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missouri town 1855
fort osage national historic landmark
Jackson County Parks and Recreation
REVISED FALL 2008
FORT OSAGE NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK
MISSOURI TOWN 1855
Jackson County Parks and Recreation
INTRODUCTION “Society has many built-in time spanners that help to link the present generation with the past. Our sense of the past is developed by contact with the older generation, by our knowledge of history, by the accumulated heritage of art, music, literature and science passed down to us through the years. It is enhanced by immediate contact with the objects that surround us, each of which has a point of origin in the past, each of which provides us with a trace of identiﬁcation with the past.”
-Alvin Tofﬂer, Future Shock
Jackson County Parks and Recreation hopes this Teacher’s Guide is useful to educators planning to visit Missouri Town 1855 or Fort Osage National Historic Landmark. This guide has been designed as a basis from which to direct class studies and prepare the students for their site activity. Please feel free to duplicate or rearrange this format to one which best beneﬁts the students.
The following people and texts were consulted during the compilation of this Teacher’s Guide: The Timetables of History. Bernard Grunn. Simon and Schuster Inc. New York: 1982. A People and a Nation. Mary Beth Norton et al. Houghton Mifﬂin Company. Boston: 1986. The Timetables of American History. Laurence Urdang Simon and Schuster Inc. New York: 1981. Fort Osage Staff and Volunteers Missouri Town 1855 Staff and Volunteers
Planning Your Visit .................................................................................................................. 1 Group Programs ..................................................................................................................... 2-3 Historic Cemetery Courtesy ..................................................................................................... 4 Historic Site Courtesy............................................................................................................... 5 Guidelines for Teachers and Chaperones ................................................................................ 6 Glossary of Preservation Terms ............................................................................................... 7 Chronology of United States History ................................................................................... 8-9 Chronology of Missouri History ........................................................................................ 10-13 Fort Osage Fact Sheet ....................................................................................................... 16-17 Fort Osage History............................................................................................................. 18-19 Lewis & Clark in the Greater Kansas City Area .................................................................. 20 Fort Osage School Tour Teacher Materials ...................................................................... 21-23 List of Books and Videos Relating to Early 1800s History and Fort Osage ........................ 24 Map to Fort Osage .................................................................................................................. 25 Missouri Town 1855 Fact Sheet ........................................................................................ 28-29 Synopsis of Missouri Town 1855 ....................................................................................... 30-32 Missouri Town 1855 School Tour Teacher Materials ...................................................... 33-35 Missouri Town 1855 Animal Guide .................................................................................. 36-37 Sample Mercantile Items and Prices ..................................................................................... 38 List of Books and Videos Relating to 1850s Missouri History ........................................ 39-40 Pioneer Penmanship .......................................................................................................... 41-42 Map to Missouri Town 1855 ................................................................................................... 43 Other Educational Opportunities .......................................................................................... 44 Program Evaluation Form................................................................................................. 46-47 Additional Educational Materials .......................................................................................... 48
m.PLANNING YOUR VISIT TO FORT OSAGE AND MISSOURI TOWN 1855 Jackson County Parks and Recreation is excited to bring historical tours and programs to students studying Missouri History. The Gift Shop attendant will provide you directions. Gift shop items include souvenirs and books. When scheduling. There are exhibits and a gift shop in the Fort Osage Education Center. if necessary. Bookings for the Fall tours begin July 1. a Trade Room located in the Fort itself.00. When a group is larger than 75 students it makes it difﬁcult for the site.m. To schedule your group tour program call our ofﬁce at (816) 503-4864. some costing less than $5. unload the bus and organize your group. The site administrators ask that teachers or adult leaders accompany students into the gift shop areas. Missouri. Your group will be expected to follow the historic site courtesy information located in the Teacher’s Guide when you visit Missouri Town 1855 or Fort Osage National Historic Landmark. Please plan to picnic at Hayes Park in Sibley. as well as. The minimum requirement for chaperones is one adult per ten students. Groups with more than 75 students are strongly encouraged to divide their groups into smaller numbers and visit the site in two groups. the Mercantile is located in the village. interpreters. to 4:00 p. Picnicking at Fort Osage National Historic Landmark is no longer feasible for large groups due to the noise level disturbing other groups at Fort Osage National Historic Landmark. Monday through Friday from 8:00 a. Please plan to arrive 15 minutes earlier in order to check in at the Gift Shop at Missouri Town 1855 or the Education Center at Fort Osage National Historic Landmark to receive further instructions. Payment is required two weeks prior to the tour date. Bookings for the Spring tours begin on December 1. Important information on the sites and behavior expected from the group is contained in the Teacher’s Guide. Tour dates are limited and must be arranged in advance. where a covered shelter is located. 1 . please note that you will be expected to begin your tour/program at your designated time. Teachers and adult chaperones are responsible for keeping order during student programs. The gift shop at Missouri Town 1855 is located near the parking lot. Picnicking is allowed at the picnic tables south of the Missouri Town 1855 parking lot. The people fulﬁlling this requirement will be allowed into the site free of charge. and the group itself. We believe “To Live History…Is to Learn History!” Our historic tours and programs can be enjoyed by all grade levels but are targeted for 4th grade classes who are studying Missouri History. A conﬁrmation will be sent after booking your date.
Group size: Minimum 10/Maximum 40 LIVING HISTORY PROGRAM – Approximately 2. Also included is emphasis on the importance the Missouri River played in establishing the Fort at this location.5 hours Designed for elementary and middle school. This program is available Wednesday. This Center is a state of the art facility where students will fully experience the historical signiﬁcance of Fort Osage. Flora and Fauna. Thursday and Friday. Cost: $4. This will enable the students to develop a better comprehension of the vital role the river has on human activities. please allow 50 minutes for your visit here. so sign up for your Fort Osage Field Trip TODAY! 1 adult/10 students is required and will receive complimentary admission. At the historic site a brief orientation precedes the self-guided tour of the Fort.m. students will begin with a visit to the Education Center. Transportation on the River and ﬁnishes with Sustainability. Military garrison. Thursday and Friday.00 per student.jacksongov. Group size: Minimum 20/Maximum 120 FRONTIER PROGRAM – Approximately 1. Proceeding to the Fort your group will be divided into smaller groups and may rotate through multiple stations. Large groups may be divided to rotate through the facilities. – 4:30 p.Choose one of the three programs below for your Frontier Adventure! Beginning in 2008 your ﬁeld trip to Fort Osage NHL will include a tour of the new Fort Osage Education Center.m. and relevant hands-on activities. No specialized activities are offered with this component. Add’l adults are $3. or military life.org 2 . • Tuesday through Sunday Space is limited. The ﬁnal 20 minutes will incorporate a learning time with one or two of the interpreters and the students.00 per student. Interpreters dressed in period attire are in the facilities to answer your questions.5 hours This program is oriented for 3rd grade and up. FORT OSAGE FIELD TRIPS Cost: $3.00 per student. Missouri River. Beginning at the Education Center. It creates a sensory transition to the Fort’s history and prehistory of the immediate area. Group size: Minimum 40/Maximum 75 Inclement weather may affect program activities. such as Lewis & Clark. Stations may include programs in the Trade House. may be scheduled.00 each. This program is available Wednesday. Specialized programs. Exhibits begin with Geology. ﬂora and fauna. Cost: $5. SELF-GUIDED TOUR – Approximately 1 hour Your class will tour both the Education Center and Fort Osage. To schedule a program or for more information call 816-503-4864 or visit www. Fort Osage National Historic Landmark Hours of Operation: January – December • 9:00 a.
