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missouri town 1855
fort osage national historic landmark
Jackson County Parks and Recreation
REVISED FALL 2008
FORT OSAGE NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK
MISSOURI TOWN 1855
Jackson County Parks and Recreation
INTRODUCTION “Society has many built-in time spanners that help to link the present generation with the past. Our sense of the past is developed by contact with the older generation, by our knowledge of history, by the accumulated heritage of art, music, literature and science passed down to us through the years. It is enhanced by immediate contact with the objects that surround us, each of which has a point of origin in the past, each of which provides us with a trace of identiﬁcation with the past.”
-Alvin Tofﬂer, Future Shock
Jackson County Parks and Recreation hopes this Teacher’s Guide is useful to educators planning to visit Missouri Town 1855 or Fort Osage National Historic Landmark. This guide has been designed as a basis from which to direct class studies and prepare the students for their site activity. Please feel free to duplicate or rearrange this format to one which best beneﬁts the students.
The following people and texts were consulted during the compilation of this Teacher’s Guide: The Timetables of History. Bernard Grunn. Simon and Schuster Inc. New York: 1982. A People and a Nation. Mary Beth Norton et al. Houghton Mifﬂin Company. Boston: 1986. The Timetables of American History. Laurence Urdang Simon and Schuster Inc. New York: 1981. Fort Osage Staff and Volunteers Missouri Town 1855 Staff and Volunteers
Planning Your Visit .................................................................................................................. 1 Group Programs ..................................................................................................................... 2-3 Historic Cemetery Courtesy ..................................................................................................... 4 Historic Site Courtesy............................................................................................................... 5 Guidelines for Teachers and Chaperones ................................................................................ 6 Glossary of Preservation Terms ............................................................................................... 7 Chronology of United States History ................................................................................... 8-9 Chronology of Missouri History ........................................................................................ 10-13 Fort Osage Fact Sheet ....................................................................................................... 16-17 Fort Osage History............................................................................................................. 18-19 Lewis & Clark in the Greater Kansas City Area .................................................................. 20 Fort Osage School Tour Teacher Materials ...................................................................... 21-23 List of Books and Videos Relating to Early 1800s History and Fort Osage ........................ 24 Map to Fort Osage .................................................................................................................. 25 Missouri Town 1855 Fact Sheet ........................................................................................ 28-29 Synopsis of Missouri Town 1855 ....................................................................................... 30-32 Missouri Town 1855 School Tour Teacher Materials ...................................................... 33-35 Missouri Town 1855 Animal Guide .................................................................................. 36-37 Sample Mercantile Items and Prices ..................................................................................... 38 List of Books and Videos Relating to 1850s Missouri History ........................................ 39-40 Pioneer Penmanship .......................................................................................................... 41-42 Map to Missouri Town 1855 ................................................................................................... 43 Other Educational Opportunities .......................................................................................... 44 Program Evaluation Form................................................................................................. 46-47 Additional Educational Materials .......................................................................................... 48
When a group is larger than 75 students it makes it difﬁcult for the site. and the group itself. Groups with more than 75 students are strongly encouraged to divide their groups into smaller numbers and visit the site in two groups. as well as. Please plan to picnic at Hayes Park in Sibley. Important information on the sites and behavior expected from the group is contained in the Teacher’s Guide. Bookings for the Fall tours begin July 1. Gift shop items include souvenirs and books. some costing less than $5. A conﬁrmation will be sent after booking your date. Your group will be expected to follow the historic site courtesy information located in the Teacher’s Guide when you visit Missouri Town 1855 or Fort Osage National Historic Landmark. if necessary.00. to 4:00 p.m. Teachers and adult chaperones are responsible for keeping order during student programs. The gift shop at Missouri Town 1855 is located near the parking lot. the Mercantile is located in the village. Tour dates are limited and must be arranged in advance. The people fulﬁlling this requirement will be allowed into the site free of charge. where a covered shelter is located. There are exhibits and a gift shop in the Fort Osage Education Center. unload the bus and organize your group. please note that you will be expected to begin your tour/program at your designated time.PLANNING YOUR VISIT TO FORT OSAGE AND MISSOURI TOWN 1855 Jackson County Parks and Recreation is excited to bring historical tours and programs to students studying Missouri History.m. Monday through Friday from 8:00 a. Picnicking is allowed at the picnic tables south of the Missouri Town 1855 parking lot. We believe “To Live History…Is to Learn History!” Our historic tours and programs can be enjoyed by all grade levels but are targeted for 4th grade classes who are studying Missouri History. Bookings for the Spring tours begin on December 1. a Trade Room located in the Fort itself. Missouri. Picnicking at Fort Osage National Historic Landmark is no longer feasible for large groups due to the noise level disturbing other groups at Fort Osage National Historic Landmark. The site administrators ask that teachers or adult leaders accompany students into the gift shop areas. When scheduling. The Gift Shop attendant will provide you directions. Payment is required two weeks prior to the tour date. interpreters. To schedule your group tour program call our ofﬁce at (816) 503-4864. 1 . The minimum requirement for chaperones is one adult per ten students. Please plan to arrive 15 minutes earlier in order to check in at the Gift Shop at Missouri Town 1855 or the Education Center at Fort Osage National Historic Landmark to receive further instructions.
00 each.org 2 . Fort Osage National Historic Landmark Hours of Operation: January – December • 9:00 a. Group size: Minimum 10/Maximum 40 LIVING HISTORY PROGRAM – Approximately 2. Group size: Minimum 40/Maximum 75 Inclement weather may affect program activities. To schedule a program or for more information call 816-503-4864 or visit www. so sign up for your Fort Osage Field Trip TODAY! 1 adult/10 students is required and will receive complimentary admission. Proceeding to the Fort your group will be divided into smaller groups and may rotate through multiple stations. This Center is a state of the art facility where students will fully experience the historical signiﬁcance of Fort Osage. The ﬁnal 20 minutes will incorporate a learning time with one or two of the interpreters and the students. No specialized activities are offered with this component.00 per student. This will enable the students to develop a better comprehension of the vital role the river has on human activities. Military garrison.5 hours Designed for elementary and middle school. At the historic site a brief orientation precedes the self-guided tour of the Fort. • Tuesday through Sunday Space is limited. This program is available Wednesday. FORT OSAGE FIELD TRIPS Cost: $3. Missouri River. Specialized programs. Thursday and Friday. Thursday and Friday. Large groups may be divided to rotate through the facilities. Stations may include programs in the Trade House. Add’l adults are $3.5 hours This program is oriented for 3rd grade and up. such as Lewis & Clark.00 per student. may be scheduled. It creates a sensory transition to the Fort’s history and prehistory of the immediate area.00 per student. This program is available Wednesday. – 4:30 p. students will begin with a visit to the Education Center. Transportation on the River and ﬁnishes with Sustainability. please allow 50 minutes for your visit here. Beginning at the Education Center. Exhibits begin with Geology. Also included is emphasis on the importance the Missouri River played in establishing the Fort at this location. and relevant hands-on activities. Interpreters dressed in period attire are in the facilities to answer your questions.Choose one of the three programs below for your Frontier Adventure! Beginning in 2008 your ﬁeld trip to Fort Osage NHL will include a tour of the new Fort Osage Education Center. Flora and Fauna. Cost: $5. Cost: $4. Group size: Minimum 20/Maximum 120 FRONTIER PROGRAM – Approximately 1. SELF-GUIDED TOUR – Approximately 1 hour Your class will tour both the Education Center and Fort Osage.jacksongov. or military life.m. ﬂora and fauna.m.
