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ESSAY WRITING
Writing an essay takes time: time to gather information, determine a topic, decide what directions you want to take, organize your evidence, write the first draft, revise and edit the next draft or drafts, and then prepare a final copy that says clearly and convincingly what you want to say. You will be surprised at the difference taking your time makes in the quality of your writing. Time taken to plan an essay saves time staring at a blank sheet of paper with no clear ideas in mind. The guide below outlines a writing process. Thinking about an essay topic Before you start to write, study your essay topic carefully; be sure you understand it and know what you're supposed to be doing with it. Here's a sample essay topic: Describe the image of women presented in television advertising. Do you think it is fair or unfair? Understand the topic: If you've done sufficient research, you should have a fairly good understanding of the topic you have been given or have chosen. Sometimes, as in this example, the factual content of an essay topic will be fairly simple; at other times, you'll have to read the material very carefully to be sure that you understand it fully. Be sure you know what you are to do with the topic. In the topic given above you're asked to do two things: describe the image of women presented in TV ads, and give your own opinion about its fairness. These two processes are different. When you describe something, you don't judge it. In planning your essay, you would first work at gathering evidence showing how women are portrayed in TV ads. Only when you have presented as complete and fair a picture as is possible in a short essay will you be able to argue convincingly the second part of the essay topic: your personal evaluation of the image. In the final version of your essay you might not present the materials in this order. You might decide to start your essay with your evaluation and then go on to support it with evidence. But in thinking about a topic, act like a scientist: always put together the

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evidence first, and pass the judgments only after you've surveyed your collection of data. If an assigned topic seems ambiguous, vague, or too broad, make clear your interpretation of the topic before you try to address it. Sometimes you'll find a vague word or phrase in an essay topic and you will be forced to decide what the term really means. This is not a trick; rather it's an invitation to think carefully about a topic. Watch out for phrases like "more likely," "better," "desirable," and so on. Think through the idea: Better than what? Desirable for what? In our example you would probably have to decide what you mean by "fair": impartially accurate, presenting all sides, helpful, or what? Make sure that you understand the direction words in the topic: Every essay question or topic has a controlling idea expressed usually in one or two key words. Each of these words has a precise meaning. In the previous example. you saw what the word "describe" meant precisely. Here are a few more common direction words:

• • • • • • • •

Compare. Examine a set of items and find the resemblances among them. You may mention differences, but stress similarities. Contrast. Stress the differences. Define. Give a short, clear statement of meaning. Discuss. Present various sides and views of a matter, give a detailed answer. Evaluate. Appraise something. Do not simply present the facts, but say why some appear more important, more valid than others. Justify. Show the grounds for any judgments you've made. Summarize. Give the main points or facts in short form. Leave out all details or illustrations. Trace. Describe a sequence of events or development from the point of origin.

Directions may come in many other forms: single words like "analyse," "criticize," and so on, or whole phrases like "Make up your mind whether...," "Differentiate among..." Be sure you understand what they mean before you begin to write. Brainstorming Your first step in the actual writing of an essay is to note down quickly all the ideas that come into your head as you think about the topic. Write everything down; don't pass judgments on

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your own ideas yet. Something that looks unimportant at the outset may lead you to think of something very important later on. This list is for your eyes only and provides an invaluable reference as you start to write the first draft of your essay. The ideas you write down need not be in any order. This process is also called free writing or prewriting. Let's brainstorm on the sample topic given above: • • • • • • Older women are wise: women helping men in laundromat, Mrs. Olson Men experts who have to help women solve problems like "ring around the collar" Women concerned only/mostly with family and floor wax Women take care of themselves for men who possess them "She takes Geritol; I think I'll keep her" Some non-stereotyped woman driving Porsche, jockey, oil engineer All professional women very young and beautiful

Continue brainstorming on your own. Add precise details names of products, actors, actresses. Keep adding to the list whenever an idea flashes through your head at work, while reading, after dinner while you're doing dishes. Don't erase anything! You're not judging yet. You're amassing a store of information and ideas that you can draw on later. Formulating a thesis. Now you're ready to start deciding the direction of your essay. Begin by testing different possibilities. Here are three possible directions to take our women- in-TV-ads topic: Although there are some positive images of women on TV, in general the ads present an unfair view of women as dependent, shallow materialists. While the TV ads are sometimes annoying in their shallowness, they reflect fairly accurately the concerns of a majority of American women. Since ads have a powerful influence beyond simply selling products, it is only fair that they be used to improve the position of women by showing their strengths as well as their weaknesses. See how the point of your essay, which you're trying to fix, takes time to decide on. It is not just a simple restatement of a

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question. In fact, you can try to write out a statement of purpose without repeating the vocabulary of a question: Most women find television ads demeaning and frustrating because they depict American women as dependent, shallow materialists. Just be sure that the statement is a good response to the topic. Next, tentatively decide on a direction to take. Check your brainstorming lists of ideas and facts to see which of the statements you've written down has the most support in the evidence you've gathered. Which of the directions you've explored sounds most interesting or convincing, or for which you have gathered the most ideas? This becomes the point you're going to make in your essay, the reason you want someone to read what you've written: your possible thesis. Remember, however, that as you continue to write the essay, new ideas will come to you. You wrote the original thesis statement; you can change it at any time and must if you find that you can no longer support your original position. (This changing in your thesis may start as early as the initial organizing of evidence, taken up in the next section.) You may end up writing an essay that says just the opposite of what you started with; this happens, so don't let it worry you. However, writing out a thesis statement in the early stage of writing lets you start organizing your materials efficiently. Organizing your evidence Remember that evidence is fact, not opinion! Go over your brainstorming notes and see whether you can group the mess of ideas, examples, and questions into categories. In coming up with your thesis, you probably started this process, thinking about which examples would support your thesis and which might go against it. You can use different coloured pens to underscore in your notes those ideas that go together: examples of women as shallow all underlined in red, for example. Or you may cut up your notes and arrange them on a table top, like playing cards, trying to find a pattern. As you sort your notes, think about the points you want to stress in your essay. In a 500- or 1000-word paper you're not going to be able to make more than two or three points. Each of these points must be supported with evidence (facts), and defended against possible attack from a reader who thinks differently from you. Initially, think in

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terms of one major point to a paragraph. You may end up with something like this: • Women are often portrayed as simple-minded in TV ads. • The few women who are shown as intelligent are unconvincing. • To be fair to women, ads should often portray them more naturalistically, as more men are portrayed. Keep in mind that you're writing a short essay, not the final word on the image of women in ads. For a short paper, select a limited set of ideas and the best possible examples to illustrate them. Other ideas and examples will have to be discarded, but don't destroy any notes until you've finished the paper; if you change your thesis, you may need to go back to the notes for fresh ideas. Writing the rough draft Now you are ready to start composing the first version of the actual essay. Don't begin by constructing a magnificent introductory paragraph. The chances are that by the time you finish writing the essay, it will no longer fit what you've said! On the other hand, don't worry if you find it hard to begin writing. Start with the second paragraph. Or write "Dear Nick" at the top of the page and pretend you're writing a letter to an intelligent and sympathetic friend who really wants to know about this subject. Write anything, in fact, to get started -- even an elaborate introductory paragraph that you're prepared to throw out if necessary! Professional writers often have a hard time starting a piece of writing: one author sits in front of a typewriter and does not allow himself to get up, even to go to the bathroom, unless he has written at least four sentences. Then, if he has to interrupt his work, he can pick it up again easily. The successful writer Gene Fowler writes: "Writing is easy; all you do is sit staring at the blank piece of paper until the drops of blood form on your forehead." Solution? Get something down so that the sheet is no longer blank! As you compose the rough draft, remember that it is rough. Concentrate on getting your ideas down in some logical order. Don't worry about grammar or spelling or even final organization: that is another process -- revising and editing. The rough draft is your first effort at composing your ideas, not the final version of your essay. "The idea," says novelist Bernard Malamud, "is to get the pencil moving quickly."

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Revising and editing Once you have composed a rough draft, you're ready to revise and edit it -- two separate and important steps that most writers find they work on at the same time. When you revise, you are looking for ways to improve the content; when you edit, you are looking for technicalities of writing (grammar, spelling, and so forth). Do yourself a favour: make a clean copy of your rough draft before revising and editing the essay. It makes both tasks easier. If you are composing on a computer, make a printout at this point. If you compose by hand, make a neatly written copy. Why? A clean copy allows you to see everything more clearly. Problems in organization of ideas or of facts supporting those ideas will stand out more clearly during revising. And problems of sentence structure, punctuation, even spelling, become more apparent during editing. Revising for content. On the clean copy of your draft, first check the sense of what you've said. Have you made the point you set out to prove, or have you gone off into other areas? Have you repeated yourself? Have you made a point, yet not backed it up with evidence? Have you put in unnecessary evidence for a very simple point? Are things in the right order? Does everything you say make sense? Try writing a brief outline of your essay to see if it all hangs together. Look again at the introductory paragraph: does it really introduce your paper? Try to avoid editing the paper until you are satisfied with what you've said. Revising for shape. An important aspect of revising a rough draft is making sure your essay has "shape." By that I mean the simple, classical pattern of a beginning, a middle, and an end. Just about every piece of writing, short or long, needs these three elements. They insure that your reader understands your thesis (main point, central or controlling idea, or theme they all mean the same thing) and then becomes convinced that it is an interesting or valid one. Here is one way to look at this three-part pattern: Beginning: Say what you are going to do. State your thesis (this is the main topic or single general idea of the entire essay). Middle: Do it. Develop your thesis, discuss it and support it with evidence. This is the "body" of the essay. End: Note that you have done it. Recognize your thesis and evidence for it and state your conclusions.

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You will probably follow this pattern quite mechanically in your first two or three essays. In later thinking and writing you will become increasingly subtle as you experiment with expanding on, varying, and enriching this pattern. Revising for style. As you revise your rough draft, think carefully about your audience, the person who is going to read what you are writing. For most college or university essays it is, quite frankly, the professor. You would write the same ideas quite differently in a letter to your grandmother or in a memo to your boss. However, please do not fall prey to the misconception that intelligent writing is pompous writing. It is not. Here is one way to picture your audience: Consider that your paper is going to be read by a small group of knowledgeable peers who are interested in your ideas and are willing to be convinced by them, given the information they need about them. Again, writing to convince is preferable to writing to impress. One rule of good style is that when you revise, think about whether or not you can explain something more clearly, in simpler language, or with even clearer evidence backing up your ideas. If you can, go with the simpler version. Another rule of good style is to use varied words, an active or vivid noun, or just the right adjective or adverb. As you read and write more, you will be automatically building your vocabulary. Use only words for which you know the meanings. As you add words to your vocabulary be sure that you are using them accurately, precisely. Editing for form. Once you're satisfied with the essay as an essay (this may mean that you've had to do another draft copy) review it very carefully for technical errors: spelling, grammar, subject- verb agreements, adjectives used as adverbs, and so on. Know your own weaknesses: if you can't spell "occurrence," look it up. If you know that you sometimes leave the "s" off verbs, doublecheck for that point. Don't just make a stab at corrections; be sure you understand what you're doing. Keep asking questions until you do! Final copy Type the final copy yourself. The retyping gives you a chance to make fine adjustments to things you didn't notice before. Proofread a hard copy of the final draft very carefully. Proofreading is easier if you put the paper aside for at least a few hours before

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rereading it. Do not hesitate to make corrections if you find errors; it's your paper, and you have the right to change anything you've written. However, don't panic and make unnecessary corrections. Decide at some point that the paper is finished. A Final Note: These notes on writing an essay are not something to be read once and mastered. Return to these pages often for ideas and guidance. If you are at a sticking place in your writing, the guidelines can help you identify what points of the process are giving you problems and then find ways to solve them. For example, are you stuck on what to write about? You may need more prewriting or you may need to reformulate your thesis into a more workable one. Are you not satisfied with your second draft? You may need to go back and expand on your rough draft or review the ideas for revising again.

the chief executive alluded to those problems. Unfortunately. which have dragged the country to its lowest ebb. The chief of army-staff was on board. He gave a corruption. and administrative crisis. Her liberator Quaid-e-Azam wanted to make Pakistan a prosperous state in which equality of right will rule indiscriminately. He. the first prime minister of Pakistan. In his first address to the nation. “power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. nepotism. was vested in the National Accountability Bureau. After his death. The chief executive promised in his speech to resolve and to carry out acrossthe-board and transparent accountability in contrast to earlier such attempts which could not survive the malignancy of ill-will. Syed Muhammad Amjad as its first chairman. A fair and across-the-board . Under this anarchy of leadership some times martial law ruled over the country and sometimes corrupt politicians took the reins of the country in their hands. no body bore such titanic capabilities and worth who could fill Quaid’s vacant place and to manage properly the new-born state.” Edmund Burk believes that a corrupt influence is a perennial spring of decay and disorder. corruption and bribery flourished with full vigour especially during the last two decades where three national assemblies were dissolved on the charges of corruption by the two consecutive presidents of Pakistan. corruption has spread to every part of the governmental apparatus. Unfortunately. But 12th October 1999 as a dark day in the history of Pakistan ever remembered when the elected prime minister of Pakistan issued order to hi-jack the plane. In the nutshell. The great responsibility to guide and steer the nation out of the abyss of corruption.13 National Accountability Bureau Pakistan is the first country of the world. So nepotism. the Quaid died just after one year of birth of Pakistan. Gen. We. the army once again took over control the country and the chief of army staff became her chief executive. the Pakistanis. It was the oldest demand of the countrymen to account such and every men either a politician or a bureaucrat. social. The principal situation became worse by the assassination of Liqaut Ali Khan. “corruption. became powerless prisoners of the system within which we must operate. which came into being on the basis of Islamic Ideology. with Lt.” To quote Shakespeare. According to Lord Acton. in his address enumerated a seven point agenda to steer Pakistan out of the present economic. malpractices and abuse or misuse of power. win more than honesty.

and for matter connected and accidental there to. The top level management has corrupted so its lower management encouraged to see the top level corruption. transparent and across-the board accountability. prosecution and speedy disposal of cases involving corruption. The . The first and foremost point is to eradicate the corruption from top level to bottom from all public offices and institutions. They also with full sped feel in the abyss of corruption. NAB will take effective measures for detection. Today most of the problems being confronted by our country are a fall out of corruption. These loans were taken from different national and private banks. misuse or abuse of power. National Accountability Bureau has been established through a Presidential Ordinance for a free. The people of Pakistan every year bore more than hundred billion rupees loss only to run these corporations and institutions. Bungalows. The bureau has the power and right to detain the loan defaulters. investigation. misappropriation of property and kickbacks etc. A large amount of this money is used to purchase villas. The second priority of the National Accountability Bureau is to hold accountable all those persons accused of corrupt practices. National accountability Bureau will provide effective measures for the detection. The bureau can detain any accuse upto ninety days. investigation prosecution and speedy disposal of cases involving corruption. On the fictitious projects. commercial property and cars. corrupt practices. It had succeeded to recover the outstanding amounts from loan defaulters of the various banks. The accused cannot get bail during the detention. But some amount is also hide by the property to the names of the nearest kith and kin. There are five main points set out for National Accountability Bureau (NAB). People of lower salary and of public-offices in a few year have become multi-millionaire. Almost all corporations and big national institutions were running under a fiscal loss. To eradicate corrupt practices. They at one side piled a large volume of wealth and property by their or by their – relatives name and on the other side decayed the institution in which they worked.14 accountability is not only the need of the hour for Pakistan but it is also the popular sentiment of every patriotic citizen of the country.

It is the same people. How can that be brought about. Year after year. The new appointed chairman of the bureau has announced to take some steps to speed up the accountability. who is going to do it. Revival of democracy Pakistan's political history is a tale of opportunism. One-year of the present regime has elapsed and the achievements of the bureau are somewhat satisfactory. the recent political history of the country is a huge disappointment. two new leaders were coming to the forefront. At that time. government after government. bickering and 'solemn efforts' to destabilise the adversary at the cost of social and democratic institutions. But. irrespective of their ideological affiliation. always tried to enjoy unobstructed power. and who has brought things to such a pretty pass are the pressing questions? From these viewpoints. Will they again enforce the 'democracy' witnessed in Pakistan after 1985? The country and the people cannot afford another round of prime ministerial slots for Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto. But as the demand for the restoration of democracy and the return of the army to the barracks appears to gain momentum. The challenge and dilemma Pakistan faces today is the strengthening of civil society and the consolidation of democratic institutions. Recently. and ardently demand a return to the democratic form of government. The bureau has legal authority to recover the state money and other assets from those persons who have misappropriated such assets. Gen. After the 11-year era of Ziaul Haq. who. confrontation. from 1985 onwards. Pakistan has seen power change hands between the two mainstream political parties on four occasions. ousted from power and stupefied.15 loan defaulters even did not return the instalment of the loans before the bureau. the expectations of the people were high. find themselves 'pained' by the derailment of democracy. No doubt. all the political forces. the speed of the accountability is not satisfactory and it cannot be put aside easily because the investigation of the white-collar crime is not easy. It is time to analyse the situation and embrace the 'bony arms of reality'. Lt. Maqbool is appointed as the new chairman of NAB. . politicians need to answer some vital questions.

Why none of them cared for democracy when one of them was losing power before completing the democratic term? Still. they should be held accountable for their past misdeeds against each other. Their ideological adherence and perseverance is open to question. A harmonious relationship between the PPP and the Altaf-led Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).16 promising democratic days filled with prosperity. Today. when one of them was in trouble. how will it pull them out of the chaotic mess they have been hurled into? . then a similar bond between the PML and MQM. it betokens political harmony and reconciliation that Pakistan so badly needs. the possibility of an alliance between the two mainstream parties. mounting foreign debt and nothing to show for the good of the people. weakening of the political institutions and system. But the question is how the alliance is going to impact on the people of Pakistan? How will it change their lives. social discord. Why. instigate a noconfidence vote against Benazir Bhutto during her first tenure as prime minister? Why did Benazir rush back to Pakistan from abroad to hand over the resignations of her partymen in the parliament as Nawaz Sharif was battling it out for the seat of power with the then president Ghulam Ishaq Khan? And why the smiling snaps of Nawaz Sharif with then president Farooq Leghari as Benazir Bhutto was lamenting the killing of her brother in Karachi? Nowadays. When not in power. as the Punjab chief minister. During the last ten years. under the prevailing impasse. and more recently. is a telling comment on their character. Both the PPP and the PML have been opportunistic enough to form alliances with any party at any time. when Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto are talking of joining hands for the revival of democracy. making it clear that they are only interested in power and its perks. disfiguring of the Constitution. one should welcome the alliance being forged between the PML and the PPP under the umbrella of the Grand Democratic Alliance. unemployment. the PPP and the PML have only managed to establish themselves as invalid and ineffective political forces. though ideologically discordant. On the surface. they tried to destabilise the government of the day by every means. lawlessness. Pakistan witnessed social chaos. did the other not care? Just because the other saw the opportunity to grab power. Farooq Leghari is speaking out against both Sharif and Benazir. Unfortunately. economic bankruptcy. Why did Nawaz Sharif. and nothing else.

for instance. Not so long ago. it will do none of these things. encouraged the military to intervene and on finding their own dreams shattered after the event. when entrusted with power. 'corrupt' and 'anti-state'. misused their authority. but to give a clear roadmap for improving the economy is something politicians do . started to give renewed calls for the restoration of democracy.when in power. and even risking its very survival. and others of their kind. except for protecting the interests of a handful of politicians. It is perhaps to their advantage that any proposed change that threatens their . one is tempted to ask: "Do they have any agenda. These people are in fact happy with the inefficiency at the administrative level. Even then. The alliance. To give exit strategies is quite easy while sitting thousand of miles away from Pakistan.'never to submit or yield'. This alone should be emblematic of their attitude towards power . People must realise that these very politicians.that too with the help of rhetoric . any programme to tackle the economic crisis?" Are they going to use some magic wand to set things right or is their criticism just for criticism's sake? One has every reason. and help in retiring the foreign debt? From past bitter experience. make their lives easy. maligned the good name of democracy. set dubious examples of gross corruption and left the country impoverished. and extending 'compliments' such as 'security risk. while democracy weakened. but never tells the nation as to how. both Nawaz and Benazir are least prepared to introduce democracy in their parties. under PPP rule. bring down the price spiral. The PPP chairperson takes pride in giving employment. despite being in jail. Why doesn't anyone talk of the inept governance at the local level? Maybe it is because the existing system protects the vested interests. They. any consensus candidate. And when is the PPP going to undertake elections within the party itself? Ironically. Benazir is lifetime chairperson of PPP while Nawaz. is a prime example of the politics of opportunism. and initiating polio campaigns. These are the precedents which require the masses to be cautious about the ins and outs of the present demands for a return to democracy. if one is generous enough to overlook the past and grant the demand of these selfprofessed champions of democracy. when in opposition. their main preoccupation was hurling abuses at each other. which has created an open rift within the party. essentially between the two former prime ministers. to suspect the intentions behind the lobbying against the local government plan. one in jail and the other in exile. continues to head the PML. Pakistan would come out of the donor agencies' vicious circle.17 Will it create more jobs.

They must know that those proclaiming to be gold have rusted in the past.18 'sacred interests' is given a tinge of anti-state conspiracy. there is a need to educate the masses and make them politically mature so that they can distinguish right from wrong. The first armed encounter between the Maharajah's troops and insurgent forces occurred in August 1947. Thus. Britain . in 1931. At this time. Cause of Conflict In 1846. The people of Pakistan must question the intentions of these politicians and ask themselves as to what are their plans to improve the economy and the condition of the common man. styled himself as the Maharajah of Jammu and Kashmir. of course. adequately backed by supporting democratic institutions. including its populace (by a sale deed called the Treaty of Amritsar in return for a sum of money) to a Hindu warlord who had no roots there. the regime is proving itself more democratic than the so-called democratic governments of the past. the British colonial rulers of India sold the territory. There is no doubt that Pakistan today needs a stronger civil society. some of which persist to this present day. is our ultimate goal and democracy has to be installed. Between 1925 and 1947 Maharajah Hari Singh continued this policy of discrimination against the 94 percent Muslim majority. it is indeed encouraging that doors have been left open to suggestions and proposals. But to enjoy its true fruits. that the people of Kashmir made their first organised protest against Maharajah Hari Singh's cruelty. and those found practically feasible are being accepted with an open heart. requiring us to be patient. The slaughtering of a cow was declared a crime punishable by death. Several mosques were closed and occupied by his forces. It was nearly 65 years ago. This warlord who bought himself into royalty. That led to the "Quit Kashmir" campaign against the Maharajah in 1946. They must be made to understand that all that glitters is not gold. But there are no shortcuts and the journey is certainly long. aware and vigilant. The acts of brutality during his regime have left bitter memories. As the present government continues to make efforts for the implementation of the new system. and eventually to the Azad Kashmir movement which gained momentum a year later. Democracy.

