Kosovo, the OSCE and Others Drama in two Acts with an Epilogue

Academic Network South East Europe www.academicnetwork-see.net
Wednesday 1 June – Friday 3 June 2005 Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy Falkenstein 1, Hamburg

Organized and chaired by: Prof. K.P. Tudyka Dr. P. Schneider

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Introduction
The simulation on Kosovo entitled “Kosovo, the OSCE and Others: Drama in two acts with an Epilogue” took place at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy on the 2nd and 3rd June 2005. As preparation for the simulation there was a lecture given by Dr. Helmut Kramer of the University of Vienna on the 1st June. Students from across the region of SouthEast Europe participated in the simulation, they came from Albania, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia-Montenegro as well as Britain, Germany, Italy, Lithuania and Romania. The simulation took the form of a debate between the various parties both before and in the wake of the events of March 2004. The final section of the simulation involved a debate about the prospects for the future. The whole event was carried out in the roles allocated beforehand with everyone convincingly representing the views of their actor regardless of personal opinions. This was a rewarding and enriching experience for all both in the simulation itself and in the exchange of views possible before, after and inbetween. This protocol takes the form of minutes and should provide the reader with a good idea of the issues discussed and proposals put forward. Besides the organisers the following students participated: Meri Angeleska Rajna Badeva Goran Bandov Selma Belshaku Elena Bittasi Max Bornefeld-Ettmann Arben Coli Laura Costescu Joe Dethlefs Valdet Gashi Ermin Hadzic Bernd-Kristian Kaczenski Klajd Karameta Anne-Katrin Hinz Milica Isakov Marko Ivkovic Ruta Mockute Nicholas Parrott Stanislava Tasheva Eren Tiryaki Andreia Tolcio Aleksandra Zdravkovic

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In the summer there is to be a “comprehensive report” the results of which could perhaps already be in the autumn the beginning of EU-accession negotiations. Prof. Dr. Since the beginning of the intervention there has been a total number of 100. For example he said that the effort of the United Nations in this area have been surprisingly high. Half of this number have been soldiers of the KFOR–contingent. In connection with this he has regularly and intensively come in touch with the successor states of Yugoslavia and has a profound knowledge on this topic. It is called “Die KosovoBilanz” (“Kosovo: An assessment”) and is published by the Lit-Verlag Wien in July 2005. According to Professor Kramer 2005 will be the year of decision for the region of Kosovo. the other half staff members and activists from both governmental and non–governmental organisations. At the beginning of his lecture Professor Kramer presented some interesting facts and information about the region. Since 1999 the annual money spent for each inhabitant of the Kosovo has been around €1000 on average. He has finished a book in cooperation with a colleague.“Kosovo quo vadis? – Situation and perspectives of a UN-protectorate in Europe”. In this context it is an interesting detail that within the first six months of 2006 with Austria there is to be a country 3 .000 ‘internationals’ sent to Kosovo. By way of comparison this figure for Bosnia– Herzegovina is €250 and Afghanistan just €100. Helmut Kramer Minutes by Joachim Dethlefs Professor Kramer works on Political Science at the University of Vienna and is a known specialist for Austrian foreign affairs.

And from the 5. A democratic and tolerant political culture is still missing However : Kosovo is still a story of success in comparison to Haiti and Afghanistan. He criticises the absence of any long term personnel policy. That is in his eyes a reason for the insufficient organisation and dubious personnel selection in the mission-area. 4 . they came with a limited knowledge of the country.000 refugees after the riots in March 2004 also only 60 percent have come back yet The unemployment-rate is about 80 percent The energy-supply is disastrous The presence of more than 100. Compared with the invested expense on human. but a “positive freedom hasn’t yet been reached” From about 250.000 have come back until now. A positive example in this context is the recently appointed Special Representative.taking the presidency of the EU–council that always has had close relations to the South-East Europe. He tells how in New York only 15 desk-officers in the “Office for Peacekeeping-missions” are responsible for the coordination of all peacekeeping-missions. Furthermore Kramer says that some of the internationals are suffering a lack of identification with their missions. He calls it a “catastrophe” that 50 percent of the international police are partly from undemocratic states and are not accepted by the people of Kosovo. the effect of having the internationals as good example in the region disappears. He concluded that as long as there is no carefully considered strategy. material and financial resources Professor Kramer’s final result is critical : • • • • • • The security–situation within the country is stable. culture and mission-subject. Kramer doubts that the UN is capable of rebuilding the country.000 internationals has also caused negative effects in the country like a destruction of the wage structure and the development of prostitution The political result is suboptimal. The fast changing foreign-policy of the European Union also has a bad influence on the situation.000 refugees only 12. Sören Jessen-Petersen.

later Police and Justice issues (UNMIK) Pillar II: Civil administration (UNMIK) Pillar III: Democratisation and build-up of democratic institutions (OSCE) Pillar IV: Reconstruction and economic development (EU) The international civilian presence established the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG). Demilitarisation of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and other Albanian armed groups 6. the following four pillars were established: Pillar I: Humanitarian Aid and Return of Refugees (UNHCR). Return of refugees and displaced people to their homes 3. Advancement of substantial autonomy within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the beginning of a political process with the aim of determining the final status of Kosovo. Under the leadership of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG). Arrangement of a security presence to ensure a secure environment and the guarantee of law and order until this can be passed on to and international civilian presence 9. the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).First Act – The Dialogue – Departure for Europe? The OSCE Chairman in Office expressed his thanks for the attendance of all parties and hopes for a productive discussion over the following days. Arrangement of provisional institutions for democratic and autonomous selfadministration including the holding of elections 8. UNMIK welcomes the attendance of the negotiation parties to take part in the dialogue on the development of Kosovo. Reconstruction and economic development 5. UNMIK Max Bornefeld-Ettmann The main responsibility of the UN Security Council is the preservation of global peace and security. An end to violence against the people of Kosovo 2. We hope this can be a constructive meeting. Humanitarian Aid 4. through which democratic standards can be fulfilled in the future. Exercise of civil administration through the United Nations 7. He handed the floor almost immediately the United Nations Mission in Kosovo to open the debate. OSCE MiK Laura Renata Costescu 5 . In the case of Kosovo and under the Security Council Resolution 1244 the main aims of the International Community are: 1. By carrying out the elements of Resolution 1244 alongside the NATO-led troops of KFOR there should be an international civilian presence through the UN installed.

