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Charles J. Fillmore
llnivcrsllY of Califomla, Berkeley
With the term 'frame semantica' r have in mind I research prolrtm in empirical &emantics Ind. descripllve framework for presenclal the mults or 5uch research. Fflme lemanliet oft"e,. I perdcular wly of lookln, •• word me.ninp, .. well •• I wly of chlracterizin. principles ror creal in, new worda and phri1eS, ror add in. new !DeIIRlnp to woro., and ror auemblina
Ihe meanings of elemenll iD 0 t.. 1 Into the total meanln. of the tell. By
the term '(rame' I have in mind aay s)'Item O(COnceptl rellted in luch. wly that to undentand In)' one of them you have to undentand the who:
structure in which It IHI: when one the thinas in luch I ttNCture II in. troduced into I text, or into I converutlon,.n althe othen Ire lutomatally mado IVlil,ble. J intud the word 'frame' u used hera to be. ae~' M.er term rOt the let of eoncepll nriou.ly known, in the litenture on n.turol language undentandina. u 'schema', 'Kript\ 'aceRario', 'ideltional teaf. (oldin.', 'colnilive model'. or 'rotk theory'.1 Frame .emantica COmet out or tndltions of empirical semantica nthet than formal .. montiCi. III. moot akin to ethnolllphic .. miotic&, tb. work of Ihe onthropolo,ilt who move. Into an olien cultu,," ODdub .ud! q..... tions I', 'Whit Cltelorie. of experienee are encoded by the memben or thl, .pecch community throulh the IIn",lltic chom thot they moh whoa they .a1k r A frame .. mantico outlook I. not (or I. not n......nly) looompatiblo wi.h work and rCiull. ,In formal ..... ntico; but it ditr... ImpartlDlly (rom formal temantics in emphuizin, (hecantlnuilla, rather tbaD the dilCOtltinui· lies, between 10naUiae .nd "perie""". The Ide.. I will be _tlnllD thl, paper represent not .0 much. ,engine theory or empiricll temlDticl I •• set of waminp about the kinds of problema luch • theory will have to dell with. rr we wish, we can think or the remarks I make u 'prc-ronnlll' nther than 'non·rormalist'j I tlalm to be IIltin,. and al well.1 r can to be describ. ing, phenomena which mUll be well undentood ond ca,.,fully described berore serious formal theorizjnl about them can become poslible.
Tho Linguistic Society of Korea (ed.), 1982, Lingui.lic. in the Morning Calm, Seoul: Han.hin Publishing Co .
so to speak-but it is also to know whit people use them for.. and a full account (expressed in terms of rule rttturn) of the \larious palhs or 'Iflnsformatlonll histories' by which ICtItenca COIl~.tning them could be transformed into lurfate senfences. the 'frame' (with its sin!!. Wan.. lth her. In this conception.mmar of English. ork of Kenneth Pike (Pike 1967)..As In eumple of the workin~~ of such a procedure. . Terence Lan&endoen and a number of other colle.Imllarly to BUT ond YET but . then.fomledsRalllt. loteoee of conjunction. why people Ire interested in doinl the thin~ that they use them for.d the Itond. words represent calc.. functioning semantically .ls at 'he Ohio StIle Unlvenlty.uuest the ..nd pencils.. AND ond OR can ..rd workiD. or sometimes merely meaningfulness-preservation...-" ical 'transrormations. but also . lth William SoY. oloafull. but abo like clock! and .i.syntactic frame! whicb were hotpltabfe to them.II. I WII IIlaclated with Ihe Project on Lin. is analogous to the job of figuring out what aetivhy the peorle had to be engaged in who used these tools in this order. With respect to word meanings.lc open 'slot') was conside~d capoble of lending to thc discovery of imJ"Ortnnt functioning word clanes or grammaticltl categories. 113 In the view I am presenti"£!.. . In each orthese . and wllh ex'reme eore and aophi. (or elch verb. (Frie. frame of BUT ond YET suggests thlt these two words han (by thil diagnostic at lcalt) very limilar stand what reason a speech community might have found ror creating the category represented by the word. advances Q e. The proj«t'..t fint on the earliett work on Enlll sformad.ubstllution in Ihi. Chomlky (1965). aod hi. Substitutability within the same 'slot' in such a 'frame' was subj«t to certain (poorly articulated) conditions of meaning-prncrntion or structure_preserVation.. In this analogy.. 'arsely devoted to the classification of Enllflh verbs.. hit funcllon they hod wi'hln those atruc1um. the scholan who most dirctlly influenced my think ins durinl this period... be accommodated if the grammar of the 'anlUare operated under particular workins principles. had been developed with particular paradigm for transformationltist Itudiel of English. on within the theory lugested by the work of Peter Rosenbaum _ (Rosenbaum 1967) ond 'he book . This ..ccordins to their «r1mmatlcal 'behavior" thoulhf of in terms of the lensitivlty of Itructure.. as in "John is Mary's husband- 1964). that what was loulht was.. Ilrace my own interest in semantic frames throu8h my career-long infertst in lexical structure and lexical semantics_ As a Jraduate student (at the Univenity of Michigan in the late fifties) J spent I lot of time exploring the cO-oC'Currence prlvilegel of words. and to explain the word's meaning hy presenting and clarifying that reason.:.. quiring senlence boundarie •. we can take the frame conlisting of two comrlcte clauses and 8 gap hetween them. properties of individual words discovered by thil retearch could onl. This way of working. it is po5sible to think of a linguistic text.ie...pnemic prioeiple In a fonnlll'lmmar of En.orillitions experience.. rigor ror purpotn or .. team in Paris on the verM and adjectives of F~nch (Gross J9lS). My own work from this period Included I Iman monoVaph on Indirect object verbs (Fillmore 1961) and I paper which pointed to the c\lentual recognition of the tnnarormatioMl cycle at an openti".." The ..-. 112 .. believed that the diotribullonol . IDtbe .. ork on verbs .." Thll project was whofe~heartedl 'tran. ot ftnt completely ayntoctlc. I hne in mind W8I carried on with much greater thoroulhneu by Fred '-fou!eholder and his collClfjues at Indiana Univenity (Householder et al in the . 19S2) formulas' Dnd played an important of ·t..llth (FilllIIOR 1963).. I fullacc:oual (elprnsed In IttmI or subcategorilition (fealures) of the deep Itructure Iyntactic fnmes wbicb were hospitlble to it.. en. In the tilly . but rather as a record of the tools Ihal somebody used in carrying out a particular aClivity.hey could Decur and .sun. frame semantic research can be thought or as the etrort to under- or he doesn't live . but now not only accordinl to the lurface. be inserted into the frame. so because It . conllinins them to ~!!iu~l~or~:::. To know about tools is to know what they look like and what the)' are made of-the phonology and morphology. Ind .The conJunclion. ond in ill Iller 110.. not as a rKord or 'small meaninp' which give the interpreter the job of assemblinl th~e into a 'big meaning' (the meaning of the containinllut).. 'anlly rrom thlt broulht about by BUT or YET. whIt one came to know about these words was the kind of Itructures wllh which is between a lrammar and I set of tools-tools like hammers and kniv~... The kind of wort. and each of these categorics is underlain by a motivating situation octurring dgainsl a background of knowledge and uperience. A Prlflte Hblary of . standard for a lonl time in phono· logical and morphologk:al innstisations.tlcllion by Maurice Oros.yntlclic description by Oarlcs role in the development Frio. The job of interprelinl a text. What animated Ihis work W/IS the belief thai discoyeries in the 'behavior' of poIrticular classes or words led to discoveries in the structure of the ". and I Iried to develop distribution classes of English wordl usinl Itrings of words or strings of word classes as the 'framel' within which I could disco\ler appropriate classes of mutually substitutable elementl. My work on that project wa..u.. hich cstablish.. and maybe even what kinds of people use them...:. t.rammar by Chomsky (19S7) ond Lecs (1961). 2. together .hoes .- thf C~ 'Frame' .. but in each case (and in each case with different effect) the logical or rhetorical 'point' of the whole utterance difren impor.: Insertion or MOREOVER or HOWEVER . basins its operations . D. An"analoD Ihat 1 Hnd helpful in distinguishing the operation and the goab of frame semantin from those of standard views of rompositional semantics runclion.ui"ic Analy..