" Then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The forces of Azad Kashmir successfully resisted India's armed intervention and liberated one-third of the State. "We have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. and furthermore. in a speech aired on All-India Radio (2nd November 1947). As the rebel forces had . That pledge we have given. after he ascertained a commitment of military assistance from the government of India to crush the impending revolution in Kashmir. strengthened by a few hundred civilian volunteers from Pakistan. outlined the conditions for official acceptance in a letter dated 27th October 1947: "In consistence with their policy that in the case of any (native) state where the issue of accession has been subject of dispute. We want it to be a fair and just reference to the people and we shall accept their verdict. We are prepared when peace and law have been established to have a referendum held under international auspices like the United Nations. Following this. Realising it could not quell the resistance. promising the people of the state and the world at large that "accession" would be final only after the wishes of the people of the state were ascertained upon return of normalcy in the state." The Government of India accepted the "Instrument of accession" conditionally. Lord Mountbatten conditionally accepted the "Instrument of Accession" on behalf of the British Crown. he is alleged to have signed an "Instrument of Accession" to India. India brought the issue to the United Nations Security Council in January 1948. Faced with a insurgency of his people. Maharajah fled to Jammu on 25th October 1947. not only to the people of Jammu and Kashmir. and the Maharajah has supported it. In Jammu.19 was liquidating its empire in the subcontinent. reaffirmed the Indian Government's commitment to the right of the Kashmiri people to determine their own future through a plebiscite. We will not and cannot back out of it. but also to the world. India moved her forces into Srinagar and a drawn-out fight ensued between Indian forces and the forces of liberation. the question of accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the state. it is my government's wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders the question of state's accession should be settled by a reference to the people.

In reply. and allowing the transit of tribesmen into the state. For negotiating the details of the plan. the Council developed proposals based on the common ground between them. After the cease-fire. and the resolution of 1948 has yet to be realised. After acceptance of these demands. followed by an agreement at Tashkent with the good offices of the USSR. India began efforts to drag the issue down. India and Pakistan again initiated military skirmish in 1965. However. India would enable a plebiscite to be held under impartial auspices to decide Kashmir's future status. These were embodied in the resolution of 21st April 1948. coupled with the assurance that all "raiders" were withdrawn. The Security Council exhaustively discussed the question from January until April of 1948. India and Pakistan were at war over Kashmir from 194748 and all early U. India charged Pakistan with having sent "armed raiders" into the state. which would be followed by a-UN directed Plebiscite. another cease-fire agreement was effected after United Nations intervention. Security Council Resolutions contained admonishment for both countries demanding an immediate ceasefire. disregarding that some fifteen resolutions were passed by the United Nations to this very effect. Pakistan charged India with having manoeuvred the Maharajah's accession through "fraud and violence" and with collusion with a "discredited" ruler in the repression of his people. Since both parties desired that the question of accession should be decided through an impartial plebiscite.20 undoubtedly been joined by volunteers from Pakistan. . Furthermore. At this point. India pursues the same plan. and demanded that Pakistan be declared an aggressor in Kashmir. It came to the conclusion that it would be impossible to determine responsibility for the fighting and futile to blame either side. the Council constituted a five-member commission known as "United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan" (UNCIP) to implement the resolution. and a plebiscite under the control of an administrator who would be nominated by the Secretary General. N. India demanded that Pakistan stop aiding freedom fighters. and under various pretexts tried to stop the UN resolution from being implemented. Pakistan's counter complaint was also coupled with the proposal of a plebiscite under the supervision and control of the United Nations to settle the dispute. To this day. the withdrawal of all outside forces from the State. envisaging a cease-fire.

it looked a perfectly legitimate and normal affair. was applicable to colonial cases only and did not extend to “peoples already organised in the form of a state. but this has yet to happen. However. to find out the reason.” Now when the East Timorese exercised the right of selfdetermination. Efforts to bring the latest conflict to an end resulted in the Simla Agreement and was signed by both India and Pakistan and declared commitment to reach a "final settlement" on the Kashmir issue.” This resolution resulted in establishing the right of selfdetermination of a normative character in favour of the colonised peoples. Commenting on this parallel. which are not under colonial domination.21 In 1971. the Chief Executive compared the case of Kashmiris.” Leaders of other western countries showed similar sentiments. The purpose here is to investigate whether we are justified in drawing an analogy between the two situations. Following the end of second World War and the establishment of the United Nations. Following this unsympathetic attitude of the West. it is noteworthy that this right. a decolonisation movement started which resulted in the adoption in 1960 by the General Assembly of the landmark Resolution 1514 entitled “Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. as embodied in the 1960 decolonisation resolution. many serious Pakistani commentators attributed the negative attitude to the fact that the East Timporese are Christian whereas Kashmiris are Muslims. India and Pakistan once again became locked in war. East Timor was a classical case of European colonialism as it was occupied by Portugal some 450 years ago and following its departure in 1974 it was occupied by Indonesia with the tacit approval of the West. with that of the East Timorese who won it last year under the UN auspices. the . Why Kashmir East Timor Are Similar While addressing the UN Millennium Summit the other day. who have been deprived of their right of self-determination. In fact. which makes the western world reject the analogy. based on “saltwater” theory. And in case of an affirmative answer. the US State Department spokesman advised against drawing “facile analogies” as in his view “Kashmir is not East Timor.

while accepting the two covenants. Perhaps that explains why India. Happened in 1970 when the General Assembly adopted Resolution 2625 entitled “Declaration on Friendly Relations. was never a colonised territory in the classical sense to which the right of self-determination needed to be applied.” This development was remarkable because by accepting the right of oppressed peoples to self-determination. entered a reservation to Article 1 contending that the right in question applied to colonial situations only and not to people living in a sovereign independent state. the concept of selfdetermination needed to be adopted in a universal document in order to be made applicable to all states. the African people in one go jettisoned their traditional acceptance of the inviolability of the established colonial borders.” In other words. since the decolonisation of the subcontinent in 1947. The next important milestone in this respect was the adoption in 1966 of the two International Human Rights Covenants whose common article 1(1) broke new ground when it stated in unambiguous terms. colonial or otherwise. The trend towards detachment of the right of selfdetermination from its colonial moorings found a new expression in Article 20 (2) of the African Charter of human and People’s Right wherein it was conceived as “the right to free colonised or oppressed peoples from the bonds of domination. The detractors of Pakistan’s viewpoint. Subsequently further new heights were scaled when this concept was enshrined in Article VIII of the Final act of the Helsinki Conference in which it was stated. however. Kashmir.” Since the foregoing international instruments are applicable only to the states which were parties to them. forget (or should we say conveniently forget?) that the concept of the right of self-determination did not get frozen as defined in 1960 and in fact since then has undergone a major transformation. A opposed to this.22 international community looked apologetic for having denied this right to the East Timorese whereas other territories in similar situations had enjoyed this right for a long time. the concept outgrew the colonial context in which it had been placed previously and henceforth became applicable to all situations. “ all peoples have the right to determine their internal and external political status.” . “all peoples have the right of self-determination.

23 The Declaration. which obviously does not hold in the case of the latter. particularly those of August 13. these states are motivated more by political. The shrieking one in recent years has been that of Muslim Afghanistan. In fact. in our judgement it is unjustified because despite the existence in western societies of a deep-seated prejudice against Islam. one can say that on the essential question of the application of the right of self-determination. the right of self-determination is as much applicable to Kashmir as in the case of East Timor. 1949. Regarding the charge of a western religious bias against Kashmiris. In the light of the foregoing. Examples are galore. what they forgot is that at least since the adoption of the 1970 Declaration the right of self-determination is applicable to people fighting for their freedom within the confines of an independent sovereign state. “Those who reject the analogy between East Timor and Kashmir obviously have the decolonisation context of the former in mind. If religion does not explain the western rejection of the analogy between East Timor and Kashmir. in addition to the on-going freedom struggle by the Kashmiris. there is no difference between the two cases. this right is applicable to the case of Kashmir with greater force than the East Timor on the basis of not only the aforementioned 1970 Declaration but also the relevant UN resolutions. while understandably paying lip-service to the idea of preservation of the territorial integrity of states. and January 5. which specifically recognise this right in favour of Kashmiris and which were accepted as an “international agreement” by the Indian government. 1948. was backed by the Christian West for reasons other than religion. among other things. which. their political status. In fact. Consequently. it is applicable to Kashmir even more than to East Timor because of the existence of the UN resolutions. then what does? The explanation lies in the fact that the West does not want to offend India because of the enormous potential economic dividends that it . The International Commission of Jurists has described the Declaration as “the most authoritative statement of the principles of international law relevant to the questions of self-determination and territorial integrity. economic and security considerations than by religious considerations. at the same time proclaimed that all peoples have the right freely to determine. when occupied by the Soviet Union in the 1980s. However.

1942. and “to achieve international cooperation in solving . suggested by Roosevelt. signed on January 1. at a conference held on a warship off the coast of Newfoundland. Members are pledged to fulfil the obligations they have assumed. cultural. representatives of the . United Nations (UN) International organization of nation-states. DEVELOPMENT OF THE UN: The United Nations is usually considered the successor to the League of Nations. Kashmir is East Timor. The western attitude in the matter only shows how selective it is in the application of the right of selfdetermination. to assist the UN in actions ordered under the charter and to refrain from assisting any country against which such UN action is being taken. the international organization formed after World War I to serve many of the same purposes.. Origins: The first commitment to establish a new international organization was made in the Atlantic Charter. to refrain from the threat or use of force. Under its charter. The fact however remains that despite the western rejection of the analogy between the two situations for reasons of expediency. social. to settle international disputes by peaceful means. They pledged to establish a “wider and permanent system of general security” and expressed their desire “to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field”. The league. the UN was established “to maintain international peace and security”. On October 30. In this document the term United Nations. economic. signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain on August 14. 1941. however.. Direct action to form the new organization was taken at a 1943 conference in Moscow. by representatives of 26 allied nations that were fighting against the Axis powers during World War II. “to develop friendly relations among nations”. was first used formally. and to act according to the charter's principles. The principles of the Atlantic Charter were more widely accepted in the Declaration by United Nations.24 offers and for the reason that it wants to build up India as a counterweight to China. or humanitarian [problems]” and in “encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms”. based on the sovereign equality of its members. failed to maintain peace and grew progressively weaker in the years just before World War II.

completed in mid-1952. includes . it became effective on October 24. the allied leaders called for a conference of United Nations to prepare the charter of the new organization. and Stalin met for the last of their wartime negotiating summits. Delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco on April 25. they completed a charter consisting of 111 articles. At the same time. New York. Churchill. but they could not agree on a method of voting in the proposed Security Council. and methods of operation. Meeting in Tehrân a month later. for what was officially known as the United Nations Conference on International Organization. which was to have the major responsibility for peace and security. based on the draft developed at Dumbarton Oaks.25 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The voting issue was settled at the Yalta conference in February 1945. structure. The bonds of the wartime alliance against common enemies undoubtedly hastened agreement on establishing the new organization. 1945.. The complex. Headquarters: On December 10. but retained the right of veto on substantive issues. China. Great Britain. when Roosevelt. in the autumn of 1944. the Soviet leader accepted the Anglo-American position that limited greatpower prerogatives on procedural matters. Churchill. The charter was approved on June 25 and signed the next day. to work out a series of proposals for an international organization. Roosevelt. and the United States signed a declaration in which they recognized the need to establish “at the earliest practicable date a general international organization”. representatives of the four powers met at the Dumbarton Oaks estate in Washington. 1945. after ratification by a majority of the signatories. Essentially. The organization accepted and in August 1946 moved to a temporary location in Lake Success. The site was granted a measure of extraterritoriality under an agreement between the United States and the UN. During a two-month period. and plans for a permanent headquarters were drawn up. banish the scourge and terror of war”. and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin reaffirmed “the supreme responsibility resting upon us and all the United Nations to make a peace which will .. They agreed on a draft charter that specified its purposes. the United States Congress invited the UN to establish its headquarters in the United States. Following up on the Moscow declaration.C. D.. 1945. Later that year a site was purchased bordering the East River in Manhattan.

Nonpermanent members serve . Germany. All member states are represented in the General Assembly. The Security Council. and old ones removed (e. which is the main deliberative body of the UN. the Economic and Social Council. the General Assembly voted to seat the delegation from the People's Republic of China in its stead. is the UN's central organ for maintaining peace. mainly with the admission of many new African and Asian countries that had been European colonies. permits the assembly to establish agencies and programmes to carry out its recommendations. and the Dag Hammarskjöld Library. Russia. the Trusteeship Council. the International Court of Justice. but to date no substantive revision has been made. however. and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). however. The assembly has no enforcement authority. Membership: Under the charter. which is in continuous session. Japan). New members are admitted by a two-thirds vote of the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. Organization: The charter established six principal UN organs: the General Assembly. the Secretariat Building. The General Assembly meets annually in regular sessions and in special sessions at the request of a majority of its members or of the Security Council. Britain) to reflect the changing balance of world power. France. among the most important of these are the following: the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). with the addition of Poland. the Conference Building. UN membership is open to all “peace-loving” states that accept the obligations of the organization. membership has increased more than threefold. in October of that year. the UN had 184 members. its resolutions are recommendations to member states that carry the political and moral force of majority approval but lack power of direct implementation. Periodically proposals have been made for new permanent members to be added (e. and the Secretariat. The 50 nations that attended the San Francisco conference. and the United States—have been accorded permanent seats. Great Britain. France. of which 5—China. The charter. became founding members of the UN. Until 1971 China was represented by a delegation from the Nationalist government of Taiwan.g.g. The council has 15 members. the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). As of May 1994. the Security Council.26 the General Assembly Hall. Since 1945.

or the specialized agencies. who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. and all of the dependencies had achieved either full sovereignty or self-government as part of a larger state. and the International Labour Organization (ILO). The body is headed by the secretary-general. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). including the concurring votes of the permanent members on substantive issues. Kurt Waldheim (Austria). . ECOSOC's functions are limited because each specialized agency is organized separately and is governed by its own constitution and elected bodies. The court hears cases referred to it by UN members. The Trusteeship Council originally was responsible for supervising 11 territories placed under international trust at the end of World War II. situated in The Hague. the agencies submit annual reports to ECOSOC. The International Court of Justice. the Netherlands. with five new members elected by the General Assembly every year. Other colonial questions have been transferred to the General Assembly and special subsidiary bodies.27 for two years. When asked to do so by the UN. Fifteen judges sit as members of the court. 1961-1971. U Thant (Burma). The UN and the specialized agencies together are called the United Nations System. the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Since the founding of the UN seven secretaries-general have held office: Trygve Lie (Norway). its principal organs. Decisions of the council require nine votes. The Secretariat serves the other UN organs and carries out the programmes and policies of the organization. 1972-1981. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). which meets annually. they are elected for 9-year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council. The remaining trusteeship. the United Nations Educational. 1953-1961. and the Trusteeship Council ceased to exist. ECOSOC coordinates the economic and social activities of the UN and its specialized agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO). became an independent republic in 1994. the Palau Islands. By the early 1990s all of the original trust territories had been dissolved. has 54 members. who retain the right to decide whether they will accept the court's ruling as binding. the International Court of Justice may also render advisory opinions. Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden). 18 members are elected each year by the General Assembly for 3-year terms. 1946-1953. is the judicial body of the UN. In practice. This rule of “great-power unanimity” does not apply to procedural matters.

the council may delegate representatives or set up special committees to investigate disputes and recommend means of settlement. including the United States and the USSR. Only the regular budget. When the council determines that a dispute threatens peace. This is the only place where the charter authorizes enforcement action. Under the 1990 and 1991 schedule. only 15 countries contributed more than 1 per cent. 1992-1996. and thus emphasizes the significance of the great-power veto on important issues. Germany. arbitration. In the mid-1980s the UN underwent a serious financial crisis. Finally. Financing: The UN's operating costs are met by contributions from member states in accordance with a schedule of assessments approved by the General Assembly. The largest contributors were the United States (25 per cent) and the former USSR (10 per cent). The UN Charter places less emphasis on . For the 1990 and 1991 period.1 billion. THE UN AND PEACE AND SECURITY: Under the charter. inquiry. most members paid less than 1 per cent of the budget. In carrying out this responsibility. with the General Assembly retaining only residual authority. is covered by fixed assessments. only Japan. Great Britain. enforce its recommendations. either by non-military means. withheld part of their contributions due to national fiscal problems and dissatisfaction with certain aspects of the UN system. Italy. the Security Council is responsible for formulating plans “for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments”. under Article 26. Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt). the regular budget appropriations totalled more than US$2. mediation. France. 1982-1991. such as economic or diplomatic sanctions. and Kofi Annan (Ghana). however. and Canada contributed more than 2 per cent. under Articles 39-51. Military action is also subject to the availability of armed forces. special programmes such as UNICEF and the UNDP are usually financed through voluntary contributions. Many member states. Articles 33-38 of the charter authorize the Security Council to encourage disputing nations to settle their differences through peaceful means. beginning in 1997. a condition that has been difficult to fulfill.28 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (Peru). the Security Council is primarily responsible for matters of peace and security. and judicial settlement. or by the use of military forces. conciliation. including negotiations. constituting ongoing activities under the charter. Of the other members. Such action is subject to the concurring votes of the five permanent council members. it may.

The USSR. The United States presented a comprehensive plan for international control of atomic energy. and the world entered into the period of the Cold War. for example. many world leaders concluded that peace could be achieved only through the cooperation of the major powers acting. as the world's “policemen”. which began in 1946. composition. Again. Under Article 43 of the charter. the British providing naval units. and the Soviets sending land troops. and stationing of military forces. As the interests of the United States and the USSR clashed. The USSR insisted that the United States destroy all existing nuclear weapons immediately and objected to any international inspection as an infringement on national sovereignty. the differences between the two nations proved irreconcilable. with the Americans. with each country providing equal numbers of troops across the board. Negotiations. The commission's mandate was to develop a system to control atomic energy and limit it to peaceful uses. A similar stalemate soon developed in the UN Atomic Energy Commission. the ability of the UN to maintain peace was limited. it was able to bring about the settlement of disputes. soon became deadlocked on questions of the size. in fact. the Security Council was to negotiate agreements with member states to provide military units that could enforce its decisions. argued for “equality”. as Roosevelt put it. These differences were never settled. The United States proposed that each permanent council member provide specialized troops. never been implemented. however. as enforcement action cannot be taken against the will of any country that holds a permanent seat on the council. political cooperation among the major powers—and especially between the United States and the USSR—broke down. however.29 international arms control and disarmament as means of achieving peace than did the League of Nations Covenant. Shortly after World War II and the establishment of the UN. . including an agreement to dispose of its own nuclear weapons and facilities once an international system for inspection became operative. Because of events between the two world wars. The original intentions of the charter have. it also explains why the charter has been called a system of “limited” collective security. This idea is incorporated in the requirement for great-power unanimity. 1946. The Security Council was not completely stalled. offering air force units. created by the first resolution passed by the General Assembly on January 24.

When North Korean forces attacked the South on June 25. In 1950. Korea. the council established a UN command under US auspices and asked member nations to provide military units to assist in repelling the armed attack on the Republic of Korea. Because no previous agreements had been reached to provide military forces to the UN. especially the United States and the USSR. the USSR took a “strict” interpretation. The United States responded that the issue had been decided with the agreement of those permanent members who were present and voting. The first was the USSR's absence from the Security Council. despite the defeat of the Nationalists and the establishment of a Communist government on the mainland. each motivated by political interests. composed of troops from 16 member nations and the Republic of Korea. was divided after World War II at the 38th parallel in the Korean Peninsula. In this argument. and the United States a “broad” interpretation. In two other resolutions. Two elements of the Korean case were unusual. however. strong differences arose among the great powers when forces from North Korea attacked South Korea. the Security Council took ad hoc action by asking the United States to use its already . a United States military command. another in that same year concerned ending the Six-Day War in 1967. in effect. When the Soviet delegate returned to the council in July. in situations in which the interests of the permanent members. which had been under Japanese control since 1905. the Security Council declared the attack a breach of the peace and called for withdrawal of North Korean troops north of the 38th parallel. UN efforts to unify Korea through nationwide free elections failed. One such case involved the withdrawal of the Dutch from Indonesia in 1949. Six months earlier.30 largely through mediation and good offices. converged. of the charter's provisions. the Soviet representative had left the council in protest against the continued presence of the Nationalist Chinese delegate in the seat designated for China. 1950. he declared the Korean action illegal because it was undertaken without the agreement of all the permanent council members. Separate governments were formed—the one in the north sponsored by the USSR and the other by the United States. The USSR thus was not present to veto the council's actions against the Soviet-sponsored North Korean regime. precipitating the Korean War. A second unusual element in the Korean case was the establishment of a UN command that was.

000 troops by early 1993. In 1991 North Korea and South Korea were admitted to the UN. One major consequence of the Korean conflict was the “Uniting for Peace” resolution.31 established military structure as the base for UN action. 1953. 1950. UN-sponsored forces have been especially active in areas where decolonization has led to instability. The conflict continued for more than three years. where civil war among Serbs. and Muslims in the republics of Croatia and Bosnia has left tens of thousands of people dead and millions . After the USSR returned to the Security Council. In 1992 the UN began a major operation in Somalia. More than 40 years later. adopted on November 3. In Africa a force was maintained in the Congo (now Zaïre) from 1960 to 1964. where the UN monitored elections. the country is still divided despite acceptance by both sides of the principle of reunification. In response. the withdrawal of the former colonial power left a political vacuum. South Africa. peacekeeping missions have been sent to Angola. Two other major areas of UN involvement in the early 1990s were Cambodia. providing time and opportunity for negotiation. In 1988 the peacekeeping forces were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. on July 27. and to keep local conflicts from spreading over an entire region. UN peacekeeping operations have been carried out in the Middle East since 1956 and in Cyprus since 1964. and a struggle for domination ensued. This “Uniting for Peace” resolution. Croats. to provide protection for humanitarian operations— particularly food deliveries to areas of famine. made explicit an expansion of General Assembly authority in matters of peace and security. involving about 30. Otherwise. an armistice was signed. In many cases. the UN would have been unable to act quickly and expeditiously. since then. and Mozambique. Western Sahara. The Korean question has remained on the General Assembly agenda. and the former Yugoslavia. UN Peacekeeping Forces: Since the early 1950s the UN role in maintaining peace and security around the world has expanded. the UN developed a strategy of what Secretary-General Hammarskjöld called “preventive diplomacy”—the deployment of peacekeeping forces with two main purposes: to separate antagonists. the United States presented to the General Assembly a resolution authorizing the assembly to consider cases that threaten peace when a veto has prevented council action. Resolutions have been passed urging the two sides to replace the long armistice with a stable peace.