This is followed by a self guided tour with interpreters located in the village to answer any questions.m. To schedule a program or for more information call 816-503-4864 or visit www.00 per student Group size: Minimum 20/Maximum 120 PIONEER PROGRAM – Approximately 1. • Tuesday through Sunday November 16 – February 28 • 9:00 a. Cost: $5. PRESCHOOL PROGRAM – Approximately 1 hour Preschoolers 5 years or younger participate in a 15-20 minute presentation on what clothing from the 1850s was like. ox drover or blacksmith.5 hours This program is designed for elementary and middle school students. This program is available Wednesday. Cost: $1. The students will take part in a 30-minute presentation and a self-guided tour. An 1800s Antebellum town is represented with authentic period buildings across 22 sloping acres and interpreters demonstrating everyday lifestyles of the times. An activity sheet is provided with your conﬁrmation. Some of the stations could include visits with some of the residents such as the blacksmith. seeing and touching actual lye soap or petting one of the Missouri Town 1855 oxen.00 per student Group size: Minimum 10/Maximum 40 SELF-GUIDED TOUR . the tavern keeper. Cost: $3. the merchant.jacksongov. – 4:30 p.org 3 . – 4:30 p. Thursday or Friday. and the ox drover.m.00 per student Group size: Minimum 10/Maximum 40 LIVING HISTORY PROGRAM – Approximately 2 hours This program is designed for 3rd grade and up.00 per student Group size: Minimum 40/Maximum 80 Missouri Town 1855 Hours of Operation: March 1 – November 15 • 9:00 a. Add’l adults are $3.00 each. Choose from one of the programs below for your school group. You might also take a tour of the herb garden. Your teachers and students will be divided into smaller groups that rotate through several stations. • Saturday and Sunday Space is limited. the woodworker. Thursday or Friday. Cost: $4.m.m. so sign up for your Missouri Town 1855 Field Trip TODAY! 1 adult/10 students is required and will receive complimentary admission.Missouri Town 1855 Field Trips Choose one of the four programs below for your Heritage Adventure! Bring Missouri Heritage to life for preschoolers and up at Missouri Town 1855. This program is available Wednesday.Approximately 1 hour Your class will tour the open and gated buildings. The presentation might be on the lifestyles of the 1850s or a visit to a schoolteacher. Interpreters dressed in period attire are in the village to answer your questions.
Their deaths are symbolic of the hardships and dedication which typify the character of a new nation. The oldest marker is dated 1819. The following are some guidelines to share with your students and adult leaders when you visit the Jackson County historic sites: * * * Please do not run. Even though the cemetery at Missouri Town 1855 is not authentic. jump or play around the gravestones. one must still act with dignity and respect in any cemetery they may visit. A granite marker and bronze plaque. * * Thank you for your consideration. recognizes the contribution of 49 soldiers who lost their lives. New markers replaced these stones at the original burial sites. The gravestones resting at Missouri Town 1855 were moved to the site for safekeeping. while serving their country at Fort Osage and Fort Atkinson. as it opened its doors to the western frontier. Please do not beat or chip at the markers with any object. 1810. 4 . furnished by the Veterans Administration.HISTORIC CEMETERY COURTESY A historic cemetery is located near Fort Osage and contains the graves of soldiers and civilians. Making gravestone rubbings is strongly discouraged as it deteriorates the older grave markers. Students must be accompanied by an adult leader in the cemetery. Please walk between the graves and not over them. The earliest known interment in this cemetery is of Private John King on November 15.
Please respect these and do not remove them. Barriers on doors are designed to protect the artifacts. The following are some points which should be covered prior to your tour: * Students need to be reminded that the site is a museum. chase or feed the livestock and poultry. Questions about daily life at Fort Osage or Missouri Town 1855 are encouraged and welcomed. Visitors are asked not to touch artifacts unless given permission by the guide or interpreter. Horseplay. it is helpful to discuss the appropriate behavior expected during the visit. Please do not climb fences. Students need to listen and pay attention to the guide and the interpreters at the individual stations. Food and drink are not permitted within the sites. other picnic facilities are available at Fleming Park and Hayes Park. During the use of hiking trails.HISTORIC SITE COURTESY Before arriving at the historical sites. The site administrator or gift shop employees will be glad to provide directions. follow the instructions of staff interpreter. The buildings and sites are of historic value and should be treated with the utmost respect. Picnic areas are available outside the historic site area. trees or buildings. Thank you for your consideration. Please do not touch. roughhousing and running will not be tolerated by the staff or site administrators. * * * * * * * * * 5 . They need to show appropriate museum behavior at all times. or any wildlife at the sites. even though they are outdoors.
6. it will cut into your touring time at the site. 2. The students may then unload and the bus driver should park the bus in the parking lot at the entrance to the historic site. If circumstances prompt you to cancel a visit. please courtesy call (816) 503-4864 with cancellation information.GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS AND CHAPERONES 1. 5. An interpreter will meet your group to give an orientation to the site and any further instructions as needed. Please remind students that they are in a museum and that appropriate museum behavior will be expected. the group leader should exit the bus and enter the Museum Gift Shop or Visitor’s Center. There is no smoking permitted in or around the buildings as most of them are historic structures and contain many irreplaceable artifacts. It is suggested to have one check. 6 . Our interpreters and volunteers are located at our interpretive stations and will be more than happy to tell your group about the buildings. Upon arrival. you need to plan on spending at least one hour in the site itself. Depending on the type of program you have booked. As an adult supervisor you are responsible for keeping your group of ten children together at all times including restroom stops. please wait outside or stop by the building later. Plan to enjoy yourself. Please do not combine your groups as it could disrupt the entire program. Please arrive in plenty of time to check in at the Museum Gift Shop or Education Center. for the amount. 7. The museum is an outdoor living history site. 3. The group leader should have an exact count of children and adults and any unpaid admission fees for the group. 4. If your group comes to a building that is full. their history and answer any questions they may have. Please remember that you were assigned a speciﬁc time slot. made out to Jackson County Parks and Recreation. Please be sure and dress appropriately for the weather. if your group is late for whatever reason.