ry 10 undentand the proper.tract 'Kene' or '.Ie..u . and 10 on (.... two kind..nd·such I verb OCCUR in expressionl contain in... miaht .t. e.bout • ~. sctl ( truth conditions Cora clause rrom semantic inronn. instead of relyin. tlon of the typc described abeye wu to be the IUbjocI Ind which _ to lie the object..rb it wal ". orvocabul.nd to .e semantic typet or \lerm. ACCUSI --r- I ~-. Into eonfl". ultimately... CI. thOle aspect.y.t. it seemed that lOme semantic leneralizatlons were lou. J believed.tlon of whicb the actor brlnp . with reference to • set of sen.m (or derivin..nllc role nOlionl which I held to he maximally seneraland deftnln•• minimal ..tructurel ClJNlb&e of provldin.. separation or these vcr".U.s continuoul. which were optional... on thtorcdcally separate kinds of distributional .lence theory .•.ntlcs II to auocllte lOme mechlni. .... mm.rently Ihapcd Ih. dilf. BUY and SELL... in IndiylduallCllea1 .nd AMUSE. .. just as there seemed to be semantic commonilltlet betw. I proposed that nrbs could be seen ubuiCilly hl~ln. the second I description in tennl oC rule features.en ROB . which of the ar .te for delCribin.114 CMrta J.. d ICOnOl..ubject and predicate.tatementa luch II 'strici lubcatelorization feature.I~nc:e theory.• which were lost in the synllclic cl. Indlyldual verbs Thll theory of .h the concept of 'fnme'ln yorioui fieldl witbln c:opollivepoydool. the reJevlnce or the I . by the IY'tem of ... Ind it seemed clear to me that whit wu really importlnt .lbi •• nd Schenkel 1973) by h.l8ndln.nol repcrtory) wol lulllci. fo undel'ltlndin. the &ellen.. the Collowin.. whit selectional dependenciel obtained amon. it Clme more and more to seem th.roupings or -verbs and classifications or clause types could be Ilaled more meaninlfully if the IlrUclurti with which verbs were initially luocialcd were described in terms the semlntlc roles of their Issociated . 11it)•• description of the .le immediateconstituency cut between . oC (eaturH relevant to their di. and one dcaianating In object throuah the m. 0 the waY' In which dilf.don individually attache 10 li\len predicate..nd STEAL. (Thul... one desianatin...... etc.'n Europc (e. lu \lie ID...c:ribeone luch cognitive llructure WII In a pap on 'Verbs of judging' (Fillmore 1971~YCfbs like BLAME.lc Iyntactic propcrties . V...tten wae lutomatleaUy predicted by tbe .'ies r belan to btl inc that cer. the kind of descriptloD IlOuaht dlltlnsullhed .' In symboll this Ilatement could be represented as [_ A P I)..... My finl aHempt 10 des.'-- -I • ..rent I.• H..tribution In ICntenoes: the fint a deep-ttnlClure valence description elpreued in terms o( what I called 'cue (ramea'. them. If.mall at. the detlll aeeded fo semantic deacrlptlon. from.. m.ppc.ntic rol..• Tnniere 1959). cont..011 in Ihil work in 'clle . mlntic eo. 'Pallent' and "nstrument'.. did not auip. but th.lttlea.y or devisin..1 poulble of lu oyatoclic yaleDc:eICCOUDted for by sener..ry could..ituation'.. for 'Aaent'. luch m.yer or semlati role notions in term. tiOl of luch ICh. be Kmll lically characteriud. oC whtch whole domain. mantic . The lCene ICh.. Ilbn u balic . oepredictting words that communicated such inCormation a. We were developing a kind of mixed syntlctic-semantic valence description of verbt. lu semutic nle. What I called 'cue frames' amounted to description.ain kinds of .. manUc Itruclure of the cl..) Allhou. ' . If"Immlf w.... It wu nO! lhouaht to be -..sumen .•..t notbel' independ ent lent or role .rb wiliu 'oemantic y.· (II on.umed be.. what syntactic rules SCPll4 .nd poIIibly unly. ENJOY .Dtic role oflu . --J_ rate GIVE Crom SEND... m.menu.n.. a (uUer ICCOUTI or lelical sem. with the Ule to which I have put It In 'rrame sem. three nominlls.. Within these Iyntactic valence t)'peI. II. CAusation..fin. Fill*" 115 In the late li. fellihon of proyidln.. ari. the kind of .. etc..bl.r· (u the rl'llmework came to be called) WIS the development or I 'vaJence dtction..nlpul. an object on which the Ictor'.' and <::) r"'" o 'Kteclionll features. a . one delilnating an actor who performl the act delfanated by the verb.n unclenlandln. QUHlionin. d.bout the mentioned ltate chanae.1 rul .. a new I.rammar and \'.ntic CluaificotioDl that I needed could be mode more compl. dlctlonariea ... ..moU.en GIVE IT TO JOHN and SEND IT TO CHICAGO t~at could not be illuminated merely by showln....uch II verbl oC perception... the ItructUrel In Ictual Indlyldual oent. to dilfor Importantly from the kindl orv. Fillmore 1968).yins al much .tructure wa... movement. tbe lime clauifk:atory role to the 'predicate' (or 'VP') that Of ODefound IDtnllwormationalilt work (. m. and wo noticed that the sepante valence patterns teemed to chancteriz. willi any com pI. There seemed to be imporlant dilferencel betw.. OIY..ory 10 elplaln..nllea': In plrdcula" Ithouaht of' eacbc:ue f'rame &I characlerizin.. however.IDln.ry' which WII. . 'nnuence. Actually.m.: 'Such .nOlI the .nd depcndeDcy anmmor .. or the semantic IlNCIure of I verb whk:h wel'l linked to the yerb'l ba. frame features' u representatioN of the clus or "cuo framet' into which pardcular verbl could be inserted. My ultimate ..nd by h... that oC the 'subject' beinl. (a aytIen of oem...OI... In the description or 'CAse frame Ceatures' it wu pouible 10 notice whk:h of the "cases' were obligatory..Dt..raUonl of annunatlcal relo· tionl.ppearln.nd sensible. needed (or tho semantic detcription or Yerb In particular limited domain •• One pouible w. U In a [V A P I) pRdIca. I hid become IWlre Clfterliin American and European work on dependency ..n to h.' one could take into account the acmlntic roles of all arauments of I predication.Jj L --' _ '-----' ."so that to undenllne' the semantic Ilructure of the y.y were clearly not adequ. but it seemed to me more profitable to believe thlt thet are larICr cOlnitive . act hu a I.IDI quite indepcndent of Jln".ln my own thinkin ....alt<hanain..imply one oC them.lr miDI..I •.yID.ntrl . In which the verba eould appear from '.nl principles coac:cml •• lhe moppiq from conflrunlionl of ..e ... I believed.
pttee ofllnJUl1C is beinl produced.e about how 10 Interpret "articular plSS_sel in it. standin. of this framework.eeond . peet 10 both the Money and the Seller. whk:h brin. the laller ha\linl to do with how we conceptualize what is . £1I'ge. dcd to be able to imagine a kind of '"". In devisi"1 a frame-work for descrlbins class of verbs.k both our ahilily to . with luch verbs •• SPEND.e Laka"'. .rormati\lit)'. then pou~. Furthtr. etc. pri.. bockaroundinl Ihe Oood. c.. back.of (ramlnll. We have both tcognitive (rames' Ind 'interactlona' rrames'. prmnted af!umentl for befievinl that the Situation was in lome WI)' blamewonhy.hed.g.. I belln to 'pro~e descriptions or word me. "f . When we undmtand I ·plece of lin . demonstrative cRlelorles.-.ratus that we wish to .. presupposinS the Defendant'l mponsibiJit)' for the Situation.knowJed. but the point remainl that we hive here not jUlt a group or Individual words. correct interytretation.. rtlng that the Judge.µ j . the convcnationat conle>l. In which the)' tindexed' or tevoked' the lame . or I folictale..1 the tenns o.upposing Ih.lcnowinl that a text ia. to this field In the form or I number or writinlS on presuppositionl and dcixls (see..t very on en che rrame or h3ckp:round against which the meaning or. of my description ha. In particular. frequently the ""M thot such expectations combine witb the aclual material orthe ted to Jead to the text'. for mOllty (the Seller)."Ian schernotlzatlon. back8fCltlrlding Ihe Buyer and the Money.. and a number or others somewhat more peripheral to these.how thlt • larle and important set of Enllilh ver'" could be Iftn . 0 penon inlere.. The delill. we can say that the (rame structures the word-meaninp.h the work or Karl Zimmer (Zimmer 1971) and Pamel. how to expect the text to dewlap. 1 found it useful to distinguish a penon pressed lome IOrt of judgment on the worth or behavior schematitatlon' lort associated with the elements in this seemed relevant for the Judge to be makin.. and III the rHt or the app. Throu. penon markinl morphemes. Ihen. In the mid-seven tiM I came into contact with the work or Eleanor R.pciples or converudonal cooperation.. badness of. IIon11 nchanBCs. which IheJIuyd'did or C<)uldacquire (t Oood. CHARGE.e to make a judsment (I a called this penon the Defendant).osch (Rosch 1973) and Ihot of Brent Berlin ond Paul Koy (Berlin ond Koy 1969) and be8ln to tee the importanet of the notion or'prototype' in undmtandinl the nature or human cate.. and our abilit)' to scheml.. - I 116 CRITICIZE-for C1Iorttt J...}. _ 117 and motivation ror the cltegories which these words reprnent.orilltion. Ind pralmatics in Beneral.· of lome siluation or indiyidual (and r Cllled luch a penon the Judse). knowledae or illocutlonlry points. on the • Ion.olna on hetwetn the speaker and the heartr. the point of the description was to argue that nobody could be said to know the meanlnp ofthne verbs who did not know the detaila or the kind or scene whIch provided the backvound ".e. McCawley 1971).he Situation.ninKS that made use or the prototype notion.eneral 'rane" The element. and the mo red (or sought) by the seller (the Money). we brlnl to the ta. I tried to .~ . providea .. the (remlnl of the actu... . . Usln. claimed tblt the Defendant WII responsible ror the Siluatlon: I described CRmCIZE a. usable for ""rling that the Judge. And once 1IIIn this J. of the Seller with respeet to Ihe Oood.. the word 'rrame' ror the SlruclUred way in which the scene is presented or remembered. and lome liluation concerninl which it that was e-ssenlially different from the 'case frlme. finl..). In term. but a 'domain' or vocabulary whose elements somehow preluPr>Ose a schematitallon or human judsment and behavior involvlnl notions of worth. I chM< to de>cribe ACCUSE a•• verb usoble for a.s motlYaUni the eateBoriei speakers wish to brlnl into pia)' when describinl .p. in work tha' re"ccl~ fruitrul collaboration with Paul Kay Ind Geor.ituation in which thl. whose behaylor or character it . pre. that the verb PAY rocuses on the actions of the Buyer whh .ne who formed or e.. per. such that one would want to say that nobod)' ean reall)' understand the meanings or the words in that domain who does not understand the social Institutions or tKe structures or uperienee which they presuppose.1ent (and this f called .. .ll word is defined and under. or between the arChar and 'be By the earl)' leventies I hid bewme in"uented by wor on speech let. or this schematic S('tne included a penon interested in uchlnafnl money for loods (the Buyer).· BfO dinl the Seller ond the Money: that the YO foeu . and had belun contributln. of the phases or componenu or the 'world' that the text somehow chlflcterim.. ot the Buyer with rei to t e Ooods. judgment. A second domlln In which I Illemptcd to chlnclerize I cognitive 'scene' wilh the same function was that or the tcommercial event' (see Fillmore J977b). s releYint for the Jud.ic Clt~Bories requim In under. aemantieall)' related to each other b)' virtue or the different WI. The . ". In obituary. accomplished by havJDa in mind an abstract structure or expectltion. COST. y that the verb (OCURI on tbe action.imply the Situation). wilh it roles.' penon concerni".ocille with the nolion of·rrame'. I proposal / or marria. I Jud. pUtposes.e been 'criticized' (. Downing (Downinl 1977) on the relevance of caltgorizinl contexls to principles o( word-ronnation and...led in uehanglng good. rnponslbility. A .eff![ .nd 50 on.tructura t have mentioned so rlr cln be thoulhl o( . ond how to know when It I. or the WIYI in which lenses..1 communication situation. nltural or conventionaliled sequtftCH of event 'ypet. Knowled. a business contract. Apln...se or deic.nd equally important kind .'. Fillmore 1975). contribute to the rull undentandinl or most connna.. etc.itvatfons thlt milht be Independent or the Ictuilipeech Iltulfion. and routinized speech events.jze the ....t:.. It I. SI)'. and that the word 'evokes' the frame. the JOO4. • f_~ . One renenliZlltion thlt Jetmed ""id was th.. schematize the communicatinlsitultion. which I n. e.