With the end of the cold war. and by March 1957 arrangements had been made for the withdrawal of Israeli troops. By late December. Lebanon. and Syria. evoking concern in Great Britain and France that the canal might be closed to their shipping. created in accordance with a UN plan that partitioned Palestine into two separate states. on the one hand. The Middle East had been an area of bitter rivalries since 1948. which was vital for Israeli shipping. British and French forces had withdrawn from Egypt. forcing Egyptian soldiers back to the Suez Canal. when Israel moved troops into the Sinai Peninsula. Jordan. 1956.32 homeless. in a series of resolutions. negotiated a series of armistice agreements between Israel. Earlier that year. when hostilities broke out between the Arab countries in the region and the new nation of Israel. British and French troops had prominent roles in the former Yugoslavia. Britain and France also vetoed a Security Council resolution that called on Israel to withdraw its forces behind the 1949 armistice line. and near the Strait of Tiran to monitor passage into the Gulf of Aqaba. and a large US force was initially sent to pacify Somalia. The first UN peacekeeping force was organized in the Middle East in response to the Suez crisis of 1956. the great powers were excluded from UN peacekeeping forces. and by February 1957 some 6. 1956.000 troops from ten member states were positioned in three zones: along the frontier between Egypt and Israel. on the other. in the Gaza Strip. acting under the authority of the Security Council. Fighting broke out again on October 29. urged an end to hostilities and set up a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) to supervise compliance by all parties. Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser had nationalized the canal. A United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) was formed to help the parties supervise the terms of the agreements. . preventing them from advancing their own interests under cover of the UN flag. In 1949 a UN mediator. for a time the region remained in a state of uneasy truce. landing forces in the Suez Canal area. Under the rules originally formulated by Hammarskjöld. and Egypt. In 1992 a contingent of Japanese troops joined the Cambodian operation. Under the authority of the “Uniting for Peace” resolution. The Middle East situation was complicated greatly when the British and the French attacked Egypt on October 31. one Jewish and one Arab. the General Assembly. The first UNEF unit arrived in Egypt on November 15.

and Syria struck against those along the Golan Heights. a new peacekeeping force. the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries. and on June 5 Israel launched what became known as the Six-Day War. sporadic fighting continued until June.000 troops from ten countries. In the Sinai. . 1979. In the north. The region was a stronghold of Palestinian commando bases until the Israeli invasion of June 1982. signed a formal peace treaty providing for a phased Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai. a coordinated attack on all fronts to secure stronger defensive positions along its borders. setting down a series of principles for securing peace in the region. Yet another peacekeeping force was set up in March 1978 to help stabilize the situation in southern Lebanon after Israeli forces crossed the border to retaliate against a Palestinian raid. Since 1974 the Middle East has been an annual item on the UN agenda. its mandate was permitted to lapse on July 24. along the Golan Heights. By June 10 Israel occupied the Sinai and the Gaza Strip. and both UNDOF and UNIFIL were still operating in the 1990s. when a United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) was put into place. the sources of the Arab-Israeli conflict remained unchanged. Withdrawal of Israel from the Sinai led to the discontinuation of UNEF II.33 In May 1967 UNEF was withdrawn at the request of Egypt. Hostilities broke out once again in October 1973. Egypt and Israel. through US mediation. Southern Lebanon remained turbulent. UNTSO observers continued to function between Egypt and Israel under the terms of the 1949 agreement. after calling for a ceasefire. was set up to patrol a buffer zone between Israeli and Egyptian troops. when Egypt attacked Israeli positions in the Sinai. Efforts outside the UN to seek a broader settlement achieved some success when. The Security Council on November 22 unanimously approved Resolution 242. The Security Council. A United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was established with 6. again urged the parties to seek a broader settlement of their dispute by implementing Resolution 242. in March 1979. However. By March 1974 both sides had disengaged. and a general framework for extending the peace process to other Arab states. and part of the Golan Heights on the Syrian border. the resolution proposed that Israel withdraw from the occupied territories in return for recognition of its independence by the Arab states and the establishment of secure borders. the territory on the West Bank of the River Jordan. UNEF II. In essence.

In 1993 leaders of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization signed a peace agreement calling for the Palestinians to gradually assume responsibility for civil administration of the occupied lands. 1990. authorized member states to use “all necessary means” to expel Iraq from Kuwait if Iraq had not already withdrawn by January 15. The first major operation in Africa began in 1960 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (now Zaïre) shortly after it became independent of Belgium. a UN peacekeeping force moved in to monitor a demilitarized zone along the Iraq-Kuwait border. Iraq called for an international peace conference to consider a broad range of regional conflicts. A mutiny among Congolese troops led to a breakdown in public order. Further UN presence was called on in northern Iraq to protect Kurds who had rebelled against the regime of Saddam Hussein. and their representatives were given opportunities to bring their case to the world forum. After the US-led coalition in the Gulf War quickly defeated Iraq and restored Kuwaiti independence. 1991. along with Palestinian guerrillas. Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on August 2. Israeli occupation of the Gaza Strip and of the territories on the West Bank of the River Jordan came under increasingly severe attack in both the Security Council and the General Assembly. Resolutions recognized the rights of the Palestinian Arabs. sanctioned the use of military force to ensure compliance with the embargo. The first stages of the agreement were implemented in 1994. including the IsraeliPalestinian dispute.34 subsequently. imposed an extensive embargo on commercial and financial dealings with Iraq and Iraqi-occupied Kuwait. Belgium quickly dispatched military forces to the area. In response. Expansion of Israeli settlements in the territories further complicated the problem. and. declared its independence. Israeli and Syrian forces remained in Lebanon. With authorization from the Security Council the secretary-general . A series of resolutions passed between August and November condemned the occupation and annexation of Kuwait. finally. the province of Katanga (now Shaba). Congolese President Joseph Kasavubu and Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba asked the UN for assistance. which began the Gulf War brought an immediate response from the Security Council. the United States and its allies insistently opposed such linkage. beginning with the Gaza Strip and Jericho area. at the same time. led by its premier Moise Tshombe.

The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has been stationed there since March 1964 to serve as a deterrent to open fighting between the Greek and Turkish communities. the nation descended into anarchy. at its peak. the Security Council recommended UN mediation and authorized the formation of a peacekeeping force. but in June. On February 21. by rebels in 1991. and food supplies had begun to reach most of the people. a clan leader. was much more complex. Within a month about 15. and to exercise military authority carefully for defensive purposes without launching offensive programmes. when Secretary-General Hammarskjöld was killed in an aeroplane crash while trying to bring about a ceasefire between the central government and Katanga. On March 4. and Mozambique were mostly observers. The UN undoubtedly helped the Congo to emerge as a united country. Muhammed Siad Barre. A heavy loss was incurred in 1961. Cyprus gained independence from Great Britain in 1960 under a constitution that sought to balance the rights and interests of the two ethnic groups in the population. however. But when 500 troops arrived in September.000 US troops were in Somalia. International famine-relief agencies found it increasingly difficult to operate. 1961. The mission to Somalia. The UN's task was complex: to help maintain order without even the appearance of taking sides. On December 3 the council voted to accept an offer from the United States to provide a large force to safeguard relief operations. The force reached . the Security Council authorized the UN troops to use force. the Greeks being heavily in the majority. In April 1992 the Security Council voted to establish an operation in Somalia. 23 Pakistani soldiers were killed by Somali rebels thought to be controlled by Mohammad Farrah Aidid. violence broke out between the two communities late in 1963. After the defeat of Somalia's longtime leader.35 organized an economic programme and an international peacekeeping force that. begun late in 1992. The UN peacekeepers in Western Sahara. totalled more than 20. After several failed missions. the United States and the UN re-emphasized attempts to reach a political solution. in an ambush.000 troops. After three years of relative peace. The UN took command of the operation from the United States in May 1993. The United States sent in reinforcements with the goal of capturing Aidid and pacifying his forces. and massive starvation was imminent. 1964. Angola. South Africa. they were unable to operate.

100 troops in the late 1980s. the northern region (occupied by Turkish forces) declared its independence. The declaration called on colonial regimes to submit reports on economic and social conditions in their territories. the secretary-general has continually been involved in discussions to negotiate a settlement between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. rather than the more limited Trusteeship Council.36 almost 7. A ceasefire was achieved by mid-August and was followed the next year by a transfer of more than 8. Providing peacekeeping forces in areas of conflict has been only one of the UN contributions to the process of decolonization. applying to all colonial territories. to become the central arena for colonial questions. A far-reaching commitment towards self-government nonetheless emerged in Article 73 of the charter. which increasingly acted as an instrument of international accountability and pressured the colonial powers to hasten the granting of independence. a committee was set up by the assembly to review those reports. but has been progressively reduced. but it permitted the broadly based General Assembly. following the lines of the League of Nations mandates. Article 73 was only a statement of long-range intent. In recent years. Meanwhile.000 Turkish Cypriots to the Turkishcontrolled north of the island with the assistance of UNFICYP. which constituted a Declaration Regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories and was universal in scope.000 later that year. was limited to the former colonies of ex-enemy states and to former league mandates that had not reached selfgovernment. Since then UNFICYP has patrolled a strip separating the northern sector from the Greek sector in the south. and UNFICYP personnel continued to serve as a barrier between the two sides. In late 1983. . As early as 1946. The UN trusteeship system. when Turkey intervened in support of the Turkish Cypriots after a change of government threatened to shift the constitutional balance in favour of those Greek Cypriots who desired union with Greece. these discussions have focused on guidelines necessary to bring about a bizonal state and guarantee the security of the Turkish Cypriot community. with the talks still stalemated. it grew into a permanent Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories. An early proposal to place all colonial territories under UN trusteeship was opposed by the colonial powers. The most difficult period occurred in 1974. numbering some 2. The UN refused to recognize the new Turkish Cypriot state.

With or without the UN. by the end of 1975. however. arguing that its “overseas provinces” were part of Portugal itself and thus could not be subject to international regulation. The UN. social or educational preparedness should never serve as a pretext for delaying independence”. The 1960 declaration asserts that colonialism “constitutes a denial of fundamental human rights” and that “inadequacy of political. concluded that Portugal's relationship with its territories was colonial in nature. and even the original Article 73. was based on the idea that self-government was a limited and longrange objective. economic. could be mobilized for a common cause. A special committee.37 With the addition of newly independent states as members of the UN by 1960. The trusteeship system. the old colonial empires were doomed to break up. From the time it joined the UN in 1955. The UN also provided a forum to deal with colonial questions. They have included several issues involving the former Portugueseadministered territories. independence has been identified as an immediate right of all peoples and international support of the struggle for self-determination has been organized. it affirmed the rights of the people in the territories to self-determination. Through the General Assembly. the process had already begun by the end of World War II. Portuguese policies changed only after a revolutionary upheaval in Portugal itself. Portugal refused to comply with Article 73 and submit information about its territories. In August 1974 the new Portuguese government began a process that. and the policy of apartheid (racial segregation) enforced by the South African government from 1948 to 1991. led to the independence of its territories: Guinea-Bissau on September . Throughout the 1960s both the Security Council and the General Assembly condemned Portugal for repressive acts against the liberation groups that had emerged in all the territories. provided an organized structure in which opposition to colonialism could be energized and in which new nations. conflict with South Africa over the former mandate of South West Africa (now Namibia). now dominated by a majority of formerly colonized states. The problems of decolonization in southern Africa have had a particularly long history of controversy in the UN. the efforts of the white majority to retain control in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). set up in 1960. a broad majority in the assembly voted to expand the objectives of Article 73 through a new Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. emerging from colonialism.

in cooperation with key African governments. was able to withstand both internal and external pressures until 1980. The British had earlier resisted pressures to grant independence to the territory until a broadly based government could be established. The process of decolonization in Namibia. 1980. On April 17. In 1950 the International Court of Justice determined that South Africa had an obligation to submit reports to the UN. and Angola on November 11. Mozambique on June 25. The assembly also supported liberation groups organized to resist the minority regime and recommended that they be given material assistance by UN agencies. 1974.38 10. when. negotiations with South Africa were based on Security Council Resolution 385. São Tomé and Príncipe on July 12. after a long struggle and a period of complex political transition. was not completed until 1990. largely supported by South Africa. Southern Rhodesia became an independent nation as the Republic of Zimbabwe. The court. In 1965 the white minority government of Southern Rhodesia. and through the secretary-general and the UN special representative for Namibia. The minority regime. formerly South West Africa. Cape Verde on July 5. the Security Council voted mandatory economic sanctions aimed at cutting off Southern Rhodesia's trade and communications. Originally a German colony. a new government. issued a “unilateral declaration of independence” from Great Britain. In 1971 the court ruled that the continued presence of South Africa in the territory was illegal because a General Assembly resolution in 1966 had terminated its mandate. South West Africa was mandated to the Union (now Republic) of South Africa after World War I. ruled by the black majority. and. turning over the administration of the territory to a UN Council for South West Africa (subsequently named the Council for Namibia) the following year. These negotiations were complicated by open fighting between the . The white minority government was immediately condemned by the General Assembly. Following World War II South Africa chose to maintain the status quo rather than administer the territory under the trusteeship system and refused to allow UN surveillance over its administration. Negotiations to prepare for elections were carried out through a group of five Western nations. already under limited self-rule. declared the application of apartheid policies in Namibia illegal. took office. in 1975. in 1962. In a series of subsequent resolutions. During the late 1970s and the 1980s. calling for UNsupervised elections in the territory.

Although South Africa remained a member of the UN. The problem of apartheid was on the UN agenda from the time it was propagated by the South African government in 1948 as an official policy. 1990. including the right to vote. In 1977 the Security Council established a mandatory arms embargo on South Africa. Open elections for a constituent assembly were held under UN supervision in November 1989. The conditions for settlement.39 South African government and liberation groups and by disagreement over the role to be played by the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO). were related to South African determination to maintain its discriminatory policies of apartheid within its own borders despite condemnation from the world community and the bitter antagonism of the black states of Africa. and in October the UN voted to lift all sanctions. and Namibia attained independence on March 21. most of which have gained their independence since 1960. as well as on the nation itself. but blacks still lacked political rights. The assembly also recommended that South Africa be excluded from all international organizations and conferences. In December 1988. The UN provided a world forum to put pressure on those countries that continued to have diplomatic and economic relations with South Africa. It was consistently condemned as a crime against humanity despite the South African argument that it was a domestic matter and therefore outside UN jurisdiction. a black African nationalist group. unifying issue for the black African states. and . By the end of 1991 the legal basis of apartheid had been abolished. thus barring its participation in the General Assembly. the single largest regional voting group in the UN. These efforts to ostracize the nation in order to bring about desired changes were centred in the UN Special Committee Against Apartheid. The attack on apartheid was a central. By 1993 blacks and whites were meeting to negotiate a new constitution. however. and the General Assembly later called for wider economic sanctions. South Africa held its first democratic elections in which blacks could vote in April 1994. since 1970 its delegations' credentials were not accepted. South African Apartheid The end of the Portuguese Empire and the emergence of Zimbabwe created pressures on South Africa to settle the Namibia question. South Africa formally agreed to allow Namibia to become independent in a compromise that also included the removal of Cuban troops from Angola. which coordinated worldwide efforts against the discriminatory policy.

The IMF permits UN members to support the value of their currencies by covering temporary deficits in their balance of payments. and Human Rights commissions. Third. Funding and Development: The first development programme in the UN was a modestly funded programme of technical assistance. largely on the initiative of Asian and Middle Eastern member states. First. Second.40 African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela was elected as the country's first black president. WHO. when most new nations have requested large-scale economic and social assistance. Population. created to carry out specific responsibilities approved by the General Assembly. In turn. a UN committee proposed a Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development (SUNFED) to provide grants-in-aid and low-interest loans to supplement the limited. THE UN AND TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT: The UN has frequently been involved in the difficult early stages of political independence. In 1952. The financial institutions—the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD. part of the World Bank group)—are responsible for making loans to member states. Economic and social activities now constitute the most extensive part of the UN's work. The economic activities also must be seen as part of the entire UN System. The functional agencies—such as UNESCO. relatively high-interest loans available through the World Bank. The World Bank helps to finance long-range development projects. information and investigatory services are provided by a staff and special study groups. including standing bodies of ECOSOC such as the Statistical. more than 85 per cent of the budget and staff are devoted to activities that fall into three broad categories. the UN is responsible for operating programmes such as UNDP and UNICEF and for subsidiary organs such as UNCTAD. to support both ECOSOC and the General Assembly. the ECOSOC serves as a forum for broad discussions of economic and social problems and for coordination of the UN programmes and those of the specialized agencies. The SUNFED proposal was rejected by the industrialized countries whose financial contributions . and the FAO—are responsible for international cooperation and technical assistance in their fields of expertise. including subsidiary organs and committees and the specialized agencies. established in 1949. the specialized agencies can be divided into two groups.

In 1959 a Special Fund was created as a limited version of the SUNFED proposal. UNDP projects form part of 3. the International Development Association (IDA) was established in 1960 as an affiliate of the World Bank. The projects are then usually executed by other departments of the UN or by the specialized agencies. in the financial institutions. This is one of the main points of contention between the two groups. or other sources. Thus. IDA. The UN proceeds on the basis of one nation. The Special Fund was restricted to relatively small preinvestment grants to be used in the first stage of larger projects that might later become eligible for more extensive funding from the World Bank. The industrialized countries preferred to provide aid through the mechanism of the World Bank because of the difference in voting procedures between the UN and the financial institutions. retain a voting majority. In response to the increasing financial needs of developing nations. operational. mainly was to provide long-term. By the mid-1980s. In 1966 the Special Fund and the earlier technical assistance programme were combined into the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It operates under a governing council composed of representatives of 48 member states (21 industrialized and 27 developing countries). one vote. Third World countries have sought to shift greater authority for development financing from the World Bank and the IMF to the UN. and coordinating functions. however. UNDP is an example of an agency that handles funding.41 were essential for its success. lowinterest loans. educational projects. for example. as the major contributors. however. the industrial countries. voting is weighted by monetary contributions. As countries in Asia and Africa have gained political independence. UNDP was carrying out more than 5. a move that the major powers have opposed. developing nations have been increasingly able to wield majority control in the UN.to 5year “country programmes” that are drawn up by recipient countries in connection with their national development plans. which meets twice a year to approve new projects. Since the 1960s the General Assembly has tried to give greater direction to development programmes by establishing goals and procedures in a series of so-called development decades for the . will be executed by UNESCO and health projects by WHO. in the financial institutions. particularly in the General Assembly.000 projects funded through voluntary contributions from member states.

At the same time. A major goal of these resolutions has been to increase the amount of development funding available from all sources. In this “North-South” dialogue over world economic relations. and Latin America. In negotiations within UNCTAD or in the General Assembly. and 1980s. the purpose of which is to promote international trade. By the early 1960s the connection was widely accepted by the developing countries that took the initiative in the General Assembly for establishing UNCTAD in 1964. which meets once every four years in a general conference. for their economic growth. but also through the development of markets for their share of world exports under improved terms of trade”. Just before the first session of UNCTAD. All UN members belong to UNCTAD. UN development programmes are part of a much wider network of assistance that also includes regional and nationally organized programmes. through savings and foreign earnings. the General Assembly passed a broadly conceived resolution to serve as a set of guidelines for the 10-year period. saying that “International trade could become a more powerful instrument . the USSR . developing countries must still supply most of the capital. . For each decade. especially in order to accelerate development in the countries of Asia. the industrialized states with market economies. the Afro-Asian and Latin American countries traditionally constituted the “South” in contending with the position taken by the industrialized market economies of the “North”. 1970s. UNCTAD is a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly. Besides the staff. . the permanent machinery includes a Trade and Development Board made up of members proportionally representing four groups of states: the Afro-Asian group. and the republics of Eastern Europe and the former USSR. Africa. Therefore. of economic development not only through the expansion of the traditional exports of the developing countries. 77 developing nations issued a statement of goals. The relation between development assistance and trade was particularly emphasized in the work carried out in the UN Economic Commission for Latin America in the 1950s. development assistance has been increasingly related to general conditions in the world economy —especially those conditions under which developing nations engage in foreign trade and earn foreign capital from exporting raw materials and manufactured goods. Latin American countries.42 1960s.

the USSR generally argued that the state of the world economy was the result of earlier imperialist conditions. the Common Fund has not been financed. or coffee. more political attack on the structure of the world economy by calling for a new international economic order. it was the Western powers' responsibility to compensate for the exploitation of their former colonies. can drastically reduce the foreign earnings of countries for which these might be the sole exportable commodities. which are only in an early stage of industrialization. have changed with the collapse of European Communism and accelerating economic development in certain areas of the “South”. Consistent with Communist ideology. however. The terms of this debate. The New International Economic Order The elements of a new order were spelled out in resolutions passed during two special . Related to the IPC. and governments in many industrialized nations have been increasingly reluctant to allow imports on a preferential basis that would compete with the products of their own industries.43 and its allies participated only marginally. and its protagonists. a condition that places developing nations. The first is the Integrated Programme for Commodities (IPC). copper. Sudden drops in the world prices of tin. operate on the basis of reciprocal tariff reductions. The world's major trading nations have generally lowered tariffs over the years through arrangements worked out under the auspices of theGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). another reform is the establishment of a Common Fund to be used to finance stocks of such commodities so that the world supply can also be regulated to avoid fluctuations in prices. Agreements on individual commodities have provided no assurance of stable prices. actual implementation of these measures has been delayed. These. thus. In response. the developing countries have launched a bolder. Although the position of the major powers on the UNCTAD proposals has shifted over the years from complete rejection to a reluctant acceptance in principle. which involves the negotiation of agreements to ensure stable prices for primary commodities exported by developing nations. UNCTAD also advocates a lessening of protectionist measures directed against exports of manufactured products from developing countries. for example. at a disadvantage. Since 1964 UNCTAD activities have largely focused on reforms of the world economy that would enhance the position of developing countries.

. when the United States suffered a series of deficits in balance of payments. and a gradual shifting of the pattern of exchange to reflect more fully the interdependence of nations. protection of their resources through international codes governing the conduct of multinational corporations.44 sessions of the General Assembly in 1974 and 1975. The resolutions were preceded. The other aims of the NIEO for developing nations include greater self-sufficiency. especially technologically advanced items. taken as a whole. severely weakening its own economy and those of its major trading partners. and South America that controlled a resource critical to the highly industrialized economies. especially in the Western market economies and Japan. a historic period of growth had occurred in the world economy. The first change was a general deterioration of the world economy beginning in the late 1960s and continuing into the 1970s. This recession also affected the developing countries that depended on the Western nations not only for development assistance but also as markets for their exports and sources of finished goods. by two profound changes in economic conditions. an increased share of world trade and level of industrialization. fuller participation in the IMF and World Bank. From the end of World War II until the mid-1960s. The success of OPEC gave developing nations the incentive to demand a restructuring of economic relations in which they could gain greater influence over the rules governing international trade. The New International Economic Order (NIEO) is embodied in four General Assembly resolutions that. Africa. The rate of growth began to slacken by the end of the 1960s. however. or OPEC. as well as its capability to dominate the world economy. with the drastic rise in oil prices initiated by the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. under US leadership. Their dependence on this vital resource was dramatized by the price hike at the very time when the structure of economic relations among the industrialized nations was changing. incorporate the goal of the development decades to increase the level of financial assistance with the UNCTAD programme for stabilizing commodity prices and opening new markets to developing countries. OPEC represents the world's major producers of petroleum—a group of developing countries from the Middle East. First created in 1960. A second change began in 1973.