Continuing. The speaker further pointed up the mandate of the OSCE MIK and the progress made from July 1999. the second pointed out that the question of the status of Kosovo should be settled independently of the achievement of the standards. In the field of Human Resources Capacity-building the speaker showed that the OSCE MIK had established the Kosovo Police Service School and the Kosovo Judicial Institute (last one in collaboration with the Council of Europe) which was responsible for the training and education of judges. electoral platforms and election campaigns. Even though the Mission was active in this field through different programmes. prosecutors and defence counsels. To the second remark the Representative of the OSCE stated that the international community had to ensure that the standards regarding the functioning of democratic institutions. the representative showed that the OSCE had been assisting political parties in developing programmes. the enforcement of the rule of law. Continuing. She also pointed out the cooperation between OMIK and UNHCR. the representative showed that one area of concern is the human rights situation of Kosovo’s minority communities. 6 . On the last point the representatives of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro and the representatives of the Provisional Institution for Self Government had some remarks: the first showed that mixed administrative bodies didn’t function and recommended building up Serbian besides Albanian institutions. organisational structures. the freedom of movement etc would be implemented in Kosovo. On the other hand the OSCE MIK had been supporting the development of local NGO’s through the establishment of a network of NGO resource centres. The speaker further showed the activities of the OMIK regarding the development of the local media and pointed out the success of the Mission in organizing the elections for both the municipal level and the provisional assembly. the evolution was not totally satisfying with the problem of refugees and IDS and of minority protection not being solved. In the domain of the development of Civil Society. Still. To the first remark the representative of the OSCE MIK responded that only one set of institutions were required (the situation of 1999 with double formal and informal institutions should be avoided) responding to the needs of the multiethnic society living in the region. the representative of the OSCE MIK reported on a generally stable situation in the region.On taking the floor the representative of the OSCE Mission in Kosovo showed that the Mission coordinates the activities under the Pillar on institution-building within UNMIK and emphasized the cooperation with UNMIK in various fields. in which standards were being achieved and in which the question of the political future of Kosovo could be considered. the speaker indicated the eight principle objectives which are considered to be necessary to be implemented before considering the question of the political status of Kosovo.

We have war in Croatia. 7 . Albania and Macedonia. the results of which are the voluntary hand over of thousands of weapons and the confiscation of a good deal of illegally held ones. food. as the American position already is. Representatives of the US Joachim Dethlefs and Katharina Kobilarov Ladies and gentleman. Due to technical changes the last part of the first act. The ongoing campaign aims in convincing the rest part of armed Kosovo-Albanians to give their weapons. Let us briefly review the history of the brutal collapse of the former republic of Yugoslavia. who had fled during the armed conflict and were accommodated in the refugee camps of the neighbour countries. By concluding the report the KFOR officer assessed the actual situation as calm and mostly secure and pointed to the further engagement towards a growing security. KFOR has demilitarised the KLA and initiated the disarming process. did not take place. A great contribution for the security in Kosovo is the clearing of major routes and population centres as well as the border line from the anti-human mines placed by both sides during the war. but we also see with sorrow the standstill in some areas like the fight against organised crime. We welcome the positive developments in the region. schools and bridges with its engineering squads. the marking of the mine containing areas and sites and the extensive mine awareness campaign in the media and schools. the assistance for UNMIK and NGOs in distribution of humanitarian aid. Worth mentioning was also the contribution of KFOR in the reconstruction by building and repairing roads. clothing and rebuilding materials for houses and the medical assistance through KFOR field hospitals. The first achievement of KFOR was the return of the refugees from Kosovo. which was supposed to make a parenthesis of the rioting of March 2004 (with people shouting and screaming and the KFOR officer talking privately to the Chairman). I will try to keep my explanations as structured and clear. Honourable members of the chair First I want to thank you for the possibility to briefly outline the American position within this topic. with the protection of minorities and the facilitation of their return as priority.KFOR Officer Selma Belshaku and Anne-Katrin Hinz The KFOR officer began his report with a review of the work done by KFOR from the beginning of the mission (12 June 1999) and its achievements towards providing a secure environment in Kosovo.

the Bosnian Muslims and the Bosnian Serbs which in our eyes can not to be totally divided from the Serbian people in Serbia. And our European friends will accept the existence of victim and perpetrator but – referring to their individual history – having different ideas about who is victim and who is perpetrator in the Balkan-context. 8 . that it wasn’t the Europeans at all who have brought up the ending of the conflict in Bosnia. the mental focus of the people with further lay on the hate against their neighbour. It is a question about realizing the difference between victim and perpetrator. But one may think about. It is common knowledge that generally seen you always need two people for a conflict. The situation has escalated. And to make it clear as well : It wasn’t the Europeans at all who have decided to show the regime in Belgrade with powerful arguments its borders in terms of Kosovo. as you treat the Albanians and the Serbians in the same way. This is my main point. The NATOBombardment started as an US initiative. The problems existing in the region of Kosovo and the suggestions and regulations drawn in resolution 1244 cant be solved and seen without realizing and accepting the different responsibility of the local actors. But for the nonEuropean-members of the United Nations there seems to be no victim and perpetrator.The actors are the Croatians and the Serbs. But it is very important that these countries are independent from Serbia. you all will agree: we have three different conflicts that are generally but not completely in connection with each other. When I see the results I know that we were right.has proven completely right. Please allow me to point out. And as long as the economic situation is not stable. To underline it: As long. That is one of the real problems behind the situation. I could name a lot more examples but our time is limited. In Kosovo there is an escalating conflict-situation similar to war. you will not come to a solution neither to a development in the question of Kosovo. We have war. What makes the sense in forcing all these people living together in a country that is part of Serbia. We have three different constellations of actors and of course none of these actors is alone responsible for the happenings and crimes. So. So let’s look on Kosovo with this American view that -against all resistance in the past several times. Of course the United States are not the only one to decide this. Also in Croatia and even more in Bosnia today Serbians freely live within the local societies. The actors are as well the Kosovo-Albanians and yes: again the Serbs. to give it independence and make it a partner integrated in a network of Balkan-countries. if they just don’t want? We from our side would very much appreciate more realism especially by our European partners. The conflict will go on as long as the economic situation is not stable. Let’s go to Bosnia a little later. but to us it comes more and more clear that the only way to make Kosovo a stable country is. It was essentially the initiative of the United States of America with the direct and admirable engagement of visionary people like Richard Holbrooke or Bill Clinton choosing Dayton as instrument to build the fundament for freedom in the region. And when I see the results I know that we were right. if after the experiences of the Balkan-conflict it is fair at all to treat all groups in an equal way. The actors are the Bosnian Croats.

9 .Multiethnic state? Yes! America is the best example for the success of a model like this. The EU. I don’t have to explain to you the challenges for the American people connected with the worldwide war on terror. But we urgently have to reduce our engagement and let the European countries take more responsibility in solving the conflicts happening directly at their front door. No doubt that there will be a number of our troops remaining in the Kosovo area. the EU is in charge of revitalising economic activity in Kosovo. The European Union’s presence in Kosovo has taken three major forms: 1) The HUMANITARIAN AID OFFICE 2) The EUROPEAN AGENCY FOR RECONSTRUCTION 3) As part of UNMIK. equipment of schools and the provision of medical supplies. open market economy. In the initial period after the war. the single largest donor providing assistance to Kosovo with 51. As you all know the European Union has been present in Kosovo since the very beginning of the international effort to build a new future for this area and that the European Union is. such as rehabilitation of rural areas. is playing the most prominent role in the reconstruction of Kosovo and to rebuild everyday life for all the people of Kosovo – whatever their ethnic background. rebuilding what has been damaged by the war and creating the conditions for a modern. by far. But multiethnic state within the borders of Serbia? Within the borders of the country of people who didn’t prove a lot in the past in showing tolerance towards other ethnics and religions? A multiethnic state within the borders of Serbia is an illusion. But the energy in these terms – even of a country like the United States of America – is limited. the HUMANITARIAN AID OFFICE donated more than €400 million for emergency assistance. What I want to come to is that there seems to be still a lot of energy and monetary power left within the European partners to try for several years longer to build up a multiethnic society in Kosovo with in our eyes not sustainable and ineffective methods. including its Member States and the European Commission. ECHO reduced its programmes in Kosovo substantially in 2001. accommodation for displaced persons. Thank you European Union Elena Bittasi and Nicholas Parrott Good morning Ladies and Gentlemen.5 million for 2004 Annual Programme and more than 2 billion since 1999.

