in charge of

management, operation and maintenance, and supervision of the various services
and systems as described in the operation, maintenance and repair.
4. Workmanship and material – supply of all materials, equipment plants, spares and
consumables, competent personnel and labour to perform the above-mentioned
5. Warranty & Defect-Liability Period Management – during the effective Defect
Liability Period (DLP), the service provides is obliged to carry out the duty to
observe and report may defects in any part or parts of the building/facilities
system and equipment to the Superintending Officer.

In practice, FM has been implemented differently in different organisation. In-house FM

organisation will have a different work culture as compared to an out-sourced FM service
provider. Motivational levels are not the same for these two organisations but one
particular thing that they share is scope of works. Chotipanich (2004) argues that the
scope and responsibility of FM in an organisation may be wider that an organisation will
require in support services. This can be illustrated in the figure below.
Figure : Cluster of support services

(Source : Chotipanich, 2004)

There seem to be an overlapping function between the various service functions within
the support services. However this may differ depending on the influence by culture,
business objective, and nature of that organisation.