THE ROLE OF THE UN: The UN today is both more and less than its founders anticipated. as the main forum for negotiation on financial matters. The International Atomic Energy Agency has helped to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons by inspecting nuclear installations to monitor their use. The UN also established several committees on disarmament and was involved in negotiating treaties to ban nuclear weapons in outer space and the development of biological weapons. the rivalry between the United States and the USSR exposed the weakness of great-power unanimity in matters of peace and security. in many areas. was able to fill. such as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963). however. It is less because. and the special session ended with no concrete results. It is more because the rapid breakup of colonial empires from the 1940s to the 1970s created a void in the structure of international relations that the UN. Through its peacekeeping operations. giving them . Beyond providing peacekeeping forces. including the use of the UN. as opposed to the IMF and World Bank. the UN helped ease East-West tensions. In 1980 the General Assembly voted to convene another special session to review progress towards the NIEO and prepare for a new set of global negotiations on economic issues. the UN has played a wider role in the transition to statehood in a few critical areas. the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1968). the assembly could not agree on an agenda and procedures for a global conference. Substantial differences remain on procedural issues. The relevance of the whole NIED programme is also now subject to review with many Third World nations in the Pacific Rim and Latin America developing at speed in the 1990s and a general shift in economic thinking in favour of the free market as a motor for development. it was able to insulate certain areas of tension from direct great-power intervention. Major arms-control measures.45 The NIEO represents a long-range set of so-called Third World aspirations that challenge the more established interests of the industrialized nations. After almost a year of preliminary discussions. for example. Even during the period of superpower rivalry. from the close of World War II to the end of the 1980s. and the Strategic Arms Reduction treaties (START) of 1991 and 1993 were achieved through direct negotiations between the superpowers. It has been a major forum through which newly independent states have begun to participate in international relations. the Strategic Arms Limitation talks (SALT) of 1972 and 1979.

including the Conference on the Human Environment (1972). the Conference on Desertification (1977). The collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the USSR between 1989 and 1991 posed new challenges and opportunities for the UN. or Habitat (1976). How to pay for an expanded peacekeeping role and how to accommodate the increased political and economic influence of Germany and Japan were also challenges for the UN in the 1990s. the Conference on Human Settlements. the Yugoslav civil war and the ethnic conflicts within and between the former Soviet republics exemplified the threats to peace and stability presented by the breakup of the Communist world. and the Persian Gulf. and the World Summit for Children (1990). Western Sahara. the World Assembly on Ageing (1982). In 1992 more than 100 heads of state and government—the largest assemblage of national leaders in history—met in Rio de Janeiro for the Conference on Environment and Development. One problem facing the UN in the 1990s is the feeling in some Western nations that it has become an instrument of the developing countries and thus is no longer a viable forum for fruitful negotiations. the end of the rivalry between the United States and USSR enabled the UN to assume a more active role in seeking to resolve disputes in Cambodia.46 opportunities to represent their interests outside their immediate regions. On the other hand. Many global problems have been considered in a series of special UN-sponsored conferences. it is a very flexible instrument through which nations can cooperate to solve their mutual problems. Appointed by the secretary-general. the World Conference of the International Women's Year (1975). The United Nations is not a world government. the World Population Conference (1974). or Earth Summit. Whether they do cooperate and use the UN creatively depends on how both their governments and their peoples view relations with others and how they envision their place in the future of humankind. . the establishment of a new post—High Commissioner for Human Rights —was approved in 1993. and to escape the limited relationships of their earlier colonial connections. the commissioner would be responsible for monitoring worldwide respect for fundamental human rights. On the one hand. to join coalitions of nations with similar interests. rather. After more than 40 years of international discussion. the former Yugoslavia.

now the whole educational process is geared only for examinations. but for strikes. Hot action and excitement attract them. We are told that system fathered by Macaulay for sub-continent (before the division of British India) is absolutely out of tune for the present day needs of independent Pakistan. and serve as a disincentive to serious study. which is supposed to be a passport – often a fake one – to some employment. The courses are just time-fillers. for which any excuse is good enough. They are out to fight battles. that anything would be a change for the better. A former Chairman of the University Grants Commission said that education standards had touched such a rock bottom. unable to put their heart into class work. it inculcates neither initiative nor selfreliance in young boy sand girls. mediocre scholars score good marks and divisions. Almost daily the colleges and universities are getting into news not for research or scholastic achievements. For the last three decades. they go in for shortcuts. they treat them most casually. a status symbol and a doubtful investment for future gains. yet the moment any . Chief Executive General Pervez Musharraf has severely criticised the present system of education in his briefing to the students of a private institution. The main reason for youth’s rebelliousness is that the syllabi and text-books are hopelessly outdated. It is just a formality. like ‘sure shot’ guess papers and mass copying in the examination. Since the degree and not knowledge is the goal. Examinations were meant for education. their only aim is to get the label or the degree (by fair means or foul). Hardly any university or college in any part of the country has been totally free from this infection. But then no one had the inventiveness and originality to give us the shape of a new education that was expected to replace the old system. And though everyone advocated change. Granted. This education develops neither character nor discipline.47 Urgent Need For a New System of Education : Its Shape and Prospects There are no two opinions about the fact that the existing system of education is in shambles. The students are on the warpath. protest processions. Though these questionable means. The students find them pointless and irrelevant to the present needs and future requirements. Since the students feel that their books and instruction will not be of any use to them in later life. we have been hearing sermons on the need for a revolutionary changes and complete overhaul of the education system.

and (iii) to break this imbroglio of mass copying and completely outdated syllabuses and courses. stress will be on vocational subjects such as agriculture. It is called Basic Education which means ‘learning by doing’. It is a sin to give a purely literary education in Pakistan where 80% of population is agriculture and 10% industrial. So much activity would relieve tensions of adolescence and enable the pupil to be a productive and earning member of society immediately on leaving the school. G-3 Good. This part will consist of practise work only. No student will fail under this system. The first stage up to 10th class will impart general education. G-2 very good. out of which the pupil could choose one or more. for the guidance of the future employer: G-1 outstanding. A student may get G-5 in one subject but G-1 in his favourite subject or special field. He will be warded a Grade in each separate subject. depending on his inclination and local talent and market available. which would fix their own courses and hold their own examinations and award their own degrees. G-4 Fair and G-5 Poor. So we talked revolution and practised conservatism. They would be mini universities.48 real change was proposed. repair of electrical gadget. This ‘useless’ education (Cardinal Newman regarded this ‘uselessness’) as its greatest good point) was devised in England for the elite or sons of lords who just wanted to refine their intellect . something has to be done immediately and the government should embarked on the implementation of the new scheme. The stress should be on vocation train and fitting the pupil to earn his livelihood as soon as he leaves school. radio engineering. all the innate conservatism of the educational community came to the defence of the system. Take the school reorganisation first. The system of examination and evaluation is also to be changed. Only genuine students interested in academic (not politician-students) or the uninterested mass) should be admitted. dairy-farming and three dozen such topics. Numerous educational committees and conferences went into all these questions and thought their duty ended with the presentation of voluminous reports. During the next two years. autonomous colleges should be created. Since the situation is desperate. Its three chief features call for attention: (i) Schooling should last 12 years (10+2+3 scheme) and that should be the terminus for most students. which gathered cobwebs and which few read and the country was none the wiser for them. carpentry. (ii) Admissions to colleges and universities should be severely restricted. of which they themselves were such ‘worthy’ products.

Strikes and Lockouts – should they be banned? Strikes and work stoppage are the order of the day. The danger is that since 80% of education is imparted by non-governmental colleges and most of them flaunt caste and communal names. They may keep the interest of their community above that of education. but it should also seem to be done. This new education can help the poor rural masses or proletariat of Pakistan. The new system will teach our pupil innovation and resourcefulness and they will create self-employment where apparently no opportunities existed. money power and for caste and communal considerations. this proposal remained a non-starter. and grades. It will be recalled that university after university introduced internal assessment. Huge crowds in colleges and universities must be cut to size. C report says that at some universities. they may start giving easier courses and awarding high grades to help their community. G.49 and led no need of earning their bread in those feudal days. the failures are 70-80%. They don’t expect justice: justice should only be done. protest processions. Students have the impression that under this system marks and grades go according to personal favouritism. For this reason. Most of these students join only to fail. slogan-shouting. It is unrealistic to be blind to proven facts. Wellestablished colleges will receive that status. Another danger is that since students have little confidence in the impartiality of their teachers they oppose the internal assessment. The students may have jolly good time and leave with undeserved degrees. else they turn into a mob and commit anti-social acts like arson and violence under cover of anonymity. The next main feature is restricting entry to higher education. The U. pitched up with large union banners and sometime hunger-strikers. The Government of Pakistan should introduce this new system in all the Central Schools. On all sides we see factories. where their own teachers are examiners. They could prescribe or change their course with quick judgement and swiftness (in the universities such a process takes years) and hold their own examination or devise their own methods of continuous evaluation and internal assessment. There are . and each time it had withdrawn in the face of mounting student protests and opposition. colleges and universities intermittently closed. offices. That means that 80% of money spent on education just goes down to the drain. The third item relates to autonomous colleges.

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fasts unto death to have the demands conceded, though onlookers cast doubt on the genuineness of fasts; in any case, no hunger-striker has the intention of dying; it is a pressure tactic. Workers of water works struck work and Pakistan’s capital went thirsty; electricity workers go on strike in support of their ‘genuine’ demands and cities are plunged in darkness and wheels of industry stop impeding production. Hospital employees resort to strikes in support of their cause and the sick and the dying suffer grievously, though they have nothing to do with employer-employee dispute. In the factories, trade unions order strikes to extort more payments and privileges for their members. It seems that every section wants to earn more by the weapon of strike. No one wants to be kept out of the strike news. Buses go off the roads and thousands of passengers are stranded. For this chaotic state of affair, the government and administrations too are to be blamed. Workers have known from long and repeated experience that every demand, however, exaggerated or unreasonable, is surely accepted if pressed with a prolonged strike, violence and hooliganism; also no request however legitimate or just is ever bothered about, if presented only constitutionally by application or petition. Even employees who in their heart of hearts feel that their strike is morally wrong join it. For it will mean increased salary or more cash and more perks. Who would be a fool to miss such gains, only for the sake of a moral principal? The strikers want safety first. Strike means holiday at will, with full pay and allowanced. If strikers burn buses, stop trains, assault the black sheep and hold the community to ransom, no action must be taken against them, for these are trade union activities. If the police intervene to enforce law and order, there will be a loud clamour against ‘brutal’ lathi charge by the police and the demand for a judicial enquiry by a high court judge. If any lawbreakers are arrested for committing a crime, the first condition is that they must be released immediately and unconditionally. Trade unionists claim to be above the law of the land. Law applies only to the dumb driven millions. During the emergency, there were no strikes, for then going on a strike was risky; strikers lost their money, they lost their jobs and some were imprisoned. The strike leader became sycophants of the government. Workers’ bonus was withdrawn. Their overtime was cancelled, some of their underserved privileges were scrapped, yet C. P. I and other trade unionists made no protest. Strike with perfect

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safety is their method. A few minor strikes were there, but there were no headlines in press, no advertisements about them plastered on walls and roads, no noisy processions or demonstrations (they are a fun!), so such strikes died a natural death for want of publicity. In ordinary times, strikes have a snowballing effect attracting more and more workers’ unions and the loud support of opposition parties and their leaders. Recently, a countrywide strike for indefinite period was announced by All Pakistan Traders Association against the imposition of GST (General Sales Tax). Main markets of the entire country remained closed for seventeen days. They were losing 1.5 billion rupees per day. But the present government continued the process of documentation in the country in spite of this longest recorded strike, and traders badly failed to assert themselves. The whole public supported the government action; none supported the cause of the strikers. Take the case of colleges and universities. Some of them remain strikebound for weeks and months, even years. No student wants to lose his year for strikes over non-issues, no parent wants to lost his son’s precious year and his own money spent on fees and hostel expenses, because of these strikes. But college can make the strike complete. The black sheep are assaulted, for breaking the unity of the student movement they are traitors to the students cause 95% students do not want long strikes and loss of a precious year, but they are helpless in the grip of the strike monster. Only the strike leaders call off the strike and they have other axe to grind, though they may shout about students’ interests and students’ cause. Should strikes be banned? In Communist countries strikes are banned, since they injure the fatherland by stopping production; – and Communist states are workers’ paradise. In the early days of industrialisation, capitalists exploited labour, underpaid them and dismissed them at their will and whim. To answer this challenge, strikes and trade unionism were born. Today they have become a big vested interest, fighting against the whole community for their class gain. Public opinion does not support to decide in the end. Big empires and proud dictators have fallen, when public opinion turned against them. When workers go on strike, some time proprietors declare a lockout so that the workers get no salary. In July 1989, there was a strike by the employees of a newspaper chain. The management declared a lockout that continued for 2-3 months. The workers

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wanted to get back to work, but there was a lockout. The newspapers too were losing 20 lacks per day. Strikes and lockouts are both unwise. They should not be resorted to except as a last resort. Today they are the first resort. Also compulsory arbitration tribunes must ensure that justice is done to workers and employees.

Life is Action, Not Contemplation
What is this life? A struggle or a dream? Perhaps both. If it is the one, life is action and if it is the other, life is contemplation. It is an old conception that life is a stage and men, women merely players. Rich or poor, all players must play their parts and act them well for in action only is their life. “The world’s a theatre. The earth, a stage Placed in the midst: where both prince and page, Both rich and poor, fool, wise man. base and high, All act their parts in life’s short tragedy.” We can match these lines from Shakespeare’s As You Like It: All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances: The acts being seven ages. Action is recognised a vital even though its end is not clear. Whether we choose our action or we are driven to do them from within it is all the same. Since death ends all, shall we travel towards death like the Lotus-eaters or like Ulysses? Macbeth says: Out, out, brief candle Life’s but a walking shadow, poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, And then is heard no more; it is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound or fury, Signifying nothing. But what about these lines? Your heads must come To the cold tomb; Only actions of the just Smell sweet and blossom in their dust.

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The two aspects of action and contemplation constitute life; they are inextricable. Even in the mildest life of “simple living and high thinking” action has a part to play. But what about the mystery and complexity of the tragic element in life. Will action solve it? No, we need contemplation: “the eye of solitude”? “And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied o’er with the pale cast of thought And enterprises of great pitch and moment With this regard their currents turn awry, And lose the name of action.” Too much thinking is a disease akin to melancholia. It keeps us depressed, gloomy and dyspeptic. It gives us a distaste for action and life and accordingly we ruminate on the miseries of self. Life appears to be a cheat, a purposeless puzzle, a tragic-comedy at best but no more. We feel like Hamlet “that this goodly frame, the earth, seems to me a sterile promontory; this most excellent canopy, the air, look you, this brave o’erhanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire, why, it appears no other thing to me than a foul and pestilent congregation of vapours,” and man, only ‘the quintessence of dust”. A gloomy mind has no eye for romance or beauty which are the two effective methods with men of action to escape the uglier aspects of life. A pessimist always concentrating on the seamy side of things takes a jaundiced view and loses all love and regard for the heroic. A spider working inward soon envelops himself in a web: similarly merely abstract thinking confuses the brain. How has the world progressed? The world’s thinkers and the actors share honour equally. In the domain of theoretical knowledge thinkers are superior but in the sphere of practical knowledge, that is research or discovery, action counts. Contemplation suggests the way but action treads on it. “Play up, play up the game.” Let us by all means contemplate but let us not do so at the cost of energetic living. We have to conquer the ‘self’ within us and the whole world around. Action leads us to blessedness and contemplation either to the lotus-eaters “dreamful ease” or the philosopher’s “Nirvana”. Existence or isolation we have to coo between the two. Pakistan’s past is rich in the fruits of contemplation but the present needs action. Let us be up and doing and yoke our country to the needs of the present.

a solicitor. the ordinary children. but so are the risks. Genius will chalk out a career for itself and force its way to the occupation that suits it best. he will by mere force of will. In nine cases out of ten it is impossible to tell while a child is at school. a stock exchange broker. when his child arrives at the secondary stage of school education. what particular occupation will most suit his nature and capacity. yet he came to be one of the greatest literary figures of the nineteenth century. was a sailor. The secure careers are those in which a man starts with a fixed salary. and many people prefer to have a low-paid job which is secure to the dangers and glories of an independent profession. but even if the circumstances in which he is born are not favourably to him. He started life by sticking labels on gum bottles. is quite different. and hard work. however. and a politician. For others. and the circumstances under which he was born were enough to crush many men. and for many of us quite a number of occupations will quit as well as another. win his way to that position in life to which his abilities entitles him. the career will choose me. Take the case of Charles Dickens. and cannot find the leisure for doing that without an assured . The truth. I aspire to the best and the highest of all will depend on luck and chance. begins to worry about the career that the latter is going to follow. Every parent. and ends up with a pension or provident fund deposit at a certain age. progresses with regular increments. The prizes in such careers are few. before he before he became Viceroy of India. careers are of two types – the secure and the insecure. but because they are bent upon doing some literary or scientific work. Of course a genius depends upon opportunities like every other child. Lord Reading. not because they cannot afford to take any risks. Some people go into these secure jobs.54 The Choice of a Career OR The Profession you Intend to Enter and the Reasons for Your Choice I do not choose a career. Let us first dispose of children who are exceptionally endowed. So the parent who thinks that his child is a genius does not need to worry about him. Every parent fondly believes that his child is destined for an exceptional career. the geniuses.

Insurance and Teaching. Such employments retard one’s progress. Take a very ordinary examination – the competition for the P. such position can never be depended on longer than those in power and their interest to keep them so. “The moment I enter into any regular service my salary will be fixed. with a comfortable living and a pretty salary. In these jobs the employment is snug and easy. the pension at retirement will be fixed. Those who hold competitive examinations seem to be lacking in a sense of humour and proportion. C. Employers in private institutions are social demagogues and most often unscrupulous opportunists. But a student who got 359 marks had no such privilege. only because they have no other opening for their activities. let us say as a doctor. there opens out the broad highway of commerce or the professions.” It is best for those who want to go into independent professions to stick to them to the end. In these everything depends upon the individual. Included in the secure careers are Banking. and my path in life will be chalked out for me even down to the smallest detail. I hope it will be a greater success in business than I can ever be in the administrative service. The first drawback of such position is that they take away the most precious years of a man’s life and let slip chances which can never be recalled of gaining a firm footing in the profession. But such people are few.55 competency. . A few days ago I was talking to a brilliant young man who preferred business to the administrative service. the increment will be fixed. L. and sometimes give one a second rate reputation that is hard to outlive. or reformatory. C. such as Law or Medicine. That will be death. I will live my own life according to my own lights and. And moreover. I told him that his chance of getting into the administrative service was a particularly good one and that the administrative service was secure. S Judiciary Branch. The tragedy of the open professions does not lie in those who come into them of their own free will. or as a physician in a small almshouse. but in those who are thrust into them against their will. B Examination was allowed to sit in P. A student who got 360 marks in his L. For children with the adventurous impulses strongly developed. He said. It is a temptation difficult to resist for a young man who is starting life. No. S Examinations as a matter of course. not to accept a job in a druggists’ concern. Some years ago second class law graduates (non-agriculturists) were not allowed to sit in the competition.

The most risky of all professions is journalism. not because there is something in your mind. in your heart. you crowd the doors of publishers and solicitors. For a man with brains and ability there is no profession like journalism. or because the literary calling tempted them by its independence and dazzling prizes. should waste no time in taking up a serious study of French. who have not the least chance of finding in such a work a permanent livelihood. who have the opportunity and the necessary will. who at this hour sit down to the cursed travail of the pen.56 Did it mean that the former was abler than the latter? How can those unadventurous souls who wanted to become sub-judges and cannot do so. but it should have been better if we had learnt French. As Pakistanis are compelled to learn English. take to the legal profession wholeheartedly! They simply swell the number of “failures” in the profession and frighten others out of it. It has the virtue of being the most democratic. grappling. writing.” – Arnold To be truly cultured a man should know at least one foreign language. With a lifetime of dread experience behind me. for such a man can always count upon getting to the forefront. hustling. but because the pen is the only tool you can handle. Montesquieu used to say that he had never known a pain or a distress which he could not soothe by half an hour of a good book. I say that he who encourages any young man or woman to look for his living to ‘literature’ commits no less than a crime. This is not to say that the professions are easy or without risks.” CULTURE: Its Meanings and Value “Culture is contact with the best that has been said and thought in the world. Here is the opinion of a great English writer. and a great journalist. your only means of earning bread! Year after year the number of you is multiplied. Oh sorry spectacle. exchanging maledictions. But the sea of journalism is strewn with wrecks. grotesque and heart breaking! “Innumerable are the men and women now writing for bread. Even now those of us. which must need be uttered. and perhaps it is no exaggeration to say . If my voice had any authority I would cry this truth aloud wherever men can hear. who had struggled all his life in this profession: “Oh you heavy-laden. They took to writing because they knew not what else to do.

Similarly. Those who are capable of extensive interests and willing to enter into the great spheres of philosophical thought and history should study French language and literature. It is a good plan when we have read a book. models of clear writing and full of ideas. the point to which all roads lead and from which all roads lead no less. and there is no rational amusement so pleasant and at the same time so profitable as turning over the leaves of a French Classic – Racine or Voltaire or Sainte-Beuve. I can quite imagine a young man. is one unbroken drama. He says: “We are learning that European history. We are learning that of this great drama Rome is the centre. First of all. alike of the great centre itself. It is not necessary to take it up in detail and study the labyrinthine shifts of party intrigues in different countries. One of the marks of the cultured man is that he amuses himself in a rational rather than an irrational manner. an Englishman should read European history before tackling the history of England. But the history. emphasising the great chains of events. Before we take up any study seriously we should have a clear picture of our destination. Next to French language and literature. from its first glimmerings to our own day. Knowledge is useless unless we are able to make use of it in a definite form.” A word about superficial reading. For a Pakistanis it will be first necessary to study the history of Asia in outline. I would place a study of universal history.57 that a man who can read French with ease and quick comprehension need never have a dull hour. It is like rain falling on a sloping roof or water poured into a sieve. the world of Europe stands on the other. to sit down and make summary of all that we . chalking out a course of study for himself and resolutely sitting down to go through it. no part of which can be rightly understood without reference to the other parts which come before and after it. before he reads the history of sub-continent in detail. one should learn history in bare outline – the outline should be bold and rapid. after reading this essay. And the French language has a genius for clarity and order. The chief characteristics of French literature is its agreeableness. The whole of independent Greece stands on one side of it. These authors are exquisite and instructive. This point has been well brought out by Freeman in his Unit of History. and the decisive movements. But such reaching is of no use. and of its satellites on either side can never be fully grasped except from a point of view wide enough to take in the whole group and to mark the relations of each of its members to the centre and to one another.

and the result is that the more thoughtful amongst us are turning more and more to philosophy as a compensation for loss of religious faith. he learns a good deal by asking himself – why did this man come to hold such a view? This kind of self-examination is true culture. Culture is valuable. There are moments when every thoughtful man feels the need of a scientific doctrine defining the ends of human life. what kind of information gathered. and gives a man seriousness. whether by the way I have suggested or in any other way. he will become simple and unselfish. we cannot. which has lost the support afforded by religion. scorch up what is cruel and false. which are the signs of a cultured man. Even if he reads a book with which he is not in sympathy and agreement. the energy of such social service . like Milton or Burke. should seek it in philosophy. Science is standing in pronounced opposition to our traditional religions. nor. like Voltaire. Such practice keeps us from reading with the eye only without deep attention. After glancing over the title. of a wisdom which should give some hope for the happiness of the individual. culture has meaning.58 have remembered of it. what difficulties solved. on the force and set of whose currents depends the prosperous voyaging of humanity. depth. like Beethoven or Handel. we cannot. and we find no peace and happiness except in working for them. weigh the far-off stars in a balance. awaken men’s hearts with the notes of an organ trumpet……… But what we can do – the humblest of us………is by diligently. In the studies of a cultured man I give an important place to philosophy. The cultured world. and moderation in judgement. The careful reader unconsciously develops a valuable attitude. like Newton. because it leads us to the service of our fellowmen. The best plan is that pursued by Gibbon. lift the soul by the magic of divine melody into the seventh heaven of ineffable vision and hope incommensurable. by a word as by a flame. and measure the heavings of the eternal flood. Lord Morley has summed this up in words which have the wings of poetry: “We cannot. subject or design of a book Gibbon would take a pen and write roughly what questions he expected to find answered in it. using our own minds and diligently seeking to extend our own opportunities to others. When our names are blotted out and our place knows us no more. If a man diligently seeks to come into contact with the best that has been thought and said in this world. to help to swell that common tide.

is the final fruit and culmination of long endeavour. and perhaps it will shed some ray of consolation. seeking not to make money by it. opening a large meaning to our public endeavour. like true civilisation. I like some persons deeply and often in a happy mood I stop and say: How much of this happiness is the result of returned affection? And when my affection is not returned: Is my heart chilled because so and so does not care for me? So I think of the cultured man – only one I know and think: Let me be like him. as we wake to it. He sees clearly the errors of his own ways and seeks to warn others off them. it nerves our arm with boldness against oppression and injustice and strengthens our voice with deeper accents against falsehood.59 will remain like the unending stream of one of nature’s forces. As the sun shines upon all and makes no distinctions so the cultured man is kind to all without distinction. as on wings. I know only one man who is uniformly affectionate to all and yet is never upset when his affection is not returned. Now this is a very hard test. The thought that this is so may lighten the poor perplexities of our daily life. The Sporting Spirit OR True Sportsmanship Who is the true sportsman? He. and we go down into the valley of the dark shadow. and the evening like a soft garment as it wraps us about. One mark of a cultured man is that he is affectionate and at the same time detached from the person he loves. it makes the morning. affection. He gives – service. who plays a game in the right spirit. His greater happiness lies in learning wisdom and service of fellow beings. but to get refinement in personal living. The truly cultured man wants nothing from his fellowmen. for the sake of the joy which he gets in the game and not . all that one man can give to another. welcome. so he serves his fellowmen with no ulterior motive. or the flower opens for all. True affectionateness. considerateness. while we are yet in the full noon of our days – yes. and may even soothe the pang of its calamities: it lifts us from our feet. without hope of a reward either her or in the hereafter. And he does so unconsciously and to all – as the sun shines for all.” Just as a cultured man loves knowledge for its own sake. He realises the noble and hard truth: That devotion to one or two is a poisonous thing – he must be devoted to all. when our eyes are growing dim to it all.