00 per student Group size: Minimum 10/Maximum 40 SELF-GUIDED TOUR .00 per student Group size: Minimum 40/Maximum 80 Missouri Town 1855 Hours of Operation: March 1 – November 15 • 9:00 a. Cost: $3. To schedule a program or for more information call 816-503-4864 or visit www.jacksongov.org 3 .m. • Tuesday through Sunday November 16 – February 28 • 9:00 a. PRESCHOOL PROGRAM – Approximately 1 hour Preschoolers 5 years or younger participate in a 15-20 minute presentation on what clothing from the 1850s was like. Cost: $4. and the ox drover. the woodworker. Thursday or Friday. You might also take a tour of the herb garden. Interpreters dressed in period attire are in the village to answer your questions. so sign up for your Missouri Town 1855 Field Trip TODAY! 1 adult/10 students is required and will receive complimentary admission. The presentation might be on the lifestyles of the 1850s or a visit to a schoolteacher.m. Some of the stations could include visits with some of the residents such as the blacksmith. An activity sheet is provided with your conﬁrmation. the tavern keeper. This program is available Wednesday. Add’l adults are $3.00 per student Group size: Minimum 10/Maximum 40 LIVING HISTORY PROGRAM – Approximately 2 hours This program is designed for 3rd grade and up. – 4:30 p. ox drover or blacksmith. – 4:30 p.5 hours This program is designed for elementary and middle school students. This program is available Wednesday. seeing and touching actual lye soap or petting one of the Missouri Town 1855 oxen. Cost: $1. • Saturday and Sunday Space is limited. The students will take part in a 30-minute presentation and a self-guided tour. Your teachers and students will be divided into smaller groups that rotate through several stations. Thursday or Friday. An 1800s Antebellum town is represented with authentic period buildings across 22 sloping acres and interpreters demonstrating everyday lifestyles of the times. the merchant.Missouri Town 1855 Field Trips Choose one of the four programs below for your Heritage Adventure! Bring Missouri Heritage to life for preschoolers and up at Missouri Town 1855. Choose from one of the programs below for your school group.Approximately 1 hour Your class will tour the open and gated buildings.00 per student Group size: Minimum 20/Maximum 120 PIONEER PROGRAM – Approximately 1. Cost: $5.m.m. This is followed by a self guided tour with interpreters located in the village to answer any questions.00 each.
Even though the cemetery at Missouri Town 1855 is not authentic. A granite marker and bronze plaque. one must still act with dignity and respect in any cemetery they may visit. * * Thank you for your consideration. The gravestones resting at Missouri Town 1855 were moved to the site for safekeeping. jump or play around the gravestones. 1810. 4 . New markers replaced these stones at the original burial sites. Their deaths are symbolic of the hardships and dedication which typify the character of a new nation. Please walk between the graves and not over them. The earliest known interment in this cemetery is of Private John King on November 15. as it opened its doors to the western frontier. Making gravestone rubbings is strongly discouraged as it deteriorates the older grave markers. The following are some guidelines to share with your students and adult leaders when you visit the Jackson County historic sites: * * * Please do not run. while serving their country at Fort Osage and Fort Atkinson. The oldest marker is dated 1819. Students must be accompanied by an adult leader in the cemetery.HISTORIC CEMETERY COURTESY A historic cemetery is located near Fort Osage and contains the graves of soldiers and civilians. furnished by the Veterans Administration. Please do not beat or chip at the markers with any object. recognizes the contribution of 49 soldiers who lost their lives.
Please do not climb fences. Please do not touch. The site administrator or gift shop employees will be glad to provide directions. chase or feed the livestock and poultry. follow the instructions of staff interpreter. During the use of hiking trails. it is helpful to discuss the appropriate behavior expected during the visit. or any wildlife at the sites. other picnic facilities are available at Fleming Park and Hayes Park. Please respect these and do not remove them. Horseplay. The buildings and sites are of historic value and should be treated with the utmost respect. Food and drink are not permitted within the sites. Thank you for your consideration. roughhousing and running will not be tolerated by the staff or site administrators. Visitors are asked not to touch artifacts unless given permission by the guide or interpreter. Picnic areas are available outside the historic site area. They need to show appropriate museum behavior at all times. even though they are outdoors. Barriers on doors are designed to protect the artifacts. Students need to listen and pay attention to the guide and the interpreters at the individual stations. trees or buildings.HISTORIC SITE COURTESY Before arriving at the historical sites. * * * * * * * * * 5 . Questions about daily life at Fort Osage or Missouri Town 1855 are encouraged and welcomed. The following are some points which should be covered prior to your tour: * Students need to be reminded that the site is a museum.
their history and answer any questions they may have. for the amount. Our interpreters and volunteers are located at our interpretive stations and will be more than happy to tell your group about the buildings. 7. the group leader should exit the bus and enter the Museum Gift Shop or Visitor’s Center. Please remember that you were assigned a speciﬁc time slot. If circumstances prompt you to cancel a visit. made out to Jackson County Parks and Recreation. The group leader should have an exact count of children and adults and any unpaid admission fees for the group. As an adult supervisor you are responsible for keeping your group of ten children together at all times including restroom stops. 2. The students may then unload and the bus driver should park the bus in the parking lot at the entrance to the historic site. It is suggested to have one check. If your group comes to a building that is full. Please arrive in plenty of time to check in at the Museum Gift Shop or Education Center. Please do not combine your groups as it could disrupt the entire program. 3. 4. There is no smoking permitted in or around the buildings as most of them are historic structures and contain many irreplaceable artifacts. 6. you need to plan on spending at least one hour in the site itself. please wait outside or stop by the building later. 6 . Please be sure and dress appropriately for the weather. Please remind students that they are in a museum and that appropriate museum behavior will be expected. An interpreter will meet your group to give an orientation to the site and any further instructions as needed. it will cut into your touring time at the site. please courtesy call (816) 503-4864 with cancellation information. if your group is late for whatever reason. Plan to enjoy yourself.GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS AND CHAPERONES 1. Depending on the type of program you have booked. The museum is an outdoor living history site. Upon arrival. 5.