pI Is ... that each ofth.Iven thlt nlme. tho boctpound or uperieDoea Ind practica within which . ph.tetorY whtch an be wed in mlny different conlcllI.re themoelvn rtOO.. lOme pattent 01 practices.o toke .tely used of . allowing 119 sleep Ihroulh the morninl. themltl 11u. tion that II to be septu... . of work and (ourclaJi rtlt. word. h . tolone.. In the proc:eu of ovol. _hl". child orphans hinuclf. uings or oontextJ In whlcll I commu. illin' ... toast.. of pity and concem. s. wboo we oIIaene u..ider the word BREAKFAST.'n .ilultionl to be . and for one ot thne mull to be the one which is tlten early in the dlY.formatlon which delmnlnn tho f. The alcoay ORPHAN doa not have 'built into It' any .uch • boy.howl clearly that the 'poslsleep' character of the category I.nlr.hoWl that the 'breokfOlt menu' oharacter 01 the ...rite. f.aort .. breakfut ..pil.n Infonna.I PI . y. but nther that tlte word .uidance .t backlfOUDd I. (It the work wed: .....Iva uti c:a. .. the cot. tOlSl.. Som.. for IrInIed. and the boctaround. of contol. hence Ih. '. rather th. The flcl thlt someone can work throulh the nllhl without sleep.. In orphln is teen .. (or soeiety. and ror il to conlill oC.ppropriateneu or predicating the word or IOmtthin. To undentand this word Is to understlnd the pracla: in our culture or hnina three mull a dl)'.. a.. ido""" wilhout question.bout the word BREAKFAST I.. the_ta. ociated wilh It can be independently Iblent Itillillowin.ory In the hlltory or the 'lftIUIlD communily.letp.. 118 Itood il.xt. Th...nd other 1I lotlc r_ . "" . r. lnst which sociel)' hUI realOn 10 clleaonu lOme children I' orphln. fOil'...ssumed baclcllound world.ils of tbe prototype bockaround frame rather than to the de'lila of the word'. m..loriea . cotru and oranac juice. penon can ..uch • cyde to public work and two continuous dlytto one'l privlte liCe (we had only· . I boy in hil twentin i. Iner I period o(.. native speakers to usc the word.kcp throuah the IIlahl. meanin.peak of somebody U In orphln. . I•• ')'Item of . point of the joke about the youn..dmtood I. II il frequently useful. coffee and oranae juke..I. Itructured In a«otdanc:e with 101M _1fttJ •• cont. of which ..CI th.10 an.. n-<lIY eyc:le ..n ofthl.. . this ran. because that undentlodins il • put of the backlf'Dund prototype. I penoD without plRntl hiS I lpecillslltw. and call that mal 'breakrll"...e Tam' s' V.... mantic or eopltlve calepiet wbleb .. The deocriptlve framework which I.. n. The motiv.nd pa . the rael thll someone Cln "pI_ J. to conltruct Ilimp~ definition or'he word... l . It I..100 not crit... passed the a. ~renll who laked the court Cormercy on the arounds that he WI. aomebody dtservin...n on trial for the murder of hi. lse.nd Ihllullo-4to perronn a calo.malble by knowln. . have cabblae IOUp aDd chocolate pic 'ror brak . ca .. Ind . n vary from community to communiIY). not criterill.lty round a need to . expected to come from hi' family. three condilion..ed •• ponlclpotin..... mlaurant that ad_lin ill .rwhich it is no lonser relevant to . idlnc:e i. nlot in order to provide . Ind .. It"'. or A 'frame'. determined by the multiple •• peell of III prototypic Ul&-tho UN It haa wboo the C<lndltlon. to .utII framl. nUl we could define an ORPHAN II • child whole parenti Ire no lonaer Ii~in ...l0rin Ire oeen a.Ituation more or I".. and then understand the Cllc. Indnln.valloble to ItJ ponicipantJ.... or lOme hillory of lOCI. word WEEK·END conve. . What I.-end': one eouJdI limply use the nlme oClhlt dlY.ituation. ofhinuclflnd to hay.. to Itlte truth conditions tor the . waite up in the momin.. protolype.nomenl like th. ! II " .. I ".. and this backlround undentlndinl il best undentood I' • tprololype' 'Ither than II • aenuine body or assumptions about what the world II like.tomewhlt unique menu (th. In 10.. poniculor pnlClIce 01 devoliftl a relatively raraer continuoul block of days within .. (Thi. are and inuNCtion. tb. If we had three dl. llIIIItnt_ .. thoWl that the 'tlrly morninl' character or the Qtcaory II .... A.• one 'day ot rest' there would be no need tor the word fweek. Ipinat whkh we find hMelli-Bible the ereilion of I perdcular cate.. where the main .r railed to the true c.llnl conlext I.ratlona it one In which wordo . I Inltltudona.bout the klndo of . the ract that. ferri.round of Inltitutiono and pro<:tica we con con. at more ur Itli conventionally ntabliahed limet oC the day. most typically . of the calendrlc . becaUICI durina this period a lOCiely needs to provide lOme special way o( providin.peeift .oe ltacb cat..ore of the word'.. lontll of protolypeo..n of the above con. Ind all that meal 'bruUn".irly huge sltcc of the lurroundi"1 cullure.. tlon of the .ttributod to the det. does not take into Iccount the cue in which."pI the responsibility of provldin. Wlite up at thret: o'cltXk in the dlcmoon. Ind then It lun·up have a metl or eus.. Inter· eslin..) What wont to .. meanin. otypod breokfOlt inarediOlltJ. u the nollon plaY' a role In the delcriplion oIlinaulotlc_ In...nd beclult of.bI..orlzatlon which tokel .t . IOmo body 01 un_nell .. In orphan: the prototype Kene 1.an America.l·tho word OR· PHAN would no! be Ippropri...rill... of the backJl'ound ... I teCOnd eumpte oC a alelor)' Ihat hIS to be fined onlo I back. of the fact tba... to k_1edfe 01 IUdl fro".. II not that we have 10 r.ory II mOlivalcd Ipinlt I background or • partkulu kin~: in thl.lIth cont oould .uctly match the definln. onl)' up to I pinkul..>-.id. out oI. what It convO)'l both becI. Jn the prototype . when tryi". detail. and to I meal of ell'.rally ...tel)' built into I dHCriptlon of the word's meanlnl.. mode Int. ptuaJ Ilnoc1_ 01 lOme IOn. then too it &eeml unlikely thlt the name (or Ihe period devoted to one private life would have ~en .ny II 10 . nt.lso not crlteria'i and I1I1Iy. t. thl... to the paniciponllin the communication -. prded 01 beinl..t. Iii down the complexity of ftt between usn of the word Ind real world ... pr<cioely to tho Ite . children depend on their plrentl (or care and ..
are 0 bit tricky.phic IIt. meonlnl cannot be truly understood by enough do to inlke the eumple wor1h livlnl.J be one ofconceml for animillife.ituation. LAND and GROUND (whleh I have described elsewhere gradually shonened. 0 hilh ratio ofnalty worn. my point. lilt eumple. per PO. Though the detoil. of 0 liquid..k . nlth hll been roised. tiona for u. 0" "Kono OChlll nurut" (this tea 1. [ om told. "we will soon reach the shore" il I nltural way to lay something about I sea journey. The Jlponese odjective NURUI i.". The purpose mllht he one of belief. Ac· cordi"! to my 1~lalinrormanll (and my available IIW dictionaries) the word DECEDENT II used to IdentiFYa dead ptrson in the contut of I dilCuulon someone who is unaware of those humin conte"" Ind probleml which provide the realOn for the cate.inst the backjround or.urflee of the earth II it I. The difference between these two words appears to be best e.trenJlh.. then.peciollzed conte~u. It Is by our recosnilion or this rramecontrast that we Ire Ible to undentand that a bird that ·'pend.upposed to be hOI can he deseribed as 'nurui'. Furthermore.t the bocklround conle. but il Is unlikely that the category could have developed nllurally if (rom the lIart the number of day.prm.. white Iftlppin.. or It may used to identll'y. but in how they lituate that thinl in I larrer fnme.. beinl described n. word.lukewlrm) il In acceptable sentence In the idiolect.ed al Jfounded In luch I frame. Occallonally one comes upon I lenn whOle mOlintin. The word. or because they cannot Ifford to buy it. a .nerlt." . [ under. will...' the paaes of the book.'n. of hlah interest words on every paae..toted without thl.hen ofpomoanphle novel. point or view.. "We will loon reach the coast" is a natural way to Ily lomethlng about a journey on lind. nobody schemltius the physical world in . To illustrate the point with items rrom everydlY lanBUase. COAST (not differently translltable in mlny lan@:uages)eem to differ from l each other In that while the SHORE I. the word 'week.lulife on the l. catcgory onty og. 10 that a potential cultomer.nd·l.. only plant rood. • bird that 'spendl ill lire on the vound' i..t i.· a frame to a .. hu hi.r1y eat meat. what It mean •• when u. It I.end' might stay. A trip' that took four houn 'from shore to shore' I. obsolutely . In the ullae thlt IUpport. fliled with wonderfUl and . fromin. di.. that they can be facetiously. pleased at being able 10 enjoy 'I long week-end\ reco. the dry .t the Enlli.. In editor of such a publication nnture milht reject a mlnUe ocript. but only the liquid tha\ wu .uch I.. NURUI •• . In Ihe prOCftl of utlnl a Ian.bovelt. Notice thai the word deaisn1tet.urface or the earth II It I.t . Inother .h ftip ItrenJlh. I trip IcrOiI I body of water.. e word.oln."tlol to undentondinl the calesory.tributed hll low flip . One .. within the ordinary vocabullry or a lanJUa~. tbot Ideally hot. Allhou. d.ider the word. Whit il JOin. the -. Our perception or thete nuances derives from our recornltlon of the different waYI In which the two word. differ not 10 much in what It I. the compound FLIP STRENGTH.ir... no mltter where he open. in a bookstore. but the word is not used(ln I lenience like "John i•• ve. judament. 121 cept..h word LUKEWARM does DOt 'frome' ill object In the .etariln!') to describe people whose diet does not Include meat because they Ire unable to find Iny. SHORE and o -.nize5 that the word Is here being used but clnnot foreBo mentlonin« here).ptively os 0 bird that does not ny.. the two Ensli. That is.. Some publi. It I.ed of people in our culture. but someone who elt. the COAST is the boundary between lind and water rrom the land'. the realon it II no lenrer uacd in !erioul discourse il that nobody acceptl the theory within which it Is a cone or the inheritance or that person's prof'Crty. A cold liquid ODd 0 hot liquid can both beeomelukeworm when len Itondlnllonlenoulh. Ind IhOWIthat he intends this frame to be Ipplied by usin@: ordl rttO". obout nutrition. Id moinly of liquid. A. we can COfto. With thi. requntinlthat It boretumed only . 'land' and 'ground'.tinct from the AIR .Io lexical material in Klenlinc dlscoune that II describable IS 'theory laden': the word 'phlosiston' i..lIy be det. purpose.(The word DECEASED. bocklTOund under.n. but thotthe worn'.ory·' . oppear only ID hlShly .. community many or most of whose members rerul.lueh IS the term FLIP STRENGTH discuued eu'icr.'. Khemalize the world. but "kono bilru p nurul" (thb beer 1.d to describe the temperotu .h word. that .d by . flit.rttt J.. not Just someone who eat! plant food. could e.. 'at room t.. It will be notlc<odth... . not. The lepJ rem DECEDENT Ilvel UI Inother example or such context speclaliDtion. 'theory-laden'. u.. wlY that would give a rtlson to speak of part of it as 'phloBisto.xI.. Ihe dry .. devoted to work were shorter than the number or the remaining days..120 o.ory of 'someone who eals only vegetables' Is a relevant and inleralin. GROUND dealsnlt . (rom the water's point of view. An acquaintance of mine who works only on Wednesdays. ·applle. citlnl. ample of. meon.peciflc... t.. where a. Informont •• upport thi.mperatu .rature budn .r cannot be . not thl! the condl.. it it used most appropriately for situallons in which the individulllO delianated lVoldl mut deliberately and (or.luh· wlrm) I. number of frominl word. me woy. the boundary between lond ond woter instruct their authors to Include I cer1aln quat. yln8 thlt LAND d"I..nat . diuinct from the SEA. 0 book which h•• th . find evidence thot the book I. stand the word..tondinl (relotlve nip ..h not III J'panese ••peokln. A lar . contut is very .) The word VEGETARIAN mean. A book which h. because the calC.tence.upport my point. •• but It I. the book. IS in .. on here w seems to correspond. We can lOy thot. In the pomo. belns described neptively II 0 bird that does not spend Iny time in wlter.. more widely di.rmlned by a computer). I trip that took four houn 'from coast to COlst' I•• trip IcrOIl I land ml".. mely clear th. .pe. nlplt .. nath of novel.