You carry out your captain’s order without question or criticism. de Gourey Laffam. He says: “If you want to call yourself a sportsman. and no others. 3. has been unnecessarily extended. and plays according to the spirit of the rules of the game. Will not boo the umpire if he gives a decision with which he does not agree. Will not quarrel with another spectator for backing the other side. People take pride in the number of animals they kill. People who neither play games themselves nor patronise them. You play the game for the game’s sake. Those men who go out with a gun to kill God’s creatures have no right to be called sportsmen. Sometimes this term signifies a person who patronises some sport or game. 4. A clever Frenchman. In the early days of civilisation it was necessary to kill many animals in order to clear the jungle. You would rather lose than do anything unfair. bullfighting and bulbul fights. A spectator. is worth quoting in this connection. and congratulate each other upon it. There is no point in breeding animals especially for the purpose of slaughtering them at one’s leisure for the fun of it. also call themselves sportsmen. but only watch others play. You play for your team or for yourself. Will not refuse to cheer play by his opponents. or should it be taken into the larger concerns of life? Let us first hear a . works with his team. 4. 6. not because they ran races themselves (they were too fat for that). You accept the umpire’s decision absolutely. 2. 2. never loses his temper. 3. In our times the meaning of the word. Will not want to see side win if it does not deserve it. but because they patronised horseracing. Should the sporting spirit be confined to games only. Unnecessary cruelty coarsens a man and no true sportsman should take part in stag-hunting. 5. but in many parts of the world this cruel necessity does not exist any longer. For instance. if he is a sportsman 1. You win without swank and lose without groaning. sportsman.60 for the sake of winning. think whether – 1. foxhunting. The true sportsman plays a game with his full attention. The word “sportsman” should be taken to signify only those who take an active part in games. the Agha Khan and Lord Derby were called sportsmen. A sportsman must be just and merciful.

but for the day after tomorrow. when the Englishman says of something “This is not cricket. Voltaire said. when we are sportsman all.” Which shall we prefer. Good is that which survives. There is to be no hard and fast line dividing the regions where sportsmanship is necessary and where it is not. They say that in this battle called life. community. and weakness the only fault. This view was expressed bluntly by Bismarck who said that “There was no altruism among nations. which wins. It has a much wider field of practice. quite rightly: “War is the greatest of all crimes. There is this ambiguity about force. in politics as well as in the stadium. we shall soon be in Utopia. but strength. will be the millennium.” he means “This is not justice. indeed. Sportsmanship is to be practised by all. in all the spheres of life.” It has given this quotation in full. who works not for today or tomorrow. when we work for success but without injuring of overreaching others. But the realists have something to say too. bad is that which gives way and fails. the legislatures and conferences. When we work for our side and not for ourselves. but by blood and iron.” And what is Justice? This question has . and if sportsmanship is observed in every walk of life and by every individual on this earth. then strength is the ultimate virtue. not humility or sportsmanship but power is the arbiter of all differences and destinies. yet there is no aggressor who does not colour his crime with the pretext of justice. or country. because it fully represents one point of view – that of the idealist. The solution of the troubles of the world will come when sportsmanship will flow from the playing-fields to the business offices. do not make us override the interests of humanity.” Sportsmanship is another name for Justice or Fair Play. Justice or Force? – Sportsmanship or the theory of Darwin and Bismarck. when even the interests of our association.61 man who advocates taking the sporting spirit into life: “The quality of sportsmanship is not on that is to be exhibited by the players and the spectators on the playing-fields only. when we obey the rules of behaviour not only in the letter but also in the spirit.” and that modern issues are decided not by votes by rhetoric. then. We must ‘play the game’ in business as well as on the playingfields. what we need is not sportsmanship. We are never sure that it will be used for purposes of Justice. If life is a struggle for existence in which the fittest survive. lengthy though it is. So far no millennium has ever been realised. There is no room for the sporting spirit in this world.

All novels are not fairy stories of love and romance. we feel lonely.62 been answered at length by Plato in his Republic. To relax after a day’s hard work. it is a pleasure. Well’s apparatus. Fiction. In actual practice. The majority of fiction readers resort to fiction for mental relief. provides us an escape from this dark drab world and takes us into the land of romance where beauty dwells. Life often proves too much for us and we seek the aid of our imagination to escape from it. Novel reading is light reading and puts no strain on our mind or brain. Books exist to please. Novel Reading OR The Study of Fiction Novel reading has become a popular pastime. there is nothing more handy a novel or a detective story. justice is done and there is no misery. justice is not the right of the stronger. When we are engrossed in the novel. like poetry. Sitting by the side of the singing kettle on the hearth we can hunt wild game in the heart of Africa or the Sundarbans or climb on the top of the Kamet. but the effective harmony of the whole. the convalescent and the attendant nurse find in novel reading a matchless delight. Sometimes. or drive into sea in Mr. Some seek relaxation in intoxication through wine or gambling but the reader of fiction quite harmlessly excites himself by an imaginary story of love. when we are not tired. The reading of these novels provides us not only with information about the countries concerned but also the pleasant sensation of sojourning in them. very few sportsmen have it. Reading is not a duty imposed on us. The ailing patient. to entertain and to comfort us. In an express train a novel is an invaluable partner: it helps us to down the rattling of the puffing of the engine and to forget the irksomeness of the journey. you hardly know how else to kill time on a railway journey. intrigue or murder. Reading makes travel tolerable. as for example. Justice is not strength. Such novels are not meant to be a substitute for actual journey but as . on the other hand it is a palliative. Sportsmanship is a virtue that exists in books. but harmonious strength – desires and men falling into that order which constitutes intelligence and organisation. We have the picaresque novel of adventure and travel. we are hardly conscious of time passing till the porter shouts out the name of our destination. on a journey.

the conflicting forces and the changing values which mark an epoch. A minor offshoot of it is the regional or provincial novel describing the characteristics of a typical locality like Hardy’s Wessex novels and Arnold Bennett’s Annal of the Five Towns series. The novelist has a wide canvas at his command. Usually historical novels are pure fictitious romances with an appeal to young minds. We have the political novel in which political strife is mirrored in symbols. sometimes individualised and sometimes types and through them as mouthpieces voice their own feelings. He can gradually work up his plot and resolve it into the desired manner. For those who are of a humanitarian turn of mind we have the social novel with its main objective of reforming society. To those whom a long journey is a forbidden luxury they are more than a compensation. Galsworthy’s Forsyte Saga describes the disintegration of the Victorian society in England. When we read these novels we live in those periods and move in their long and dead society. especially Aldous Huxley. Another variety of this type of novel is in which the author passes in review through imaginary characters. Reading of such novels is a mental exercise. Psychological fiction is a recent production and specialises in the analytical study of human character. Mrs. Their novel with a purpose has various branches. all the time . I am not exaggerating when I say that Huxley’s After Many a Summer has thrown more light on many tangles of our society than years and years of analysis and introspection. The best amongst them is the historic novels. He treads on slippery ground when he handles sex. His weapon is persuasion through winning our sympathy. Not only do they produce unhealthy reactions but they also vitiate our taste for good literature. But I say to you – Do not be afraid. Scott’s Waverley Novels and Thackeray’s Henry Esmond belong to separate groups. They invent characters. The novelist’s field is not limited and he is free to take up any problem that is likely to interest the reader. read them all. Jack are novels of this type. which deal with a particular period of history. Gaskell’s Cranford. He aims at change of heart. Sinclair Lewis’ Bobbit and Main Street are its American kin. P. perseveres and ultimately wins. a famous personality or an incident. Disraeli’s Consingsby or The Flaming Sword by L. Classical writers always deal with eternal problem of life: of evil and of good. It is better to abstain from sentimental types of fiction. Thackeray’s Vanity Fair and Dickens’s novel went a very long way improving the social conditions of their times.63 simulative of interest. Writers like Joyce. Lawrence and even Aldous Huxley have sometimes been banned for young readers.

Incidentally. War fiction too had its heyday. The variety of situation and the diversity of characters in novels expand our outlook and broaden our vision. Novel reading rouses the taste for reading. This is a mistaken notion. but he fails to think what will become of him and his own fellow beings living in the broadly stretched continents of the world. It is this type of novel which is very popular today: it gives excitement and relaxation. None has to live. of the earthly. There is no doubt that even the tyrants shall die one day. The purely propaganda novel has its votaries. “This ten million years old earth will witness only two bangs.64 we feel as if we were playing at chess. Modern life has multiplied crime and scientific research has made the detection of crime an art as well as a science. Novels are cheap and are easily procured from every circulating library or bookshop. Just as too many sweet object produce bile. the result of a few remote carrying atomic weapons and the whole civilisation will get destroyed”. Jane Austen. All Quiet on the Western Front by Remarque had amazing sales. Sherlock Holmes. nation and nation or a big or a small country. The reader with the discriminating eye avoids reading obscene and cheap fiction. Pearl Buck. Novel reading is regarded by the orthodox as sheer waste of time. The human mind is ever interesting. Their very popularity shows that reading them is common and conducive to happiness. The detective novels of Edgar Wallace have covered a vast ground from the Moonstone of Wikie Collins. George Eliot. After poetry fiction is the greatest department of literature and should occupy an honoured place on the shelves of every student. but man should not contemplate on the destruction . Nuclear Energy – A curse OR a Blessing The frightening prospect of the use of atomic energy for future wars hangs like a noose round the neck of the modern man who is busy stockpiling atomic devices in large numbers so that in future war he may be able to conquer his adversary. interests us in the living of life. similarly an overdose of fiction gluts the appetite. The modern novel is psychological and deals with the stream of consciousness. It will unleash terrible calamity on earth and according to Mrs. A future war will not discriminate between man and man. Drama elevates and poetry refines our mind but fiction. it has created a new character. Meredith give us beautiful characters.

both the Soviet Union and United States of America got perplexed. The Arms Race is in full swing and the paradox of statements of both the superpowers have got a deluding effect on the world community. A few ounces of uranium may generate such a big quantum of electricity that it may be sufficient to raise agricultural production and also the industrial production in the developed and the developing nations. If Japan can use the nuclear energy in peaceful ways. as its peaceful use will feed the tube-wells. in the factories and elsewhere for productive purposes. Early or late They stoop to fate: And must give up their murmuring breath. But their strong nerves at last must yield. but it all depends upon its proper utilisation for the benefit of mankind. Einstein told once that the discovery of atomic energy was the greatest scientific victory of man. Her exports are the maximum possible in the world and also the cheapest. The atomic energy may bring about Green Revolution. creep to death. Atomic energy may be used for beneficial purposes on the fields. but he was doubtful it was going to change the whole face of civilisation as the modern man may lead the world to the satanic path and destroy his heaven on earth. Atomic energy may bring a heaven on earth. pale captives. They say one thing and do the other. help bring about a revolution in the field of agro-industry and thus transform the rural economy. It is a game of power to reign supreme. A poet says that Some men with swords may reap the field And plant fresh laurels when they kill. They tame but one another still. harness the river. which have yet to rebuild their economics. As the test bombs went off booming in the Pacific. The atomic energy is being used for building up defence reserves in rich countries. as its consequential outcome is perilous. This lust for supremacy cannot hold sway at all. In Japan its use is the maximum and therefore she has become an ‘Industrial Heaven on Earth’. When they. Bombs are being stockpiled and both the big powers are trying to outwit each other. why can’t other .65 of human civilisation through mis-utilisation of the Nuclear Energy.

But nowadays the world has come to have a much larger meaning. Whatever I do. I eat the food cooked by others. The UN Forum should be used to emphasise this point and thus ask nations to halt their pace towards destruction and use the atomic energy for constructive purposes. otherwise if this course is not adopted. The world should not be destroyed and the civilisation should prosper instead of getting destroyed. It is the same with a citizen. If we look around we shall see that this is the attitude of most of us towards our state. wherever I turn I find that I owe a debt to others which I can never fully discharge. This is inevitable when men live in groups.66 nations do so? It depends upon the non-aligned world to give a serious thought to this prospect as the building up of their economics is of paramount importance. We expect the State not only to give us shelter band food but to give us money for setting ourselves up in business or help of various other kinds. . CITIZENSHIP – Its Rights and Responsibilities Life in the modern world is so complex that we are not conscious of the debt we owe to others. I sleep in a house built by others. For the State is more than father and mother. In this age of democracy. So citizen means members of a community or a state. We say a citizen of Pakistan although Pakistan is not a city. this Heaven shall turn into an inferno through the insagacious course of action of the Superpowers and the men that rule in those countries. When a citizen is young in citizenship he makes demands on the State and expects everything to be done for him. A citizen means one who lives in a city. But when one grows up one realises that one owes service and sacrifice to one’s parents and elders. I wear clothes woven and stitched by others. the majority of nations comprising non-aligned world may coerce superpowers to halt their pace and destroy the stockpiled atomic devices and help the poor nations to utilise to the maximum the modern inventions and thus through active utilisation of the nuclear energy transform their economics to eradicate poverty from earth. Just as a man owes a duty to his father and mother so a citizen owes a duty to the state. A community is a group of individuals living together and helping each other to live. Without the help that others give us we will not be able to live even for a single day.

Rights are not inherent. A poor railway administration cannot provide comforts for his travellers. The man who cheats the railways administration. we will see that we owe it a lot more than it owes us. So we see that whatever we do reacts on our fellow-citizens. to the country of which he is a citizen. If we cheat the Government of money we make the railways a little poorer. If we clean our houses and throw the refuse in the street or in front of our neighbour’s house we are spreading disease and filth and endangering the lives of others. There seems a thrill in travelling in a railway carriage without a ticket. And we must never forget. the selfish politician – all these are doing great harm. At the same time we blame the government for not improving railway travelling. each in his own way. You and I can begin our responsibilities as a citizen here and now.67 This is the attitude of the young and selfish. the black-marketer. and see how far our actions are irresponsible. Take a very minor example. The ray fell on a windowpane and from there reflected itself on my face. I was once walking in a street on a cloudy day when suddenly I was blinded by a ray of sunshine. So we see at once that if we do our duty to the State as its citizen the State has no option but to do its duty by us. If we . This should be the attitude of a Pakistani citizen towards Pakistan. I thought there was a profound lesson in this incident. great and small. Why was the windowpane giving out so much light when it was dark and cloudy all around? Because it kept no light for itself but gave away all the light it received. A right is born only out of a duty fulfilled. If he fulfils all his duties to the State he will find that the State is automatically fulfilling his duties towards him. We must think out carefully the consequences of all our actions. Each one of us is a citizen of the world. Let us emphasise duties and forget rights. the teacher who teaches carelessly and inefficiently. that there is a larger citizenship than the citizenship of one’s country. Let him give all that he can in faithful service to his country and waste no thought of what his country is giving to him. So many students do it whenever they can. If we eat a banana and throw the banana skin on the road we are bad citizens. whether he is conscious of it or not. We all love to get things without paying for them. A good citizen should all the time keep thinking of what he owes to the State and not of what the State owes to him. the man who profiteers. even for a moment. For anyone might slip on the banana skin and break his leg. When we fully realise what the State has done for us. its citizens.

The world is knit together in unbreakable bonds. . Educated unemployment. pale-paced.68 do not produce enough. There also we have no rights but only responsibilities. there are many general causes also. The scene near the employment exchange is really pathetic. however. There is rapid increase in population. A’s with diplomas in their hands can be seen heaving deep sighs. On release from active service. Gone are the golden college days and gone is the beautiful world of books! Registration with the employment exchange gives them consolation. Our educated people look more for office jobs than for manual work. If we fulfil our responsibilities our rights will be automatically guarded. The Problem of the Educated Unemployed In our country literacy has hardly spread to 30 percent of the population. disappointed graduates and M. Some civil departments were also closed and the retrenchment left many educated people who started crowding the employment exchanges. In addition to these specific causes. depending on the development of education in the country. Most educated youths show a special liking for a job in particular position. During the last World War many young people joined the armed forces. While we serve in our small sphere of a town or a State let us not forget that we are citizens of the world and owe it service. however. To an outside observer it may look strange that the country cannot provide jobs to its low percentage of the educated. Economic development has not been able to keep pace with over-population. Young. is a part of the general unemployment in the country because of lack of development. Such a liking further complicates the problem. An educated man in Pakistan naturally looks for a job suited to the particular type of education he has received with the result that there has been plenty of supply in regard to certain occupations and profession and shortage in others. Yet we find the thousands of educated youths are wandering about in search of jobs. Educated unemployment. our poverty reacts on other countries. they joined the ranks of the unemployed. We have to buy so many things from other countries. has a special significance because there is an impression that investment in education by an individual should yield for him a return in terms of paid job.

They may be helped to seek admission into training institutes. This gives rise to unhealthy and destructive opposition. on the other hand illiteracy will disappear from the country.69 The interview letter gives them hope. The more daring elements fall into the clutches of political adventures who do not hesitate to exploit the helplessness of these young people. Among the educated unemployed there may be some talented ones. therefore. In a democratic set up. To solve the problem of unemployment among the educated. The teaching profession in Pakistan has not been able to attract the best talent. be recovered from them in easy instalments. On one side the employment problem of the educated will be solved. To ease the situation the government may grant them an unemployment allowance. According to the group the question of the educated unemployed cannot be viewed purely in quantity. the government must stand by the people when . a study group was set up sometime back. it is out of political conviction. Except a few very highly paid jobs. be closely linked to the future requirements of the economy. Such an allowance may later on. Instances are not wanting where surplus in certain categories of educated and trained personnel is reported at some employment exchanges while they trained personnel is reported at some employment exchanges while these very categories are in short supply at others. Expansion of education and training facilities should. Some long time measures may also be adopted as ad hoc measures alone cannot produce lasting results. Rejection dashes their hopes to the ground. “Man is ever a fighter – so one fight more. Some of them may be sent for undergoing technical courses in fields in which there is shortage.” Lo! The second attempt is also a failure “No” after “No” and complete disappointment! So much so that suicides are not uncommon. the educated unemployed have shown disinclination to leave their zones. This shall have double gain. The supply and demand can be adjusted by providing attractions to people in needy areas. but it is necessary to be more specific about the kind of education for which job opportunities are required to be created. Government may recruit all the educated unemployed as ‘cultural soldiers’ and engage them in mass literacy work. When they join a political party. The group submitted its report on the basis of which the extent and gravity of the problems were made known. and awarded scholarships and freeships. when they get a job. Maintenance loans may also be granted on the same basis.

they were barred from cutting a besieged city’s water supply. now full of vigour. The educated unemployed are the most potentially vital section of our society. few attempts were made to control the spread of new weapons.70 they are helpless and the people must help the government when it needs help. laws and customs developed to keep . proclamations. They have a rich store of energy which can be best utilised for nation-building activities. Another early example of an arms control and disarmament treaty was the Rome-Carthage Treaty of Peace (202 BC). convention. such as those of medieval Europe or Japan. Historically. In three millennia of recorded history. brutality. Nationalised banks have been instructed to give loans to engineers to set up small industries and to others to organise small retail businesses. war appears as an integral part of human affairs. This will drag our youths. In feudal societies. One of the earliest formal attempts to limit the scope of war was organized by the Amphictyonic League. it required the destruction of all but ten warships. waste. and limited the possession of armaments in general. and inhumanity of warfare and have continually attempted to limit its devastation and the spread of increasingly destructive weapons. less than 300 years have been free of armed conflict. Because arms technology remained nearly static from the 3rd century BC to the Middle Ages. It also banned Carthage’s training and possession of war-fighting elephants. which ended the Second Punic War. and tacit agreement to limit the destructiveness of warfare by controlling the acquisition and use of weapons and military technology. formed before the 7th century BC. It is a grave loss for a nation which needs more builders tomorrow. The leaders in the country must do a bit of thinking and realise the gravity of the situation. a quasi-religious alliance of most of the Greek tribes. League members were pledged to restrain their actions in war against other members. The league was empowered to impose sanctions on violating members. into listlessness. including fines and punitive expeditions. Unemployment among the educated is increasing day by day. for example. thus. Arms Control and Disarmament Attempts through treaties. yet people have always recognized the folly. and could require its members to provide troops and funds for this purpose.

equalized. These rules prevailed throughout the 18th century. culminating in the devastation of central Europe in the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648). later the Truce of God. Technological innovation led to the development of rifled artillery.71 weapons a monopoly of the military classes and to suppress arms that might democratize warfare. Widespread revulsion against the horrors of that conflict led to attempts in many countries to lessen the brutality of warfare by limiting combat to recognized armed forces. The Peace of God. and the agrarian base of the economy from the ravages of war. Abbé de St Pierre. instituted in 990. under which Great Britain and the United States reduced. The one exception was the Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817). protected Church-owned property. making war a relatively limited and civilized “game of kings”. Firearms widened the scope of war and increased the potential for violence. In medieval Europe the Roman Catholic Church attempted to use its power as a supranational organization to limit both new weapons and the intensity of warfare. breech-loading rifles. These customs tended to disappear as soon as some power saw a decisive advantage in the use of a new weapon. defenceless non-combatants. The resources of entire nations could now be turned to war. although not against those the Church considered infidels. and eventually eliminated their naval and other forces on the Great Lakes and the US-Canadian border. King of Prussia. In 1139 the Second Lateran Council prohibited the use of the crossbow against Christians. and by organizing logistics to end supply by pillage. making possible conflicts of unprecedented . Many Utopian plans for the total abolition of war were also formulated during this period by such men as French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Charles Castel. machine-guns. commented that all these plans needed to succeed was the cooperation of all the kings of Europe. yet throughout that period no attempts were made to reduce or limit national arsenals other than those imposed by the victors upon the defeated. by formulating conventions for the humane treatment of prisoners and the wounded. In the 19th century the manufacturing capabilities created by the Industrial Revolution were applied to the production of war materials. The rise of mass armies during the American War of Independence (1775-1783) and Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) again enlarged the size and devastation of war. and other weapons that revolutionized warfare. Frederick the Great.

and resolution of international debts. the Permanent Court of Arbitration. which codified the laws and customs of land warfare. for the arbitration of international disputes (although this court had no enforcement powers). Most important. the international climate was more receptive to the idea of arms control. nothing was done to reduce armaments until the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899. The Second Hague Peace Conference of 1907 was marked more by discord than discourse. During the years between World Wars I and II. The Covenant of the League of Nations established criteria for reducing world armaments. it established a court. dumdum (expansion) bullets. however. By the terms of the first. The First Hague Conference was convened at the initiative of Nicholas II of Russia to control arms development and improve the conditions of warfare. and the United States agreed to respect the status quo in the fortification of . defined the status of belligerents. Members of the League were also called upon to limit the private manufacture of arms and munitions and to exchange information on the size and status of their military establishments and arms industries. it furthered the cause of mediation and arbitration of disputes by establishing additional courts to arbitrate cases involving ships’ cargoes seized during war. The Treaty of Versailles. France. Japan. It also banned aerial bombardment (by balloons). signed at the end of the war. From 1921 to 1922 the Washington Naval Conference was held to establish stable relationships among the naval forces of the various powers. many formal armscontrol conferences were held and many treaties were drawn up. The League’s lack of enforcement capability. However. Three treaties were enacted at the conference: the Four-Power Treaty. Although many government leaders saw the arms build-up in Europe as potentially disastrous. the Five-Power Treaty. and the Nine-Power Treaty. Ironically. a sign of the deteriorating world situation. virtually disarmed Germany.72 scale and destructiveness. and drafted regulations on the treatment of prisoners. and the use of poison gas. made compliance strictly voluntary. The League’s Council was to establish reasonable limits on the military forces of each country and submit them for consideration to the member governments. Great Britain. After the carnage of World War I. World War I caused its abandonment. Twenty-six nations attended the conference. the wounded. A Third Hague Conference was scheduled for 1915. and neutrals.