glassware. Diane Maddex. Historic Preservation is a means by which an older building of signiﬁcant architectural construction or a site of historical importance is preserved for public viewing and study. Landmark Yellow Pages. Reconstruction “The act of process of reproducing by new construction the exact form and detail of a vanished building. sites. Outdoor Museum A restored. Washington D.Fort Osage and Missouri Town 1855 are sites where historic preservation is practiced. or a part thereof. rebuilt or moved and whose purpose is to interpret a historical or cultural setting. Preservation Saving from destruction or deterioration old and historic buildings. The Preservation Press. when citizens of Philadelphia united together and saved the historic Independence Hall where the Declaration of Independence was signed and a new country was formed. The historic preservation movement continues today by restoring structures and sites important in the evolution of our country’s history. as it appeared at a speciﬁc period of time. shape or form.” — Secretary of the Interior’s Standards Glossary information taken from. tools. weapons. all of which provide evidence of culturally determined behavior. No facet of history is too small or insigniﬁcant not to be preserved in some way. 7 . including excavated material as well as above-ground resources such as buildings. GLOSSARY OF PRESERVATION TERMS Historical Archeology The study of the cultural remains of literate societies. structures and furnishings. cutlery and textiles. structures and objects and providing for their continued use by means of restoration. The historic preservation movement got its start in 1816.C. Material Culture Tangible objects used by people to cope with the physical world. such as utensils. structure or object. rehabilitation or adaptive use. re-created or replica village site in which several or many structures have been restored. Editor.: 1990. pottery. period or activity.
Louisiana Territory purchased from France.S. 8 1809-1817 1812-1814 1815 1817-1825 1819 1820 1821 1823 1825-1829 1829-1837 1836 1837-1841 1841 1841-1845 .S. War of 1812 (2nd War for Independence).S. . John Quincy Adams is the 6th President of U. John Tyler is the 10th President of U. Missouri becomes the 24th state. Missouri Compromise. John Adams is the 2nd President of U. James Madison is the 4th President of U. Battle of the Alamo fought in Texas.CHRONOLOGY OF UNITED STATES HISTORY 1775-1783 1776 1789-1797 1797-1801 1801-1809 1803 1804-1806 1808 American Revolution Declaration of Independence George Washington is elected the 1st President. Fort Osage established by Gen.S.S. Thomas Jefferson is the 3rd President of U.S. Clark on the bank of the Missouri River.dies after one month in ofﬁce. Martin VanBuren is the 8th President of U. The Monroe Doctrine is established which calls for noncolonization and nonintervention in the Western Hemisphere by European nations. James Monroe is the 5th President of U. Andrew Jackson is the 7th President of U. Battle of New Orleans establishes Andrew Jackson as a national hero. William Henry Harrison is the 9th President of U.S.S.S. Lewis and Clark explore the Louisiana Purchase. Florida purchased from Spain.
S. Oregon Treaty extends the northern border of the U.S. Nevada. James Buchanan is the 15th President of U. Franklin Pierce is the 14th President of U.S. Utah and part of Colorado.U. Zachary Taylor is the 12th President of U. California. Texas.S. Border War fought in the Western U. 1846 1846-1848 1848-1849 1849-1850 1850-1853 1850 1853-1857 1854 1854-1861 1861 1857-1861 1861-1865 1861-1865 9 . gains Arizona. Abraham Lincoln is the 16th President of U. The California gold rush begins.S. outlaws the slave trade in Washington D. Millard Fillmore is the 13th President of U.S. into North and South. Kansas-Nebraska Act gives the question of slavery to the individual states to decide by popular vote. The Mormons move to Utah. James Knox Polk is the 11th President of U.1841 1845-1849 1846 First wagon train leaves Missouri for California. New Mexico.S. Compromise of 1850 admits California as a free state.S. Kansas becomes the 34th state.S.C. to the Paciﬁc Coast and ends the joint occupation of Oregon Territory with the British. Mexican War .S. The Civil War splits the U. and enacts the fugitive slave act.
The ﬁrst Territorial General Assembly meets in St. Louis.S.S. Lewis and Clark expedition leaves St. Louisiana Purchase bought from France for $15. Due to isolation and re-supply. Pike expedition leaves for Southwest. the ﬁrst European settlement on the Missouri River in Carroll County.CHRONOLOGY OF MISSOURI HISTORY 1673 Father Marquette gives the ﬁrst European description of the “river pekistanoui” (Missouri). St. de Bourgmont supervises the construction of Fort Orleans. Legislative Council and a House Of Representatives. to control the Mississippi River. Louis. Louis as the capital. Etienne de Bourgmout surveys the Missouri to the Kansas City area to the Platte River. Kansas.000. 1713 1723 1744 1763 1764 1803 1804 1805 1806 1808 1811 1812 1813 10 . Territory of Louisiana becomes Territory of Missouri with a Governor. Territory of Louisiana established St. New Madrid earthquakes begin. Includes the present state of Missouri and allowed the U. Louis. garrison is transferred to Lake Erie region. Baron de Cavagnial supervises the construction of Fort de la Trinite’ (later Fort de Cavagnial) near present day Ft. Fort Bellefontaine established. French give up all military posts in North America due to Treaty of Paris. Leavenworth. Formal transfer of the Louisiana Purchase between the U. Louis surveyed and founded by Auguste Chouteau and Pierre Leclede. and France made in St. Fort Osage established as a military post including a government trade house.000.
1819 1820 1821 1822 1825 1826 1827 1829 1831 1833 1836 11 . Site for the county seat of Jackson County and Independence chosen. Town lots are platted and sold. First heavy German immigration begins. is published in Germany and inﬂuences German immigration to Missouri. Gottfried Duden’s Bericht uber eine Reise. County judges. The Platte purchase adds six northwest counties to Missouri.1816 1818 Formal end of the War of 1812. * Missouri Compromise evades the issue of “popular sovereignty” by admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and forbidding slavery in new territories above 36° 30’ except Missouri. Legislature holds ﬁrst session in Jefferson City. Kansas and Shawnee Indians cede rights to all remaining land in Missouri. Factory system shut down by Congress. Petitions presented in Congress asking statehood for Missouri Territory. Louis. U. Fort Leavenworth opens. Fort Osage abandoned by government. First state election.S. Big and Little Osage. Missouri admitted to the Union. Mormons are driven from Jackson County into Clay County. House and Senate fail to agree on Missouri Bill. Constitutional Convention meets in St. Congress passes the Missouri Enabling Act approving statehood. Joseph Smith reveals Jackson County as the site of Zion. sheriff and Circuit Court judge chosen. Jackson County organized.