other activities include the rehabilitation of railways and road patching. The contribution of the EU both as member states and as a unit through the commission and agencies have therefore been outlined. Reform in the direction of EU membership should be paramount in all places and necessary compromises should be made to that end. which will create employment and be the main engine for growth. However. The development of an open. Montenegro and Kosovo in whatever form. I would like to state that there have been a number of substantial improvements: the economy in Kosovo is growing. water and environment programme. This does not imply ‘standards before status’ in the former sense but rather that we see the route of Kosovo to the EU as being built upon the establishment and reestablishment of sustainable industry and jobs. the European Union is in charge of economic development in Kosovo. Our member states within the Contact Group are taking a role in pre-discussions towards final status. market economy and of a framework for the development of modern enterprises is seen as fundamental in order to establish a sustainable private sector. with half of the funds dedicated to the re-establishment of electricity supplies. Besides. At this initial juncture we would also like to briefly outline some of the elements we see as necessary into the future : • EU membership is a big question for countries of the region. economic development.The EUROPEAN AGENCY FOR RECONSTRUCTION from February 2000 is managing sustainable reconstruction and development programmes in Kosovo. The position of the EU is that we see economic and social development still as key. Clearly. Nearly a billion euros have been available for reconstruction and institution-building. The European vocation of all countries of the region is clear – and membership in the foreseeable future should be both a goal and an expectation. the EU pillar is seeing a gradual shift in the focus of its work. housing. We have heard various proposals on the way forward this morning and the position of the EU is very much that the current state of affairs is no longer sustainable. the situation of Kosovo leaves considerable work to be done. • • • In conclusion we are absolutely convinced that the entire western Balkans will join the EU. Therefore. As a part of UNMIK. In the immediate post conflict phase. this focused on the repair and restructuring of basic infrastructure. health care reform and the creation of credit facilities. 10 . Slovenia has already joined as a successor state to Yugoslavia and Croatia is well on the way. Before passing the floor to my colleague. including Serbia. With a large part of the major reconstruction work now complete. the long term perspective in the European Union’s pillar activities is to provide solid foundations to bring Kosovo’s frameworks closer to European standards. even if at a lower rate than in the post-reconstruction boom.

conflict resolution and peace building. 3) Long-term solutions The representatives informed the other participants of the meeting that UNHCR seeks for long-term or 'durable' solutions. Horn of Africa. Rehabilitation and Reconstruction – for voluntary repatriation. The Balkans. by helping them to integrate in their countries of asylum or to resettle in third countries (in which individuals. integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It was stressed that being able to return to their country of origin in safety and dignity is widely recognized as the most desirable durable solution. Reintegration. The representatives accentuated that the UNHCR strives to ensure the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State. In other words. nationality. and who cannot or do not want to return home. The major components of the “Framework for Durable Solutions” were presented. secondly. the representatives pointed out that through its activities for refugees and returnees. the ultimate goal has always been to work for durable solutions so that refugees no longer need the agencies protection.UNHCR Ruta Mockute and Eren Tiryaki 1) Mandate of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The representatives of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) introduced the mandate of the Office of the UNHCR. "DLI" – Development through Local Integration – for local integration. Afghanistan. a place to call home free of threats to life and liberty. • to resolve refugee problems and to safeguard well-being of refugees worldwide. families and even communities are voluntarily resettled into a new. Sri Lanka. with the option to return home voluntarily. The basic aims that had been mentioned in this meeting are as follows: • to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and their rights. "4Rs" – Repatriation. It was also said that UNHCR promotes international refugee agreements and monitors government compliance with international refugee law. and the one generally preferred both by UNHCR and most refugees. by helping refugees repatriate to their homeland if conditions warrant (only voluntary repatriation). and. non-political organization which is engaged in the following regions worldwide: Europe. They underlined that UNHCR is a humanitarian. political opinion or membership in a particular social group. religion. 2) Definition of a refugee The UNHCR representatives characterized refugees as people who are outside their countries or homes within the country borders (internally displaced persons) because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on their race. 11 . Southern Africa. third-party country and are integrated into its social fabric). UNHCR promotes international efforts in prevention. to help them re-establish that most basic of human needs. Firstly. Moreover. North Caucasus. Central Africa. The representatives generalized that although the protection of refugees remains the mandate of UNHCR. West Africa and Columbia. These are: "DAR" – Development Assistance for Refugees – for protracted refugee situations. Iraq. The Palestinian Issue.

N. Through the process the Mission gradually handed over its elections related responsibilities to the local institutions. The 2004 elections for the Kosovo Assembly were held in October 2004 and were organized by the Central Election Commission Secretariat (CESC). the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). the U.4) Early warning system Another important scope of the organization was stressed that it devotes resources for trying to avert crises by anticipating and preventing huge population movements from global trouble spots. the Department of Elections (DE) played a major role in two Municipal elections in 2000 and 2002 and the Kosovo Assembly election in 2001 and 2004. and the financial audit office. As part of this process. For example. the Representative of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro (SCG) first expressed his gratitude to the OSCE Chairman in office for the invitation and then he thanked the former speakers. also more than 570 non-governmental organizations. Children's Fund (UNICEF). The OSCE continued to be responsible for the specific operational activities such as: Voter Registry. the orator from the Russian Federation for their appropriate reports. by mail voting for out of Kosovo voters. These responsibilities are to be transferred by the end of 2005. From the of point of view of SCG the actual evidence is that the international community already creates an independent Kosovo and Metohija while taking away the sovereignty from 12 . political party registration as well as planning and running of the Count and Results Centre. One approach is to put in place a so-called early warning system – establishing an international monitoring presence to confront problems before conflict breaks out. esp. It followed a spell binding address. the World Food Program (WFP). the U. organizing and supervising elections in Kosovo was one of the most important tasks of the OSCE Mission in Kosovo. UNHCR has expanded both the scope of organizations it works with. Development Program (UNDP). the World Health Organization (WHO). Representative of the Government of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro Andreia Tolciu and Bernd-Kristian Kaczenski Having the floor. the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and others. As humanitarian crises have become more complex. OSCE-OSHIR-Director Aleksandra Zdravković and Goran Bandov In recent years.N.