The survivors suffered severe health effects including damaged lungs and blindness. for every 5 US and British battleships. and Italian battleships. were signatories. By the time World War II began in 1939. In 1932. The pact renounced war as an instrument of foreign policy. after nearly ten years of preliminary discussions.75. (Japan signed it in 1970 and the United States in 1974. most of the Great Powers. of which some 100.73 Pacific possessions and promised consultation in the event of a dispute. was signed by 63 nations. and Iraq against the Kurds in 1994.000 were fatal. a World Disarmament Conference was held in Geneva under the . and a limit on size and armament were also included. the United States in using defoliants and harassing agents in Indo-China from 1961 to 1970. in Yemen between 1963 and 1967. The second treaty focused on arms limitations.) This accord has been observed by most of the signatories. It had no effect on international affairs. and many nations only signed it with sweeping qualifications. Japan was allowed 3. French. British. In 1925 a convention in Geneva banned the use of toxic gas in warfare. as well as specification of a maximum single-ship tonnage of 35. initiated by France and the United States. It also extended the battleship moratorium through 1936. however.000 tons. It made no provisions. for enforcing compliance. although Italy used poison gas in Ethiopia in 1936. The 1925 convention was negotiated because of public horror over the use of poison gases in World War I. to exterminate Jews in Europe between 1940 and 1945. except Japan and the United States. and France and Italy were allowed 1. Egypt. In 1930 a naval conference was held in London to amend the Washington Conference treaties. A 5-5-3-1. That is.3 million. Other examples of countries using chemical warfare agents have included Japan between 1937 and 1945 in the Sino-Japanese War. An associated agreement was signed with the Netherlands regarding the Netherlands Indies (now Indonesia).75 ratio was established between US.5. Japanese. The third treaty was an attempt to accommodate the signatories’ interests in China. The total gas casualty figures for all the belligerents during that war was around 1. Germany. Its most important effect was to change the US-Japanese battleship ratio to 5-3. Maximum total tonnage was limited. A ten-year moratorium on battleship building (except to fill out the treaty). In 1928 the Kellogg-Briand Pact.751.

In June 1946. one providing for proportional increase in the US-to-British ratio) to counteract any German or Japanese violations. The Japanese. The keystone of the conference was the so-called Hoover Plan—proposals put forth by the United States. increasingly militaristic and fearful of American and British superiority. This was the last major arms-control conference before World War II. Qualifications imposed by many of the major nations. objecting to the UN’s authority over disarmament and citing the domination of that body by the United States and Western Europe.74 auspices of the League of Nations. it made overtures in the UN for the control and elimination of nuclear energy for military purposes. Article 26 required the Security Council to submit plans for a system of armament regulation. withdrew from further negotiations. While the United States still maintained a monopoly on nuclear weapons. based on the concept of qualitative disarmament—that is. Bernard Baruch presented a plan to the UN Atomic Energy Commission. calling for the abolition of nuclear weapons. Article 47 established a military staff committee to assist the Security Council in this task. and safeguards to ensure that atomic energy would be used only for civilian purposes. The Soviet government vetoed the Baruch Plan in the Security Council. full sharing of all scientific and technological information concerning atomic energy. A final naval conference was held in London in 1936. Thus. The development of the fission bomb by the United States towards the end of World War II brought with it the capability of devastating whole civilizations. The United Nations (UN) Charter was designed to permit a supranational agency to enforce peace. Article 11 of the charter stated that the General Assembly could consider the general principle of disarmament and the regulation of armaments. with an acceleration clause (that is. diluted the Hoover Plan until little remained but a statement of principles. the progressive elimination of offensive weapons. After World War II considerable support again developed for arms control and for alternatives to military conflict in international relations. . The result was to have been an increasingly unfavourable ratio between offensive and defensive power. however. There the United States and Great Britain reaffirmed the naval limitation treaties. avoiding many of the weaknesses of the League of Nations covenant. international control over the processing of nuclear materials.

the primary concern of arms control was to reduce nuclear arsenals and prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology. The possibility of a nuclear war was now present. and to safeguard peaceful nuclear technology so as to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials to military applications. In 1961 the UN General Assembly passed the Joint Statement of Agreed Principles for Disarmament Negotiations. During the Cold War. Both the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) were among the signatories. because relations between the Soviet Union and the West were tense. Two years later a treaty was negotiated to demilitarise the Antarctic and to prohibit the detonation or storage of nuclear weapons there. . along with rapid development of missile delivery systems. and the Soviet Union not to test nuclear weapons in space. banned nuclear weapons from Latin America. which have many times the destructive power of fission bombs. It was followed in 1963 by the (Limited) Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. The deployment of nuclear weapons in orbit was expressly prohibited. After 1954. ending the US monopoly. Britain. when the Soviet Union exploded its first H-bomb. and Moscow) and the other for the defence of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) site. in the atmosphere. both the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in a race to develop thermonuclear (hydrogen) devices. One of the most important treaties of this period was the 1972 US-Soviet Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems. These weapons. D. the Treaty of Tlatelolco. or underwater. In 1957 the International Atomic Energy Agency was established to oversee the development and spread of nuclear technology and materials. In 1967 the Outer Space Treaty between the same nations banned the placing in space of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.C. The deployment of ABMs for the defence of the whole territory of the United States and the USSR was banned. raised the possibility of destroying civilization in the Northern hemisphere in all-out war. The 1971 Sea-Bed Treaty banned the placement on the sea bed and the ocean floor of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. A second treaty in 1967. It permitted anti-ballistic missile ABM) deployments around two areas in the United States and the USSR: one for the defence of each national capital (Washington.75 In 1949 the Soviet Union exploded an atomic weapon of its own. which bound the United States.

The conference also agreed a set of Principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament to serve as a guide for future disarmament negotiations. or SALT. In 1993 North Korea threatened to withdraw from the treaty after refusing to let inspectors examine its sites of stored radioactive waste. and an agreement (the Executive Agreement Covering Certain Offensive Systems) was ratified that placed limits on the sizes and numbers of specific weapons systems. India officially joined the list of nuclear powers when it conducted five underground nuclear tests in May 1998. The International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA) wanted to take samples of the waste to analyse it and estimate the amount of plutonium North Korea had separated from spent reactor fuel elements. As of early 1997. The SALT I negotiations resulted in a series of agreements in May 1972 limiting the size and composition of the two nations’ nuclear weaponry. This treaty bans non-nuclear-weapon states from acquiring nuclear weapons and nuclear-weapon states from assisting or encouraging non-nuclear-weapon states to acquire nuclear weapons. France and China have now acceded to it. The 1985 South Pacific Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga) prohibits the parties from acquiring nuclear weapons and aims to prevent the stationing and testing of nuclear weapons in the zone. negotiations known as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. with Pakistan following suit days later with six underground tests. to a greater degree of accountability concerning their fulfilment of their obligations under the treaty. India.76 One of the most important agreements to date on arms control is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. and Pakistan are nuclear-weapon states not in the treaty. particularly the nuclearweapon parties. were initiated between the USSR and the United States on the regulation of their strategic (long-range) weapons arsenals. In May 1995 in New York. These tests raised fears of a nuclear arms race. Under the NPT the non-nuclear-weapon states are entitled to receive assistance in developing nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. In the late 1960s. and agreed to strengthen the treaty’s review process committing the parties. on the subcontinent. but . North Korea has not withdrawn from the treaty. Israel. That same year a treaty was signed barring nuclear weapons from the sea floor. or even a conflict. SALT II talks were held from 1972 to 1979. the Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference extended the treaty indefinitely.

production.500 km (300 to 3. landmines. Roman Catholic bishops approved a pastoral letter with a similar aim. such as the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. and in the United States. in 1925). In 1983. In 1972 the Biological Convention was signed by the United States. . US-Soviet arms negotiations resumed in 1985. such as booby traps. The INF treaty was ratified by the US Senate and the Soviet Presidium in May 1988.77 the resulting treaty was not ratified by the US Senate because USSoviet relations were deteriorating. the Geneva Convention. allows research for defensive reasons. In 1977 a resolution of the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of Humanitarian Law Applicable to Armed Conflict banned the use against civilians of certain area-effect conventional weapons. US and British anti-nuclear groups.400 mi) and established a 13-year verification programme. Non-Nuclear Weapons Agreements In addition to nuclear weapons. by definition. discriminate between combatants and non-combatants. however. as well as more lethal conventional weapons. any action short of complete prohibition is meaningless. technology enables the production of chemical and bacteriological weapons capable of mass destruction. The treaty called for the destruction of all US and Soviet missiles with ranges of about 500 to 5. and most other nations to prohibit the development. the USSR. Because these weapons do not. including many of those the United States had placed in Western Europe several years earlier such as cruise and Pershing missiles. controversy surrounded the placement by the United States of ballistic missiles on the territory of some of its Western European allies. This convention. President Reagan and the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev signed a treaty banning intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF). and napalm. During the early 1980s. At a summit meeting in Washington in December 1987. which gives information about biological agents for offensive purposes. Opposition to this within West Germany (which became part of the united Federal Republic of Germany in 1990) played a part in unseating Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in 1982. Chemical and Biological Weapons Agreements to limit weapons for chemical and biological weapons have also been enacted (the first. and stockpiling of biological and toxic weapons. rallied to support a bilateral arms freeze.

The Environmental Modification Convention. The collapse and break-up of the Soviet Union in late 1991 raised complex new problems. However. representatives of more than 140 nations met in Paris in January 1989. The establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. combat aircraft. The 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Kazakhstan.78 Despite the treaties. prohibits military or other hostile use of genetic engineering or environmental modification techniques. signed in 1977. armoured combat vehicles. and by US allegations of the building of a chemical weapons plant in Libya in 1988. Both sides also moved to reduce conventional weapons and to continue phased withdrawal of their forces from Europe. Ukraine. and at least eight other nations were suspected of developing such weapons. In May 1990. also known as the CFE Treaty. The Chemical Weapons Convention treaty of 1993 banned manufacture of chemical weapons and restricts trade in substances used to make them. although it does not ban genetic engineering as such. sets ceilings on battle tanks. Prompted by the use in 1987 and 1988 of poison gas by Iraq in its war against Iran. The convention is regarded by some as essentially meaningless in that the environmental modifications envisaged—generating tidal waves. and in July 1991 the two leaders signed the START I agreement requiring both nations to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals by about 25 per cent. as strategic nuclear weapons were located at sites in Russia. as advances are made in these fields. They reaffirmed the previous conventions and called for a treaty that would ban all such weapons. and Belarus. artillery pieces. the importance of such agreements will increase. however. the United States and the USSR continued to negotiate arms-control accords. It will come into force when it has been ratified by 65 states. calmed immediate . hurricanes. both the United States and the USSR were accused of continuing research and development in this area. As the 1990s began. President Gorbachev and the US president George Bush approved a treaty to end production and reduce stockpiles of chemical weapons. with a single unified command over such weapons. and so on—are not technically feasible and may not be in the foreseeable future. this process will take several years. The office of the Secretary-General of the UN was empowered to investigate suspected chemical weapons use. and attack helicopters in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains.

was signed by President Clinton and approved by the United Nations General Assembly in September 1996. The START II Treaty. relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflict. However. sharply brought into focus by Beijing’s nuclear blast and its test of an advanced international missile in 1995. and the threat of the use of. While START I came into force in December 1994. On July 8. Planned negotiations towards a comprehensive test ban were cancelled by President Reagan in 1981. the Duma is very reluctant to ratify it in its present form. to date. There was. The Court was. and still is. which is expected to put an end to all nuclear testing. There are also current moves to effect a ban on battlefield laser weapons: the October 1995 Review Conference for the 1977 Protocol. unable to make a decision regarding situations where the survival of the state was threatened.000. The other relates to the plans of the United States. Two broad interacting trends are likely to propel the great powers of Asia into a nuclear dynamism that could have significant consequences for the Pakistan policy. the World Court declared that the use of. In 1976 underground testing was limited to weapons of no more than 150 kilotons yield. however. and other world trouble spots. India and Israel have declined to do so. One is the ongoing modernisation of China’s atomic arsenal. signed by George Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin in January 1993. was illegal. concern that the Soviet break-up might hasten the spread of sophisticated weapons to the Middle East. 1996. Russia and Japan to develop and deploy . nuclear weapons. By the year 2003 the strategic warheads of each power are to be reduced to around 3. in particular. START II has yet to be ratified by the United States and Russia. the treaty requires that all nuclear nations should ratify it before it comes into force. limits submarine-launched ballistic missiles. banned laser weapons specifically designed to cause permanent blindness.79 fears. Nuclear Arms Race in Asia! Asia may be on the verge of a new arm race involving nuclear weapons and missiles. the Indian subcontinent. A Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. and calls for the elimination of almost three quarters of the nuclear warheads and all the multiple-warhead land-based held by the United States and the former Soviet republics.

President. China’s strategists are said to be pushing for significant expansion of the size as well as the range of its nuclear inventory. could in turn. the U. Mr. Mr. could soon become history. So long as the U. The Clinton administration is pressing ahead with plans for the deployment of theatre missile defences aimed at protecting its forward deployed forces in and around the Euro-Asian landmass. There are reports suggesting China could move towards a doctrine called “Flexible response” that calls for nuclear engagement with a potential adversary at all levels and involves the development and deployment of many weapons. The American planes to press ahead with the development and deployment of theatre missiles defences. reflected in the doctrine of minimum deterrence. Washington and Moscow. S. For about three decades. could have a strong effect on the current Chinese nuclear doctrine and may force Beijing to accelerate its nuclear modernisation. S. China was content with this ‘minimum deterrent’ force. and had to laxity of go slow with the introduction of new weapons into its atomic arsenal.80 missile defence – also called the “Sons of the Star War”.S. But a relaxed Chinese nuclear posture. Feeding into the new nuclear strategy is the momentum towards building missiles defences in the U. Mr. – Russian rivalry remained the central element of the international system. pushing Asia into classic arms race. the real and perceived fears about the spread of ballistic missiles. S. in the context of growing apprehensions about Beijing’s political objectives. a scaled down version of the former U. A rapid Chinese nuclear modernisation. China had relied on a small nuclear force – with about 300 nuclear warheads now deployed – for deterring its potential adversaries. Bill Clinton and the Russian President. reinforce the missile defence efforts of Tokyo. around the world have helped create a strong bipartisan support for the “Sons of Stars Wars” in Washington. Declaring their interest in the joint development of Star War technologies and weapons systems at the recent Moscow Summit. These two trends could feed into each other and engulf Asia in an unprecedented arms race involving the introduction of additional nuclear weapons and defensive systems against nuclear-tipped missiles. Ronald Reagan’s Star Wars proposals in the early 1980’s. President. .

Besides the worries about the new posture being adopted by the nuclear superpowers. There is a growing sentiment in Japan favour of building theatre missile defences. Japanese cooperation in building missile defences will be the litmus test of continuing American security commitment to Japan. It was this mutual vulnerability that kept the nuclear adversaries in check. said in a joint statement on May 10.” In committing themselves to cooperation on missiles defence. Washington and Moscow have now agreed to introduce missile defence into the nuclear equation. China fears that in a world of missile defences. Although there are justifying the drift towards Star Wars in the name of missile proliferation for the developing world. Tokyo may believe it badly needs to offset the permanent nuclear asymmetry between Beijing and Tokyo that is codified by the membership of Japan as a non-nuclear state in the NPT. and Russia had the ability to destroy each other after absorbing a nuclear strike. China is also concerned about U.S. Although Tokyo justifies the need for theatre missile defences on the ground that North Korea is acquiring medium range missiles that could be targeted on Japan.S. that they “will make every effort towards the goal of broadening bilateral cooperation in the area of defence against ballistic missiles. In developing a new set of principles for strategic stability in the post-Cold War world. missiles defences into Asia: “If a country with nuclear weapons has a spear and then gets a shield. 1995.81 Boris Yeltsin. it is not unaware that an advanced missiles defence capability could provide it with a means . and Japanese plans to jointly develop and deploy missile defences in Asia. With the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty now extended indefinitely. The Japanese defence establishment may have come to see missiles defences as a substitute for an independent Japanese nuclear deterrent. its primitive nuclear deterrent may increasingly get obsolete and irrelevant. under which both the U. and many in Tokyo argue that U. but neither side had the capability to defend against a nuclear attack. you can imagine what would happen”. Chinese officials have repeatedly warned against the introduction of U.S.S. the Chinese say with reference to the potential for a first strike without the fear of retaliation. Washington and Moscow may have begun to rewrite the rules of the global nuclear game. peace between the Cold War rivals was kept by the balance of nuclear terror. For about four decades.

which have experienced an enormous scope for advancing individual or sectional interests under the cloak of democracy. the U. Russia and Japan – and the great powers of Asia – China. further destabilising the already uncertain strategic environment in Asia. in particular. Without a rapid modernisation of its nuclear deterrent and a significant expansion of its nuclear arsenal. remand to custody. Nuclear weapons and a whole range of new technologies being developed – including those that can mars programme – could become critical in the new struggle for dominance over a prosperous Asia. language or caste are frequently involved in such clashes. Russia needs to remain a power of consequence in Asia and to expand its weight in the emerging Asian balance of power. Large sections of the community which seek their identity as a group on the basis of religion. The upshot of all this is that a complex nuclear and missile race may be about to begin in Asia.82 to balance the Chinese nuclear capabilities. specially for winning electoral battles. Police are invariably drawn into such situations as a matter of their duty. Violent clashes between opposing groups are on the increase in several States. Policing a Turbulent Democracy is no Joke! Pakistan’s administrative system is now beset by increasing pulls and pressure exerted by different groups in society. S. Beijing fears that the credibility of its nuclear deterrent may come under challenge and that it may be subjected to strategic ‘blackmail’ by its potential adversaries. Russia and Japan – and the United States. involving all the great powers of Asia – China. China has been steadily moving towards improving the accuracy of its missiles. considering the relevance of tactical nuclear weapons. At stake for Washington and Beijing may be nothing less than the future primacy in Asia. and the introduction of multiple warheads on its missiles. Tokyo’s outrange at the recent Chinese nuclear test and its rare assertiveness in quickly announcing an aid cut off against Beijing suggests a growing anger in Japan about the expanding Chinese nuclear and military capabilities. and their action thereafter includes such coercive steps like forcible dispersal of rioting mobs. arrest. The immense power and patronage attached to the elective offices in government have made politicians increasingly aggressive in their dealings with each other. .

with tacit support from the ruling politicians. Whenever the clashing groups happen to be politically opposed to each other. Police performances in such situation appears partial and one sided – in some cases it also happens to be so in fact – at the behest of the ruling political group or its supporters.83 prosecution and so on. A transfer act as a severe economic blow and disrupts the police officer’s family life. the Chief Minister or Home Minister. a Chairman. retired members of judiciary or senior administrators who. police handling of labour. one each from the ruling and the Opposition party as Members and four other members nominated by the Government from academicians. in the public estimate. but by then the damage already done to them by coercive police measures cannot be undone. Pressure on the police takes a variety of forms. This leads to the neglect of professional performance to the satisfaction of the general public. While suspension acts as a great humiliating factor. It will have seven members. encourages policemen to believe that their career advancement does not depend on merit but can be secured by carrying favour with politicians who count. and sets the system on the downward slope. A police force which first succumbs to pressure and becomes the handmaid of the ruling party soon starts indulging in excesses on its own. The affected persons can only seek relief in court. Police brutality tends to go unchecked when its political master has a true majority. There should be at least one woman. (For example. The Commission had studied this problem in great depth and recommended the setting up of a statutory body called the State Security Commission under the Chairmanship of the Chief Minister or Home Minister as the case may be to exercise superintendence and control over police. students and . are not involved in political activities. The following charter is suggested for the State Security Commission: (i) Lay down broad policy guidelines and directions for the performance of preventive tasks and service-oriented functions by police. the group against whom police action is directed starts alleging partisan attitudes. It is easy to subject them to administrative action by way of transfer or suspension on the basis of an alleged complaint taken up for inquiry. even without any political direction because of a general feeling of assurance of protection from its political master in recognition of its ‘loyalty’. Aggressive interference with the police system by extraneous sources. two MNAs. namely.

which may be set up for tonning up the general quality of police performance in the districts and. (vi) Generally keep on reviewing the functioning of police in the State. arbitrary or high-handed action. . Additional meetings may be held as and when required to deal with matters that may be brought up by any member or the DGP who will function as its Secretary. Though its deliberations may not be open to the public or the press. to take immediate corrective action. The primary advantage in having the State Security Commission is that the Government’s directions to the police will be open and guided by frank discussions in the Commission. Public interest will be best served by this arrangement. The State Security Commission shall meet at least once in two months. The presence of a retired judge in the Commission will ensure judicial objectivity and fairness in the evolution of views and policies on police matters. highlighting noteworthy instances of corrective actions taken at the instance of the Commission or the Councils. in particular. improper. The fact that every action taken or omitted to be taken by the police is likely to be questioned by the Commission whose members will also have access to all the records and other material with the police and act as an effective check against illegal. (iii) Examine or direct the DGP to examine the record of police action in any specific case where a complaint has been made about alleged partisan or biased action either by or at the behest of a police officer of or above the rank of Superintendent of Police. If such examination discloses police misconduct. (ii) Evaluate police performance according to suitably evolved norms from the police point of view and present a report to the Legislature every year. direct the DGP. (iv) Function as a forum of appeal to deal with representations from police officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or above about their having been allegedly victimised in service matters on account of prejudice arising from political or other extraneous considerations.84 victims of social exploitation may be covered by such guidelines). (v) Obtain periodic reports from the District Security Councils. a brief note should be compiled about the matters discussed and decisions taken and got approved for issue to the press. the quality of disposal of public complains against police. The Commission shall also present to the Legislature an annual report on the working of the Commission and the District Councils.