weapons. rehabilitation or adaptive use. Historic Preservation is a means by which an older building of signiﬁcant architectural construction or a site of historical importance is preserved for public viewing and study. all of which provide evidence of culturally determined behavior. Diane Maddex. Material Culture Tangible objects used by people to cope with the physical world. sites. when citizens of Philadelphia united together and saved the historic Independence Hall where the Declaration of Independence was signed and a new country was formed. Washington D. or a part thereof. Editor. Reconstruction “The act of process of reproducing by new construction the exact form and detail of a vanished building. Outdoor Museum A restored. rebuilt or moved and whose purpose is to interpret a historical or cultural setting.Fort Osage and Missouri Town 1855 are sites where historic preservation is practiced. No facet of history is too small or insigniﬁcant not to be preserved in some way. GLOSSARY OF PRESERVATION TERMS Historical Archeology The study of the cultural remains of literate societies. tools. period or activity. Landmark Yellow Pages. as it appeared at a speciﬁc period of time. pottery.” — Secretary of the Interior’s Standards Glossary information taken from.C. structures and objects and providing for their continued use by means of restoration. cutlery and textiles. such as utensils. The historic preservation movement got its start in 1816. structures and furnishings. shape or form. including excavated material as well as above-ground resources such as buildings. Preservation Saving from destruction or deterioration old and historic buildings. re-created or replica village site in which several or many structures have been restored. structure or object. The Preservation Press. 7 .: 1990. glassware. The historic preservation movement continues today by restoring structures and sites important in the evolution of our country’s history.
S. Fort Osage established by Gen.dies after one month in ofﬁce. James Monroe is the 5th President of U.S.S.S. Martin VanBuren is the 8th President of U. Battle of New Orleans establishes Andrew Jackson as a national hero. The Monroe Doctrine is established which calls for noncolonization and nonintervention in the Western Hemisphere by European nations. Missouri becomes the 24th state. 8 1809-1817 1812-1814 1815 1817-1825 1819 1820 1821 1823 1825-1829 1829-1837 1836 1837-1841 1841 1841-1845 . Louisiana Territory purchased from France. Florida purchased from Spain. Thomas Jefferson is the 3rd President of U. John Adams is the 2nd President of U.CHRONOLOGY OF UNITED STATES HISTORY 1775-1783 1776 1789-1797 1797-1801 1801-1809 1803 1804-1806 1808 American Revolution Declaration of Independence George Washington is elected the 1st President.S.S. James Madison is the 4th President of U. John Tyler is the 10th President of U. William Henry Harrison is the 9th President of U. Battle of the Alamo fought in Texas. Missouri Compromise.S. Clark on the bank of the Missouri River.S. John Quincy Adams is the 6th President of U. Andrew Jackson is the 7th President of U. .S. War of 1812 (2nd War for Independence). Lewis and Clark explore the Louisiana Purchase.
Kansas becomes the 34th state. Oregon Treaty extends the northern border of the U.S.1841 1845-1849 1846 First wagon train leaves Missouri for California. Texas.S. James Knox Polk is the 11th President of U. Border War fought in the Western U. Nevada. The Mormons move to Utah. Franklin Pierce is the 14th President of U. 1846 1846-1848 1848-1849 1849-1850 1850-1853 1850 1853-1857 1854 1854-1861 1861 1857-1861 1861-1865 1861-1865 9 . outlaws the slave trade in Washington D. Zachary Taylor is the 12th President of U.S.S.S. into North and South.C. The California gold rush begins. New Mexico. Compromise of 1850 admits California as a free state. to the Paciﬁc Coast and ends the joint occupation of Oregon Territory with the British. The Civil War splits the U. Utah and part of Colorado.S.S. Kansas-Nebraska Act gives the question of slavery to the individual states to decide by popular vote. Millard Fillmore is the 13th President of U.S.U. Abraham Lincoln is the 16th President of U.S. James Buchanan is the 15th President of U. Mexican War . California. gains Arizona. and enacts the fugitive slave act.S.
garrison is transferred to Lake Erie region. Louis.000. New Madrid earthquakes begin. The ﬁrst Territorial General Assembly meets in St. Territory of Louisiana becomes Territory of Missouri with a Governor. Formal transfer of the Louisiana Purchase between the U.000. Due to isolation and re-supply. St.S. de Bourgmont supervises the construction of Fort Orleans. Louis.S. Legislative Council and a House Of Representatives. Territory of Louisiana established St. the ﬁrst European settlement on the Missouri River in Carroll County. Leavenworth. Baron de Cavagnial supervises the construction of Fort de la Trinite’ (later Fort de Cavagnial) near present day Ft.CHRONOLOGY OF MISSOURI HISTORY 1673 Father Marquette gives the ﬁrst European description of the “river pekistanoui” (Missouri). Includes the present state of Missouri and allowed the U. Lewis and Clark expedition leaves St. Louis as the capital. Louis. Fort Bellefontaine established. Louis surveyed and founded by Auguste Chouteau and Pierre Leclede. Kansas. Pike expedition leaves for Southwest. Fort Osage established as a military post including a government trade house. French give up all military posts in North America due to Treaty of Paris. 1713 1723 1744 1763 1764 1803 1804 1805 1806 1808 1811 1812 1813 10 . Etienne de Bourgmout surveys the Missouri to the Kansas City area to the Platte River. Louisiana Purchase bought from France for $15. and France made in St. to control the Mississippi River.
1816 1818 Formal end of the War of 1812. Fort Leavenworth opens. Mormons are driven from Jackson County into Clay County. U. * Missouri Compromise evades the issue of “popular sovereignty” by admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and forbidding slavery in new territories above 36° 30’ except Missouri. is published in Germany and inﬂuences German immigration to Missouri. Factory system shut down by Congress. Louis. Site for the county seat of Jackson County and Independence chosen. Gottfried Duden’s Bericht uber eine Reise. Fort Osage abandoned by government. County judges. Congress passes the Missouri Enabling Act approving statehood. Town lots are platted and sold. First state election. Legislature holds ﬁrst session in Jefferson City. sheriff and Circuit Court judge chosen. First heavy German immigration begins. Big and Little Osage. Petitions presented in Congress asking statehood for Missouri Territory. Missouri admitted to the Union. Joseph Smith reveals Jackson County as the site of Zion. The Platte purchase adds six northwest counties to Missouri. Constitutional Convention meets in St. Jackson County organized. 1819 1820 1821 1822 1825 1826 1827 1829 1831 1833 1836 11 .S. Kansas and Shawnee Indians cede rights to all remaining land in Missouri. House and Senate fail to agree on Missouri Bill.