Regiment for Mexican War raised in Missouri under the command of Colonels A. The phrase “Manifest Destiny” comes into use. * The Town of Kansas founded. “The Great Emigration”. One thousand emigrants leave Independence for Oregon in May. Cholera epidemic in Mississippi Valley. Telegraph communication between St. Louis and the East Coast established.W. Penn upholds the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793. Paciﬁc Railroad begins ﬁrst railroad services in the state from St. a party of more than 120 wagons. The Bidwell-Bartleson Party arrives in the Sacramento Valley via the Oregon Trail. Honey War with Iowa over border dispute. Prigg v. Plat ﬁled for the Town of Kansas.1838 Mormon War. 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1845 1846 1847 1849 1850 1852 12 . First emigrant wagon train leaves Independence. State authorities are not required to help the owner. leaves Elm Grove in western Missouri for Oregon. which allows the owner of a fugitive slave to recover the slave despite conﬂicting state laws. Louis. * Classes begin at Missouri University. Governor Boggs declares Mormons are enemies and must be exterminated or driven from Missouri. Louis to Cheltenham. Military unit begins historic overland march. * Hannibal . * Cherokee Indian Trail of Tears passes through southern Missouri on their way to the reservation in Oklahoma. Joseph Railroad Company incorporated. Doniphan and Sterling Price. claims 4557 lives in St. Hill and Company. especially in emigrant trade towns. First government mail route leaves Independence for the West under the ownership of Waldo.St. Missouri State capitol completed.
Louis. * First high school in the state opened in St. Kansas-Nebraska Act repeals the Missouri Compromise by giving territorial settlers the right to decide the slave question for their state and also afﬁrms legality of slave holding in the United States. 1854 1855 13 . * The Republican Party is organized in Jackson. The Civil War begins in this area several years before the ﬁring begins at Fort Sumter April 12. 1861. * Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society encourages anti-slavery emigration to Kansas. Pro-slavery Missourians voting in Kansas Territorial election seat a pro-slavery legislature.1853 City of Kansas incorporated. Michigan as a reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. * Border War between pro-slavery and anti-slavery supporters on the Missouri and Kansas border areas begin as a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
.FORT OSAGE NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK INFORMATION .a Jackson County Historic Site ..
Annual events include Coalition of Historic Trekkers National Gathering.FORT OSAGE FACT SHEET DESCRIPTION: Reconstructed on its original site.S. Tours are self-guided and take about one hour. as staff and volunteers portray the work and livelihood of Fort Osage residents. soldiers began construction of the Fort in 1808 to serve several purposes. Including the walk to the Education Center. housing soldiers to guard the new territory and to protect the trading post located there. Living history interpretation is featured. Fort Osage was the nation’s largest factory outpost. Honoring the American Soldier. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Under the direction of William Clark. Fort Osage is approximately the size of ﬁve city blocks. Independence Day. Factory System. joint commander of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Group rates are available to organized groups of 20 or more people with PRE-REGISTRATION and YEAR FOUNDED: ANNUAL EVENTS: SIZE: TOURS: 16 . The Fort Osage Education Center has actual artifacts which date back to the time the Fort was in operation. Reconstruction of the historic site began in 1948. the Fort offered western Missouri’s ﬁrst settlers a sanctuary from which to venture west. Fort Osage was also one of the few ﬁnancially successful trading post of the U. It functioned as one of the ﬁrst Federal outposts in the newly acquired Louisiana Territory. A gift shop is located in the Education Center. Trading post functions were discontinued in 1822. Fort Osage is a complex of hewn log structures located on a high bluff overlooking the Missouri River. Finally. Fort Osage was built in 1808 and occupied until 1827. as well as the most expensive to build and maintain. Grand Festival of Chez les Canses and the Territorial Militia Muster. Fort Osage also aided the American government in establishing alliances with neighboring Nations.
Drive north through Sibley and follow the signs one mile farther to the Fort. From I-70. From Kansas City. Follow brown directional signs to Fort Osage National Historic Landmark. Missouri. Fort Osage is located in Sibley. take 24 Highway east to Buckner. Proceed north on BB through Buckner.m. on the Missouri River 14 miles northeast of Independence.PRE-PAYMENT. 64088 LOCATION: 17 . MO. Missouri. watching carefully for signs. to 4:30 p.m. Fort Osage’s physical address is 107 Osage Street. Missouri. SEASON: Year-round: Tuesday thru Sunday 9:00 a. Turn north at Sibley Street (BB Hwy) and travel 3 miles to the town of Sibley. Sibley. exit at BB Highway/Grain Valley exit.
the Fort had a company of 81 ofﬁcers and enlisted men under the command of Captain Eli B. successful competition of private traders who could go to the Indian villages instead of the Indians coming to them and the inﬂuences of European traders in the remote regions of the country. The decline of the United States factory system was due to a number of reasons. Extra duty was also required of each soldier at the Fort. whiskey or brandy. George Sibley was the factor at Fort Osage from 1808 until 1822. The purpose of the factory was to trade quality goods at a low price with the Indian tribes in order to establish good relations with them. stocking the trade room and attending to Indian affairs. France and Great Britain that the United States meant to protect its territory by military strength and to establish healthy relations with the Native American population in the territory.FORT OSAGE HISTORY Fort Osage was established in 1808 as a military outpost in the newly acquired Louisiana Territory by General William Clark. The system practiced by private European and American fur traders seemed to be a constant contributor to unrest in the territory. His duties included bookkeeping. A soldier’s daily rations included: one and a quarter pounds of beef or three quarters pound of pork. 18 . At the time of establishment. The height and location of the bluff provided a clear view of the river for many miles and the river current around the bluff caused the boats to slow down considerably in order to safely navigate. The United States factory system was discontinued by Congress in 1822. lack of incentives for the factor. candles and vinegar. They were issued salt for their food. This extra duty was performed during their free time and they were paid ten cents a day for common labor and sixteen cents a day for skilled labor. Sibley was paid an annual salary of $800 until 1811. Fort Osage was built on a strategic bluff overlooking the Missouri River. Clemson. when he received a raise of $300. The lack of factors familiar with Indian trade. This salary can compare in today’s economy of around $90. The soldiers enlisted for a minimum of ﬁve years service and were paid ﬁve dollars a month depending on service and rank. due to pressures from the rival fur trade interests. These conditions provided a natural defense for the Fort. The Fort’s purpose was to provide a military presence in the territory in order to assure Spain. supervising the trade room. The soldiers performed military drills and duty for most of the day. eighteen ounces of bread and one gill of rum. The factory system derives its meaning from the English common law deﬁnition of a factor as a person who buys and sells on behalf of his employer. government regulations and budget restrictions which hampered any effort to increase the trade. processing furs. The factory system in the United States was established in 1796 under President George Washington and expanded by President Thomas Jefferson into the Louisiana Territory. It was Jefferson’s hope to undermine the private traders and gain Indian alliances for the United States.000 dollars a year.