.. some oftbent. y only if thl. the (rime or the commercial event.. th.. whlc:h Inform ....) Another 123 the current scene-somcthina that m1aht be vllible in I plctorill representa· . at the nuratlve time point. to ahlpe the imaac of runnin. hlle on I.. A broader . between semlnttea and the proceu or telt comprehension. AT BAT I_tot an event . the ex.. a very lilht connmlon between lulcalsemandCllnd . rele.. thl..peciflc:lty: .n. the form they do (or .. The IDlerpreter·. We see In this way that there I. in your imarinillon.ularly weln a military uniform. why. nt to deocribt the location In this . o..Ie . trove!. The property of btinl 'in muOI' I.... lve combl.. much Ilraer framework. a hiliOf)' wider tho.trievln.Iexleal f .. mblin. 11te pro... not I perspective on It II neceuary to dillin. or. One knowl that the coffee i. hieh n. way.. ho durin. ed _wan!... by notlcln..peak more carefUlly.. t . tern part of the eountry. The sentence did not live you thil informltion directly..urati .... nerol and abatnoct way. the 'oontent' upon "hich ""lIUIIItical .. pect.. military communily. continuina nr iterltin. In the tnt. of Iocotlon....h in flip lirenath. that of.. evok..Iruclurinl the ·hi. In thl.nd Ronald Lanpcker (Lanpcker fonheomlna). or lOme of Iheir descend.i.ed notion or doctrinal oamct· n..nd and in muOllut . aCrosI I Ipln of time. ork of Leonord Talmy (100 Talmy 1980) . Sometlm . lbout how he ..truc:ture perfOC1llO .. he.naled fromln.. In .ory· of the tell world..t the proceu ofundenl.e. and . MuOi. elpressed by the Jukal choicet 0.ice.h pluperfect can bt _bed u hovln.. iOftS. ror the moment at Ie.1I of their creation . mar. that event.nd .. 1m t.poke of the notioD o( deep euea .y .. I. but it i.cu'u lubdomain within the law.hed rclilton.e un dilfer . I lituotlon u one which I... point ohlew of one of It. time. about I now. or percelvi •• the fromes evoked by the te"'.. refen 10 ordinary cloth in.. the w. the word boa no purpose. t Saturd.". relevance only in the conlClt or.. Describin.n. 1 It Itruettmtl.tlon .. lion of the seeM-but i.nll.lly In reopect to their . body I.. pant In.n (""I_t1y uoed.-tOrl . is abo limited 10 Je.pe our undentandl •• of l. WII BACK EAST.ltion aet. out II iced oalf".. In a commuDlty l.. Sayinllhat 10m..re used todoy by people ..y which un not bt euily formalized) inlo lOme sort or 'envi. or lweatlna. a compJix oonfut within .. nll or their • . or tired. European immi..ln which thl..Iexleal verb like RUN un aiva u••• peclflc: kind of physleol activily lma .11 or journalistic contexls. an Interruption of a period of .. OtIC .manticl. these Imml. For eumple. you know that . phic novelj and you know a rew other Ihinp about the min.. ttlement hl. portion of AmerIc:on r.plein the Clteloril. in a WI' thlt flu the current .li. In Itl tum.peaker or aUlhor schematl .... h. obvioulfy • property thot ho.. when worn by somebody who rc.rlntJ flnt liDded on the cut cout.. .. sentence In a a. it did not ret that WI)' by Illrtin.. currently It room tempentuR.ltu.peakln.II. a word . Earlier '. lexlcol content Ind ..nd tbt pros .. 'Ne can.. nus we see Ihlt the cosnitive from . MUFTI.. th.... Thu.1. In . The exp ..ionment' or the 'world' or the tnt. rererring to their clothi" .. (in lOme w. an .. eoch In ... The . wordl in a tnt revell the te. lhot II I. but the terml recall the historical bO..1I1esdid not share In thilaenerll WtllWlrd movement themselvCl.. but let.te • typleal breakf . y thlt one or Ihem ia 'in muOi' if that one i•• military officer.. portly •• plaIDed by. the . OUT WEST and BACK EAST .. kln•• 1Kh btliefl or proct'-.I . • iven. coffee. _UK .... wblle the pluperfect .lory or the country lraced IlIwoy (rom the . the hlolOf)' of the on.bout the settin. the detcription or someone II I HERETIC prtlUpposa In eatlbll. e.. hich each of the lexically .nd a hlatory. A report of IOmebody buylnl..Ituot . Sometimes the penpective whi<:h I word liS II"I I.oInl narrative.. t cout to lhe west COl. schema~ . of the ICtrIOntleoof . Thlnkln.... . an locount of the . fiJUrinl' function..122 the phrase 'the decelKd'. The rrlmin.tic knowled . idcntiealluill.. mple i... If we sec two men wearin.wn.ion.nd induce ...t world bolh • penpective . not limited to any panj.mllleo the ...ionment of the texl world aul.ituate the eYent of nlnnin...iou.h two Importantly dift"erent ways in whkh thc !'I .. reli.. not yet rudIetI. part of the country . hich 0WtI •• reat deal to lhe . voyl .. you had to ·compute'lOme oflt by conltructin.. the En. envl. ""duolly "" .. but also thl..... uahc" wa.. perind II seen a. "pon of hi•• ttlvltles I.) thlt the decedent . as NURUI recoanlm that it WII once hot and hu been allowed to 'cool'. kend .nd SundlY read • porno"". community which hoi a well-deft... The lerm. Thus. Given an theM examples or clear cues of terma linked 10 hilhly lpecific coanitlve we can . mantic Upectl of linaJe-ctau ..red In the buIc g..l .. or..tory of I se.. t I.. to .partlclpanfl. wlthiIo NOC1hAmalea. thot of choroc:terltl •• the oltua· tion It • particular time (the n.'kin. motivated. nerolity or. If I tell you (to he IOmewhlt rldiculou...1. predlca~o ..~diDla tnt involves rrameo.omelhin. (rom Ih.ilUitlon and to .ammiticalllruclure of CIaIllCl. .ftad nlnl oflk:er .. one part ofa particular bueballpme.pent hi. olferin.h. u III role... the period Ineludin. hOM f. own 'frame' on lhe m.. we can 100 thol lOy ..he occurrence of In event or situltlon that OCC\Irredor ellilted earlier on.. kind of schem.. In Japancsc.. botb temporall)' Ind In 'reICVInce' fnto the onloi •• hlltory of the text world...nd read I novel hi...he hearer to conslNet that envislonmcnt of the tnt wortd whk:h would rnocin'l or I. In the Itnlt It one< hid in the military se".re..tlve time) u btln. mmadeal catesory or patlern Impoon It.rr.•• provldln..cribinllOmebody os hein. WI' OUT WEST..uI..ul. ON LAND I_tes the ocene in the hl. rnicer multiple woytln which the . of the form "She had been runnln ••" I rorm which comblnea the pnltreIIift and the pluperfect form •• can ha •• the /ltnctlon of nplalnln..