claims 4557 lives in St. Paciﬁc Railroad begins ﬁrst railroad services in the state from St. Cholera epidemic in Mississippi Valley.1838 Mormon War.St. * Classes begin at Missouri University. One thousand emigrants leave Independence for Oregon in May. Louis. The phrase “Manifest Destiny” comes into use. State authorities are not required to help the owner. Prigg v. especially in emigrant trade towns. a party of more than 120 wagons. 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1845 1846 1847 1849 1850 1852 12 . Hill and Company. Louis to Cheltenham. Joseph Railroad Company incorporated.W. Honey War with Iowa over border dispute. “The Great Emigration”. Regiment for Mexican War raised in Missouri under the command of Colonels A. Telegraph communication between St. Missouri State capitol completed. First government mail route leaves Independence for the West under the ownership of Waldo. Doniphan and Sterling Price. Governor Boggs declares Mormons are enemies and must be exterminated or driven from Missouri. Louis and the East Coast established. First emigrant wagon train leaves Independence. leaves Elm Grove in western Missouri for Oregon. Penn upholds the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793. Military unit begins historic overland march. * The Town of Kansas founded. Plat ﬁled for the Town of Kansas. which allows the owner of a fugitive slave to recover the slave despite conﬂicting state laws. The Bidwell-Bartleson Party arrives in the Sacramento Valley via the Oregon Trail. * Hannibal . * Cherokee Indian Trail of Tears passes through southern Missouri on their way to the reservation in Oklahoma.
Louis. * Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society encourages anti-slavery emigration to Kansas. Kansas-Nebraska Act repeals the Missouri Compromise by giving territorial settlers the right to decide the slave question for their state and also afﬁrms legality of slave holding in the United States.1853 City of Kansas incorporated. Michigan as a reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Civil War begins in this area several years before the ﬁring begins at Fort Sumter April 12. 1854 1855 13 . * First high school in the state opened in St. Pro-slavery Missourians voting in Kansas Territorial election seat a pro-slavery legislature. * Border War between pro-slavery and anti-slavery supporters on the Missouri and Kansas border areas begin as a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1861. * The Republican Party is organized in Jackson.
.a Jackson County Historic Site .FORT OSAGE NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK INFORMATION ..
Fort Osage was built in 1808 and occupied until 1827. Fort Osage is a complex of hewn log structures located on a high bluff overlooking the Missouri River. housing soldiers to guard the new territory and to protect the trading post located there. Factory System. as staff and volunteers portray the work and livelihood of Fort Osage residents. Fort Osage is approximately the size of ﬁve city blocks. Honoring the American Soldier. Fort Osage also aided the American government in establishing alliances with neighboring Nations. Including the walk to the Education Center. A gift shop is located in the Education Center. as well as the most expensive to build and maintain. joint commander of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Annual events include Coalition of Historic Trekkers National Gathering. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Under the direction of William Clark. soldiers began construction of the Fort in 1808 to serve several purposes. Fort Osage was also one of the few ﬁnancially successful trading post of the U.S. Trading post functions were discontinued in 1822. Independence Day. Finally. Fort Osage was the nation’s largest factory outpost. Living history interpretation is featured. the Fort offered western Missouri’s ﬁrst settlers a sanctuary from which to venture west. Tours are self-guided and take about one hour. Reconstruction of the historic site began in 1948. The Fort Osage Education Center has actual artifacts which date back to the time the Fort was in operation. Grand Festival of Chez les Canses and the Territorial Militia Muster.FORT OSAGE FACT SHEET DESCRIPTION: Reconstructed on its original site. It functioned as one of the ﬁrst Federal outposts in the newly acquired Louisiana Territory. Group rates are available to organized groups of 20 or more people with PRE-REGISTRATION and YEAR FOUNDED: ANNUAL EVENTS: SIZE: TOURS: 16 .
Missouri. Sibley.PRE-PAYMENT. Drive north through Sibley and follow the signs one mile farther to the Fort. 64088 LOCATION: 17 . MO. Fort Osage is located in Sibley. Fort Osage’s physical address is 107 Osage Street. Proceed north on BB through Buckner. take 24 Highway east to Buckner. SEASON: Year-round: Tuesday thru Sunday 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p. From I-70. From Kansas City. exit at BB Highway/Grain Valley exit. Missouri. watching carefully for signs. Turn north at Sibley Street (BB Hwy) and travel 3 miles to the town of Sibley. on the Missouri River 14 miles northeast of Independence. Missouri. Follow brown directional signs to Fort Osage National Historic Landmark.m.
This extra duty was performed during their free time and they were paid ten cents a day for common labor and sixteen cents a day for skilled labor. The Fort’s purpose was to provide a military presence in the territory in order to assure Spain. the Fort had a company of 81 ofﬁcers and enlisted men under the command of Captain Eli B. The factory system in the United States was established in 1796 under President George Washington and expanded by President Thomas Jefferson into the Louisiana Territory. whiskey or brandy. The soldiers performed military drills and duty for most of the day. The United States factory system was discontinued by Congress in 1822. George Sibley was the factor at Fort Osage from 1808 until 1822. This salary can compare in today’s economy of around $90. Sibley was paid an annual salary of $800 until 1811. when he received a raise of $300. At the time of establishment. The height and location of the bluff provided a clear view of the river for many miles and the river current around the bluff caused the boats to slow down considerably in order to safely navigate. candles and vinegar. processing furs. 18 . lack of incentives for the factor. The soldiers enlisted for a minimum of ﬁve years service and were paid ﬁve dollars a month depending on service and rank. successful competition of private traders who could go to the Indian villages instead of the Indians coming to them and the inﬂuences of European traders in the remote regions of the country. government regulations and budget restrictions which hampered any effort to increase the trade.FORT OSAGE HISTORY Fort Osage was established in 1808 as a military outpost in the newly acquired Louisiana Territory by General William Clark.000 dollars a year. They were issued salt for their food. The decline of the United States factory system was due to a number of reasons. The purpose of the factory was to trade quality goods at a low price with the Indian tribes in order to establish good relations with them. Clemson. stocking the trade room and attending to Indian affairs. France and Great Britain that the United States meant to protect its territory by military strength and to establish healthy relations with the Native American population in the territory. The system practiced by private European and American fur traders seemed to be a constant contributor to unrest in the territory. eighteen ounces of bread and one gill of rum. These conditions provided a natural defense for the Fort. Fort Osage was built on a strategic bluff overlooking the Missouri River. The lack of factors familiar with Indian trade. due to pressures from the rival fur trade interests. It was Jefferson’s hope to undermine the private traders and gain Indian alliances for the United States. Extra duty was also required of each soldier at the Fort. The factory system derives its meaning from the English common law deﬁnition of a factor as a person who buys and sells on behalf of his employer. A soldier’s daily rations included: one and a quarter pounds of beef or three quarters pound of pork. His duties included bookkeeping. supervising the trade room.