It then returned in 1815 to re-establish the military garrison. The military left Fort Osage again in 1827 when Fort Leavenworth was established.The military left Fort Osage in 1813 due to the War of 1812. 19 .
to organize an expedition to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Territory. A camp was established on June 26th where the Kaw (Kansas) River ﬂowed into the Missouri. Louis. It was decided they would stay at this camp for three days in order for one of the pirogues to be repaired. on an epic journey into a largely unknown territory. Lewis had the boats take shelter on a small island. On this date. known as a keelboat. they proceeded upriver and noted large amounts of wild plums. Lewis was also required to keep accurate maps of his travels. They also recorded seeing seams of coal in large limestone outcroppings. a common form of punishment at the time. The winter of 1803-1804 saw the expedition making ﬁnal preparations at Camp Dubois. For the next two days. The Lewis and Clark Expedition is still regarded as one of the greatest adventures in American history. President Thomas Jefferson ordered Meriwether Lewis. He was court-martialed and sentenced to receive 100 lashes from a whip. Kansas. William Clark to serve as a co-leader.” They would name the small creek by which they camped “Independence Creek. raspberries and wild apples. scouting ahead of the main group. He stripped bark from a tree to provide more protection for a night away from the main party. It is here that Clark noted that he had seen large ﬂocks of Carolina Parakeets. had to seek shelter by himself on the river bank after sinking into the mud. in addition to carefully recording his efforts to form friendships with the Indians. On June 29th they camped just north of what is now Parkville. The members of the Expedition had to become expert boat handlers and strained as they were challenged by numerous sand bars. He would remember this location and the high bluff on the south side of the small island and return in 1808 to build what would be known as Fort Osage. Louis. islands and tricky currents as they proceeded upriver. with the boat crews struggling against strong winds. was built for the trip. Each man received an extra “gill of whiskey. The men had to hunt for their food and depend on each other and their leaders in order to proceed. a young army captain. William Clark. Lewis asked a friend and fellow army ofﬁcer. The men continued upriver for several more days with the leaders writing about the heat and large quantities of animals.” The Expedition did eventually reach the Paciﬁc Ocean and return safely to St. opposite St. Believing there might be a water route to the Paciﬁc Ocean. 1803. The Expedition entered what would later be known as the Kansas City area on June 23. The Expedition celebrated the Fourth of July just outside of what now is Atchison. with the keelboat and two smaller boats known as pirogues. It was noted that the Kaw River was very muddy and its water tasted bad. What was now known as the Corps of Volunteers for Northwestern Discovery departed in May of 1803. These birds are now extinct. 20 . One of the soldiers got into trouble for drinking whiskey while on duty.LEWIS & CLARK IN THE GREATER KANSAS CITY AREA In 1803. A small temporary fort was made for protection by using logs and brush. Lewis was charged with noting the plants and animals he encountered. A boat well equipped for river navigation.
what supplies will be needed. Have the students bring non-refrigerated lunches and play games from the period at recess. Challenge them to continue the activity at home. 21 .e. Have the students pretend that they will be establishing a settlement near the Fort. Compare these lists with foods from the 1800s. etc. What if you bring students age 9 and older? Put the past into perspective. ask the residents what they would have brought with them on the journey. Visit the Trade Room in the Factory building and compare it to stores that the students are familiar with. remind the students to think of the changes that have occurred since the early 1800s (i. They should keep track of the packaging. Prepare a trip back in time to the early 1800s. the automobile. What are their hopes and dreams for the future in the area? While touring the facility. compare and contrast what you see with the amenities in the student’s kitchen at home. Consider location. Talk with the interpreters to see what the differences are between their occupations and those of the student’s parents. preparation and tastes. Have the students make a list of the foods that they eat for two days.FORT OSAGE SCHOOL TOUR TEACHER MATERIALS SUGGESTED TEACHING STRATEGIES What if you bring students ages 5-8? Relate today’s life to what you see on the tour. Have the students ask the residents of the Fort about their experiences of living at a frontier outpost. Have the students pick ﬁve items that they would need to take with them for a journey up river. Make a few recipes from the early 1800s. where you will get food and water. In the Factory Kitchen. Do not use electricity or modern conveniences. PRE-VISIT ACTIVITIES Plan a day at your school set in the early 1800s. As you visit the Fort. electric light bulb and telephones). how labor will be divided. Do work using slates and chalk. Compare the student’s clothing to those of the interpreters’.
Fleshing Beam . Encourage the students to interview each other. Imagine that you are a traveler coming up the river and you have stayed at the Fort for a few days. Bellows .A basic military defensive structure used in the construction of fortiﬁcations. Factory . These two storied structures were thick walled wooden buildings with gun and cannon ports.An 18th century term referring to the building where an agent or “Factor” did business.A person that works for a skilled craftsman in order to learn the trade.A wooden tool used to remove the ﬂesh and membrane from animal hides during processing. the “Trade Factor” at Fort Osage. VOCABULARY Apprentice . Cypher . For each of the ﬁve senses. 22 .To do arithmetic. It is constructed from a half-round long with two legs on one end.An 18th century term referring to an agent such as George C. Sibley. The wooden tool used to beat or “dash” the cream is called a DASHER. Factor . Create a bulletin board with pictures or words associated with your trip for every letter of the alphabet. internal benches for shooting and ﬂoorboards on the second story overhangs that could be removed to allow defense of the structures base area. Daycap .A container used to turn cream into butter. Butter Churn . Fort Osage has a “Trade Factory” in the civilian compound.A tool made of wood and leather having a metal nozzle that is used by a blacksmith to force air into a forge. The increased air ﬂow created by this device makes the ﬁre hotter and allows metals to be heated for shaping or even melted for casting into intricate shapes.A head covering used by young girls and ladies to keep their hair clean and out of the way while working. See Blockhouse #1 on site.POST-VISIT ACTIVITIES Have the students write an article for the school newspaper or publish a newsletter about their ﬁeld trip experiences. Have students choose ﬁve objects from their lives that they would include in a museum to represent life today. Blockhouse . Write a letter to your family back east about your experiences. list a memory of the trip to Fort Osage.