The presence of an opposition MLA in the Commission will make for a broad consensus which will enhance the prestige of the appointee. is required immediately to restore order in public life. the Superintendent of Police as Member/Secretary and two MLAs. The function of the District Security Council shall be: (i) Reviewing the action taken on complaints against policemen in the district at periodic intervals and ensure their prompt and proper disposal. the ruling party claiming that all is well and the Opposition parties alleging a total breakdown of order. The District Security Council shall have jurisdiction to interfere in matters of internal administration or discipline of the police force which shall remain under the normal chain of command within police. The process of selection and appointment to this post must carry credibility. A district Security Council may be set up for the purpose in each district. A fundamental reform for this purpose is the depoliticisation of the police department by putting it statutorily under a State Security Commission as recommended by the NPC. The common people are caught in between by the ground realities of organised violence and growing militancy all round. the . untrammelled by political interference. Present a quarterly report to the State Security Commission.85 The public image and personality of the police chief are important. with the District Collector as Chairman. The NPC has recommended a fixed tenure of office for the incumbent after his appointment by a special process which will involve the State Security Commission also. Maintenance of public order in a fear-free atmosphere is vital for a truly functioning democracy. residents in the district. (iii) Generally keep in review the functioning of police in the district. (ii) Evaluate the performance of the district police according to the norms laid down by the State Security Commission and present an annual report to it. It cannot be just a debating subject for our legislators. one each from the ruling and the opposition party resident in the district as members and three members from retired judges or senior administrators or academicians or social workers. commanded by officers of competence and integrity. A highly motivated and professionalised police. Once this is done. and should not be fouled by political whims or prejudice. We also require a body closer to the people at the district level to ensure prompt and proper disposal of public grievances against police.

In our country. may vary the maximum amount of election expenses of candidates on the basis of the change in value of money or on other justifiable grounds. The political parties must disclose how much money was collected by them and from whom and the manner in which it was spent so that the court is in a position to determine whose money was actually spent through the hands of the party. on an average. Still these ceilings fall very short of the reality. no wonder that we hear allegations such as Bofors. the Secretary of State. How Does Money Power Wreck Elections In Pakistan? It is appropriate for the legislature or the Election Commission to prescribe the requirements of maintaining true and correct accounts by political parties and the receipts as well. muscle.000 crores is floating in the country today. ministerial and media powers. works out to one million in our country as against 60. by order. for a country constituency. There. Unless this is done.000 in England and 50. The emphasis has now shifted from raising adequate funds from local industries and others to international transactions and there is. In the U.50.5 lacks for an assembly constituency. A rough estimate is that black money of the order of Rs. We should not sight of the serious fissures developed and the perceptible after 1967.86 other administrative and functional changes can be smoothly made by the Commission itself as it proceeds with its charter. £ 4. the purity of elections being spoiled by money power cannot really be ruled out.7 pence for elector have been fixed as the ceiling. Enron. therefore. And further Hawala misdeeds. There is no gainsaying that our system of elections is afflicted with serious ills which could be broadly classified as four ‘Ms’ money.330 plus 3. 1. No doubt the revision is placed before Parliament for approval. All political parties should unanimously bring about this basic and urgently needed policy reform. 4. The predicament of contestants who want to win election by hook or by crook is quite understandable when there is an allround deterioration of values. The total electorate for a parliamentary constituency. Further.000 in Scotland. before every general . The election expenses ceilings have been raised to Rs. we have to reckon with all sorts of geographical shape of the constituencies.K.

the “disturbed conscience” of some successful contestants in the first elections was mainly responsible. such as Australia. Previously. 3. Countries. providing for elaborate legal steps laid down for the maintenance of a true and correct election expenses account. 10 lakhs. in regard to section 293A of the Companies Act. It would be highly desirable to completely delete the two amendments of 1956 and 1974 and restore the law as it stood prior to 1956. according to the verdict of the apex court. 1. a review of the ceilings may be undertaken by the Election Commission.87 election to the National Assembly. (3) the declaration by a candidate and his election agent on a solemn oath or affirmation to accompany the account was dispensed with. we have taken steps that were sometimes forward and sometimes backward depending on the political exigencies.K.000 and Miscellaneous Rs.5 lakhs Stationery – Rs. Canada and Japan follow under their law fixed ceilings. There is no denying the fact that an overwhelming majority of legislators embark upon their parliamentary career with a gross lie. huge collections of money from companies by political parties were used to be made by way of number of advertisements from the same industry of the company in a single souvenir . banners and voter’s slips – Rs. one in 1956 amendments. there were two legislative onslaughts. etc. trade union or other. Paid workers employed as polling agents including adequate posters.000 a total of around Rs. 1956. Any expenditure incurred by the candidates political party or any of their friends or other organisations need not be accounted for by the candidates. A rough break up of the legitimate expenses on major heeds for a parliamentary constituency in our country is as follows: Transport and fuel – Rs. we borrowed the wholesome provisions of law in this respect from the U. Unfortunately.5 lacks. Originally. a false election expenses account. The 1956 amendments were mainly to the effect that (1) the period of accounting was narrowed down to one month between the election notification and the declaration of result against the previously laid down unrestricted period. (2) the elaborate Form 26 in which accounts were to be furnished was dispensed with. However. according to many. 20. 50. Unfortunately. The 1974 amendments to section 77 completely made the provisions thereof nugatory. a candidate is not allowed to place his funds in the possession of his political party.

000. say sometimes exceeding even a crore of rupees. The provisions of section 13A of the Income Tax Act.25 lacks. (4) saving on reduction of polling personnel and transport Rs. If one family of three pays one rupee a year the total annual collection would be more than what is needed on all aspects of elections. 10. 2. Further. the five percent contribution now fixed is not a satisfactory arrangement for the reason that a large amount in the case of major flourishing companies. cutting them and numbering and then checking: Rs. (7) saving on counting arrangements – Rs.S. which lay down requirements for the maintenance of accounts to enable the assessors to deduce the political parties’ income (which are allowed exemption from the tax) remain as dead letter. could be collected. 1. and (8) by reduction of the campaign period to 7 days – Rs. Therefore. The following items account for a large expenditure and the savings could be made by using the EVMs (1) special type of paper for printing ballot papers including transport charges to the printing presses and back – Rs. Electronic voting machines (EVMs) and mobile/stationary polling station could be set up to help eliminate large scale impersonations and booth-capturing.2 lacks. A committee favoured the imposition of complete ban on any contribution for the reason that companies formed by a large number of shareholders holding different political views should be allowed to contribute. There is absolutely a case for lifting the veil of secrecy and initiation of criminal proceedings against of defaulting parties. etc. 5 lacks. there is a procedure enabling a tax payer to indicate in his tax return (“check off”) that $ 1 could be set apart for . (5) Saving on ballot boxes – Rs. 69. 10.1 lacks. thereby cutting down on expenditure. The period of campaign could be reduced to seven days from the present 21. (6) Stationary.000. The accounts should be maintained by political parties for auditing.88 published by a political party. Now the requirements are that contributions could be obtained only from non-government companies to the maximum of five per cent in a financial year of its average net profit determined during the three immediate preceding years and that a resolution to this effect should be passed in the Directors’ meeting. – Rs. (3) Transport ballot papers to the polling stations – Rs. 1961. 2.000. (2) printing huge quantities of ballot papers.85 lacks. specific graded figures should be fixed and not any percentage. 1. In the U.

It is wrong to be ready to meet threats but. Internal Security – Challenges and Approach The threat to internal security is often posed by highly trained and motivated volunteers belonging to highly organised and resourceful terrorist outfits. particularly for the Union Parliament and State Assemblies. Their failure to draw up detailed long term plans to meet terrorist challenges handicaps them in their operations. Internal security cannot be guaranteed without a sound knowledge of the terrorists’ way of functioning. Unfortunately. There are other measures which would also result in huge saving. should forward them with its comment to the National Assembly. The functioning of political parties should be regulated by law. It is . place and structures from these committed zealots with the choice of time. continually sap the manpower. in turn. The unenviable task of providing protection to men. The reaction of the police to terrorist threats is desperate mobbing and covering the target at best and difficult immobilisation has put it at a costly disadvantage. An internal security machine working in a void often give rise to ludicrous security reactions. The police should have led in modernisation techniques with the antipode marching to keep pace.89 election purposes on which no political party or Government has any control. Anonymous calls or letters in most unlikely situations are attended to with a desperate mobilisation of men and machinery without scrutinising the call or the letter. Even in advanced countries the police find it difficult to cope with the problem. The problem of money’s role in elections. the show of strength. place target in their favour and any number of sophisticated methods and techniques of strike to choose from. Desperate reaction may prompt mischievous elements to shoot similar missions almost daily. we can adopt graded contributions on somewhat similar lines. it is not so in the Pakistani situation. emphasising the compulsory maintenance of accounts audit by independent auditors and submission of annual reports to the Election Commission which. Similarly. machinery and other resources of the police. and everything ends up as a hoax. could be best solved by fixing minimum educational qualification say postgraduate degree or Doctorate degree for standing for higher legislative Membership of Parliament.

plans and strategies and a complete commitment to carry out their operational plans.90 subtle planning and lowkey operation that make security possible. But even national leaders have traded their image and popularity for this supposed safety. the reasons can be only three. but a handful of highly qualified drawn up security plan. It is quality that counts and not quantity in both sabotage and security operations. coordination problems and higher chances of leakages. (b) the outfit is yet to equip itself or (c) that security sleuths could be exclusively covering the target making a strike impossible. an installation. Also it involves the problem of providing security and escape routes for more men in the post-operational period. namely. No number of policemen can stop a highly motivated and trained man from sneaking up to his target and destroying it. What is required is not companies of policemen. true and false informations are so much entwined . the smaller the chances of success because of human nature. And all this for inadequate security. The problems of security are manifold. providing security without coming in the way of the normal life of the target except where unavoidable. All security arrangements must be preceded by thorough research and detailed plans. Everything except these salient feature is present in the response of the Pakistani police security challenges. First is intelligence collection. The argument is not convincing for the simple reason that all terrorists outfits worth the name are extremely resourceful with objectives. They believe in taking charge of the target. or a person and dictating terms as though the security is given in exchange for freedom of movement and action. It is argued that the Pakistani security system is effective in discouraging the less resourceful terrorist outfits from attempting strikes and preventing half-hearted attacks. Those who really execute the sabotage are highly motivated trained competent individuals. Often. The essence of security build up is protection with minimum inconvenience to the concerned. Not many are involved in an expertly drawn up operational plan of sabotage. If a target is not struck for a long time. But Pakistani security sleuths feel otherwise. The larger the number. (a) the outfit has not really intended to strike. No target is out of their reach. be it a place. based on reliable intelligence inputs about the objects and operational plans of the adversary. Pakistani security plans ignore the cardinal principle of a good reticulation. This is completely forgotten in Pakistani situation.

91 that it is impossible to distinguish one from the other. This creates problems of mobilisation and deployment without rousing suspicion. it should be born in . it must not be too long. piloting and striking force will form the skeleton of the system. It ends the elements of surprise. both the research and analysis are carried out under pressure of time because of the proximity of the threat. Timing is an essential ingredient of security planning and decides the success or failure of any operation. escort. Both intelligence and its source must be kept as a closely guarded secret. personal security officer. The timing of briefing and development must be decided at high level to ensure perfect secrecy and. His success depends upon the ability to assess the situation and pursue a better course of action without loss of time. This again depends upon the skill and experience of the individual who handle the job. Success also depends on how much briefing must be made to operators at ranks and levels and how much information and background knowledge can be fed to them. The time of briefing the impending operation and the briefing gives sufficient time to the operators for preparation. mobile patrols and striking forces for a static target. how much can be told? Security operation basically involves the creative initiative of the operator. armed pickets. Standing guards. Not that everything traditional is irrelevant today. the strategy of quadruple deployment – static guards. inner cordon. Here again. Even if a piece of information is identified as true. liberal outlets for vital information create security risks. That isolated piece of information is removed from the adversary’s action plan and when pursued leads to wrong conclusions and dangerous situations. Continued research is a must to utilise the information in action. a comprehensive plan of operation with flexibility to meet contingencies. The men to handle the security operation should be handpicked for competence and probity. Often. Their antecedents and recent activities must be closely examined before they are cleared. it losses its value standing in the midst of useless material. The primary requirement of any security operation is a thorough study and analysis of intelligence and other inputs. However. outer cordon and striking force are deployed for a human target while for a mobile target a security officer. Any leak may prompt an adversary to modify his plan which will annul the security operation. The briefing of security operation about the job itself poses a problem. For instance.

Communication is thus the capacity of an individual or a group to evolve a desired response. Security. rather than improve the quality. An examination of almost any problem in human relations will probably reveal communication failure which is either organisational or personal. and in the past two decades. especially in the past 150 years. it only complements them. it would appear that communication is given secondary importance. increasingly so. Both groups of activities are vast but are vital and inter-related. Communication in management. there is the individual’s ability. written. Nearly seventy per cent of our active hours are spent in communication: either verbally. Communication is a Basic Necessity or Efficient Management in every organisation and home The process of transmitting and receiving ideas. the mere act of sending a memorandum or delivering a speech is considered to constitute a communication. Until the country learns the basic lessons of modern security. information. tragic death sand destruction are bound to continue. Effective communication is a very important process in every aspect of life. its challenges and counter strategies are evergrowing phenomena. An effective strategy must foresee challenges and arm itself in advance. Firstly. and most of the management do not handle communication with the employees particularly well. If one looks at Pakistani organizations today. reading or writing. and messages. The number of new security outfits coming up in an indication of Pakistan’s concern but then the accent is misplaced on quantity in the form of a new security outfit every time a serious security breach shakes the country. The country faces from RAW and other foreign terrorists organisations. to articulate based on his personality. an effective communication is only brought about if it evokes the desired response or stimulus. listening. clear thinking and skill in expression. Secondly. committee systems and so on. . The rapid transmission of information over long distances and ready access to information have become conspicuous and important features of human society.92 mind that this strategy is no way replaces specific security strategies. there is a whole system of organisational communication through verbal. Too often in business. covers two main groups in activity. However. or a mixture of both.

independent of the location.93 For the last few years. in the more “traditional” business of long-haul optical fibre systems. We commonly work on airplanes. They are looking for convenience through remote recess to bank accounts. With the rapidly changing world economy. These trends are not limited to business. architectures also appeared as erbium-doped optical fibre amplifies moved out of the laboratory into production and deployment. Work has become an activity not a place. mobile paging and home access to video shopping service. Consumers are also turning to technology as never before. After this long drumroll. and other devices in the office and home would all be connected globally. and multimedia services cable television. Today’s business environment is changing. more often than not. 1992 may well be remembered as the year when all those communication technologies around the world actually began merging – not just through prototypes and technology trials. In Pakistan there has been much talk about this partly because of economic liberalisation and the recent opening up of the telecom sector and partly because of the ripple effect from the success it has . or out. done by groups rather than individuals. individuals anywhere. customers and outside vendors often form virtual corporations to complete specific projects. In this vision of worldwide wireless communications. marketing reports and newspapers articles have whipped much excitement by predicting a day when desktop and portable computers. data. indoors. telephones. cable television. in hotel rooms or at home. several advances were made. facsimile machines. For the long term. as they struggle to regain personal time in their daily lives. And a dark horse is shaping up to be one of the leaders in the merging and provisions of telephone. Computing is also becoming a collaborative process. Out-sourcing is becoming more common for many corporate services. wireless-based communication has become a necessity for people on the move. Meanwhile. but in commercial systems. the widely touted personal communication services got a big boost. And while we travel. can make or receive calls on a packet handset. voice messaging. Employees. Revolutionary system. The average work day is longer and people are more mobile than ever before as business try to complete in a global market place. audio receivers. we need to stay in touch with people and exchange information. CD ROM.

it can aptly be described as the “ears and eyes” of the management. then they must be able to personalise these goals. . information as well as meetings of minds. Moreover the popularity of the internet and online services reflects our increasing desire to use networks for business. Similarly. Generally. The making of a plan requires facts and figures which can only be made available through effective communication. one of the principal reasons for the failure of planning is the communication gap between those who plan and the masses for whom they are supposed to plan. an effective communication serves several purposes and benefits it in many ways. The emergence of the information super highway is giving birth to universal services to consumer markets. many people in Pakistan view it as a panacea to the problems with an inherently unreliable infrastructure. While the need for looking into these technologies in the West is prompted from the benefits it offers to subscribers over existing forms of communication. In any organisation. organisational control. The formal organisation structure hinges on an effective communication system. If you want them to work for organisational goals. the dysfunctional conflicts will not only lower the effectiveness of an individual but also that of organisation. In Pakistan. This means that they must have an opportunity to influence and determine these goals. informal communication within the organisation is responsible for holding together the members of a primary social group. a sense of identify and responsibility. Communication plays a vital role in planning. People work for personal goals. as well as building and maintenance of employees morale. Since communication provides the key to facilitate the exchange of ideas. While functional conflicts may result in striving for excellence. The foregoing only indicates not only the developments in but also the importance of communication in the changing business scenario. Conflicts are not always dysfunctional. Communication also plays a pivotal role in rational decision making. and other purposes. It acts as a basic foundation of management. a conflict will arise if the goal of an individual is contrary to those of the organisation. Only then will they have a stake in the organisational goals and be motivated to work for them. creativity.94 had in the West.

personal prejudices become rife and complicate situations. the focus is on recognising each other’s strengths and planning appropriate strategies to achieve corporate goals and objectives.  Inter-personal conflict is best confronted.  In conflict situations. However. Force alienates. Money brings a calculated response. it is only openness and a participation in decision-making that can generate commitment to organisational goals. Power is another factor contributing to the conflict.  One should try a solution that enables a win-win situation and avoid one that forces one side to lose.  All of us have an ambivalent dealing towards authority. intra or inter group conflict arise from difficulties on how to share available resources. it is often better to express that annoyance appropriately. in one of the following ways:  By avoiding the issue.  An emphasis on collaboration and team building also helps to change the potential courses of conflicts into positive cooperation. We like it and yet we also do not like it. denied.95 Conflict is also likely to arise if members in a group perceive their goals as conflicting. A limited understanding on issues unrelated to the conflict can improve the climate for broader cooperation.  Preventing conflict is also an approach mode. they will later lead to a major breakdown. or run away from. of the authority vested in him. When we are annoyed with a colleague. or  By diffusing the situation and sharing in problem solving. Hence. once it exists. People generally attempt to manage conflict. not smoothed over. Often. A good boss realises that some of the negative feelings expressed towards himself are not because of his personal shortcomings but because. Prevention means anticipating the potential causes of conflict and taking quick action to turn them into positive forces for better understanding and cooperation. If suppressed. .  By approaching the problem and attempting to reach a solution.

The neighbour confessed that he had entertained a passion that he had never been able to acknowledge to them. a couple had been told that someone in their life was going to make a confession about either an emotion or an event that they could not have imagined. In one episode. The expectation was built that he had secretly nurtured an unrequited love for the wife. However. are always directly to the viewers. The programme was about surprise confessions. It is a common misconception that products are sold through advertisements on television. Much of the subsequent discussion in newspapers and among many people was about the intensity of homophobia in American society. The result is that television becomes chatty medium embedded into the world of commodities. That one man had been unable to bear the idea that he was the object of another man’s desire was seen as evidence of a deep-rooted fear of . Television cannot build upon fantasy because programmes have to be interrupted at regular intervals to advertise products. in which moral communities are created and destroyed in ways that are unique to television. determining the extent of viewship and making prime time allocation is geared towards getting sponsorship from makers of one or the other product. Impact of Television on the Youth Television is a chatty medium. While the couple was shown waiting expectantly – a neighbour was brought on the screen. No “Chain of Command” or “Line of communication” will ever be completely successful in passing on information. Those who appear on it whether they are newsreaders or sports commentators. When there is likely to be a breakdown. there are several ways of minimising ineffectiveness of communication and improving its effectiveness.96 Communication is seldom perfect. the management should try to select a communication appropriate to the circumstances. or to address the audience. The reason is that there are many barriers to it. This so socked the husband that the next day he took a gun and shot the neighbour dead. About a year ago an event on a talk show on American television led to a murder in real life. The imperatives for audience research. for it is in fact the audiences that are packaged for products. Management should be aware of its own shortcomings. either individual or organisational. Then came the surprise confession – it was not the wife that he had fancied but the husband. and generation information on the kind of products that should be advertised at different times slots.