security and judicial system. the Representatives of the PISG got in a flap and disturbed the following conversation. After this. The OSCE Chairman in Office expressed his thanks for the calm and productive manner in which he felt initial views had been put forward. He stressed his hopes for this to continue throughout the discussion before closing the meeting and inviting the participants to the following press conference. 13 . Furthermore he reproached the international community with not meeting their obligations as they are stipulated in the resolution 1244 which he is recalling subsequently. demands and his assistant added guarantees. After SCG had finished its speech. In order to achieve this goal. SCG pleaded for the determination of the final status of Kosovo and Metohija in order to guarantee economic growth and direct investments in both Serbia and Kosovo. SCG asked to send around 1000 soldiers into Kosovo. In accordance to the resolution 1244 the goal must be to form surroundings in which refugees could return. The independence of Kosovo and Metohija would not only mean its breakdown but also the destabilisation of the whole region. Perorating the speaker summed up his allegations. to protect the borders and to establish its own institutions to facilitate the return of their refugees. the speaker took up again the violent events from March 2004 and blamed the international community for having known in their secret services about the undertakings of the Albanians and for not having prevented the brutal riots. Due to the fact that mixed administrative bodies would not function the speaker recommended building up Serbian among Albanian institutions in fields such as health care. Given that Albanians were burning down orthodox churches in front of the KFOR. The speaker of the OMIK rejected the critics and said it was too early to talk about the question of the status. A further point was the question of the status. SCG requested the western world for cessation of the undertaking to build up a multinational society in Kosovo and Metohija. SCG accused the international community of doing it not coincidentally. SCG annotated. he presented the main issues of the passed resolution from March 2004 of the Serbian government which comprised that SCG pledges itself to protect Serbians in Kosovo and Metohija. The West is obliged. that it could even have negative effects on the problem with Basks in Spain. the speaker said. but rather consciously. A speaker of the UNMIK challenged the neutrality of the Representatives and accused them of making a campaign for their party. he invoked the cultural heritage in Kosovo and Metohija and demanded its protection. As a result. education.Belgrade. to respect the fact that in Kosovo drastic cleavages subsists on an ethnic basis. The speaker also blamed the PISG for bad collaboration with Belgrade and for the discrimination towards Serbians in Kosovo and Metohija in the legislation.

In the conversation that followed. all of Kosovo was engulfed in flames. According to UN and Church statistics. as over 800 homes. Than Church gave the statistics of destruction and atrocities in Kosovo in the last 6 years. The Orthodox Church leaders pledged to reach out and extend a hand of cooperation in this Kosovo and one again stressed that without cohabitation and realisation that Kosovo belongs to all of its citizens. In addition to the loss of precious human lives. 50. and a sustained attempt at expunging the sacerdotal Serbian presence: of the original 1. dating to the 12th and 14th centuries.500 Serbs and other non-Albanians from their homes. With 33 synchronized flashpoints. all during the time of peace and not war. Blames.177 monuments smashed.000 Albanians in the presence of 18. As Christian representatives. Church had emphasized the desecration of cemeteries and graves. 211 Orthodox cemeteries desecrated and 5. the Orthodox Church leaders reported about witnessing the poignant reality left in the wake of extreme Albanian on Serbian violence in Kosovo during the exile of 17-19 March 2004. 1. Confusion Group of Orthodox Church leaders Milica Isakov After receiving the floor from the Speaker of the Chairman in Office. the Church suffered the most seeing the destruction of 35 additional churches and shrines.000 refugees. the Church pledged for the repatriation of 200. and Group of Roma protested that they were not mentioned in the Church’s speech. added to the 35 above for a total of 150. and killing 19 persons. the Church was accused of influencing the political decisions involving the Serbian population in Kosovo by the representatives of the LDK. homes.Intermediate Act: Press Conference – ABC: Accusation. At the end of its speech.200 murdered. by implementing The Memorandum of Understanding signed on 24 March 2005 and the implementation of local self-rule. monasteries and monuments. and the resettlement of an otherwise non sustainable IDP population to the same areas .000 NATO peacekeepers drove 4. many of which had recently been rebuilt by the International Community for repatriated Serbs. in which uncontrollable crowds of people converged to obliterate anything bearing the sign of the Cross. including 150 peacekeepers. which was in complete violation of the international norms on the manifestation of religious symbols. schools and other destroyed buildings. with many graves opened and earthly remains of deceased tossed aside. injuring 900.000 exiled Serbs and 50. that is from the time of the 1999 NATO-brokered international peacekeepers.000 other non-Albanian . which would allow for the sustainability and security of resettled refugees. 14 . including those. The representative of OMNIK asked about relations with other churches. some of them under UNESCO protection. were looted and demolished. while encouraging Serbian participation in the provisional governmental institutions of Kosovo and Metohija. there can not be a long lasting peace in the province. which witnessed the expulsion of 250.657 churches. the reconstruction of churches. the restitution of confiscated church properties and subsidiaries.000 kidnapped and 1. over 115 were destroyed.

Roma aren't protected and their rights are not under protection of Framework for protection of national minorities of Council of Europe in Kosovo. who defend their families and their ground like heroes. How can you talk with someone. First of all. We say Faleminderit to our brave American friends. The only people with a legal claim on the country. While Serbs also have the possibility of safer living in the northern part of Mitrovica. 15 . It was also pointed out that Roma people do not have any state on their own where they would be welcome in contrast to Serbian refugees. Representative of the former UCK Joachim Dethlefs and Katharina Kobilarov Ladies and gentleman. 50000-70000 Roma are refugees and they haven't possibility to come back on Kosovo. which is illegally occupied by violent. and fill up the over-aged labour-market with our young and talented people. And that with their bare fists against the Serbian soldiers or the Serbian police. where this leads to. Confusion they presented the position of the Group of Roma /Gypsies people (ngo) which claims to be victimised by all parties and being marginalized and forgotten by the international community. Then we will soon be able to reach economic growth and rebuild the infrastructure. We say Faleminderit to our brave and courageous friends: to the European states. This shows a lack of sensibility of the organizers. The only lesson which is to draw from these occurrences is a free Kosovo. orthodox peasants. there is no region for Roma to retire in peace. The only countries which haven’t let themselves be deceived by the Serbian propaganda and came to help our innocent people in need. as well as to the NATO. so shortly after the tragic occurrences in March and to have to face the murderers of our children. that you forced us to sit right here in one room. The Roma minority is one of the biggest minority on Kosovo. Give us the responsibility for our land. Without the international protectorate we could be a full member of the European Union in a short period of time. We speak in a direct voice for the people of Kosovo. Give us the responsibility for our lives. Germany and the United Kingdom. Blames. Fathers. my colleague and I want to enter a protest about the seating arrangements. We see it as an unreasonable demand. Anyway both are well armed from the western states. But we rather want to talk about our brave soldiers. who burnt down your mosques? Don’t be deceived by their affirmations! We have seen in March. sons and grandfathers. which is basically the same. We sincerely want to thank our true friends.Group of Roma/Gypsies people Aleksandra Zdravković and Goran Bandov In the second part of Simulation Intermediate Act: Press Conference – ABC: Accusation. who brought us peace with their bombs of justice.