A person who ﬁrst settles in an area. Settler . 1st Person Interpretation . Tick . Interpreter .A person who comes to live in an area. The legs give the pan its name and raise it up from the hearth.Hearth . The ﬂoor of the ﬁreplace. black. A costumed tour guide. Usually ﬁlled with feathers or straw. Pelt . felt hat worn by soldiers at Fort Osage.The enclosing wall of a fort that is made of wooden posts driven into the ground.The tall.A bag used to carry things in. just as a backpack or purse is used today. Poke . 23 .The brick or stone area in front of the ﬁreplace. 3rd Person Interpretation .The mattress of a bed. Pioneer . Can be placed on a bed frame or on the ﬂoor. Shako .A type of communication that involves the interpreter’s complete character portrayal of a historic person. Spider Pan .A staff person that teaches history through historic roles.A metal cooking pan that rests on legs. Stockade .The undressed (tanned or treated) skin and fur of an animal.A type of communication that requires the interpreter to dress in historic attire and allows him/her to react to guests in present day terms.
LIST OF BOOKS AND VIDEOS RELATING TO EARLY 1800s HISTORY AND FORT OSAGE DVDs There is a DVD. by Richard Steins Indians of North America: The Osage. created by Jackson County Parks and Recreation. Kaw Valley Films and Video VC 973. by Bobbi Kalman and David Schimpky 1812. by Louis F. by Albert Marrin A Nation is Born. Rebellion and Independence in America (1700-1820). by Alden R. Wilson 24 . by Terry P.” The Expedition of Lewis and Clark. The Mid-Continent Library has a video available for a one-week checkout period that would make an excellent prelude to a visit to Fort Osage. Burns Fort Life.. The War Nobody Won.. “We Proceeded On. by Peter Bosco The War of 1812. available for purchase a the Fort Osage Gift Shop.4 EX71 BOOKS All books listed are available at Mid-Continent Libraries. The War of 1812. Historic Communities Series. Carter Osage Indian Customs and Myths.
MAP TO FORT OSAGE NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK 25 .
MISSOURI TOWN 1855 INFORMATION ...a Jackson County Historic Site .
Principal buildings and features were in place by 1970. Independence Day. Living history interpreters. in 19th century attire.m. November 15 to March 1: Weekends only.m. as an assembled unit. Over twenty-ﬁve period buildings including houses with barns and outbuildings. Approximately the size of six city blocks. blacksmith shop and a livery stable depict a typical antebellum farming community. to 4:30 p. lawyer’s ofﬁce. tavern. Additions in the village continue based on a Master Plan and as funding becomes available. Group rates are available to organized groups of 20 or more people with PRE-REGISTRATION and PREPAYMENT.MISSOURI TOWN 1855 FACT SHEET DESCRIPTION: Missouri Town 1855 is a collection of original mid19th century structures carefully relocated from seven western Missouri counties to one site. to 4:30 p. bring the site to life by portraying the daily routines of village residents. Children’s Day.m. 9:00 a. Annual events include Sheep Shearing. church. March 1 to November 15: Tuesday through Sunday 9:00 a. The ﬁrst building was erected in 1963. Missouri Town 1855 Fall Festival. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The buildings at Missouri Town 1855 present a variety of architectural styles popular in the mid19th century and. portray a typical 1855 Missouri farming community. Spirits From The Past and A Christmas Celebration. A self-guided tour takes about one hour. a one-room schoolhouse.m. YEAR FOUNDED: ANNUAL EVENTS: SIZE: TOURS: SEASON: 28 .
Park Road. Lee’s Summit. Missouri. MO. 64064. Missouri Town 1855’s physical address is 8010 E.LOCATION: Missouri Town 1855 is located on the east side of Lake Jacomo in Fleming Park. 29 . Blue Springs.
. Hogs... blacksmith’s shop..........there was no electricity..... Mules and Horses . Meat... There would be a school house... however. These are actual buildings from the mid-nineteenth century............... Instead it is a reconstruction of what a person may have found at a Missouri crossroads during the mid-nineteenth century.... The year 1855 was chosen as the year to interpret because it was the last year before the Kansas border ﬁghting began to disrupt the area.... Grains. Eggs.. television or microwaves.... The middle and lower classes are represented by the Tradesman’s House. Cattle.... Squire’s House and their various outbuildings represent the upper class... shootings.... Wheat for ﬂour and income. 30 . whiskey..... By 1856...... Blacksmith’s House and the Settler’s House.. spoke proudly of recent inventions such as the telegraph and the sewing machine......... Fresh vegetables for seasonal consumption and preservation....... corn provided income and cornmeal for the family plus feed for animals...... The Colonel’s House..... Dairy products. lynchings and violence had polarized pro-slavery and anti-slavery adherents into open conﬂict...SYNOPSIS OF MISSOURI TOWN 1855 Missouri Town 1855 was never a real village in which real people lived and worked... church and mercantile store...... The average family in western Missouri lived on a farm which was mostly self-sufﬁcient and provided the family with an income... Riding and driving.. Whenever possible.. Life in 1855 seems very hard to people who live in the modern world --.. wool for clothing. A typical village in western Missouri would look much like Missouri Town 1855......... Meat and lard.. breeds typical to 1855 are bought and raised for interpretive purposes at Missouri Town 1855..... meat and feathers. as well as improvements in transportation represented by steamboats and the expanding railroad network. Poultry. The following is a list of items grown on a farm and what they provided for a family: Garden. The animals at Missouri Town 1855 represent the various breeds and animal types that were common in the mid-nineteenth century... Sheep ........ running water... meat and leather. People at this time. cars... Social activities in the town would probably have taken place at the non-denominational church or in private homes... The houses represent the many social classes living in the village.......... tavern. The buildings in the village were moved to Missouri Town 1855 from other locations in seven different western Missouri counties...
The blacksmith repaired tools and other implements needed by consumers in the village or by farmers in the area. a bag of marbles or a doll. were allowed to go outside for brief periods. The school at Missouri Town 1855 is typical of most rural schools in the region during this time period. sugar. some lasting as much as three hours and no one was allowed to nap during the service. then they did not attend. would have taken care of any legal problems such as deeds. community work projects such as corn shuckings. Sermons were long. books. Small children. The lawyer. if a child was needed at home or the parents could not afford to send them to school that term. Games such as “buz”. 31 . “blind man’s buff”. Throughout the growing season. Attendance at the school was not regular. During the summer and harvest seasons there was very little free time left to children because everyone had chores to do. merchant. who stopped on his “circuit” once or twice a month. The men and boys of the family would work in the ﬁelds and tend to the animals. Agriculture is not the only trade represented at Missouri Town 1855--the blacksmith. School was held everyday but Sunday during the school term. The Baptists may have had a preacher on one Sunday while the Methodists or Presbyterians might have a preacher on the next Sunday. as Missouri Town would have been only one day’s ride from a riverboat landing.Rural families often bartered the goods they produced with their neighbors. Also. in addition to necessities such as cloth from the textile mills in the East. hardware. who also hired the school marm or master to instruct his children. The tavern was also the location for news and information in the village. During the summer the whole family worked hard in order to insure a good harvest. in the village. The church at Missouri Town 1855 represents a non-denominational church found in most rural areas in the mid-nineteenth century. or mercantile. barn raisings and quilting bees formed a major part of the social life of a small rural town. The tavern was probably the busiest place in the village since it was the stop for travelers and the village mail was delivered here. wills and property boundaries. Children of other families would be allowed to attend the school if their parents could pay the eight dollars per school year per child. Usually the class varied from one student to twelve students at one time. while the women and girls would work in the garden and house and continue with the usual chores of cooking. The school would have been held in a one room school house built by the Colonel. The merchant owned the store. “hide and go seek” and “French and English” (which we know as “tug of war”) were also popular. Different denominations had traveling preachers who went to different towns each Sunday to deliver a sermon. a wide variety of consumer goods was available at the mercantile store. however. School did not start until after harvest in October and lasted until spring planting in April. Students went to school from sunup to sundown during the winter. salt. When they had free time. Some items found in the mercantile include cloth. These goods would have included small luxury items such as Chinese tea. lawyer and tavern owner were an important part of community life. candy and coffee. cleaning. a trip to the mercantile or to the city might result in stick candy. sewing and milking.
