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AP Chemistry

Chapter 10: Solids & Liquids—Self-Study

10.1 Intermolecular Forces

1. List the forces that hold the condensed states of matter together.
2. What changes occur during a phase change?
3. Compare the ∆Hvaporization and the ∆H for the breaking of a mole of O—H bonds.
What does this tell you about the relative strength of intramolecular versus
intermolecular bonds?
4. Discuss the force of attraction that exists between water molecules in its
condensed states. Use a diagram to help you explain these forces.
5. Refer to Figure 10.4 when answering the following questions.
a. Explain the differences in boiling points among the period 2 hydrides.
b. Explain the trend in boiling points among the members of a group of
6. London Forces are responsible for the condensation of nonpolar gases such as the
Noble gases.
a. What is an instantaneous dipole?
b. How does the formation of an instantaneous dipole lead to the formation
of condensed states?
c. Which, within each pair, would have a higher….
(1) freezing point: He, Xe
(2) boiling point: CH4, CCl4

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10.2 The Liquid State

7. The phenomenon of capillary action, which is responsible for the movement of

water in plants, and is dependent on cohesion and adhesion. Explain how these
forces are responsible for the movement of water up capillary tubes.
8. What is viscosity?
a. Why is glycerol viscous?
b. Which of the two fatty acids would you expect to be more viscous? Why?


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10.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids

9. Define
a. crystalline solid
b. amorphous solid
c. lattice
d. unit cell
10. Draw and label the three types of unit cells
11. The Bragg equation is given by: nλ = 2dsinθ
Define the terms n, λ , d, and θ of the Bragg equation.
12. Copy and then complete the flow chart on crystalline solids.

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10.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals

13. List the characteristics of metals

14. What is “closest packing?”
15. Draw diagrams illustrating abab and abca closest packing.
16. How does bonding in metals account for the characteristics you listed in #13.
17. Summarize the “electron sea” and the “molecular orbital” bonding models for
18. Define and give examples of each.
a. alloy
b. substitutional alloy
c. interstitial alloy
19. What is the difference between mild, medium, and high carbon steel?

10.5 Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids

20. Discuss the hybridization of carbon in diamond and graphite and how this affects
the structure of these solids and their properties.
21. Why doesn’t silicon combine with oxygen like carbon does to form:

22. What does it mean to “dope” glass? List some examples.

23. How is the conductivity of silicon different than in metals?
a. How can the conductivity of silicon be increased?
b. What type of semiconductor is produced by doping silicon with arsenic?
c. With boron?
d. How does conductivity occur in the semiconductor produced with boron?
24. What in a p-n junction?
25. Define
a. junction potential
b. reverse bias
c. forward bias
d. rectifier

10.8 Vapor Pressure and Changes of State

26. Why is ∆Hvaporization an endothermic process?

27. What is at equilibrium at the equilibrium vapor pressure?
28. Why do substances with higher molecular masses generally have lower vapor
29. What is the relationship between vapor pressure and temperature?
30. Consider Figure 10.40. Which of the three liquids, H2O, C2H5OH, or (C2H5)2OH,
is the most volatile? Why?
31. What is sublimation? Give an example of a substance that sublimates at STP.

Changes of State

32. Define:
a. specific heat
b. ∆Hfusion
c. “normal” melting point
d. “normal” boiling point
e. supercooled
f. superheated
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10.9 Phase Diagrams

33. Read “Experiments” one through three to answer the following questions.
a. Under what conditions can the solid and gaseous phase co-exist without
the liquid phase not being present?
b. Under which conditions does the “normal” boiling point occur?
c. Under which conditions can all three phases of water co-exists
simultaneously? What is this situation called?
d. Under which conditions will gases be unable to return to the liquid phase
no matter what pressure is applied to them.

34. Consider Figure 10.51 and note the negative slope of the line that separates the
solid and the liquid phases. What does this negative slope imply regarding the
relationship between pressure and the melting point of ice?
35. Consider Figure 10.52. The CO2 in the fire extinguisher is in the liquid phase
under pressure. The transition from liquid to gas is endothermic. In addition,
CO2 is heavier than air. Use this information to explain how a fire extinguisher

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