Speaker of the Albanian Government Max Bornefeld-Ettmann The Albanian government absolutely rejects accusations of involvement in the renewed violence in Kosovo. International Human Rights organisation Ruta Mockute and Eren Tiryaki As the only present international human rights organization the representatives of the Human Rights Watch (HRW) welcomed this opportunity to express their organization’s views on Kosovo to all participants of the meeting. which could have ended in a civil war if the international community had not intervened. The precarious situation in Kosovo could have a negative impact on Macedonia. it is of high importance that violence must be stopped as a prerequisite for the safe and secure return of refugees (and avoiding further migration/displacement) and humanitarian living conditions of minorities. The country came up from an armed conflict between the state and the ethnic Albanians. Kosovo Serb leaders and the government of Serbia and Montenegro should be improved. The rule of law and especially the accountability of politically or ethnically motivated crimes must be facilitated by all means. The KFOR was asked to enhance the security measures for a more efficient protection. The Albanian government rejects all forms of violence and calls for peace among the people of Kosovo. indeed. After less than 4 years Macedonia has made considerable progresses in the integration process and is working hard for the implementation of the framework agreement signed in Ohrid. The representatives insisted that. The Contact Group countries and involved international organizations (NATO. In the declaration the Macedonian Government condemned the desecration of the orthodox churches and their symbols and demanded the stop of the violence from the part of Kosovo Albanians against the Serbs and other minorities. the dialogue between Kosovo’s Provisional Institutions of Self-Government. UN. This conflict was transported over the border by former fighters of UCK (Kosovo Liberation Army). They stated that first of all. by suspected elements. which would step Macedonia back from its development the government of Macedonia called the international community with its organisations to contribute as much as they can for the peace and development in Kosovo and the whole region. the role and regulation of media organizations should be redefined. In this respect. Additionally. where he stated the position of its government related with the tense situation in Kosovo after the rioting of March. Second. Fearing the spread of any revolt from Kosovo in its territory. these parties should show greater engagement with Kosovo since the situation is still regarded as highly fragile. Speaker of the FYROM Government Selma Belshaku and Anne-Katrin Hinz The speaker of the Government of FYROM made in this press conference a declaration. a fragile country with 25% of its population ethnic Albanians. Such suggestions have been made against the Albanian government since the time of the 1981 problems and always without basis. OSCE. As a third and last point. EU) need to increase their coordination among themselves and also with the regional administrations. special attention should be given on minorities and returnees who all are to be protected against treatments such as persecutions. Police forces such as the UNMIK police or Kosovo Police Service along with KFOR must be able to establish certain security standards in the region. the representatives 16 .

Although economic indicators for last year were suggesting that the performance of the Kosovo economy was further improving. which was created to provide local enterprises and potential 17 . however. unemployment remains a major concern. We are still optimistic in the longer-term but in the short-term we have lost a lot of money.underlined that Kosovo (regardless of its legal status) is a multiethnic region where the fundamental rights of all inhabitants have to be fully protected and respected. There needs to be substantial investment in local infrastructure which is still not there and complicates doing business. This is a disaster for our business. Representative of the Business Community Elena Bittasi and Nicholas Parrott Good afternoon Ladies and Gentlemen. we cannot ignore that attempts to attract foreign investors to Kosovo are suffering severe setbacks after March 2004. I want to underline that potential investors from the region and from the diaspora were showing an increased tendency to see Kosovo not only as destination of exports. He pointed out that until that point the EBRD had been active with two projects: the Kosovo Reconstruction Equity Fund. When we opened our battery factory we were very optimistic for the investment opportunities in Kosovo. with the current export/import coverage equal to 3. Investment is. Nevertheless. which has tried investing in Kosovo. In light of recent events. We appeal for strong. Kosovo economy is far from being selfsustainable and even under the most optimistic scenarios will not become so in the short run. in particular in the medium and long term. effective and rapid action on the part of the international community. no one is willing to take longterm contracts because of fears for disruption to our supplies. several recent surveys have confirmed a gradual decline in workers’ remittances and donor spending. Further the representative confirmed its sustained assistance for the reconstruction of the region. Besides. as a representative of the Business Community. Now you can hear from one business. but also for investments. creating crucial jobs in the local economy. We committed a substantial amount of capital and local workforce. We had left Kosovo in 1999 but decided to return at the end of 2003 and in early 2004.9%. Also the trade deficit remains substantial. Speaker of the EBRD Laura Renata Costescu The representative of the EBRD expressed his concerns regarding the development of the political situation in Kosovo and emphasized the implications of the politically insecure situation on the economical development. what Kosovo needs and on a political level it is crucial that a climate is created whereby this can be fostered.

and would engage in dialogue to identify areas in the energy sector for potential Technical Cooperation that might lead to investments. Asked in what the economical importance of the region on international level consisted. as these were considered to be the engine of the economical recovery and essential for the creation of jobs. whose aim was to provide reliable access to financial services for Micro and Small Enterprises throughout Kosovo and to encourage banks to enter the same market segment.foreign investors willing to invest in the Province with much-needed medium to long-term financing. the delegation of the OSCE PA condemned the recent acts of violence in Kosovo and called for reestablishment of dialogue in order to secure sustainable stability. relevant additional material (pictures in PowerPoint) were presented to the audience. the representative of the EBRD showed that Kosovo was a major junction of the trade routes of South Eastern Europe and it was added that building up a strong Kosovo from the economical point of view would reduce the emigration flows from Kosovo to Europe. The Assembly representatives called for thorough investigations of the acts of violence which occurred in March 2004 in Kosovo and also called upon the OSCE participating States to provide the additional forces to the peacekeeping Kosovo Force (KFOR) that are necessary not only to maintain stability but also to ensure that all displaced persons wishing to return to their original homes in Kosovo have a secure environment in which to do so. They shortly pointed out the attributions that the Parliamentary Assembly has to fulfil : (a) assess the implementation of the objectives of the OSCE (b) discuss subjects addressed during meetings of the Ministerial Council and the summits of Heads of State or Government (c) develop and promote mechanisms for the prevention and resolution of conflicts (d) support the strengthening and consolidation of democratic institutions in the OSCE participating states (e) contribute to the development of the institutional structures of the OSCE and of relations and cooperation between the existing OSCE institutions. For a better understanding of the situation in Kosovo. OSCE Parliamentary Assembly Andreia Tolciu and Bernd-Kristian Kaczenski Being the last speakers of the conference. the Bank would continue to assist the authorities with the implementation of a modern regulatory regime in the telecommunications sector that reflects best international practice. He also emphasized the importance of the stabilisation of the political situation and reconfirmed the future commitment of the EBRD to the development of the region. In the infrastructure sector. and the Pro Credit Bank Kosovo. Within these responsibilities. the delegates of the Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE presented the position of the institution they represent with regard of the Kosovo issue. The speaker pointed out the importance of the development of the Small and Medium Enterprises. 18 .

the representatives of the OSCE MIK pointed out that the year 2005 was the moment when the question of Kosovo’s future had to be settled. standard implementation to an accelerated transfer of competencies to Kosovo authorities. as well as the situation of the minorities were still very fragile and that the international community would still need to remain committed in the region. that the cooperation between the KFOR. The proposal was received positively and with agreement to further pursue the matter. It was also stated that the security in Kosovo. The OSCE PA delegation stressed that inter-parliamentary cooperation is also intended to facilitate dialogue and mutual understanding in the region. The recent events in Kosovo evidence that this is very much needed. UNMIK and the KPS had been intensified and that the operational preparedness and refined contingency planning were at hand after March 2003. but also facts. Second Act – After the Disaster the Disillusion The OSCE Chairman in Office opened the meeting. as well as members of the national and local parliaments of the region. It was also shown that the international community was confronted with challenges ranging from security. centred on joint cooperation in fighting trans-national organized crime. In the end the role of the standards was to ensure improved living conditions and security for the population of Kosovo. In the Kosovo Assembly there was for the first time a political opposition Implementation of Standards – it was shown that the Standards were not only the ticket to the discussions about the status of Kosovo. The speakers described the events of March 2003 and pointed out the consequences resulting in the destruction of towns. The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly delegation issued a proposal aimed at organizing. OSCE MiK Laura Renata Costescu Having the word. Democratic institutions – were considered to have been well functioning. in the near future.The core messages of the statement was that without democracy there can not be any stabilization in the region and that without a stabilization of the situation it is impossible to take further steps towards a democratic society. The multiethnic Government elected in December 2004 had embraced Standard Implementation. cultural heritage and in the creation of a new refugee flow. but it was also said that the situation had become more secure during the last months. a meeting of OSCE parliamentarians. that would define the future type of the society in Kosovo. Further the representatives made four points: • Security – it was admitted that the security of the region had badly suffered from the events of March 2003. The evaluations of the OSCE MIK showed that standards implementation could be achieved 19 • • .

