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Many centuries ago, India and Japan had begun exchange between them, when

Buddhism was introduced to Japan via the Korean Peninsula. However, Direct
exchange, began only in the Meiji era (1868-1912), when Japan started with its
process of modernization. From then on, bilateral relations developed around
Japanese purchases of cotton. India's friendship with Japan after the war helped a
great deal when Japan returned to the international arena.

Since 1952, Japan and India have maintained diplomatic relations and enjoyed
cordial relations based on trade and economic and technical cooperation. After
the WW II, the focus of Japan's economic relations with India switched from the
prewar import of cotton to the import of iron ore. Relations developed steadily as
Japan's imports of ore and exports of manufactured products increased.
Following Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi's visit to India in 1957, yen
loans to India began in 1958, as the first loan aid extended by Japan.

In 1958 Japan participated in the Consortium Meeting of India's creditor countries

hosted by the World Bank and embarked on the full-scale assistance to India that
has continued to the present. Since fiscal 1986 Japan has been India's largest aid
donor. Japan and India have traditionally enjoyed cordial and friendly relations
and the feelings of Indian people towards Japan have been good. The number of
Jaanese nationals residing in India was 2,050 (Oct., 1999) while the number of
Indian nationals residing in Japan: 9,067 (Dec., 1999) is an indicator of
cooperation between the two nations. Bilateral relations between two countries
faced delicate situation after India conducted underground nuclear tests in May
1998. Japan also took a series of measures in accordance with Japan's ODA
Charter. But both sides have been making efforts to understand each other
through dialogue the important partners in Asia.

Economic Cooperation between the two nations has been buoyant with Japan's
total loans to India amounting to $4,239.0 million in 2004, grant aid were of the
order of $ 399.2 million, while technical cooperation totalled to an amount of $
179.5 million.

Traditionally, Japan has been the second largest destination of Indian exports
(major exports include gems, marine products, iron ore, and cotton yarn). India is
also a major importer of goods from Japan, and its importance has been growing
in recent years (major imports include machinery, plant-related products,
transport equipment, and electronic machinery).
Agreement on Commerce Between Japan and India (1958) was one of the
remarkable treaties signed by the two nations to strengthen their trade relations.
Japan-India Trade Talks on overall bilateral trade and investment began in 1978.
Since then many such talks have taken place. Besides, private sector forum such
as 'Joint Meetings of the Japan-India Business Cooperation Committee', which
holds annual joint meetings, promotes private-sector bilateral cooperation in
various economic fields as well as mutual understanding.

India is a first country to which Japan extended the first Yen Loan and India has
been one of the largest recipients of Japan's ODA. Japan has long been actively
providing assistance to India, primarily in the form of Official Development
Assistance loans, for upgrading of economic infrastructure, alleviation of poverty
through public health and medical care, agricultural and rural development and
population and AIDS countermeasures, support for small business and for
environmental conservation.

India has actively pursued economic liberalization and market oriented economy
since 1991. With India's push towards greater economic liberalization policies,
Japanese corporations' interest in India has risen, and private-sector investment
has increased dramatically and it is expected to rise further in future.

Closely linked to the prospect of FDI is the improvement of India's economic

infrastructure. In this respect too Japan has been helping India since 1958
through its Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme. ODA is provided
to infrastructural sectors like telecommunication, power and transport. Of
course, over the years ODA has expanded beyond infrastructure. Recent ODA
packages include just completed Delhi Metro Railway, Yamuna Action Plan and
some projects in the Power sector. Japan's assistance under ODA since fiscal
1990-91 to 2001-02 cumulates at ¥ 977.14 bn.

Majority of the Japanese companies surveyed said that they are making profits
and are "positively considering further expansion of their operations". However,
to many of them, the inhibiting factors are differences in business practices,
environment and culture etc but at the same time they are aware of India's huge
market potential, especially in IT and IT-related.

Japanese investors feel that availability of skilled manpower is a major

advantage enjoyed by India in attracting foreign investment into India but at the
same time a healthy market growth is also equally important.
However, there is a lack of clarity in the policy guidelines. Also, most of Japanese
investors feel that ground level hassles like labour laws, taxes, legal and
regulatory framework are high in India. They consider procedural delays a major
discouraging factor for potential investors. The infrastructure forms the
backbone of development of any country. According to the majority of the
Japanese investors, overall infrastructure facilities are lacking in India. To attract
Japanese investment, Indian transport infrastructure needs improvement; power
facilities are below average. The telecommunication facilities are however rated
as "average". Japanese investment in India is driven by Indian domestic demand,
and that for reasons such as geographical factors, high tariffs and other
regulations, it would be difficult to expect the same level of growth as in Sino-
Japanese trade." The sectors that attract Japanese investment include
transportation (28 percent); telecommunications (18%), fuel (13.5%), chemicals
(12.17 percent) and trading (6 percent).

Although investments in IT and automobile industries are increasing, thanks to

deregulation, further economic reforms and deregulation are required to attract
foreign investment into India. "Specifically, the retail and real estate industries
are still closed to foreign investors, and respective deregulation measures are
urgently needed. It is absolutely necessary for India to take steps to strengthen
the competitiveness of Indian products and to improve the comprehensive
productivity through revision of the Labour Act, improvement of infrastructure
and individual private companies, of self-help improvement.