.. ~"" Wh. If I lay of ....peak" who opplies the STINOY: OENEROUS ODn· trast to a way or boh. male durin... Presented in lenni of I competlns I'Irocedurl' frame.h word ANOLE . line about I point.d alonl the STlNOY: OENEROUS dim... 125 (rames In the mind of the interpreter by virtue of the facllhat (orms or these IrammaticalltructurtS or atclOries Illese lexical nisi as indicts or these frames. or ror which he wishn to introduce e • novel Ichematilltion. we have cases in which the lexical and grammatical materi.nslon but Ilonl the THRIFTY:WASTEFUL dim. we have cases In which the interpreter assigns coherence to alext by 'invokfn.cnse of imlevance or pointlessness in the text. lf. into the interpretation procesl.. Within the perc:eptuII frame such nolion5 do not fit..omebody. For enmpte. d for. '. contrast is mlde with beln.ntood in connection wilh 0 peroeptlIOl frame IS I flJUrc made by two linea joined at I point in I way sugGested hy a bent stick. or from the onsoins text itself.01l!1t From a frame semantics point of view.' item property fltl either of two different cognitive rrames.ervations about lelical meaning 1t s.... we mi@:hte. Five out mone~in I particular situation might be described by one penon as STINOY (In which e". und.alwllhoUI.. it is frequently possible to show that the same 'fRCts' can be presented within different fumings.of e undentandlns which aliowl such an interprtillion comel from outside of the t•• t It.. of the use oflh.. tance they would be alven In In IcCount of linl!uistic meaning of the sort we have been elplorin..' I particular interpretive frame. In .. WASTEFUL). ADextremely important difference between frames thlt are e\loked by materi. not to be evaluat.. (ur l. ked frames can come from senenl lnowredre. rtd with leaves. Poir-J ~ rr. frame has not been establiShed.tloM .inlle situation can be 'framed' in contrast!n.. In the rollowinl seclion I eumine a number of traditional topics In standard lemantlc theorizinsand raise questions lboUI the impor. of lilt Some Inlall II.. on the other hand.". uHe'.. an anBle is thoURht or in lenns of the rotation of. mikes f'05sible two ways of presentins a neption or an opposition.... p. in Katz find Fodor (1963).r .. In the ftnt cos. word BACHELOR to d. er. to use the eumple made common in re.. In the rroceduritl frame the nolion or a 180 devee angle is intellilible.tinctlons he'llnterested In onto the new lilu. One possibility is that a word hu I aen ..IIoo hy F. able to sense the relevance of In open ins sentence in • Jetter which lpeaka or the prden noor co . mal. beyond a teneral. knowledge that e~isls o independently of the tut at hind. the ansle iuelf visually represented as the line berore and aner jl~ roillion.. possible to say Ihat 0 liven lui"... 182f... and frames that ate Invoked by the Inte... the contrasts introduced in the last plra8f1ph.1 observable in the text 'evokes' the relevanl Allt"tNItt Frlm'"" at • SInt:te Slt. really senerous".. I hive accepted the scale by which you choose to measure him.tical &ertHllrrtics discussion from the reminder. Usin. 1Ute In the ev.. O"".) s.. Somebody who knows this tradition i.thlnl for which on·appropriat. F. LRkofTand Johnson (1980) have made us aware of Ihe .nce of one scale nnd ttle appropriateness of another~ Wn For mony imtollC<l of polysemy It I.. Somebody who shows an unwillin«ness to .r wishes to talk obout lom. thriny".rydoy lonlulae bUI h. Certlin new seniti or words can be best understood as having orittinated in this way.. relyin« OD the interpreter to tee the appropriateness of the transfer. what I am doinS is proposins ttlat the behavior in question i.. been Biven a separate use in t«hnaltanBUlre. (The example is from Arnhelm 1969.. II. wa.. cosniti .'he behavior is contrasted with beinl OENEROUS). The ract that a .n a . The kind . framin" which make them out u.InF.peak..in« anumes that it is 10 be evaluated "ilh rapect to the behaver'l treatment or rellow humans i whereas the lpelter who evaluates the behavior by opplying to It a THRIFTY: WASTEFUL eont .kM't .dilTerent 'faCIS'..tion...A".""-o ..1 in the Ie". On the one hand. he can sometimes accomplish this by Innsrenin. The .. I Japanese penona' leiter in the traditional style is supposed to besin with I comment on the currenl selson. thlt anythlnl i. we misht wish to say that the Enlli."""..... lotloM orbtplrlnl this section J number or obs.. 124 cognitive frames we call on to help UI interpret 'insuistie lext'eet introduced. and by another IS THRIFTY (in which cise. as is the notion of II 360 de~rte angle.uchwis the ca~e in the importalion of the term BACHELOR into the termlnololY appropriate to fur seal society. p. st U5umes that what is most important Is • measure of the skill or wisdom dis" played in the use or money or other resources . the mating season'. milSi"s.preter Is Ihat In the tatter clSe an 'outslder' hll no realOn to IUSpect.. in the second case my utterance ar~ues for the irrele . examine.nslon. not stinty-he'. the Iin8uistie material associated with I frame which mikes the di. I hove . 'Contrut Wlt"'" FnlIMt' "rfnI 'CoMrut Acros:s f'raIM1' '-1 o or tut interpretation which permit formulations in terms of notions from frame lemanlies.. and I inform you that in my opinion your application of this scale was in error. If on the other hand I say uHe's not stinlY-he'. 4. radicular standard in the application of an Iccepted scale.pecithat. To repeat an example that J have used elsewhere.signat..
hic:h the links between words and their frames Ire chlnaed.. ...... eo.... I. innocent until L.. between I proopectlve juror .dlyJdual in q . In lepl lanpap'. lhat Ihe cha . d .lhecrimin..... nor hIVe the available choices of lin.. of the word. _.hlch would deorly ... OIRL ....-Filloooro 1m) 10I. MURDERER.. Au cumple or luch milunder· st.. II I ... ha.ht to be correCled. WOMEN. IOmclhln.. The . ' ••• olr dire heorin. m._....~ IlA__ ..tic u. tradictory oppo..doptl thll rule m.hlch ell... the ...houlel in.. lit and Innocence II tho uadcriy· in..... not chanaed.hen lOlkln•• bout an elJht.. tlo. to lee the . for it to be u. A second klDd of .n I.... • Lal.bout . tl. But It . The C1Irrent joumlli. nited coRJCiousnca in the realm of Ilnauap and sexllm il • mech... A numberohpooh ..Iue or metaphor in conceptualiZAtion and communication.itlo •• t tbe lOme pll .ppelred to be daultled "' MEN It .hed the "" boundlry between tbe BOY to MAN tnn.. nce depend. .. between I.. n w. haw noticed tcndenca on the part or mony .... the clrcumatlncea motJ". .) .wye .ould not be IOtisfyin. in thl. IIeat to malll. I.. ) I. in • municipal for the defen .. the murder h•• e found no clu.. to ho. or • .... (Some 127 periencc or In acqulintance of mine-when talklnl about very younS females.. UIiDa the word WOMAN detail. loUi of the le.. ler. mple.. on whether tho lodi.poet'" by IOmeoot of committi •• the <rime.. portillto "Pollee In.lkln. the dill'e..lrI. A . dilcuued er.. t -people mike In the UN of tho word SUSPECT.t that perlOn I.. buIc fit with tho . lhol • penon II I<> be .....oI .nnce of.uch u.tice ')"Ilem..ery well.... nerydoy lanlulle.J________ _. in mind ..' Ullat pouibly in Independence ol the uscrt.pll ...... hemoti ..· The law provides mlny contextl in which lpeciftc new framlnp need to be conltMl<led for familiar word. panaroph.. pattern thot I have in mind. joum. 1 one.ye .. In... a. it perform. lna .... 1 .126 . clrc:umslOnctI . plollltion ::':l IOlelyln diaD"..bovo .......nellht..e ..".. levenl times. I . lOme .. In partlcul.J doetrln... libel.. The when 1... d lOy WOMAN".. al un be found In .. .. new It1IIlti.. ODd1 II. ked the prospective juror Jel... a.ppropriately. 1th. humb for brlnain •• bout the .hort run If It does not requl ... followinl tho appllcotlon of a rule of thumb that lOY'> "Wherner I am inclined to ..... nce depend' on whether th. what hal c... mllkina the penu •• ivc case that in a afnl min)' domains or uperlenee meta phon pro-vide UI with the only wly or communicalina about those experiences.._. tlon mUit usl .r:-'~ ..t in moot . the (..oeuaed of the crime 'ho . II to the Identity of the 'Ulpoet.... the flJlI e.. to lhe underlyln.... led ....nd court In Berkeley.... the lpooter or writer MlJId .ntic chan .. y .... own ..po .. but one IOmetimca flnd. 11ld1onwltbi. rd females (or • history or . f. Tho roc! that thll rrlead would never aceldenlOlly u. Thi.Itclory contraslt. their u.y find th...... ". rt......l..hich o needa to be explained. II deeply coanltl . mi ••• ymmetrl<t In lhe ....... . my rriend round himself.ld . Iltles (or potpie of both Ie'es .tlutioft type dilCUllOd IDtho preyJou.... by contnlt. nobody hal been . in tho ..uocIoted scene.in Ulaan otEnJli. h... tln.. lIty.. lon. or the meanin.In. not of the nlchm.l . ullin some of the freq ..... PoopIo o~in . ttln. I Ihould Inlteod lOy SUSPEcr... h" • ...n eorller "" than tUt at whleh females .. pattern .. th..les ." I ha.nd GUILTY..a.. A number of people.. pt Ihe American d In Fillmore 1978) w. m.. of whom it un be lOid th. hal or hal not been declared quillY by the coun II.idered InnoceDI until pro..u. lly helel to he .r.. hemali . y CULPRrr (etc.lderinl the phenomena In (rune temlDdc tennl. hem.. hal to be lOme lpeellic perso.ltlon betwe.. perb. of SUSPEcr .1 ju. A chan . the"...eryd..hich ou. . which oddly can be iIIu'trated with the ume word" II one in .lty to Ihe connection. In usare . ..lIst..lnk:al principle like "Where I am inclined to lOy OJRL I ..ndings (which I hIVe di. about ..olume.... 1a • con· .Dd pollee ollloe... tlon did or did not commit the crime in question. result o(le . can be illuminated by con.. A. aehematlution on tho part of the I... co.J W VarioUi kJlIdj or ltII1antic chon .-! ~.. . In both e.peake ....ro clouifled I..1 doc:trine mentioned ....::.nd WOMAN. the word MAN .wr. to ~ found elsewhere in this ... lhot I m.... equally dear _pie 0( the . oneself tnpped-u in lhe e... The ...o . II of condi· tions for usln.... od attltudea I...". ... The . ... the word. Sot -..bli. leamed to ldefttlfy person.itlon.. A person who .1 SUSPECTS. d (i.. the chan .. mantic chanae.." ell'on to respond to ooclely'.tin.--x.•• __ • L. CULPRIT.ppe...n INNOCENT ... the underlylnl .ttltudea to.. illy or thml .. the proportion BOY:MAN::OIRL:WOMAN...lduallD q. but lbe undertyinl schematiulion remains unchanacd. tion I.. di.nclined to u. the dill'e.... I. Ia 0( tho luperllcilll kJnd..)..n ... pheDOmenon (II I ho...n .:..' in • con .. _ded in modlfyln.ttitudes tOW1lrdfemolel . item .ord SUSPECT Illuppooed to be uoed of a porIOn who I" .. and COnldoUi 100 or the do of <ommittln.. tlo.h with In eyo to reminl •• concem... .. tion of the domaIn.. aceuoed or crimea but not (yet) r.ttltudea) .peake ..... . One Important type or chlnp conlilll i.. -- .y lan. poaaiblo for frequent mitundentlndlnp in the use or these wordl. ARSONIST..'n Iho . older) ha ..._ .iutlon..... the 0( tho word SUSPEcr whe. ...nltlvo fnme would DOt... poet'" of ODmmlttl•• the crime I..t this u.lIy.t between tho OIRL 10 '"" WOMAN trln. titutl •• lhe mOllvotin..e luch I word a' BURGLAR.parity of . 1cIoeIri..d in cumnt convention... 1Iect the adoption of thele. The . The noIlon INNOCENT mentloaed above i•• n .hilo _".yeor-old boy shoWi that the chante In question J.. istic material. the 1 lcal .uperfidol rul.nd I....ttorney "00 you .. q ...