The representatives showed that there had been created the conditions for Serbs to be actively involved in the political life (10 places for the Serb minority in the Parliamentary assembly) and showed that support of the Serbian and Montenegrin Government in this regard would be welcome. KFOR intends to undertake various changes in the organisation towards better reaction capabilities. In the end the representatives indicated that there was a need of dialogue with major international actors and institutions and pointed out the importance of the Contact Group and expressed that the region would rise to the challenge of putting an end to the conflicts of the past. given the events of March 2003. but showed that in the period following March 2003 there had been made progress. Because of the few reserve forces to sustain the operations and other deficiencies in the organisation the KFOR could not intervene as it should. etc.• Transfer of authority – it was shown that the UNMIK had transferred more competences to the local administration and that the OSCE MIK supported the ministries with coaching regarding strategic planning. improvements in the chain of commands and the organisation of intervention companies in alert cases. Being aware of the big challenge. The KFOR delegation admitted that the rioting of March “caught KFOR by surprise”. The Russian Federation and the PISG expressed their disaffection regarding the activity of the OSCE MIK in the region and considered that. the prevention of other events of this nature in the future. Concretely these measures consist on the improvement of the alarm system. it had failed to provide for security in the region and for the freedom of movement of the minorities. After the return of the Kosovo-Albanian refugees and the establishment of a certain security environment the number of KFOR forces was reduced continuously. The representatives of the OSCE MIK admitted that the international community had failed in this regard. KFOR stressed in its answer to the representatives of the Government of Serbia and Montenegro the good acceptance of KFOR as security provider by the people in Kosovo.000 soldiers. as 20 . such as sappers and lorries. KFOR Selma Belshaku and Anne-Katrin Hinz KFOR presented the reductions made in the total number of the soldiers from 1999 until March 2004 and the changes as response measures to the lately events.500 soldiers in the early March and another reduction was planed. for road blocks. which were in concordance with the standards of the Council of Europe. Due to the widespread rioting 90 Soldiers from United Kingdom. the use of helicopters and other vehicles. It was also said that politically motivated murders took place also in other regions and that it was regrettable that they hadn’t been avoided. The representatives of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro complained about the little involvement of the Serbs in the political life of Kosovo and about the fact that there had been politically motivated murders taking place. Germany and USA were sent as reinforcement to Kosovo. France. strengthening management capacities. The number reached 17. Italy. In the beginning of its mission KFOR had 50. The speakers showed that the new draft of a constitution contained clear norms regarding minorities’ rights. as they were unprepared for such a situation. this being considered to be a step forward towards the democratisation of the society.

Furthermore. There was a dispute later on with the representative of the Russian Federation caused by his pronouncement on the presence of KFOR in Kosovo. Secondly. which distinguish it from the majority. KFOR soldiers accompany the Serb children and children other minorities to school and are engaged in the protection of every individual who feels threatened by racism and ethnically motivated attacks. 2) Definition of a minority The representatives of the HCNM stated that the mandate does not provide a specific definition of what constitutes a national minority.well as the minorities. It is equally essential that he fulfils the condition of confidentiality. explicitly excluded from the High Commissioner's mandate are individual cases concerning persons belonging to a national minority or national minority issues in cases “involving organized acts of terrorism”. which means that the HCNM acts through preventive diplomacy. a minority is a group which (…) also tries to give stronger expression to that identity. 21 . ethnic or cultural characteristics. a minority is a group with linguistic.) First of all. (..” The representatives of the HCNM noticed that the participants of the meeting did not come to an agreement on this issue at all . “the existence of a minority is a question of fact and not of definition. Moreover. "early action" at the earliest possible stage being relatively independent in his actions (e. the participating States of the then so-called Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) decided on the Helsinki Summit in 1992 to establish the institution of High Commissioner on National Minorities. As a multinational force charged with the establishment and maintenance of security in the place. According to the words of Max van der Stoel. OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities HCNM Ruta Mockute and Eren Tiryaki 1) Mandate of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities The OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) representatives started their report by reminding the mandate of the HCNM as an institution which task is to identify and provide solutions in time to certain ethnic tensions within or between OSCE participating States. The mandate defines his role as "an instrument of conflict prevention at the earliest possible stage".except the Roma representative. the High Commissioner's task is to provide "early warning" and. as appropriate.g.. KFOR was committed to keep its neutrality and not interfere in the discussions between the parties involved in the conflict and those supporting them about the status of Kosovo. The representative said that KFOR had completely failed in providing security and protecting the Serb population and its religious symbols ignoring that way unfairly the efforts and achievements of a 5-year work. The HCNM is aware of the fact that ethnically motivated conflicts are one of the main sources of violence and crime in Europe and that these crises also have the dangerous potential to “spill-over” to neighbouring regions causing further catastrophic outcomes. In other words. the first High Commissioner who was appointed in 1992. To respond to this challenge. the High Commissioner has to preserve his impartiality at any time in order to be truly effective as a third party. without approval of the Senior or Permanent Council or of the State concerned).

The European perspective is regarded as an important policy aim for the post-communist Balkan States as it provides incentives to develop democratic standards and to comply with human rights – including minority rights. regardless of origin. The media has a responsibility to react properly and professionally to serve the best interests of the population of Kosovo. minorities must be able to participate in the decisionmaking processes and bodies. A few of them are presented here: • A full investigation into the performance of the electronic broadcast media. fair and balanced media landscape in Kosovo. 22 . biased reporting alone could lead to violence. Turks and other communities) due to several reasons still lacks behind in these terms. as well as to the journalists in question. statements and evidence that were not aired. linking the media to loss of life entails walking the thin dividing line between defending freedom of expression and condemning hate speech. It should be stressed that the integration of minorities in Kosovo (e. This report offers ideas and recommendations as how to repair the evident deficiencies of the media in order to prevent similar situations in the future and provide for a free. This should not only investigate the content of the footage aired. • UNMIK Public Information components need to take action in order to ensure that UNMIK's message is represented in a fair and consistent manner in the future. Moreover.g. the legal status question of Kosovo or in general that of Serbia and Montenegro after the international communities’ involvement represents a challenge of self-determination vs. OSCE-Representative on Freedom of the Media Aleksandra Zdravković and Goran Bandov Even in a society with no ethnic conflict. But in a post-ethnic conflict society such as Kosovo. territorial integrity in which the rights of minorities in a democratic framework should never loose its relevance (e.g. a structured dialogue between majority and minority groups has to be established and maintained since the HCNM follows also a long-term perspective. Serb. misperceptions. should be conducted. They give a long list of Proposal of Measures. and broken trust are factors that might create inter-ethnic tensions. Finally. appropriate administrative capacities dealing with minority issues). • The findings of this investigation should be presented to the public in Kosovo and to the donors. Kosovo Albanian and Serbian during the events of 16/17 March. Lack of communication. • Serb-language media in Kosovo relies mostly on information provided by broadcasters in Serbia. but also look at footage. Roma. The individual right to learn its mother tongue on the one hand and the need to know the State language on the other hand serves as an example of this integration process where diversity should be seen as an enriching rather than an alien element. Media broadcasting news programming generated out of Kosovo should be held accountable for content. Therefore.3) Recommendations The representatives pointed out that the High Commissioner’s role of silent diplomacy and conflict prevention is crucial in order to guarantee the full respect of human rights and especially minority rights. according to the regulations valid in Kosovo. • A local Kosovo-wide Serb-language broadcaster should be established.