The United States was divided by sectional interests in the Northern industrial states and the Southern agricultural states. and another chapter in American history was begun. The relative contentment of rural life was soon to give way to the hardships of war. abolitionists and states’ rights were topics of discussion. 32 . where many people came from a southern background. the Kansas-Nebraska Act introduced slavery in the new territories to the west of Missouri. Slavery was a topic of heated debate in western Missouri.Politics was becoming a heated topic in western Missouri in 1855. In 1854. “Bleeding Kansas”.
MISSOURI TOWN 1855 SCHOOL TOUR TEACHER MATERIALS SUGGESTED TEACHING STRATEGIES What if you bring students ages 5-8? Relate today’s life to what you see on the tour. Have the students ask the townspeople about their experiences in moving to the Missouri region (or have they always lived here) and what are their hopes and dreams for the future? While touring the facility. T. Stop in at the Blacksmith’s Shop for a look at his daily activities. the automobile. Do work using slates and chalk. What if you bring students age 9 and older? Put the past into perspective. Do not use electricity or modern conveniences. Find out the differences between this person’s occupation and those of the student’s parents. Talk with the interpreters working with the livestock. Compare the student’s clothing to those of the interpreters’. remind the students to think of the changes that have occurred since the 1850s (i. 33 . Have the students pick ﬁve items that they would need to take with them. As you visit the village. Blackwell’s Mercantile Store and compare it to stores that the students are familiar with. Challenge them to continue the activity at home. At the Tavern. compare and contrast what you see with the amenities of a hotel. Prepare a trip back in time to the 1850s. ask the residents what they would have brought with them to Missouri Town 1855. Visit J. Discuss the similarities and differences between 1850s agriculture and today’s practices. Have the students bring non-refrigerated lunches and play games from the period at recess. electric light bulb and telephone) PRE-VISIT ACTIVITIES Plan a day at your school set in the early 1850s.e.
Daycap .A head covering used by young girls and ladies to keep their hair clean and out of the way while working. Note where different social and economic boundaries are in the village. Have the students make a list of the foods that they eat for two days. Have students choose ﬁve objects from their lives that they would include in a museum to represent life today. For each of the ﬁve senses.Organize a settlement in 1850s Missouri. Circle the buildings where residents would ﬁnd food. POST-VISIT ACTIVITIES Have the students write an article for the school newspaper or publish a newsletter about their ﬁeld trip experiences.A notebook in which school lessons are written. They should keep track of the packaging. etc. Make a few recipes from the 1850s. preparation and tastes. animals. Cypher . etc. where you will get food and water. Conestoga Wagon . Create a bulletin board with pictures or words associated with your trip for every letter of the alphabet. Butter Churn . The wooden tool used to beat or “dash” the cream is called a DASHER. how labor will be divided. Compare these lists with foods from the 1850s.A container used to turn cream into butter. Copybook . 34 . Plan exercises utilizing the Missouri Town 1855 map. Write a letter to your family back east about your experiences.A covered wagon drawn by horses or oxen used to move freight or household goods. Consider location. list a memory of the trip to Missouri Town 1855. VOCABULARY Apprentice .To do arithmetic. Imagine that you are a traveler going through Missouri in the 1850s and stayed at Missouri Town 1855 for a few days. what supplies are needed.A person that works for a skilled craftsman in order to learn the trade. Encourage the students to interview each other. lodging.
A student. Scholar . 35 . Pioneer . Plow .A person who ﬁrst settles in an area.The mattress of a bed. just as a backpack or purse is used today. Yoke . Mechanic .A craftsperson such as the blacksmith who makes goods.A metal cooking pan that rests on legs.An implement used to cut. Usually ﬁlled with feathers or straw. Poke .A bed built low enough to slide under a regular bed frame. A costumed tour guide. The legs give the pan its name and raise it up from the hearth. 1st Person Interpretation . 3rd Person Interpretation . Interpreter .The brick or stone area in front of the ﬁreplace.Hearth . Settler . Tick .A wooden frame worn over the shoulders of a person to carry two water buckets. The term “yoke” also refers to the wooden frame placed on the necks or oxen when these animals are pulling loads such as a plow or wagon.A person who comes to live in an area. Spider Pan .A type of communication that involves the interpreter’s complete character portrayal of a historic person. lift and turn the soil so that seed can be planted.A type of communication that requires the interpreter to dress in historic attire and allows him/her to react to guests in present day terms.A bag used to carry things in. Trundle Bed . The ﬂoor of the ﬁreplace. Can be placed on a bed frame or on the ﬂoor.A staff person that teaches history through historic roles.
They were favored by many over horses because of their lower cost and less demanding dietary needs. in the mid-nineteenth century -known for its ﬁne ﬂeece and good temperament -Missouri Town 1855 has Border Leicester crosses 36 . They are typically steers and are worked in pairs. willingness to work and intelligence SHEEP BORDER LEICESTER CROSS SHEEP: -a popular breed in the U. Horses and mules were used for farm work as well. A valued breed for meat and milk -found to be willing power for the wagon and plow -Abe and Moses were brought to Missouri Town 1855 in 1999 and are being trained as an oxen team HORSES STANDARD BRED: -the breeds’ origin dates from a Thoroughbred imported from England in 1788 MORGAN: -a truly American horse breed with roots dating back to the late 1700s -Morgans are known for their speed. Among those represented are: OXEN SHORTHORN STEERS: -developed in England about 1600 -ﬁrst imported to Virginia in 1783 -popular with early settlers. Oxen can be any breed of cattle that has been trained to work. as was often the case. carriages and for riding. stamina. mules and oxen provided the power necessary to do the heavy farm work. Horses were used for pulling wagons. includes both pure breeds and crosses.MISSOURI TOWN 1855 ANIMAL GUIDE Missouri Town’s programming offers the visitor a glimpse at rural life and animal breeds that would have been found in Western Missouri in the 1850s. Missouri Town’s livestock. Horses.S.
not as domesticated as many other breeds 37 . setters and care givers to their young GAME FOWL: -the “Arabian horses” of poultry -very colorful. CHICKENS Missouri Town 1855 has a variety of Chicken breeds represented in the village: COCHIN: -buff and partridge colored -their feathered legs are their most distinguishable feature POLISH: -there are several varieties -their unique top-knot on their head is their most distinguishable feature DOMINIQUE: -good all-around chicken breed -were known to be good layers.POULTRY Missouri Town 1855 has a wide variety of poultry that would have been commonly seen on most farms in rural Western Missouri in the 1850s.