The law does this.. Basically aJ' ORAL AGREE. --. and kills C (who is standinl nut to 0) ~ instead. either made by word of mouth or by means or documents which Ire written and .en the other. as It J. uresillance would be unavailing". then. An adjective is abstractly eyaluatlve (DS with the English word. that moth en and pilots do what they proreulonally and conventionally do and can be evaluated for how el. etc . is the preJenee or Ibsence orthe . In the protolype cue of event.tlon. or standards according to which lomethins is evaluated. Do you or do you not accept that doctrine'" The citizen answered that ir the man IS innocent.. The citizen was not really being I. Fnlt'lf1 Legal contexts live us rurther ". and how efficiently they do it. .. "I'm talking about the doctrine that a man IS Innocent until flroven SUilty.. The important part or the contrast... to write with it.. A GOOD PENCIL. Other . ated In Ih. 1eoI ~IO ror ORAL AGREEMENTS .hment. the fact thlt coffee is a drink and can be evaluated ror its laste. Enluatiye adjectl. etc. .~ements ... me . how efl"ectlvely.fer of IDteot principle makes it possible for the non·prololypic co. The question somebody needs to an.wer...ith adjectivel like FAA. inllst on belnl admitted to my apartment..ctc. ulually put. however.. coDtrlbutlon to tho drinker's alertness. ror the purposes or the law. scales. . GOOD and BAD) and inter~retalions or their atlribulive use depend on knowledtt or the ideational rrames to which they are indexed.! inttrpretfltion may derive rrom reneral beck . The aUomey asked III in.. In situations which depart rrom the prototype the Jaw ha. trial. of course. Some or the properties or MURDER relate A and Bj olhers relate A to C. ground knowJ~dge or may be brou. acts in such a way as to cause that penon 10 die. TASTY. GOOD COFFEE. In m"any cases fhis is because the everyday tense of a word doe.ho . A GOOD MOTHER.. INNOCENT Rtf. is thl.. A'. but that it would be strange to !.INTELLlGENT. I would lose). while others designate thin~ that could be or .liion~are prnvided in adv:Jnce... one In which . The prototype background in which the notion ORAL AGREEMENT i. Wilh respect 10judgmenl.r legal doctrine. A third example is ORAL AGRFEMENT.iantd. that is.ion... between heing signed and not being signed. entry to another penon's pfIJl"ICrtyby oYercominlthe resistance or penons tryln! to prevent that person'. needed to deter . but by addlns to the 'Yltem or le881 semantics a statutory interpretation principle called 'Transfer or fntent' according 10 which A's intent to kill 8 Is fictitiously transrerred to C so that the definition f'-4" rOlf Enhaltlon One important area in which semantic interpretation dependl crucially on le~ical rramin! is that oC attributions oCvalue. t""" III T.ht into play by the textual context. killins ofC should be t. .ignature. but whether or not he wa. GRA NT. MENT is a contract or agreement which two parties entered into orilly... without putting the agreement in a writlen ronn and without li". for puni. provisions made in the raw about 10 start the rraming or Ihe word.. The concept of FORCIBLE ENT~R y involvel one penon pinin. The u!ual definition or FORCIBLE ENTRY. as ..h . made earlier that carnltlvo frames calltd on to a!5i~t in te. not cover all cases in which it Ihould be appropriate 10 use the word. gun at 8. or how clearly its trices appear on the paper.•• ho . and GUILTY provided by the criminal justice institutions in place of the everyday use of the!e same 'Words.Iy that he was actually innocent. er.a)'1 or seelns changes between general and speclal. A GOOD PILOT. Inte"""t. Ihen Ino you C3n be charged wilh FORCIRLE ENTRY.. one penon (A). since some nouns have frames 15socinfed with them whose evaluative dimena . This is particularly true in the case of the interprelation or evaluative adjectives. se.. me definition.re able 10 inlerprel such ph . i.inl 128 proven guilty?" The citizen answered that a penon should be trealed '" innocent until proven «'lilly. mine which aspect or the prototype conlnst Is leplly the most Sllient (the presence or aMence or the sil!natures supporting a written document) and let that be the criterion which specifies the Conlrast.:. not by modiryinlthe definition or MURDER 10 that It will coYer this 'wrons-tlfltl' cue.. Accordingly.uch . and 1 meekly let you enter (on the reasonable grounds that if we had a ~ngli. The critieal ditrera enee.... The point wa. then there is no need for. fittins Ihe .. enlry. willinK 10 adopt for the purpose of discussion in the trial which WI5 our nam" 10 it.ily.. equally founded on Inlenllons associated with the prolotypical co. . (ThIs rude answer excused the man from jury duty. it. or reprehensibility ondlepl provl.. motivaled. includes not only the situation In which the intruder physically overpo".1.) intendinl to kill B.. but also the situation in which. being twice my .igned. 129 Ii~hl. aims hi.. it is proper to say that A murdered C.e to raU under the .) Thll litlle bit of miscommunieating could ealily have been avoided. If you.Ize and ttrenatb. In the law a. y II A'I . prototype does not coYer a case in which A. sayin.uccessful killinl of B would have been..ked whether or not he accepted a particul.. I . The Tran. ror the given legal purposes. The importance of the nOlion ORAL AGREEMENT In the law Is that the conditions or its authenticity and its bindingness dl. The ract that speakm or of MURDER con rully fit what A did to C.y emelent It I.. ord MURDER.." ean contain in their meanings rererence to the dimensions. or the principals.. hleh hoppen not to be signed.... Intendinl 10 kill a second penon (0).0 apply 10 written arr«ments . Is whether.EFFICIENT.tinpish it rrom agreements that are fully written out and . Thi.ln many c. that they nre able to call into their consciousness ror tbis purpose the raet tbl •• pencil is used ror writin« and cln be eYaluated ror how ea..purpose rramings or word •.
and Ihat i( one succeeded in reninl the door open by such In 'CI. fint person plural deSCriptions Ire the norm.calJ)..ble I Psnd""" . ~1oooIhJ One or the molt rrequently used heuristic <levas ror diloCoverinl Ind demOnllrltina the ni. More carerully put.itualin. ) have .ramfMlical cate. Here it would be difficult to believe that lanJWIJCt differ (rom each other in lhe presence o( 'material usable ror particular kind. arc oHhe poaibly quite separlte way. - . are sequenced tyPH o( event •. underlyinl these word pups arc simple .ocre and others . '--"\ --.' b:uis for the (\luIU:lIioll. Ihilihe g011 somebody miShl hln In pUlhinla.t the same time. we lid up tho ralio MAN:WOMAN: : BOY :OIRL.tence or wmandc relturn in the ~ocabulary or a language II thlt or Kllina up • proportionality Involvin.1)0 n. the troubled noli on o('lexical presupposition'. chat man i. that mdts uae or Kripta! knowledgl. or to rlile inlo qUeltion.! (on whkh see Schank. to help UI become a . daney elimination. And Longacre hal described (in COftnrulion) a 'ansulae lackin. The approach which Ket the basic ttmlntic relit Ions u hoIdJns amana words.lken in llClalion rill. A general concept orOftaminl' involvtl contCltu. pin .'iling or . tOlether. and..d opinl! Ihe door. the loal o( dHCTipCin . or . de: aemlDlia proper 1M concern il with patlcml or (ramina thl.ituations fthich tepa· rately give reasons ror Ihe cxistence or the Individual Cltelories. The room WII emply.and the best example or I lexical-semantic paradigm is the kind o( display of livc510d terms represented by Table I. digms. 10 speak o( one put or. effect il panicularly Itrlkln8 in connection with the kind. speech the ditrerentiatin. t'lIImul(' FrI_ St'MUUtl III eVlllualetl only if the COlileXI provitled scmI. . even though certain (acu lboutthe world make the domain look leu orderly ." we make the two aentences cohere by wumin. in Ihe WIYS lugretled by tbe proportion.. MAN mlsht be importantly different (rom that (or GIRL vs..tent Ute orimpcratl~el. to look (or the backlround and mOllvltinl . ScrtptE_ \ S. Othc:n frequently uoed ore COME: GO: : BRING: TAKE.ories..hed and which Irc Ipecifi... to woman at boy i.orles BACHE .h. Text undentandin. their ruUty. WOMAN: BRINO i.nd .inlt a door il to ." . and Abelson. the suppoKd conlnnt between 'diclionary' Ind tencyclopedia'. Cine by one.tid could function bellet than . LOOK: SEE: : GLANCE: GLIMPSE. to brin. Inclination. in which tntl wilh partk:tJlar communkative loa'i can have particular convention.... LOR nnd SPINSTER appear to be conliderably different. (rime i. 10 put the two word. I said earlier about colnilive (ramet that to . we expand the tnt to mean: "He pu.l item. between the lines. swine cattle sheep horse 'ow cow ewe mare bolf bull ram stallion barrow steer weIher g~lding T. cJigm'. separate enough in Its SCft13nliCi (rom COME (or it to have acquired quite aepal'lte patterns dialect varialion: and the moti~. ror intuitive I. Tn .III!lly. 1977) involves the Icllvation o( wholeJC. . situation within which one .INUAU!: EXHALE: :SNIFF: SNORT. Believin.et thlt door open. THE DOOR OPENED. --I. to airl..lre already ntabli. for skewering mlnhmalioWl. A prime example o( semantic Itructure . etc. Whcn we come IIcroSilhe phrase A GOOD STICK we expect to lind in the conful lome cxpltlnltion oC. HE LOOKED INSIDE. one could then be in I posilion to notice whether the room WIS empty.r«ment about tbe identity or plirwise dltrerwcet amana them.. In HunJAnln recipes.lledpet in EnJlish makecon. IlSOClllcd wllh siven lexlCiI item. in . Thua. in the broadest tenle poslible.monglcxic.. in • tutlet like "He pushed . in which Individual membcn or thne proportlOBI are fitted onlo. HE SAW THAT The room WI! empy. Trdulkal Scnl . tKI In this lection I cumint a smlllll number of lopict thal one trudltionull)' finds in standard trutises on technical semantica: proportionality.ran J.-f. I think such D proposal il not help(ul. criterion (or BOY \' •.pite one'. syncateJorematicily. or (rime. within IInsu. in procedural discourse USCI nlrrative (arm ror luch purposes.Ile script/". not OM which ub the anHlys. is (hc 'para. "·unw--Stm •• Uc fornlldalloa or IUUH I. tDlonomiel. Readin. event.lion (or the cale. o( (timet known II 'scripts'. because it i.Iralahtrorward. or event I on the presentation or In event that cln be Wen to part or luch • script.. One mllht wish 10 propose that Ihe obstnet struetunl pattern."olher ((or propping I window open.howl thatlanlulJCS Dr culturet can differ with respect to the way. ror rcpellinl I . ('Imts whose element.ccoon. itl other components.. Thi. it leeml rtlher to be the case thlt traditions or language Ule within the culture develop in ditrerent wa)'s in telts with different communicative goal!..--. al •• y.~ .ond MAN:WOMAN: :BACHELOR: SPIN· STER. ..tematiltr. of diacoune.).peak o( one o( its elements il to lpeak of the othen ..Iready pointed out that in mlny people'..Iiud rorma.lo conlCloulnell.i. or or DllCuuion of tnt Itructure on the part o( Robert lon.impliclty and redun . rour warda Ind askin. inst the door.