sensational and instigating reports has caused a further development which fastened the process of escalation. Without the intense covering. Since Kosovo is a part of Europe. especially in newspapers with emotionally touching pictures and without the unreflective coverage within the TV. The people of Kosovo do have their own enormous effective newsnetwork based on a mouth-to-mouth system personally or by phone. but fortunately it has not yet spiralled out of control. the media was not. Connected to that it has to be a matter to discuss that the freedom media ends and has to end where the journalism ends and the political agitation begins. Thank you European Union Elena Bittasi and Nicholas Parrott We take the view that the problems should be seen not only as a challenge but also as an opportunity. The local media was instigating the violence.” Considering the events of March 2004 in Kosovo and also in some areas within the union of Serbia and Montenegro. it seems evident to us that the consumption of the thrilling. Honourable members of the Chair As representatives of the United States of America we have to make a clear contradiction in one point. Recent events have provided us all with a warning of how the situation can deteriorate rapidly. Maybe not completely. the local riots would have never reached the shocking extents. differently from the United Nations. of course. we all have to see the responsibility to support the development of a free. And we are sure that this has been the aim of some responsible persons who instrumentalised the media for their political aims. But analyzing the mediacoverage. we have to give a European perspective to it. the European Union has a lot of experience in coping with States in transition. The very fact that all the parties are contributing constructively to these discussions is great progress. We just heard a phrase concerning the events of March 2004 in Kosovo: “While displaying the weaknesses it did. The EU is the right actor to guide the international mission in Pristina and. intentionally investigating violence. Of course the word would have also been spread without the media. but in some cases for sure it was also intentional. independent and competent media in Kosovo as one of the main-tasks in the next years. my colleague will outline briefly some of the EU’s thoughts on the way forward. We don’t think that only the local journalists themselves are completely to blame for that. The United States of America are proud to support the development within the several institutions in the OSCE. At the end of this. young and extremely uneducated. as most of them are in comparison to the situation in the western countries. 23 . Although the EU sees its role as a facilitator rather than driver of the process.US Delegation Joachim Dethlefs and Katharina Kobilarov Ladies and gentleman. we definitely see the main problem within the local media.

In respect of the PISG and their accusation that SCG is not collaborating with them and the international community. Besides. EU aids and investments through projects are also playing a fundamental role to guarantee a credible solution. the spokesman demanded an apology for having been abused by the OSCE HCNM speaker. who called him racist and undemocratic. but also the creation of a coalition between the Albanian and the Serbian parties. SCG was given the floor. He said that the democratic government of SCG is not responsible for any statement the Croatian statesman Tito made. the Albanians hold the pivotal departments in the PISG and Serbians hold just insignificant ones. he rejected the statement that Kosovo was promised in the past to the Kosovo-Albanians. Brussels is considering the possibility to create a European protectorate in Kosovo. SCG taunted the PISG’s lack of competency. with which a rapid economic development would and could happen. head of the delegation of the EU Parliament for the South-East Europe. Furthermore. some time is necessary. these micro-regions should block the way to illegal trafficking. no positive change can be expected. it has been pleased with the positive course of the meeting and thanked exceptionally the Representative of the Russian Federation to have bolstered SCG and to have come up with very good points. SCG said. He repeated the quintessential issues of his first speech and added that Serbians trust neither policeman from 24 . “The suspects are probably on higher positions in their own ministries” said the spokesman. The micro-regions stabilize society. because without this. on the renewal of ZADRUGA as basis of the economic units. For this kind of plan. as soon as possible.Doris Pack. Then. The aim of such an organisation is the aid to stabilisation of the societal basis of society and the stimulation of small and medium-size enterprises. which would simplify the process towards the integration in the European union and could give to the Serbs the possibility to effectively participate to the institutions of Kosovo. An idea of micro-regions is being developed: this idea is based on a corporative concept. they re-enforce the local economy and they reduce the importance of borders. has requested that. With respect to the report by the OSCE HCNM the speaker of SCG felt misunderstood and not heard concerning what he said in his first speech about multinational community in Kosovo and Metohija. As a further contentious issue was mentioned. the UNMIK administration should be substituted by a EU structure. After talks and negotiations with the Chairman. Representative of the Government of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro Andreia Tolciu and Bernd-Kristian Kaczenski After the lunch break the Chairman refused to give the floor to Representative of SCG who demanded for discoursing. the speaker referred back to the good cooperation with Den Haag and the European Union as well as to the multitudinous attempts to seek after the dialogue with the PISG. Moreover the SCG rejected the reproach by the PISG to be responsible for the cruel deeds in March 2004. SCG considered appropriate to have a reaction to the previous speakers (especially to the latter speaker of the PISG).

. Only a small number of Serbian refugees returned to their homes in Kosovo and Metohija. there was a cross-talk between the PISG and the Representatives of SCG. The OMIK representatives also responded to the report. He also criticized above all the deficits of the freedom of movements and the moderate progress of the history workup. . 25 .the organised criminality and local “mafia” . The Chair offered to take over the declaration of the EBRD made during the press conference in March 2003. the Representative of SCG summed up that the situation. Responding to the positive report by the OMIK.the law enforcement of the law.and the lack of infrastructure (telecommunication. given by the instable judicial situation. Still.the country risk. logistics. as he pleaded Belgrade’s case in his first address. After his report.Zimbabwe or India. which send summons in the Albanian language. the main points the representative intended to refer to are: . is not as good as it is presented. In his opinion the situation for Serbians did not change at all. defending the correctness of their speech. . transports. financial). Representative of the EBRD Laura Renata Costescu Due to delays the representative of the EBRD did not come to word anymore. Coming to an end he said that SCG should be granted more competencies in all fields and areas. making it difficult to plan ahead. nor Albanian doctors or benches.the lack of de facto guarantee of the property.