75¢ Fine comb .7 1/2¢ a yard Singing book .15¢ Domestic cloth .50 Information is taken from: Garrison-Childe’s Ledger.30¢ Slate pencil .10¢ a pack Ribbon .00 Blank book .$1.10¢ per yard Needles .30¢ per pound Pocket knife .40 Ream of Letter Paper .15¢ Slate .5¢ Ax .65¢ Tea .SAMPLE MERCANTILE ITEMS AND PRICES Soap .6 1/2¢ per pound Salt .$1.80¢ per pound Primer . Sibley.12¢ per pound Sugar .6 1/2¢ per pound Bottle ink .February 1855 38 .$2.2¢ per pound Coffee . MO November 1854 .5¢ Candy .
by Franklin Folsom Geography of Missouri. by C. VC 977. by Olive Rambo Cook Farmer Boy. by American Review Coon Holler. (movie based on novel of the same name) AME. a Story of the People and the Regions of the “Show Me” State.3 AC77 BOOKS (Non-Fiction) All books listed are available at Mid-Continent Libraries. by Laura Ingalls Wilder 39 . History and Government.H. by Ernestine Bennett Briggs Missouri. from its Glorious Past to the Present. RMI Medica Productions. Across Five Aprils. The call numbers are listed after the producers of the videos. Lavender BOOKS (Fiction) All books listed are available at Mid-Continent Libraries.LIST OF BOOKS AND VIDEOS RELATING TO 1850s MISSOURI HISTORY VIDEOS These videos were ﬁlmed at Missouri Town 1855 and are available at Mid-Continent Libraries for a one week checkout. Its Geography. Famous Pioneers. (educational ﬁlm). by Earl A. An 1850s Village. McClure Picture Book of Missouri.841 EI44 Across Five Aprils. by Robert N. Its People and Its Progress. by Irene Hunt Children’s Stories of the 1850s. by John Allan Carpenter Missouri. Inc. Collins Missouri. Inc. by S.D. by Bernadine Freeman Bailey The Trail to Santa Fe. VC 813. Saveland Missouri Stories for Young People.
The First Four Years. by Rose Wilder Lane Overland Stage. by Elizabeth Gemming Little House on the Prairie. by Rose Wilder Lane Huckleberry Hill. by Cena Christopher Draper 40 . (complete series) by Laura Ingals Wilder Missouri River Boy. by Glen Dines The Prairie Schooners. by Glen Rounds Ridge Willoughby. by William Henman On The Way Home.
usually made from berries they found in the woods or from cracked nutshells. goose or turkey Thomas Jefferson. 41 . one end of a small twig would be whittled to a point and then dipped into ink as a substitute. pens of the eighteenth century were made by dipping quills from chicken and other birds into homemade ink. John Hancock and the other ﬁfty-three forefathers could sign the Declaration of Independence. The inks were made from natural ingredients. nutshells and teas created inks in shades of brown and black. Try your had at writing with the pens of long ago. Ben Franklin. Chimney soot.PIONEER PENMANSHIP Thanks to a barnyard chicken. In Early America. Blueberries and gooseberries produced purple inks. ﬂowers and barks. such as the juices of fruits. kids had to bring their own ink to school. The style of writing was called calligraphy. If a quill was not available. Unlike the ball point pens and felt tip markers we use today.
OTHER EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES Other programs and services available to schools and educators: Speaker Services Trunk Shows Workshops Please contact our ofﬁce at (816) 503-4864 Jackson County Parks and Recreation 44 .
PROGRAM EVALUATION FORM Jackson County Parks and Recreation would like to know your impression of the program in which your group participated. Name of your group: Site your group visited: Overall Impression Was the length of the visit appropriate for your group? Comments Was the tour fee reasonable? Comments Was the staff professional and courteous to your group? Comments Describe the cleanliness of the site: Excellent Comments Program Describe the organization of the program: Excellent Comments Would you recommend this program to another group/teacher? Comments What areas of the program did your group like best? Yes No Very Good Good Fair Poor Very Good Good Fair Poor Yes No Yes No Yes Too Short Too Long Missouri Town 1855 Date of visit: Fort Osage Nat’l Historic Landmark 46 . We are interested in your comments and suggestions in order to improve our sites and programs. Please take a few minutes to complete this evaluation and return it to our ofﬁce at the address listed at the end of this form.
if any. if so what would they be? What was the level of interest your students had for the information presented? Very High Comments Was the information presented appropriate for the age level of your students? Comments Interpreters Did the interpreters present information that your students did not know before? Comments How would you describe the knowledge and presentation of the interpreters? Excellent Comments Teacher’s Guide Was the Teacher’s Guide helpful in preparing the students prior to their visit? Comments What additional information. JACKSON COUNTY PARKS AND RECREATION Historic Sites Division 22807 Woods Chapel Road Blue Springs. would you suggest be included in the Teacher’s Guide? Yes No Very Good Good Fair Poor Yes No Yes No High Average Low Very Low What would be your overall rating of our School Tour Program? Excellent Comments Thank you for taking part in our programs and providing us with this important information.Do you have any suggestions for alternative activities. MO 64015 (816) 503-4860 47 Very Good Good Fair Poor .
Additional Educational Materials Order Form Enclosed is a check payable to Jackson County Parks and Recreation for #_____ copies of the following item: Name of item Please send to: Name Address City 48 State Zip Code .ADDITIONAL EDUCATION MATERIALS The following publications relating to Missouri Town 1855 and Fort Osage National Historic Landmark history are available for order: Educational Guide to Missouri Town 1855 by Darlene Robinson & Jackson County Parks and Recreation $5. Fort Osage National Historic Landmark 1808-1827 DVD by Jackson County Parks and Recreation $10.00 includes shipping.00 includes shipping. Missouri Town 1855 DVD by Jackson County Parks and Recreation $10.00 + shipping and handling.
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