TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM REPORT UNIT OPERATION LABORATORY II

EXPERIMENT 3 AGITATION

Kris Dawn C. Leopoldo Jose Adrian P. Valenzuela BS Chemical Engineering 5

Abstract The experiment was done to observe the flow patterns of the different kinds of impeller and match the flow patterns with the theoretical knowledge of agitation. The experimenters were able to observe results that match the theoretical given. For example, in the case of marine type impeller, we noticed that there was a certain movement of seeds from the center towards the sides. In theory, the type of flow pattern produced by this impeller is axial flow since the fluid flows axially down the center axis or propeller shaft and up on the sides of the tank. The theoretical and actual results match.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ………………………………………………….2 Introduction………………………………………………4 Equipment and Methods…………………………………..6

I.

II.

III. Results…………………………………………………..7

IV. Discussion

and Conclusion……………………………..8

References………………………………………………..10

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I.

Introduction Agitation is very important in many chemical and processing industries today. Many operations are dependent to a great extent on effective agitation and mixing of fluids, and thus, we future chemical engineers, must familiarize ourselves with the basic principles of motion with regards to the action of different kinds of impellers to liquid systems. This leads us to the objective of the experiment. The experiment is conducted to simply observe the flow patterns produced by each type of agitator under certain controlled conditions. The conditions are the presence of a baffle and no baffle and tilted impeller axis of rotation and not tilted. The four types of agitators used were: a.) marine type impeller, b.) impeller with four blades, c.) disk flat-blade turbine and d.) high shear rate impeller.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Theory: According to Geankoplis in his book Transport Processes and Unit Operations A marine type impeller classified as a three-blade propeller agitator, is used for liquids of low viscosity. The type of flow pattern produced by this impeller is axial flow since the fluid flows axially down the center axis or propeller shaft and up on the sides of the tank. An impeller with four blades is a paddle agitator. This type of agitator is used often at low speeds. At low speeds, mild agitation is obtained in an unbaffled vessel. At higher speeds baffles are used, since, without baffles, the liquid is simply swirled 4

around with little actual mixing. The paddle agitator is ineffective for suspending solids since good radial flow is present but little vertical or axial flow. Disk flat-blade turbine and High shear rate impellers are considered as turbine agitators. These impellers resemble multibladed paddle agitators with shorter blades used at high speeds for liquids with a very wide range of viscosities. The turbines with flat blades, high shear rate impellers, give radial flow. They are also useful for good gas dispersion where the gas is introduced just below the impeller at its axis and is drawn up to the blades and chopped into fine bubbles. The disk flat blade, with blades at 45 degrees, some axial flow is imparted so that a combination of axial and radial flow is present. This type is useful in suspending solids since the currents flow downward and then sweep up the solids. Overall, the flow patterns in an agitated tank depend upon the fluid properties, the geometry of the tank, types of baffles in the tank, and the agitator itself. If a propeller o other agitator is mounted vertically in the center of a tank with no baffles, a swirling flow usually develops. Generally, this motion is undesirable, because of excessive air entrainment, development of a large vortex, surging, and the like, especially at high speeds. To prevent this, an angular off-center position can be used with propellors with small horsepower like the one we used in the laboratory.

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II.

Equipment and Methods The materials used in the experiment are agitator equipment, the impellers, specifically, marine-type, disk flat-blade turbine, high-shear rate, and impeller with four blades, and lastly, the monggo seeds which will serve as the solid particle. The experiment went through by filling the container with water approximately equal to its diameter. Then, the monggo seeds are immersed in the container filled with water. The container is placed on the agitator apparatus equipped with an impeller mounted on a shaft. The agitator is turned on and the flow pattern produced of each of the impellers is observed and recorded in different conditions, with baffle, no baffle, and tilted mounted shaft angle.

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III.

Results No Baffle Impeller has a certain push towards the center clump of seeds All of the seeds were really in With Baffle Due to the baffle, many seeds were trapped in the sides Random motion was observed. The seeds were going in all directions. Not so much seed movement was observed. No movement of seeds were observed.

Kinds of Impeller Marine Type Impeller

Impeller with Four Blades

motion. There was vigorous agitation. The seeds were moving

Disk Flat Blade Turbine

upwards, towards the impeller. There is a “sucking” action. No movement of seeds were observed.

High Shear Rate Impeller

IV.

Discussion and Conclusion

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Marine-type Mixing Impeller We observed that not all of the seeds were vigorously agitated. Only a portion, specifically, the ones on the sides and on the top portion of the clump of seeds, were in motion due to the impeller action. The seeds were drawn to the sides. The impeller has a certain push towards the center of the clump, however, the push wasn’t that heavy. We noticed that there was a certain movement of seeds from the center towards the sides. In theory, the type of flow pattern produced by this impeller is axial flow since the fluid flows axially down the center axis or propeller shaft and up on the sides of the tank. The theoretical and actual results match. Impeller with Four Blades We observed that there was a vigorous effect towards the seeds. All of the seeds were in motion. The seeds were revolving in a clockwise motion. There is a whirlpool motion formed at the surface of the water medium. In theory, at low speeds, mild agitation is obtained in an unbaffled vessel. At higher speeds baffles are used, since, without baffles, the liquid is simply swirled around with little actual mixing. The paddle agitator is ineffective for suspending solids since good radial flow is present but little vertical or axial flow. Thus, the theoretical and the actual results match. The swirling motion was the key identity for impeller with four blades. Disk Flat Blade Turbine The seeds were moving upwards, specifically, towards the impeller. The seeds move because of the pulling action of the impeller. In theory, the disk flat blade, with blades at 45 degrees, some axial flow is imparted so that a combination of axial and radial flow is present. This type is considered useful in suspending solids since the currents flow downward and then sweep up the solids. In this manner, there is an effective agitation of the monggo seeds because of its rising effect with the water. The rising effect was caused by the combination of radial and axial flow produced by 8

the 45 degree blades of the impeller. Thus, the theoretical and the actual results match. High Shear Rate Impeller We noticed that, there was no movement at all. One explanation that we can deduce from the said event is that, the force applied by the impeller was perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Therefore, the force produced was sideways relative to the line of action of the impeller, thereby not affecting the seeds below the impeller. In theory, the turbines with flat blades, high shear rate impellers, give radial flow. Thus, the theory and actual matches.

References

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Transport Processes and Unit Operations 3rd Edition by Christi J. Geankoplis Unit Operations I Laboratory Manual

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