The military left Fort Osage in 1813 due to the War of 1812. It then returned in 1815 to re-establish the military garrison. The military left Fort Osage again in 1827 when Fort Leavenworth was established. 19 .
1803. opposite St. William Clark. raspberries and wild apples. they proceeded upriver and noted large amounts of wild plums. One of the soldiers got into trouble for drinking whiskey while on duty. Lewis was charged with noting the plants and animals he encountered. Louis. William Clark to serve as a co-leader. He stripped bark from a tree to provide more protection for a night away from the main party. was built for the trip. Each man received an extra “gill of whiskey. They also recorded seeing seams of coal in large limestone outcroppings. A boat well equipped for river navigation. It was decided they would stay at this camp for three days in order for one of the pirogues to be repaired. The Lewis and Clark Expedition is still regarded as one of the greatest adventures in American history. Believing there might be a water route to the Paciﬁc Ocean. to organize an expedition to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Territory. a young army captain. Lewis was also required to keep accurate maps of his travels. known as a keelboat. in addition to carefully recording his efforts to form friendships with the Indians. It is here that Clark noted that he had seen large ﬂocks of Carolina Parakeets. What was now known as the Corps of Volunteers for Northwestern Discovery departed in May of 1803. scouting ahead of the main group. Kansas. On June 29th they camped just north of what is now Parkville. The winter of 1803-1804 saw the expedition making ﬁnal preparations at Camp Dubois. Lewis had the boats take shelter on a small island. The Expedition entered what would later be known as the Kansas City area on June 23. President Thomas Jefferson ordered Meriwether Lewis. 20 .” The Expedition did eventually reach the Paciﬁc Ocean and return safely to St. Louis. A small temporary fort was made for protection by using logs and brush. For the next two days. The men had to hunt for their food and depend on each other and their leaders in order to proceed. The Expedition celebrated the Fourth of July just outside of what now is Atchison. Lewis asked a friend and fellow army ofﬁcer. These birds are now extinct. a common form of punishment at the time. On this date. had to seek shelter by himself on the river bank after sinking into the mud. The members of the Expedition had to become expert boat handlers and strained as they were challenged by numerous sand bars. islands and tricky currents as they proceeded upriver.LEWIS & CLARK IN THE GREATER KANSAS CITY AREA In 1803. He was court-martialed and sentenced to receive 100 lashes from a whip. The men continued upriver for several more days with the leaders writing about the heat and large quantities of animals. with the keelboat and two smaller boats known as pirogues.” They would name the small creek by which they camped “Independence Creek. It was noted that the Kaw River was very muddy and its water tasted bad. with the boat crews struggling against strong winds. He would remember this location and the high bluff on the south side of the small island and return in 1808 to build what would be known as Fort Osage. A camp was established on June 26th where the Kaw (Kansas) River ﬂowed into the Missouri. on an epic journey into a largely unknown territory.
electric light bulb and telephones). Compare the student’s clothing to those of the interpreters’.FORT OSAGE SCHOOL TOUR TEACHER MATERIALS SUGGESTED TEACHING STRATEGIES What if you bring students ages 5-8? Relate today’s life to what you see on the tour. Have the students pick ﬁve items that they would need to take with them for a journey up river. Have the students make a list of the foods that they eat for two days. PRE-VISIT ACTIVITIES Plan a day at your school set in the early 1800s. They should keep track of the packaging. Consider location. where you will get food and water. Have the students bring non-refrigerated lunches and play games from the period at recess. ask the residents what they would have brought with them on the journey. Talk with the interpreters to see what the differences are between their occupations and those of the student’s parents. etc. how labor will be divided. 21 . In the Factory Kitchen. Do work using slates and chalk. compare and contrast what you see with the amenities in the student’s kitchen at home. As you visit the Fort. remind the students to think of the changes that have occurred since the early 1800s (i. Have the students ask the residents of the Fort about their experiences of living at a frontier outpost. Do not use electricity or modern conveniences. What are their hopes and dreams for the future in the area? While touring the facility. Have the students pretend that they will be establishing a settlement near the Fort. Challenge them to continue the activity at home. Visit the Trade Room in the Factory building and compare it to stores that the students are familiar with. the automobile. what supplies will be needed. preparation and tastes. Make a few recipes from the early 1800s. Prepare a trip back in time to the early 1800s. What if you bring students age 9 and older? Put the past into perspective. Compare these lists with foods from the 1800s.e.
Daycap .A wooden tool used to remove the ﬂesh and membrane from animal hides during processing. Encourage the students to interview each other. Sibley. Factory .A person that works for a skilled craftsman in order to learn the trade. Butter Churn . internal benches for shooting and ﬂoorboards on the second story overhangs that could be removed to allow defense of the structures base area.An 18th century term referring to the building where an agent or “Factor” did business. Create a bulletin board with pictures or words associated with your trip for every letter of the alphabet. Fleshing Beam . These two storied structures were thick walled wooden buildings with gun and cannon ports. Write a letter to your family back east about your experiences. Fort Osage has a “Trade Factory” in the civilian compound. Blockhouse .An 18th century term referring to an agent such as George C. Cypher .A basic military defensive structure used in the construction of fortiﬁcations. 22 . The increased air ﬂow created by this device makes the ﬁre hotter and allows metals to be heated for shaping or even melted for casting into intricate shapes. Bellows .A container used to turn cream into butter. VOCABULARY Apprentice . It is constructed from a half-round long with two legs on one end.A head covering used by young girls and ladies to keep their hair clean and out of the way while working. the “Trade Factor” at Fort Osage. Factor . Imagine that you are a traveler coming up the river and you have stayed at the Fort for a few days.A tool made of wood and leather having a metal nozzle that is used by a blacksmith to force air into a forge. The wooden tool used to beat or “dash” the cream is called a DASHER. Have students choose ﬁve objects from their lives that they would include in a museum to represent life today.POST-VISIT ACTIVITIES Have the students write an article for the school newspaper or publish a newsletter about their ﬁeld trip experiences.To do arithmetic. list a memory of the trip to Fort Osage. For each of the ﬁve senses. See Blockhouse #1 on site.