For Indian investors, investing in Japan is pretty alluring. Japan, the business hub
of Asia's growing economies is rated as world's second largest market. Apart
from highly skilled human resources, Japan offers innovative technologies. So far
as infrastructure back-up is concerned, the transportation network is rated as
one world's bests. Other advantages to work with Japan include world-class
information and communication technology ICT) facility, a highly reliable logistic
infrastructure and other investor-friendly facilities. Responding to economic
globalization, commercial laws and major elements of country's economic legal
framework have been reformed by the Japanese government.

It is significant to note that many a foreign companies doing businesses in Japan

have posted higher profit even than Japanese companies themselves. Japan has
identified four major areas of foreign investment, namely, ICT, Biotechnology,
Medical Care and Environment.

Indo-Japan bilateral development cooperation has seen remarkable and

progressive expansion in recent years. The Government of Japan provided Yen
1250.04 million for projects in FY 2003, in which India became the largest
recipient of the Japanese ODA. Till the FY 2003-04, Japan has provided
approximately Yen 2193 billion on commitment basis as ODA to India.Japan plans
to start exploring for natural gas on its own in the area possibly in the summer
months (June-August) and embark as early as next year on joint exploitation of
natural gas led by the private sector, according to government sources. The
Japanese government will start selecting private contractors for drilling and
development of natural gas in the area. Natural gas from the field will be
supplied to India via pipeline and be exported to Japan as well.

Japan wants to diversify its sources of natural gas as it currently relies on imports
for 97 percent of its needs with Indonesia, Malaysia and Australia being the
major suppliers. The natural gas deal is also aimed at strengthening bilateral ties
as Japan's ruling party hopes to use its strong partnership with India for checking
China's increasing presence in western Asia. The deal also reflects a tie-up
between Japan and India in their bids to become permanent members of the
United Nations Security Council.

While Japan is implementing structural economic reforms, India is in the process

basic economic reforms. The Japan-India Joint Declaration of December 10, 2001
has set the ball rolling for things to shape up in Indo-Japanese relationship in the
21st century. To raise the bilateral relationship to a " qualitatively new level" is
the ultimate of the Joint Declaration. Stronger Indo-Japanese bilateral relations
would also mean a more stable and prosperous Asia. Broader and deeper
economic relations between the countries would form the cornerstone of this
bilateral relationship.

Both the countries are strongly committed to an "open and non-discriminatory

rule-based multilateral trading system". Indo-Japanese trade relations and
economic cooperation is going stronger by the years, though, if compared with
neighboring China's trade with Japan, India's share in Japan's total trade does not
give any impressive look. So also in the field of foreign direct investment. Japan,
which is the fourth largest investor in India itself, is not happy with this rate.
India has to do a lot to create an investor-friendly environment through speedier
economic reforms and freeing the country from clutches of deregulation at the

Recently, Indian commerce minister Kamal Nath has pointed out that the
emphasis of India-Japan bilateral trade should be foreign direct investment-based
and not official development assistance (ODA)-based.
He said, "India is one of the largest ODA recipients from Japan. However, in the
changed context of our desire for seeking a new economic partnership, it is
important that we shift the emphasis of India-Japan relationship from ODA-based
to FDI-based," approvals of Japanese FDI in India during the period 1991-2004
have been in the order of $3.2 billion, which was around 4.8 per cent of total
Indian approvals for all FDI. But of this, the actual inflow of investment from
Japan was around $1.8 billion. He said Japanese investments in India are very low
despite a number of successful Indo-Japan ventures such as Suzuki-Maruti, Hero-
Honda, Toyota-Kirloskar.

Presently, Japan is the fifth major trading partner of India having a share of 3.1%
in India's total exports and imports2003-04 However, the figure is not very
encouraging; it was only $4 billion, which was traded between the two nations
during 2003-04, a growth of 18 per cent over what it was in 2002-03. there is an
immense scope for increasing the trade between the tow nations in the coming

Another issue, which binds India and Japan together, is getting permanent
membership in the UN Security Council. In his visit to New Delhi, in late April this
year, Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi may urge New Delhi to work out
a common bilateral approach for securing permanent membership in the UN
Security Council. With China clearly emerging as a stumbling block for Japan's
entry into the elite club, Japan feels it is important to make a concerted effort
with India.

The Japanese PM Junichiro Koizumi on his visit to India on 29th April 2005,
addressed the Indian business community to tap the tremendous opportunities
between the two countries. He charted a three-point agenda to strengthen
bilateral relations, regional cooperation and cooperation at global level.

Meanwhile, Japanese PM has agreed to give financial support in build $ 5 billion

rail corridor between New Delhi and Mumbai and Delhi and Hawrah to speed up
infrastructure in India. The corridor will allow multi-modal, high axle load freight
trains, with a fully computerized traffic control, to run from one end of the
country to another. The project will be under Japan’s “Special Terms for
Economic Partnership” (STEP) scheme.

The Indian and Japanese PM met on Friday and agreed to set up a joint Indo-
Japan study group to make economic relations stronger. The Japanese premier
said that India is third important destination for Japan in Asia after China and
Korea. He added, “ I hope other Japanese companies will share the success of
Suzuki and other companies that set up shop in India.” Indian commerce
minister, Kamal Nath, said India and Japan could easily reach a trade level of $
10 billion within three years, though trade has been stagnating at $ 4 billion
annually for the past 8 years.

Japan wants India to be a more prominent Asian player when china is expanding