§cems very attractive.. in fact. i! is not made or corree beans. MC8use it II fmpossihle to imAgine somelhins lookinl like pants and functioning like pantl which do not. nnmrly ANIMAL VERTEBRATE MAMMAL DOO RETRIEVER Of this set of words.. hearinl SHEEP and HORSE are not. and research that has led to the uncoverln.. were to ask me what that noise weSt and suppose the fact is that my pet retriever fell in the family swimmlnl pool.. ft'quim undtntanding the role or coffee In our lives and (perhaps) the reasons someone might havc ror mnkins a coffee substitute..11 to the noun to which it Is aUached as a modifier. In l. not oem. The notion REAL COFFEE malees sense to us because we know that In some seHlnp coffee's K'ftftt.. rull undentanding of an e~pression with REAL is knowing the reasonS one might hive ror providing substitutes for the thing in question.. agAinst the background or (the possibility of) somcbody'l luspicion that it is imitation coffee. And it looks and tastes like coffee not by accident. Equine. We can understand a cateSOJ)' like REAL OOLD or REAL DIAMOND because we can imaglnc a ~a50n why somebody mi(!ht choose to produce fake gold or fake diamonds. It combines with the meaning or its partner to form a fairly comple~ concept..ar 10 haye thc stntus of'baslc level objects' (in the sense of Rosch 1973). It ." J.ni· not tively priyjle~d catesoriC'l' in imrorlant ways. WETHER ond BARROW are known only 10. is the best candj~ date for 'basic level object' Iialus. ". count A~ being genuine The next most common kind of le~ical semantic formol structure is the 'semlntic taxonomy'.• Austin 1964. Femule. Somethins tOrf't'Ctly described as IMITATION COFFEE looks like coffee and tastes like eoffee.. lIe T"". but seem unnalural when used in acts or rtfemnl· This runctional difference is not revealed within the logic of a standard ta~onomic tree.e of CATILE.. Suppose that you.. Undentanding the catesory. ICfled cntegorlc" privileged in the lense that they are the words that would mo~t ordinllrily hoe used whtn in e\'eryday nntural talk one is descrjhin~ one's . COW and BULL op". The lauer three terms seem to appear more nltunl in uttennca used in acts or ChlSairying. and Neuler. the regullritits Ipparent in the paradilm (and this set of tennstogether with terms for younS.hccnseorSWINE.lble.. The fint is that at different levels in a taxonomy the com· munity mlsht have hid dift'erent reasons for introducing the categorics. VERTEBRATE ond MAMMAL ore term. word like IMITATION doe. whatever it Is. crou-cul by features identifying !ipecies (Bovine. Ovinc. namely PIG. FllfwIort lIere the rrol'O!iul IIll1t we hnve II cto~t!d system or terms lied tocether by !iueh renlure!' us General. the second is that the ulual tr«~form display of the elements or a tuonomy dOC'S . 0 word not in the table.l'I notion like REAL PANTS js unlntelli.whilc RETR IEVE R 85 D category occurs most naturatlya! an answer fits a ".le clear semantic relation. By contr.ntie. In Ihort. To describe somethlnl II REAL COFFEE is todo nothi"J more than to assert that something iltoft"ee. merely a fonnal system of relationships founded on a lin.. hRve Ihat function in Ihc case of SHEEP ond HORSE.how how it il that particular elements In the tnonomy are 'cot../ C' Il2 etta. Lecture VII) that. and we know thflt some people lind coffee damasinl to their hellhh or held ofTeMive by their ~1i8jon. whose employment' or contcltlual schema (that or scientinc discou~e). o! folk tuonomics has been among the most important empirical semantic research yet done.' It has frequently been discussed (c. Rather. Unrortunntcly the displny disguises many facls IIhout both these words Dnd the domnin which they appear to cover.. But there are two aspects or taxonomic structures that arsue asainst resarding them as rcrre· sentln. A.ciatiSl'. Male.etc..ayin«that one has different reasons ror castrating a bull and a horse. but it would be \"Cl')' unnatural (or me to say lOA vertebrate fetl in the pool" or UA mammal feU in the roo"" and unnatural in a different way fot me to II)'''A retriever fell in the poo. newborn. To a which we ought 10 add the Neuter category of the words in the bollom row is not just i 'neutral' catesory operlting in the lime line or business as the categories Female and Male. TllIOMend" a splltsh In my back yard. by virtue or tho~e rrnrcrlies nlnnl':.. which is another way of. . The word.. one misht do it at different (relative) Dges.lly modify 0 word it IT3mmatleally modifies in the standard 'set intersection' way. and we can imal!:'ne why ~omeone might hAvedoubts about the authentic:ly of particular Simples.. it would be natural (or me to say "An animal felt In the POD'" or "A dog fetl In the pool". . DOO and ANIMAL leem 10 be the cotlnitively privi. a semantic network founded on the retation 'is a kind or... with IMITATION •• part of. Porcine).. but because lomebody manuractured it 10 that it would have these properties: bul.!!' a word like REAL appears to contribute nolhln. whereas Ihe general term. Scientific taxonomiea have obvious uses In ~ientific discoune.articular kind or intcractlonnl 8 to question about what kind of a dog one has.. 5.. Both of these points can be illustrated with a 'poth' in a taxonomy ofzoological term! In English. As a WIY or e~f'lainlng the source of the noisc. .-make up what is sene rally nC'C"Cpteds the best example of a semantic paradlsm) ate misleading. The category is diffcrently motivated in the different species.ricne". CATIlE And SWINE Ire plura's. In thee. etc. By cnnlrllst.