The mattress of a bed. Tick .A metal cooking pan that rests on legs.A bag used to carry things in. The legs give the pan its name and raise it up from the hearth. black. Can be placed on a bed frame or on the ﬂoor. just as a backpack or purse is used today. Poke .A type of communication that requires the interpreter to dress in historic attire and allows him/her to react to guests in present day terms.A person who ﬁrst settles in an area.Hearth .The undressed (tanned or treated) skin and fur of an animal.A type of communication that involves the interpreter’s complete character portrayal of a historic person.The brick or stone area in front of the ﬁreplace. 1st Person Interpretation . Shako . 23 . 3rd Person Interpretation . The ﬂoor of the ﬁreplace.The enclosing wall of a fort that is made of wooden posts driven into the ground. Interpreter . Pioneer . Stockade . A costumed tour guide. Usually ﬁlled with feathers or straw. Settler . felt hat worn by soldiers at Fort Osage.A staff person that teaches history through historic roles.The tall. Spider Pan . Pelt .A person who comes to live in an area.
by Peter Bosco The War of 1812. Burns Fort Life.” The Expedition of Lewis and Clark. Rebellion and Independence in America (1700-1820). created by Jackson County Parks and Recreation. Historic Communities Series. by Albert Marrin A Nation is Born.. “We Proceeded On.4 EX71 BOOKS All books listed are available at Mid-Continent Libraries. The War Nobody Won. Carter Osage Indian Customs and Myths. by Richard Steins Indians of North America: The Osage. The War of 1812. by Louis F. The Mid-Continent Library has a video available for a one-week checkout period that would make an excellent prelude to a visit to Fort Osage. Kaw Valley Films and Video VC 973. by Terry P. by Alden R. by Bobbi Kalman and David Schimpky 1812.. available for purchase a the Fort Osage Gift Shop.LIST OF BOOKS AND VIDEOS RELATING TO EARLY 1800s HISTORY AND FORT OSAGE DVDs There is a DVD. Wilson 24 .
MAP TO FORT OSAGE NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK 25 .
MISSOURI TOWN 1855 INFORMATION ...a Jackson County Historic Site .
in 19th century attire. as an assembled unit. blacksmith shop and a livery stable depict a typical antebellum farming community.m. Living history interpreters. Children’s Day.MISSOURI TOWN 1855 FACT SHEET DESCRIPTION: Missouri Town 1855 is a collection of original mid19th century structures carefully relocated from seven western Missouri counties to one site. portray a typical 1855 Missouri farming community. Spirits From The Past and A Christmas Celebration. Over twenty-ﬁve period buildings including houses with barns and outbuildings. tavern.m. bring the site to life by portraying the daily routines of village residents. to 4:30 p.m. Approximately the size of six city blocks.m. Additions in the village continue based on a Master Plan and as funding becomes available. A self-guided tour takes about one hour. Group rates are available to organized groups of 20 or more people with PRE-REGISTRATION and PREPAYMENT. a one-room schoolhouse. Annual events include Sheep Shearing. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The buildings at Missouri Town 1855 present a variety of architectural styles popular in the mid19th century and. church. lawyer’s ofﬁce. The ﬁrst building was erected in 1963. November 15 to March 1: Weekends only. to 4:30 p. Independence Day. YEAR FOUNDED: ANNUAL EVENTS: SIZE: TOURS: SEASON: 28 . March 1 to November 15: Tuesday through Sunday 9:00 a. Principal buildings and features were in place by 1970. 9:00 a. Missouri Town 1855 Fall Festival.
64064. Missouri. Missouri Town 1855’s physical address is 8010 E. Lee’s Summit. Park Road.LOCATION: Missouri Town 1855 is located on the east side of Lake Jacomo in Fleming Park. MO. Blue Springs. 29 .
. Social activities in the town would probably have taken place at the non-denominational church or in private homes............. church and mercantile store........ tavern..... cars.. wool for clothing.. Mules and Horses .. Meat.... The buildings in the village were moved to Missouri Town 1855 from other locations in seven different western Missouri counties... Wheat for ﬂour and income.. breeds typical to 1855 are bought and raised for interpretive purposes at Missouri Town 1855........ Meat and lard..... shootings. The animals at Missouri Town 1855 represent the various breeds and animal types that were common in the mid-nineteenth century. 30 .... A typical village in western Missouri would look much like Missouri Town 1855. Blacksmith’s House and the Settler’s House.. Riding and driving.... Cattle..... as well as improvements in transportation represented by steamboats and the expanding railroad network.. however... running water..... Fresh vegetables for seasonal consumption and preservation.. Eggs......... Squire’s House and their various outbuildings represent the upper class... Grains.. Hogs... There would be a school house.... The year 1855 was chosen as the year to interpret because it was the last year before the Kansas border ﬁghting began to disrupt the area.. The Colonel’s House. These are actual buildings from the mid-nineteenth century... corn provided income and cornmeal for the family plus feed for animals...... Whenever possible...... People at this time... meat and feathers... Life in 1855 seems very hard to people who live in the modern world --..there was no electricity... Dairy products......... Sheep ...SYNOPSIS OF MISSOURI TOWN 1855 Missouri Town 1855 was never a real village in which real people lived and worked.. blacksmith’s shop.... whiskey.. Instead it is a reconstruction of what a person may have found at a Missouri crossroads during the mid-nineteenth century.. television or microwaves. The houses represent the many social classes living in the village.. The following is a list of items grown on a farm and what they provided for a family: Garden.... lynchings and violence had polarized pro-slavery and anti-slavery adherents into open conﬂict.... By 1856..... The average family in western Missouri lived on a farm which was mostly self-sufﬁcient and provided the family with an income.... The middle and lower classes are represented by the Tradesman’s House...... spoke proudly of recent inventions such as the telegraph and the sewing machine. meat and leather..... Poultry.
Usually the class varied from one student to twelve students at one time. Some items found in the mercantile include cloth. The men and boys of the family would work in the ﬁelds and tend to the animals. The tavern was probably the busiest place in the village since it was the stop for travelers and the village mail was delivered here. The merchant owned the store. cleaning. were allowed to go outside for brief periods. wills and property boundaries.Rural families often bartered the goods they produced with their neighbors. a bag of marbles or a doll. then they did not attend. or mercantile. lawyer and tavern owner were an important part of community life. Games such as “buz”. “blind man’s buff”. in addition to necessities such as cloth from the textile mills in the East. if a child was needed at home or the parents could not afford to send them to school that term. Sermons were long. some lasting as much as three hours and no one was allowed to nap during the service. who also hired the school marm or master to instruct his children. “hide and go seek” and “French and English” (which we know as “tug of war”) were also popular. who stopped on his “circuit” once or twice a month. The school at Missouri Town 1855 is typical of most rural schools in the region during this time period. barn raisings and quilting bees formed a major part of the social life of a small rural town. merchant. 31 . a trip to the mercantile or to the city might result in stick candy. salt. hardware. sewing and milking. School did not start until after harvest in October and lasted until spring planting in April. Throughout the growing season. however. The blacksmith repaired tools and other implements needed by consumers in the village or by farmers in the area. Children of other families would be allowed to attend the school if their parents could pay the eight dollars per school year per child. Attendance at the school was not regular. in the village. Different denominations had traveling preachers who went to different towns each Sunday to deliver a sermon. These goods would have included small luxury items such as Chinese tea. The lawyer. The tavern was also the location for news and information in the village. Agriculture is not the only trade represented at Missouri Town 1855--the blacksmith. During the summer the whole family worked hard in order to insure a good harvest. Students went to school from sunup to sundown during the winter. When they had free time. sugar. would have taken care of any legal problems such as deeds. community work projects such as corn shuckings. The school would have been held in a one room school house built by the Colonel. During the summer and harvest seasons there was very little free time left to children because everyone had chores to do. School was held everyday but Sunday during the school term. Small children. as Missouri Town would have been only one day’s ride from a riverboat landing. a wide variety of consumer goods was available at the mercantile store. while the women and girls would work in the garden and house and continue with the usual chores of cooking. candy and coffee. books. The Baptists may have had a preacher on one Sunday while the Methodists or Presbyterians might have a preacher on the next Sunday. Also. The church at Missouri Town 1855 represents a non-denominational church found in most rural areas in the mid-nineteenth century.