Some options should be ruled our and the process should be soon concluded. And at last. But also after the agreement of the status the international community should stay civil and military in Kosovo. We claim first of all. Our statement is that we want a full independence within current borders.Epilogue – Future II The OSCE Chairman in Office opened the meeting and reminded speakers that at this last session they should seek to provide opportunities for the way forward and not simply return to the arguments discussed in previous sessions. We want to take the leadership concerning solving the problems and especially in order to bring in a resolutions draft concerning the final status of Kosovo. I want to emphasize that this will also be in the interest of the EU because it will open the way for Kosovo to the EU and NATO. This is certainly the case for both Serbia and Kosovo. Honourable members of the Chair. should. to clear the status in order to get Kosovo back on track towards stability and prosperity. whereby everything will be done in agreement with our European partners. in order to watch and control the realization of the agreed solution and to control that the rights of minority are protected. can and will play a role in assisting the whole region into the Union in coming years. Yes. we are thoroughly for a speedy independence of Kosovo. US Delegation Joachim Dethlefs and Katharina Kobilarov Ladies and gentlemen. So far standards have been before status. We finally want an agreement and a solution for the status of the province of Kosovo. we have to stress out that we see ourselves as initiators. not as followers. People in Kosovo are unsatisfied with the current status and have the wish for independence. The EU accession process itself cannot begin in the same way that it has with Croatia and is with Macedonia because of territorial issues.we would like to stress various factors. But what we want now is the combination of standards and status and to set a new emphasize. 26 . We first want to emphasise and outline how the EU is. And we want it the fastest as possible. In starting with our opinion concerning the future of Kosovo.before my colleague goes on to provide some more detailed proposals . Thank you European Union Elena Bittasi and Nicholas Parrott Initially to look at this from a European perspective .

It is clear that neither Serbia nor Kosovo can join. Our political analysts affirm that the institutions in Kosovo cannot resolve any crucial problem on their own. that status should be seen in the context of the fact that the whole region will become part of the EU in the future. The EU should be seen as an example of shared sovereignty. The poor economic situation together with the lack of knowledge about the future status of Kosovo are a key reason for the lack of satisfaction among the people of Kosovo. Coming to the solution for the division of Pristina. We welcome the measures in the Stability Pact through which we believe the poor economic situation in the region can be made better. Representative of the Government of FYROM Selma Belshaku and Anne-Katrin Hinz In the pre-conference on the future of Kosovo the Government of Macedonia didn’t come with any concrete proposal for the solution of the status issue. we suggest the model which has been adopted in Belfast or in Nicosia. with the organised society of both parts of the city. However. The Albanian government rejects false accusations made against it. The Euro-region Kosovo means that Kosovo would have some representatives in Belgrade. The European Union is considering creating a “Euro-region” in Kosovo. The final status is conceived related to the European perspective to Kosovo and Serbia. We need an international agreement. The Albanian government is a stabilising factor in the region and wants to create greater stability. but also a high level of autonomy. or even begin the process properly. which would be under European monitoring. It began its short statement by thanking the international community for its help to Macedonia and its presence in the region and underlined further the very important role of EU as the main donator in rebuilding Kosovo and a promoter of the development in all the countries of the region. the Kosovo-Albanians and Serbs. This will contribute to the solution of the aspects concerning security and economic development. 27 . with the inclusion of the organisations of the civil sector. Representative of the Government of Albania Max Bornefeld-Ettmann The achievements of the international community in the region and specifically in Kosovo have been great in recent years. while the process of stabilisation and association with the EU should be conducted for Serbia. without status being determined. The Albanian government thanks the international actors for their contribution. That does not mean to undermine the integrity of future autonomy of Kosovo. Great care must now be taken as problems such as those in March 2004 can destroy the progress on the way to Europe. It provides an alternative to the emergence of classic ‘nation states’ in the region. which would end the conflict and bring the permanent stability and prosperity in Kosovo. At the end relating to the Kosovo issue the representative declared that the Government of Macedonia would agree with any decision made by the international community and accepted by both parties. but in the process of EU accession protection for minorities on both sides should and will be guaranteed. Montenegro and Kosovo.

Representative of the Government of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro Andreia Tolciu and Bernd-Kristian Kaczenski Having the floor. in the same time ensuring political. for a peaceful. the Russian representatives and the PISG. which includes full implementation of the 1244 United Nations Security Council Resolution. 28 . mobilising also significant Foreign Direct Investments. The representative of the ODIHR approved the approach of “standards before status”. cannot be questioned. Representative of ODHIR Aleksandra Zdravković and Goran Bandov The Representative of the ODIHR recalls the unfeasibility of a partition along ethnic lines also because of the existence of more than two ethnic groups. She showed also the fact that the EBRD used the tools of investment to build up democracies and market economies. Going on the representative briefly outlined the projects the bank had implemented in Kosovo and underlined the engagement and commitment of the bank in supporting also other projects in the future. comprehensive and permanent solution of the Kosovo and Metohija problems. The representative concluded that. in cooperation with all international factors and through direct dialogue with Pristina. Further the speaker stated that the mandate of the bank stipulated that it could be only active in countries that had committed to democratic principles and that its purpose was to foster the transition towards market economies and to promote private and entrepreneurial initiatives. No questions or comments were asked regarding the statement of the EBRD.Representative of the EBRD Laura Renata Costescu The representative of the EBRD showed that the EBRD was the largest investor in Southeastern Europe. Mentioning that especially minorities on Kosovo have been a target for the organized crime and attempts of burning houses down from the Albanian population. At this point. the bank would welcome any solution that would support Kosovo on its way towards an market economy and towards the implementation of democratic principles. The question of protection of minorities on Kosovo must be solved before any attempt for solving the problem of status can be undertaken. the delegates of Serbia and Montenegro stressed that the cornerstone of the state policy of Belgrade is that the state borders cannot be changed and that the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in the process of finding the solution for the future status of Kosovo and Metohija. in concordance with its statutes. juridical stability for the region. the representatives of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro firstly summarised the proposals regarding the future status of Kosovo presented by the European Union delegates. the representative pointed out that Kosovo is not ready for a status of a state. Responding to a question of a PISG delegate. the Serbian government is ready to search.

Further on. part of the Union Serbia and Montenegro. The Serbian representatives stressed once again the idea of a Kosovo province. deprived of any conditions. especially the PISG delegates and UNMIK. Equal rights to all Kosovo population will be guaranteed within an autonomic province of Kosovo. in case of secession. were answered. but still a part of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro. A compromise could be reached. the invitation for dialogue. the Serbian government remains by its statement “less than independence. questions regarding Kosovo coming from the other participants at the meeting. • • With other words. It is hoped that the leaders of the Kosovo and Metohija Albanians will demonstrate in this case too "the growing political awareness" and readiness for a dialogue. The OSCE Chairman in Office closed the meeting without any firm conclusions but expressed satisfaction at the discussion of the issues and optimism for the future.The delegates extended invitations to both the President and the Prime Minster of Kosovo and Metohija for a direct dialogue. the northern part of Kosovo (the city of Mitrovica) will be handed to the Serbian part. Although there has been no positive reply from Pristina. remained open. but let a door open to other proposals. if. more than autonomy” when dealing with the Kosovo future status. the representatives of the Union presented the solution offered to the Kosovo issue by the Belgrade government: • The Serbian part rejects any secession incentive made by the Kosovo-Albanian representatives. 29 . Meanwhile the International Community should recognize the right of autodetermination within a referendum of the Serbian population in the Srpska Republic. Further on.

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