) The verb CHASE exill' •• I cate.nd Eve Sweetler on lhe other hand (Sweet~' 1981) concerns Ihe potlibility of a prototype back· Braund of Issumption.le aC'Cordinlto which words (elc.nilion of such relevance..r' inrormation beinS allocialed wilh individullluiCiI items hIVe not rt«lvtd • load preu. Slr.sthe eliminatiun ur minimization of redundant inform.ble to juslify certain characteriltics of c:arpenlen (or the concept CARPENTER) al belonlln. It il a gODIwhich presupposes the Inlllysl'.oeount. «rt. that realon bein.bout the desi". There is.bout thinp. about 'prCluPpolition.: luch informution is nol a matler or dispute. II dilCOverin.. there is another senlt In which simplicity of dCKription i.emanttc apprOich would fllher lIy that eommunilies of men conlain individuals wbo by trade make things oul of wood." 134 pants. u Swtthcr calls it. . the only way in which people can truly·be said to undentand the use to which these meanina-be. (a. etc.roundin. ."hich II (I) robe in r. .y that servc! the inlemts or the ternlnikisis f have just been describing. to know why such experiences and inst itulions gave people rtasons to create L_ -_ .. " 115_ Cr.y 1981) .h In undentandin. but that's not In important condition. questioned. the im..hborin. denied.. Somebody holdinalh. distinction to be made between knowledge about words and knowledre .. .e. CIC. it aeems ..ln scholln Insist on a dislinetion betWHn purely semantic intonnation lbout wordl Ind encyclopedtc inform. folk theory of human communication involvin.iven to anyone word is dependent on the meaninas or itl nei. elimination relevant.. job related diseases.ae by which Ihe me.'.s view mi.lm.ln tho limo coune.ul Kay and Unda Coleman on the one hind (Coleman and K.at. full description or what carpenten do D$ related to the concept . (My iIIUllration il with people. (or a simplified definition of the noun LIE. then it is pouible to describe a LIE .since (rame &em:tnl~ .. obility 10 have In ovef"\liew of the entire luic.lIion in the &.ht uy som(thin. SwtellCT'IIU. in which iI. ond would not.oal ora '~mtlnlicdiclionary' is that of sayin. Conlider the case or a verb like En.1 dnipated by the subject the nrb is UlCrtcd. C_11lCl1aa Rnurb Dnttlptloa While in rt1ptct 10 redundancy elimln:ttion it has HpJ)(llr(d thiJl stOllidard In this paper I have Irgued (or a view ofthe description of m(aning-bcarina clements in alanlu. ulins particulu kinds or tools. True 'encyclopedic' information about carpenters IS people ml.lk aboul lexical prt1uppottions.uwrantec that il il semantically in conlrast with each other word in the language (Bendix 1966).t if we can characterize. or suppoc.ht CXpttl 10 be .. our reason (or undentandin.ct.nin. On the Kay' Colem. . Inchof'\!d in human experiences and human institutions.ln I Itttlni in which one penon I. Fill. A frame-t. I verb ror whkh • Icxk:al presupposltionllt milht be Inclined to IIY that "hen it i.nd inltitulions and . 10 the . union Iffiliatlons. e. In this view. elcept ror thOle relatively few Clift in .nd ·encyclopedi •• •• In particular.nd rrlme-s. auociated with the Cltegory. of why OM would bother to produce a false sfalement... IJS uprroachet nlue limplicity . The possibility of lepar!tin. Such a loal is completely tlnlilhelicallo the OrrrlO'1e semantlC1. or .aic' image is appropriate.hkh the "mos..n .nd olhera II related to the people does nol &cemimportlnl.1 repertory of the Ilngu8.pUdt)' 0( or 6. use il motivaled.ory by rcco. (or. --" L..emuntic arproaches do nol.lion Is th.MY 1!:II11tlnwrion A common g031 in structural ~emantics i. " Rcdund. ttll.lboul woges. runnin •• especially where it is undtntood thlt thlt ptnOa is fteein'l it Is relevant to conlider whether lOme other penon il or is not . ---. This kind of knowledge is in principle anainlble Independently or knowledre about olher words in the language.) come inlo bein.. '.rin. whitt cate. "Did Inybody chase him?". Cooperation. ("eei"a) is that we know the kind of shUition Ipinsl which the Cltelory CHASE hall rellon for bein. uoed of two belnp movin. that these people 0". etc" elc.lish CHASE. put in aclual utterances il 10 understand thaie expcricncn . to me. only for I reason. 0 LIE II lomethin. DicI"-'7 .t approaches th •• find a goal of redundancy. but il il nol to be made in I w. the concept or ledell prelupposition don not It'Cm unjustlfitd.J .emanlicdescription lexical items. that one can t. I find thai within (rame semantics. IhJtt 'he' WII runnln. It is in that sense. (2) belie-<e<! by tho lpeaker to be rol. orwordl..preuin . the mo'lemcnt of the OM In fronlll pteluppoled. enhancetl by the frame >emlllnlicsapproach. ('unctionl the word serves in the con.im. independently of whether the movement of the individu. acme fealures or.llinl out Ihrou.ed. l"htJtsJ. Frequentlya semantic Iheorist will declare thai the . hlt one believtl. Eatydopoollo The various structurali. • 'folk theory') u providin.. just enough about each word in the lansuage to . in Trier 1931). the . also find it intelliaible to draw a clear distinction between 'dictionaries' .oriun.oal. A recent lively dilCunion between P.oinl to try to prevent that flnl person from !Cllin •• WI)'.. other distinct characteristics o( carpetllen II limply beinglrue of the individuals who IIlilry the crileri. or if J IIY IIWedldn'l chue him". word.tlon ... coiled CARPENTERS. ond (3) lIid In ordtr to deceive.1 limply a 'raise statement" those other undemandinp we hllve about tho concept f. elemenls are bein. If I ask. mantle catelory of the noun.
1os J..nd Wimfon. Lanl\l'''' l~. cd •.ory. SyntlC:lk: Structures.nd PII."'" In • BTII"'" ..... Brndi. see B~u". T1te HaJUt: Mouton. Verbs or bhc:hlns. fn Stlnley Peten. Fillmore and D.nd R. Ind Robert P. On the ln1etnll atrueture or pe1'Oe'Ptual aMi ternande cat~ies.de<. (19681. Enate-ood Olfr" ""nlia: H...l. 'Syntn nnd Semanl~ R: GT3n1mlticnl Relaliom. Sense . tht. (l967).. l. TM JCmanlicis"s job is to lense out the preci!e n!.. Ot.econstructed rrom man~l . Ink). Snme ~rli oMtnaliom about ooml..hO o.. lU-ll2. Fnt . )0~1 (19)1). COlT1IIiw: Development Ind the Acquk~ lion or UflIUIlt. Fillmore. o.. Fodor (1963).. (197').1 136 131 Currenl hsues in Unluklk TMofy. fillm CIIorles J. orClllromia. C. Dof· dreeht: Reidel.. Univmll)' Linlukt~ Club. In R~ W.nrord Uni"enil)" pp.eat~~ries C'JlI"rcssed by IJ~ wMds.. .. PmUppo!ltl... NOim A. Berte)ey: Unlwrsity or Gross. F/nmon::... Pm..M2. The ""..illl . Won! 19. The Goals or U .o: 1M OlicalO Un.rlM J.pane5e. .. In Timothy Moore (ed. Mouton McCawSey. a. 'The definition or lk: Ao enmfnatton of the rotk theories unden.I K. Berlin. Schtnbl (1973).. 1'1'. Wotr . Trt«.ernantk: lheory..ltnz und DrstrlbulJon de\ltJchet Verbtn. e.. Otomsk" NOI:m A.""'h In Unrunlle 'TheoTy.U~.IntUaJfl UnlvttsaJt Project. The Grammar or EnsHsh NomlMlilatiom. Rudorr( 1969).) o. "rormll. The Hapt: lakoR'. St.' BIoomI"atOft: Indlona Uniwnhy ~~.... U!J6S). Lanpcker.): M. Chb. RMild W. (ronhcominc)..... Foundlt1om of CosnIUw: Orlmmar. ntia. W~w:nKh. betS· Wil.Chl~ J. .l. Pike.. Cbartes J. Parnela (1911).t:e\. . CIIo.. Hillsdale-: Lawrmc:e Fit . Fred·W..llure oflhc rtlaliorishir belYt'een the word and the calel!. . mantic I". LinlU1stk: Ana'ysls of Enslkh. Lclplll: YE8 Verla. n:h Quonerly 16~261-lIJ. GMb .. Kenneth L. Pms Schlink.tT.otet C. On the enatlrtn . Undo . Abekon (1977). _ . timmer.nd Paul K.f.nn.hrf~.. VIsUIllhinkin...on..~ J. ed.): '!'" I. Cole (cd. Mellphon We Live By. el al (1964). In DlYid Hackney ~ al. ChatSe5 J. 1be Ol'lmmar or Enatish Prtdkate CompJemtnl California Pms.y (1981).. M~lhodes en Synlue. ..)-2"..rlM World.. (l966~ Compo_llial An..an1Ul1t in Relation to • Unified Theory orlhc SlructlM or Human The Harue: Mouton. MS."". Colt and J. The cas< ror .tfm)pt 10 dirrmnlhlle I~ Itrn'It. Unpublhhel mo. Rotch. (1960). Jenokll. The S'rUC!VTt or EnA.. On Jtntrltivlly. In C.urke (1975).nd Use or EnSlish CompoorK! Nourt1.. ChicaIO: Unlvenily of CIIk:qo Pr. Plris: HermtM. [)eln!rc (l97J). Conlempora..lish. (I96Il. R. (l96l). .)."ory I'Ind the back. I believe that some of the cum.: An Inquiry Inlo Human Knowledsc Struetures... OtIImmar and co. Talmy. (l961). In E.t Son DieIo. ROMI B. Pelrr S.. Brent .. l. ht.lndirm Object C"". Ocr dtutsche WoflSchall im Smnbe:titt::des Venlude'. \ Am~im.• Un."dn.nhlon.). In Ensthh.. ~O. nloom.2&-44. Austin. ParIs: klinJbIed.rord Unlwnhy Preu. (19m. (191:1)..11eThtooy.. Th~ struet~ of. Pl'· 23. S. Geor. Otarln J. (1911).. Kart E.. n. inlfon: Jndllftl Uniwnily PYas. or Fries... Ch. Prot.. OS-lOB. On the orpnlltllon or 5CmIndc intonnalton In the k:dcon.UT. T. s. Ind Mark John~on (19SO). p.). Camtwidae (MIss.. Wor1tTbfidt ZUf V. (1971).. Rqwinled In Wor1· bikJ~nll: (I~fll). Ilo.. H..uktk: Sm1anliC1. (l9nb).. "r"~. New Yon: HolI. RI .rMl Undn'· standln.mbrid&e (Mas~. . J. Heldrt. J.nd Non-TMh-ConditIonol _mia. " . (1"3).lysls or Gmetol Vocabulary: The Semantk: StftJClure or. TopfC1 in UlI. Btrkeky: Unhoenlty or Clliromla PI't'Sl... 'Ipe" on LanJU'se Unl\ItfU:b.La .lkh.).nl No. ilod the precise nuture the reJalion~hips hetween the calc. BaSfe CoJM Terms.208-:101.. Fillmore..Ilion or emb<ddlnl" .uislk.limes D.tn. FiNlI Report on NSF O.'ruct. C'borIeo J. Rosenbaum. U917.mock. filmore. In hpen from the Pnl!l$e'Ssion on the Ltdcon.... CR. Hindi and J..tclli ~lntic1. in. Helbi.Ik: Semantics.l. John L (1964).round. leonard (1980'). Scripts.nlkhe Buch~lf~hart Otrrml. Te1niere.dl.. In P. S. La J). Santa Crm: lec1u~ on Dej~h.y". Conmuctiom.illve Selenoe Prosrom. FiJlmore. ~ C. mo •.mon. (1m). ~ Von:: Ac.. (eds. C..nd..II.. EJemenls de Syntlle Structurale.. In War. . Robm <Ie (19811. (1978)...New YOft: Htrrottrt. Commlllt'e em UnSUrs1ia." c:riltfla for proer!' models of mdinS. Katz. EleatlOf' H.s. London: Academic: Press. Brace A No1t fo For tI rtunl. Sweel~. Aspec1Sor the 1beoty or S". EYe E. and Jerry A.dock.. '-2. Lan.ot1l'<.'es I hDve offered have shown the advnntages of 'ookint allangu8te in Ihis way. Edward H.ry R~ in Philosophkallogk: and Linruj. Des.ipi notes b)' O.. .. 57. lucien (l9S9). Enzytlopa Househohkf.n<le...y (1969).m . RudlnS R.1 compovndI.52).J1O-210. W. NC'W yort: Hott. Gerhard and.. B100minJfon: rndian.. Fillmore.nd Semibili .endom. Tht "1«tIe: Mouton Cbomsky. pt..... C. Set of V~bs In E. Rinehart A WIMIOfl. ""'coI.nde /981.. Sodety.St' ror ~~~. rds. (19. of Transformations. Verbs 0( JudJina: eJlerc:iJe in ttmlntlc decri~jon.ckmic In Erlbaum. Studies in Un.OO. (191').. New York: Aeademlc Pres.
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