In 1854. “Bleeding Kansas”.Politics was becoming a heated topic in western Missouri in 1855. The relative contentment of rural life was soon to give way to the hardships of war. 32 . Slavery was a topic of heated debate in western Missouri. the Kansas-Nebraska Act introduced slavery in the new territories to the west of Missouri. and another chapter in American history was begun. abolitionists and states’ rights were topics of discussion. The United States was divided by sectional interests in the Northern industrial states and the Southern agricultural states. where many people came from a southern background.
Have the students ask the townspeople about their experiences in moving to the Missouri region (or have they always lived here) and what are their hopes and dreams for the future? While touring the facility. What if you bring students age 9 and older? Put the past into perspective.MISSOURI TOWN 1855 SCHOOL TOUR TEACHER MATERIALS SUGGESTED TEACHING STRATEGIES What if you bring students ages 5-8? Relate today’s life to what you see on the tour. Do work using slates and chalk. ask the residents what they would have brought with them to Missouri Town 1855. remind the students to think of the changes that have occurred since the 1850s (i. Discuss the similarities and differences between 1850s agriculture and today’s practices. T. Prepare a trip back in time to the 1850s. Have the students pick ﬁve items that they would need to take with them. compare and contrast what you see with the amenities of a hotel. Challenge them to continue the activity at home. Have the students bring non-refrigerated lunches and play games from the period at recess. Blackwell’s Mercantile Store and compare it to stores that the students are familiar with. Visit J. the automobile.e. As you visit the village. electric light bulb and telephone) PRE-VISIT ACTIVITIES Plan a day at your school set in the early 1850s. Do not use electricity or modern conveniences. Talk with the interpreters working with the livestock. At the Tavern. Find out the differences between this person’s occupation and those of the student’s parents. Stop in at the Blacksmith’s Shop for a look at his daily activities. 33 . Compare the student’s clothing to those of the interpreters’.
Organize a settlement in 1850s Missouri. For each of the ﬁve senses. Have the students make a list of the foods that they eat for two days. how labor will be divided.A person that works for a skilled craftsman in order to learn the trade. Write a letter to your family back east about your experiences. They should keep track of the packaging.A container used to turn cream into butter. Have students choose ﬁve objects from their lives that they would include in a museum to represent life today.A covered wagon drawn by horses or oxen used to move freight or household goods. Plan exercises utilizing the Missouri Town 1855 map.To do arithmetic. Consider location. Make a few recipes from the 1850s. Note where different social and economic boundaries are in the village. VOCABULARY Apprentice . preparation and tastes. what supplies are needed. Conestoga Wagon . animals. POST-VISIT ACTIVITIES Have the students write an article for the school newspaper or publish a newsletter about their ﬁeld trip experiences. Compare these lists with foods from the 1850s. Cypher . Encourage the students to interview each other. etc. Butter Churn . where you will get food and water. Copybook . lodging. The wooden tool used to beat or “dash” the cream is called a DASHER. 34 . Circle the buildings where residents would ﬁnd food.A notebook in which school lessons are written.A head covering used by young girls and ladies to keep their hair clean and out of the way while working. Daycap . Imagine that you are a traveler going through Missouri in the 1850s and stayed at Missouri Town 1855 for a few days. etc. list a memory of the trip to Missouri Town 1855. Create a bulletin board with pictures or words associated with your trip for every letter of the alphabet.
Settler .A person who ﬁrst settles in an area. The ﬂoor of the ﬁreplace. Interpreter . The legs give the pan its name and raise it up from the hearth. A costumed tour guide.A person who comes to live in an area. Can be placed on a bed frame or on the ﬂoor. just as a backpack or purse is used today.A craftsperson such as the blacksmith who makes goods. 1st Person Interpretation .The mattress of a bed. Pioneer .A bag used to carry things in.An implement used to cut.A bed built low enough to slide under a regular bed frame. The term “yoke” also refers to the wooden frame placed on the necks or oxen when these animals are pulling loads such as a plow or wagon. Yoke .A wooden frame worn over the shoulders of a person to carry two water buckets. Plow . Spider Pan .A student. Poke . Tick .A type of communication that requires the interpreter to dress in historic attire and allows him/her to react to guests in present day terms. Mechanic .Hearth . Trundle Bed .A metal cooking pan that rests on legs.A type of communication that involves the interpreter’s complete character portrayal of a historic person.A staff person that teaches history through historic roles. 3rd Person Interpretation . Scholar . Usually ﬁlled with feathers or straw.The brick or stone area in front of the ﬁreplace. 35 . lift and turn the soil so that seed can be planted.
Missouri Town’s livestock. Oxen can be any breed of cattle that has been trained to work. A valued breed for meat and milk -found to be willing power for the wagon and plow -Abe and Moses were brought to Missouri Town 1855 in 1999 and are being trained as an oxen team HORSES STANDARD BRED: -the breeds’ origin dates from a Thoroughbred imported from England in 1788 MORGAN: -a truly American horse breed with roots dating back to the late 1700s -Morgans are known for their speed.S. They are typically steers and are worked in pairs.MISSOURI TOWN 1855 ANIMAL GUIDE Missouri Town’s programming offers the visitor a glimpse at rural life and animal breeds that would have been found in Western Missouri in the 1850s. in the mid-nineteenth century -known for its ﬁne ﬂeece and good temperament -Missouri Town 1855 has Border Leicester crosses 36 . Horses and mules were used for farm work as well. Among those represented are: OXEN SHORTHORN STEERS: -developed in England about 1600 -ﬁrst imported to Virginia in 1783 -popular with early settlers. carriages and for riding. Horses. Horses were used for pulling wagons. includes both pure breeds and crosses. as was often the case. willingness to work and intelligence SHEEP BORDER LEICESTER CROSS SHEEP: -a popular breed in the U. mules and oxen provided the power necessary to do the heavy farm work. They were favored by many over horses because of their lower cost and less demanding dietary needs. stamina.
POULTRY Missouri Town 1855 has a wide variety of poultry that would have been commonly seen on most farms in rural Western Missouri in the 1850s. setters and care givers to their young GAME FOWL: -the “Arabian horses” of poultry -very colorful. not as domesticated as many other breeds 37 . CHICKENS Missouri Town 1855 has a variety of Chicken breeds represented in the village: COCHIN: -buff and partridge colored -their feathered legs are their most distinguishable feature POLISH: -there are several varieties -their unique top-knot on their head is their most distinguishable feature DOMINIQUE: -good all-around chicken breed -were known to be good layers.
80¢ per pound Primer . MO November 1854 . Sibley.February 1855 38 .15¢ Slate .7 1/2¢ a yard Singing book .10¢ a pack Ribbon .$1.30¢ per pound Pocket knife .15¢ Domestic cloth .6 1/2¢ per pound Salt .00 Blank book .65¢ Tea .5¢ Ax .5¢ Candy .12¢ per pound Sugar .10¢ per yard Needles .2¢ per pound Coffee .75¢ Fine comb .30¢ Slate pencil .40 Ream of Letter Paper .SAMPLE MERCANTILE ITEMS AND PRICES Soap .50 Information is taken from: Garrison-Childe’s Ledger.$1.6 1/2¢ per pound Bottle ink .$2.
Collins Missouri. Its Geography. by American Review Coon Holler. by Irene Hunt Children’s Stories of the 1850s. An 1850s Village. a Story of the People and the Regions of the “Show Me” State. RMI Medica Productions. Famous Pioneers.D. by C. by Robert N.LIST OF BOOKS AND VIDEOS RELATING TO 1850s MISSOURI HISTORY VIDEOS These videos were ﬁlmed at Missouri Town 1855 and are available at Mid-Continent Libraries for a one week checkout. History and Government. by Franklin Folsom Geography of Missouri. by Olive Rambo Cook Farmer Boy. The call numbers are listed after the producers of the videos. by Ernestine Bennett Briggs Missouri.H. Lavender BOOKS (Fiction) All books listed are available at Mid-Continent Libraries. McClure Picture Book of Missouri. VC 813. Saveland Missouri Stories for Young People. by Earl A. by Laura Ingalls Wilder 39 .841 EI44 Across Five Aprils. by Bernadine Freeman Bailey The Trail to Santa Fe. (movie based on novel of the same name) AME. from its Glorious Past to the Present. Its People and Its Progress. by S. by John Allan Carpenter Missouri. Across Five Aprils. Inc. VC 977. (educational ﬁlm). Inc.3 AC77 BOOKS (Non-Fiction) All books listed are available at Mid-Continent Libraries.
by Rose Wilder Lane Overland Stage. by Rose Wilder Lane Huckleberry Hill. by Glen Rounds Ridge Willoughby. by William Henman On The Way Home. by Cena Christopher Draper 40 . by Glen Dines The Prairie Schooners. (complete series) by Laura Ingals Wilder Missouri River Boy.The First Four Years. by Elizabeth Gemming Little House on the Prairie.
Chimney soot. The style of writing was called calligraphy. Unlike the ball point pens and felt tip markers we use today. Ben Franklin. The inks were made from natural ingredients. Blueberries and gooseberries produced purple inks. pens of the eighteenth century were made by dipping quills from chicken and other birds into homemade ink. nutshells and teas created inks in shades of brown and black.PIONEER PENMANSHIP Thanks to a barnyard chicken. 41 . usually made from berries they found in the woods or from cracked nutshells. ﬂowers and barks. kids had to bring their own ink to school. In Early America. Try your had at writing with the pens of long ago. John Hancock and the other ﬁfty-three forefathers could sign the Declaration of Independence. one end of a small twig would be whittled to a point and then dipped into ink as a substitute. If a quill was not available. such as the juices of fruits. goose or turkey Thomas Jefferson.
OTHER EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES Other programs and services available to schools and educators: Speaker Services Trunk Shows Workshops Please contact our ofﬁce at (816) 503-4864 Jackson County Parks and Recreation 44 .
Please take a few minutes to complete this evaluation and return it to our ofﬁce at the address listed at the end of this form.PROGRAM EVALUATION FORM Jackson County Parks and Recreation would like to know your impression of the program in which your group participated. We are interested in your comments and suggestions in order to improve our sites and programs. Name of your group: Site your group visited: Overall Impression Was the length of the visit appropriate for your group? Comments Was the tour fee reasonable? Comments Was the staff professional and courteous to your group? Comments Describe the cleanliness of the site: Excellent Comments Program Describe the organization of the program: Excellent Comments Would you recommend this program to another group/teacher? Comments What areas of the program did your group like best? Yes No Very Good Good Fair Poor Very Good Good Fair Poor Yes No Yes No Yes Too Short Too Long Missouri Town 1855 Date of visit: Fort Osage Nat’l Historic Landmark 46 .
JACKSON COUNTY PARKS AND RECREATION Historic Sites Division 22807 Woods Chapel Road Blue Springs. would you suggest be included in the Teacher’s Guide? Yes No Very Good Good Fair Poor Yes No Yes No High Average Low Very Low What would be your overall rating of our School Tour Program? Excellent Comments Thank you for taking part in our programs and providing us with this important information. MO 64015 (816) 503-4860 47 Very Good Good Fair Poor .Do you have any suggestions for alternative activities. if any. if so what would they be? What was the level of interest your students had for the information presented? Very High Comments Was the information presented appropriate for the age level of your students? Comments Interpreters Did the interpreters present information that your students did not know before? Comments How would you describe the knowledge and presentation of the interpreters? Excellent Comments Teacher’s Guide Was the Teacher’s Guide helpful in preparing the students prior to their visit? Comments What additional information.
00 includes shipping.ADDITIONAL EDUCATION MATERIALS The following publications relating to Missouri Town 1855 and Fort Osage National Historic Landmark history are available for order: Educational Guide to Missouri Town 1855 by Darlene Robinson & Jackson County Parks and Recreation $5.00 + shipping and handling. Additional Educational Materials Order Form Enclosed is a check payable to Jackson County Parks and Recreation for #_____ copies of the following item: Name of item Please send to: Name Address City 48 State Zip Code .00 includes shipping. Missouri Town 1855 DVD by Jackson County Parks and Recreation $10. Fort Osage National Historic Landmark 1808-1827 DVD by Jackson County Parks and Recreation $10.