The response of the girl was either that she did not care. a 16 year-old. In response to probing questions posed by the middle class hostess. I saw a talk show in New York called “Stop partying Girl: You are Pregnant”. Occasionally a professional person such a physician or a social worker appears to “advise” or admonish from a supposed position of neutrality. Towards the end of the show a paediatrician was introduced who lectured the girls on their irresponsible behaviour. one woman stood up and said “Was it equally difficult for you to get pregnant?” Another girl. female or male. The participants in these talk shows. or that though she knew that she was doing wrong she could not stop. or a friend – so that she could be persuaded to stop “partying”. who said that it was she who took care of the daughter’s child. who was pregnant and was “brought” to the show by the concerned relative – a sister of a female cousin. with a fair sprinkling of black women and girls. each mini-episode was constructed around a young girl (age range 15-19). was brought there by her mother. the girl was made to “confess”. “Don’t you see how much pain you are causing your mother? Do you want to bring a child in the world who is handicapped? And do you want your mother to go caring for the babies you bring in the world?” these were questions posed from the audience with the hostess interrupting to amplify a question or clarify its intent. how she was smoking or keeping late hours or taking drugs. middle class. But I wondered whether the anger of the husband had also something to do with the “revelation” of the most intimate emotions in the glaring lights of television cameras to unseen televiewers. “You girls are ruining the future generation . In this 45 minutes slot. visibly of the working classes or unemployed. as and when they raised their hands. So I became interested in more talk shows telecasted in America in the afternoon. When one of the girls said that it was not easy for her to give up taking drugs. “Are you not concerned that you are harming your baby?” asked the hostess with a look of concern.97 gay sexual mores. Once in a while someone would bring in the question of the father but in general it was assumed that reproduction was a matter that concerned only the women community who were gathered there to bring an erring member back to the fold. not only the principal protagonists but the studio audiences are women. The hostess also allowed members of the audience gathered there to ask questions. The tone was throughout accusatory and this was amplified by the occasional tear that the accompanying relative wiped from her eyes. who already had a baby when she was 14. The host or the hostess in contrast is clearly white.

took vows never to be separated again while the audience participated in this great emotional drama by shedding tears and sighing. the life in inner cities is presented confirm all his or her prejudices of irresponsible teenagers becoming pregnant. In a way. Intimate details of emotional trauma were relieved in shows – women revealed how they had accidentally discovered the infidelity of their husbands through a home made video of his sexual exploit with a prostitute. and struggling with survival. There was much display of emotion – grief. and the under classes. Just because a girl becomes pregnant. But the accusatory tones and the constant effort to separate the good women from the bad ones. or they disappeared. it does not mean that she known how to be a good mother . the participate through the medium of television in a middle class society that is otherwise closed to them. Wives or girl friends confronted the ‘other woman’ with the audience assembled there reiterating that no one had the right to steal another woman’s man. bitterness. of ill health. And thus a moral community of woman was sought to be created out of a television talk show from which men had been virtually eliminated except as professional advisers through whom while middle class society spoke about the irrationality and irresponsibility of the blacks.98 by your irresponsibility. motherhood has to be learnt like everything in life. HIV infection. sexual promiscuity and rampant violence. tends to show that inner city voices are allowed representation only to be dominated by the cultural hegemony of the middle class voice. For the middle class viewer. There were other such shows – a mother and her run away daughter were brought together in a surprise reunion – both screamed out their emotions. drug trade. After all news coverage on American television takes notice of inner cities only in the context of disasters – violence. in which the only support came from their own mother who were themselves in their thirties.” There was little compassion for the hapless girls who were little more than children themselves in being caught in the spiral in which they exposed themselves. HIV infection and repeated pregnancies. The cultural modes of confession and catharsis open up the space for a particular kind of television culture to emerge in American society . Man never appeared as having an agency in these shows – they were simply stolen. One is tempted to think that these shows allowed voices from inner cities to be represented on television. anger.

In many European countries the rulers believed in the theory of Divine Right of Kings. where revolutions took place. which could be possible only through revolutions. It was this attitude of French and Russian rulers which was responsible for Russian and French Revolutions respectively. though they worked from dawn to dusk. They had suffered both from church fathers as well as their ruler. the economic conditions of the people on the whole were very poor and miserable. They had also paid heavily and got back nothing in return except rebukes and punishments.99 which reinforces the cultural divide between inner cities and the rest of society. Then another reason was that economic conditions of the masses in all the countries. . The result was that now they desired a change. for their every act of omission and commission they were responsible to God and not to the people. The people in many European countries had been suffering. Revolution round the World in Recent Centuries One significant cause of Revolution always is that the attitude of the rulers towards their American colonists was not sympathetic. According they developed a very great autocratic attitude. In reflecting upon the dangers that globalisation of media poses to countries like Pakistan one would be much more concerned with the importing of these cultural categories of confession and accusation as means for creating a cultural hegemony of the middle class more than anything that may come in the register of the imaginary like films or soap operas. were very miserable. made them rise in revolt against the then established order. which could be changed only by revolutionary and not peaceful methods. According to them. Though the kings and the traders enjoyed a pleasuregiving life and were enjoying in their palaces. The theory also believed that the subjects had no right whatsoever. They had practically nothing with them. as in those days there were no methods bringing far-reaching changes by peaceful negotiations at equal level. by which they believed that the king was the representative of God on earth. resulting in American War of Independence. Their own miserable conditions on the one hand and comforts and pleasures of the rulers on the other. to challenge their supremacy and authority.

much less to tolerate its interference. On the other hand these costly wars were an eye-sore for the masses. As the time passed this became intolerable for the masses. The kings lived in their beautiful palaces far away from the worries of their subjects.100 Then another reason was that there was lack of contact between the kings and the people. These problems gradually became deep-rooted and since there were no methods of knowing them. who decided to exert themselves through revolution. But when Stuarts came on the throne. These even changed fundamentally and basically the social. Still another reason was that the attitude of the nobility towards the common masses was very harsh as well as unsympathetic. They got only such laws passed which suited their convenience alone and not the convenience of the subjects. In so far as Elizabeth was concerned she tried to rule the country with great care. Charles I and Charles II believed in the theory of Divine Right of the Kings. She looked after the interests and welfare of the people. It however. Both James 1. They believed that the people had no right whatsoever to question their authority. Their hard attitude resulted in struggle for supremacy between the King and Parliament. They had no contact with the people over whom they ruled. They were not prepared to take the Parliament into confidence. Not only this. economic and political set up of the countries. It was the time when many of the rulers indulged themselves in wasteful wars. only if these rulers were dethroned and for that revolution was the only way out. the result was that these erupted into Revolution. which could be brought to an end. The nobility surrounded the kings and kept them in the dark. There was thus not a single cause responsible for these revolutions. resulting in the superiority of the Parliament over the King. but they also flouted the laws as and when they liked. where Revolution took place. England had remained under the Tudor despotism for quite sometime. This struggle continued for about 85 years and ultimately came to an end in 1688. cannot be denied that the Revolutions brought about and introduced many far reaching changes. In varying degrees these causes were responsible in almost all the countries. Thus whereas the masses paid. They also cared least for the masses. the nobles enjoyed. This change by which . real struggle started. These wars were not fought for the welfare of the people. They did not know their problems of day to day life and also about their inconveniences.

who had annoyed the people. It teased the people and the king levied extra taxes to maintain this army. Thus he wanted to act and actually acted in an arbitrary manner. He gave them all high posts and in an arbitrary manner removed all . He repealed all laws which were against the Catholics. This was intolerable for the educated people. James II believed in the theory of Divine Right of Kings. the king started a reign of terror and the supporters of the Duke were persecuted in large numbers. policy of religious toleration and adjustment prevailed. who felt that the king was going to establish military rule in the country and that too of a Catholic dominated army. is known in history as the Glorious Revolution. This reign of terror made him unpopular not only in England but in Scotland and Ireland as well. But James II wanted to follow a religious policy which was to benefit the Catholics and harm the Protestants. He also forced them to give pro-Catholic teachings to the students. who did not like the idea of biasing the minds of students in educational institutions. In this way he began to repeal already existing laws without taking parliament into confidence. He wanted to give all jobs in the state to them. It created great resentment against the king. James antagonised not only the educated. He also passed many laws. as against the king. The masses now wanted to end this ugly and unhappy situation. under Elizabeth. but many causes responsible for bringing about the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Both the Catholics and the Protestants were considerably adjusted. James II also maintained an army which contained soldiers and officers who had Catholic leanings. Duke of Manmoth had rebelled against James II. This made the king very popular. They wanted to purity the universities and colleges of this evil practice. It was an unusual experience for the people. In this way he came in conflict with the Parliament which could win the sympathies of the people. By this theory he believed that Parliament had no right to interfere in his affairs. but also annoyed the learned. He appointed his own Catholic supporters on all the high jobs in the universities. There was not one single. This attitude of the king was disliked both by the Parliament as well as the people. But after coming to the throne. which in the opinion of Parliament were unconstitutional.101 King had to give up his rights to the Parliament. The king followed a clear policy supporting the Catholics. The army was posted in the outskirts of London.

By the First Indulgence all were given religious freedom. England was hoping that after James II. When some of the Archbishops petitioned to the king that he should not insist upon such an announcement they were charged with malicious and seditious libels. Clergymen were asked to repeat this announcement in the churches for two weeks. who were likely to succeed him. heavy taxes and illegal activities of the king. the people of England were tolerating the rule of James II. had Protestant leanings. His both daughters. it has . The Archbishops were however. The people of England were forced to pay heavy taxes and duties without the approval of the Parliament but their benefits went to the people of France. Soon after in April 1688. He also invited Pope of Rome to England and restored his old position on him. in the country there will again be Protestantism. The people were quite confident that the young child would be trained and brought up as a Catholic monarch and that the nation will have to suffer even after the death of James II. He also followed an aggressive and repressive policy against the Protestants. James II decided to act in collaboration with France which was then a Catholic state. The result of all this was that Protestants in England. In his attempt to give the Catholic church its rightful place. Catholics were thus made eligible to hold all high offices. Thus great economic burdens. James II issued Second Declaration of Indulgence. created great resentment among the people. Such were the important causes responsible for bringing about the Glorious Revolution in England. in 1687 James issued his First Declaration of Indulgence. declared non-guilty and released. Ireland and Scotland stood as a solid bloc against the authority of the king. This was intolerable for the people who decided to take a revolutionary step and decide the issue once for all. Its effects in the economic field for the people were very dangerous. But at his old age the people of England were given the news of a birth of a son to James’s wife Queen Mary of Modena. Due to the weak policy of the king. by which an order was issued that the people would be appointed to high positions irrespective of their religious beliefs. They were arrested and brought before the court for trial.102 bans put on them. This Revolution. But in spite of all these problems. Their arrest created great resentment against the king and made him very unpopular among his people. economic interests of England were subordinate to those of France.

This parliament ruled out the possibility of calling back James II or offering throne to his son. were already much dissatisfied with the policies followed by James II.000 soldiers. which he could get. The new sovereigns accepted the supremacy of Parliament and other terms of Bill of Rights. On receipt of the news of arrival of William. This invitation was most welcome for William. William was received with open arms by the people of England. Soon after a Convention Parliament was convened to decide the future course of action. The throne thus laid vacant. It also decided that the throne be offered jointly to William and Mary on giving an undertaking that they would accept Parliamentary institutions and traditions. very soon he realised that very many soldiers and even his daughter had left him.000. It was with the acceptance of Bill of Rights that long drawn struggle between the Parliament and the Stuart Kings came to an end. grew from the policies of James II who ruled over the country in a manner which made him unpopular. over which William ruled. under his control. In pursuance of his decision an invitation was extended to William through Amiral Herbert. The people of England. As soon as he received the invitation he gladly accepted that and landed in England with a strong army of 15. It was time when France had plans to bring Holland. to strengthen his position. as soon as he came as victorious to the country. It is historically known as Glorious Revolution. against France. He had no other alterative but to leave the country with his Queen and infant son. William himself rejected the idea of acting as the Regent of his Queen. . Accordingly both the Whigs and the Tories held a secret meeting where it was decided that James II be dethroned and in his stead his son-in-law. James came out with a strong army of 20. if crown was offered to her. However. His blind support for Catholicism and his coming into conflict with the Parliament proved very costly for him. the William of Oranges should be invited. where it was well received by Louis XIV. They were particularly sick of his pro-Catholic attitude and for his undermining the authority of the Parliament. This royal family went as fugitive to France.103 rightly been said. This end came by very peaceful means and without any bloodshed. This very much dismayed him. William was thus in need of all foreign assistance. After prolonged discussions the Conventional Parliament decided that James II should be treated to have vacated his throne by his flight and that the same was lying vacant.

These were revolutionary in nature and character. It was a revolution in which there was no dislocation. All unwanted. Some thinkers make us believe that it was not at all revolution in the sense that monarchy continued to be the form of Government. was replaced by unity. now emerged as a powerful nation. brought an end to the theory of Divine Rights of Kings and established the Supremacy of Parliament. 3. they agreed to accept supremacy of Parliament and assured that they will not act contrary to its wishes. It is therefore safe to say that changes which came to England in 1688. Thus their mutual rift and disunity. All the sections of the society were equally benefited by it. 5. It was Glorious because England. It was Glorious because it was brought about without any civil war. Before William and Mary came on the throne of England. Economic benefits which France was now getting were denied to it and made available to the people of England. bloodshed or instability in the political structure of the country.104 A question that rises is a to how far is it correct or justified to call Glorious Revolution as Glorious. Revolution gave unity to the country. They were agreed dethrone James II and in his place bring William of Oranges on the throne. were really very far reaching. uncalled for and undue restrictions were removed and people now began to enjoy considerable freedom and autonomy. 2. They accepted the provisions of . The Catholics and Protestants on the one hand and Whigs and Tories on the other now came nearer to each other. Now both Holland and England combined together and threatened France. It was really glorious because: 1. Both the judges as well as the masses got considerable freedom in administering religious affairs. But this tentamounts to underestimating the significance of this great historical event which reduced the strength of monarchy. Religious freedom once again began to be enjoyed. 4. but benefited all. There is thus every justification to say that England witnessed the Glorious Revolution in 1688. which was under pressures and strains from France. In brining this change all the sections of British society joined hands. Thus Revolution did not benefit a particular section of society.

or keep a standing army in time of peace without Parliament's consent. Liberties of subjects were acknowledged. or use their prerogative to set up new law courts. Finally. All Englishmen had the right to petition the king. the statement of terms on which the Crown of England was offered to the Prince and Princess of Orange. following the autocratic rule of the Stuarts. then those of William. Combined with the Toleration Act (1689). proroguing (discontinuing). and the Act of Settlement (1701). with emphasis on those of Parliament. it provided the foundations on which government rested following the Glorious Revolution. powers of patronage. It confirmed limitations on sovereigns. . The monarch retained the prerogative of making war and peace. and be summoned frequently. then those of her sister Anne. and minting coinage. succession to the throne was settled on the heirs of James's daughter Mary. and to be tried by a jury of freeholders if accused of treason. The bill stated that James II had tried to destroy the Protestant religion. stipulating that the position was prohibited to any Roman Catholic or anyone married to a Roman Catholic. and liberties of the kingdom. laws. their subjects. The constitutional nature of the bill helped justify the term “Glorious” given to the events of 1688-1689. they could not exercise suspending or dispensing powers. Their acceptance of it permitted them to become William III and Mary II. such as choosing his or her own ministers. the Triennial Act (1694). and dissolving Parliament. to be free from excessive bail. Bill regarded as a basic component of Britain's unwritten constitution. summoning. the product of the 17th-century conflict of power between Stuart monarchs. monarchs had to rule through Parliament. and members should be given complete freedom of speech. but were given the means to do so. and Parliament.105 Bill of Rights. levy money. The bill established the supremacy of an Act of Parliament. The bill incorporated the Declaration of Rights. This last condition stands to this day. Parliament should have free elections. with their royal assent in December 1689 it became an Act of Parliament.

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How Can Smoking be Discouraged Among the Young?
“Multinationals have no future for their product in the developed markets. That is why they are trying to increase their marketplace by selling cigarettes in the developing countries,” says Dr. Stephen J. Bourke, expert in respiratory medicine from the University of Newscastle Upon Tyne, U. K. What is really dangerous – no milder word will suffice – is that multinationals and big companies are targeting adolescents. There is a multi-pronged attack to get the young boy or girl to smoke. This is done through colourful advertisements in the visual media and sponsorship of major sports and cultural events. In house, there are whispers that employees of tobacco companies have to smoke if they want furtherance in their careers. And directed at the adult smoker who might be thinking of giving it up are nicelyworded press releases and advertisements which “found” that smoking has no link to disease. Dr. Bourke is firm that the link is there, a strong one too. “More than fifty per cent of patient with lung cancer are smokers,” he said in an interview. As for chronic lung disease, he has patients in their fifties and sixties whose lungs are so badly damaged by smoking that they need to take domicilary oxygen treatment. These people, who are in no fit condition to lead normal lives leave alone go to work, keep oxygen concentrators at home with the ambient air of higher percentage of oxygen. Dr. Bourke is equally convinced of the link between smoking, especially the passive variety, and asthma. Children from families where patients smoke have higher asthma, he says. Epidemiological surveys too have revealed that children of smoking parents especially if the mother is a smoker, have a greater prevalence of asthma and severe asthma, more abnormalities of lung function and greater hyper-responsiveness (of the airways), than children of non-smokers. A startling piece of information – the smoke inhaled from a cigarette contains as much carbon monoxide as car exhaust. Carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke displaces oxygen from red blood cells so that less oxygen reaches the heart. And the oxygen that does reach the heart is used less efficiently because chemicals in smoke lower the levels of a key enzyme called cytochrome oxidise. Smoke also activates platelets in the blood, making clot formation more likely.

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So, there is no point in wearing a mask while driving through heavy traffic and then reaching for a cigarette at the end of the journey to relieve tension. While epidemiological studies linking smoking and cancer can be contested as being circumstantial, evidence at the molecular level cannot be so dismissed. In a Californian laboratory, a technique called chromosome painting has been used to detect damaged stretches of DNA in smokers. The specific damage is called translocation, a phenomenon that is implicated in cancer (New Scientist). And a research team at the John Hopkins University, U.S. has found that smoking dramatically diseases mutations in a gene called p53, that normally suppresses the growth of cancer. Mutations in p53 are believed to contribute to cancer’s inception and growth. Further, the study indicates that consumption of alcohol abets the process. In the U.S. years of campaigning are finally paying dividends. After the Environmental Protection Agency declared that second and smoke is a carcinogen, the Occupational Health Administration is proposing rules that would ban or seriously restrict smoking in every workplace. In a big boost to the antismoking lobby, the U.S. President Mr. Bill Clinton, proposed sweeping regulations intended to curtail smoking among teenagers, including a ban on vending machine sales, sharp new limits on tobacco companies sponsorship of sports events and advertising aimed at young people and a requirement that all buyers of cigarettes show proof that they are 18 years of age. The President’s announcement accepted the Food and Drug Administration’s findings and the nicotine in cigarettes should be declared an addictive drug. In Asia too, this temper is catching on. Stringent restrictions relating to vending machines and selling cigarettes to anyone under the age of 18 have either come into force or are soon to be enforced in South Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. Unfortunately, in Pakistan there is little campaigning save the statutory warnings printed in small print on cigarette cartons and advertisements. The problem of smoking is widespread in Pakistan no studies have been done to estimate what percentage of the population are smokers.

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True Socialism Still to Come!
In recent years socialism has been discredited in the ramparts of Eastern Europe, it is as if socialist ideologies have lost right to cling to their convictions. Since the Soviet Union has ceased to be, non seemingly has the prerogative any more to defend, for example, the public sector, or campaign for the reduction of income inequalities, or protest against intrusion of foreign capital into their lands. There have been other setbacks. The wholesale assault on ideological beliefs apart, the petering out of Third World solidarity can be directly related to the apocalypse in eastern Europe. The nonaligned Movement perhaps had its early inspiration from other sources, but it really came to life because it found a role for itself in the years of the Cold War. The Movement has, to all appearances, lost its profession now that, with the cessation of the socialist bloc, non-alignment is deprived of its raison d’etre. True, in certain quarters non-alignment tended to be defined as the propensity to move up and down on both sides of the street. In its quintessence, it nonetheless represented a certain dignity of thought and action and enabled the Third World to assert its separate personality. It also reflected a genre of courage. A defiance marked the demeanour of the nations who swore by non-alignment: we do not have might; we do not often have resources even; but we are not sacred of the ratting of the saber from them, to criticise them, to offer them creative solutions to problems which they in their folly have been responsible for in the first instance. That moral peak has disappeared. The Third World countries continue to strut about; nobody particular cares for them. Surprisingly, many of the erstwhile major domos of the Non-Aligned Movement are not realising that the halo specimen: it was because the socialist bloc had chosen to black to the hilt the western powers, including the United States, which had respected them. The disappearance of the socialist system in eastern Europe has had grave repercussions in another major area, namely, in the assessment of the role of economic planning towards fostering social and economic growth. It is perhaps bordering on tautology to suggest that the disintegration of the socialist politics in eastern Europe has coincided with the crumbling of command economy. The casualty of the process gained in strength is that it is the abysmal performance of centralised economic planning which was responsible for the socialist debacle in eastern Europe; had the planned system

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succeeded in delivering the goods and services. If new generation in eastern Europe had clamoured for socialism it could have been saved. This is a serious charge and deserves to be examined with some care. The command economic system failed to deliver sophisticated consumer goods. It did not come up with massive supplies of colour television sets, two-door refrigerators, slick passenger cars and luxurious textiles and other fineries. It either could not, or did not care to study the transformed mind-set of the grand-children great-grand-children of the Bolshevik Revolution. It failed to meet the challenge of the social convulsion resulting from the arrival of satellite television channels which made nonsense of assumption about supposedly unbridgeable political and ideological divides. There should be no scope of dissembling here: that new generations in socialist societies did succumb to the lure dangled from across the borders. Thus it may be said the system suffered from a debilitating deficiency. If neglected the task of building the socialist man as envisaged by Marx and Engels and Lenin. One can scan the syllabi pursued in schools, gymnasia and universities in the east European countries in the post-Second World War decades. The creation of the socialist man was, quite evidently, not a part of the political agenda and therefore excluded from the academic fora. The emphasis was on assembly-line production of unalloyed technocrats, who were supposed to fill slots within an unthinking, unquestioning bureaucracy. The challenge of creating the socialist man was basically the theme which sparked the Cultural Revolution in China in the sixties. It had however few customers elsewhere in the socialist world. And in China too, it soon became the victim of its own excesses. Once the satellites were marshalled in the cause of global telecommunications, East Europe proved to be the easiest of pickings. The youth, in overwhelming numbers and along with them, significant sections of urban groups were ready to pursue the mirage of the life style of West Europe and North America beamed by the electronic media. A general uprising was thus almost made to order. In most of the countries, the system collapsed from within. What has ensued is what Americans called Monday-morning-quarterbacking. It is relatively easy to heap the blame on the central command system for the collapse since the planning apparatus was in each east European country responsible for the overall production schedule and its

the possibility of views expressed not being transmitted to the higher or highest bodies was assumed to be remote. The leadership transmitted the orders. On the one hand the collective judgement that was formed benefited from the wisdom and knowledge that the leading cadres were invested with and on the other. and not the other way round. finally leading to the disintegration of the system. It is in response to such orders that the command apparatus produced specific goods or did not produce them. Did the economic command system capsize because of its own deficiencies. with the practical experience and information gathered at the grassroots. in such an arrangement the centre was obliged to obey signals from below. The occupants at the top of the political hierarchy were the final arbiters of two crucial decisions which defined both the longterm pattern of growth and the availability of different categories of goods and services in the immediate period. sometimes they were amended or modulated on the sly to suit the convenience of functionaries at different levels of the economic command. True. But the crucial major decisions-making which wagged the tail of the economic programme.110 breakdown into different commodities and services. Both decisions were in essence political. and at other times data on production and costs were fudged. riots and near-insurgencies. or because it was at the receiving end of wrong directives? Instructions transmitted by the top echelon of the political hierarchy were without question often ineptly laundered in a wrong way. Democratic centralism thus reflected the unity of theory . these were the direct outcome of the political process at work. The first decision was with respect to the proportion of the national product to be appropriated for savings and investment (the two coinciding in a near-closed economy). the party leadership could – and did – solicit information and views from the economic planners which could help it to make up its mind. where party units at the grassroots level were represented and represented grassroots level party units was the supreme authority. the second related to the allocation of assigned investible resources among the different producing sectors. But the puzzle remains. If the consequences of these decisions were disenchantment. or produced goods that were not matched either in quality or quantity by what the demand signalled. Since the congress. But the onus of the final decisions rested on it. On the contrary. imperfections and internal contradictions.

but also in what we eat and the way we dress. the command economy could have staved off the crisis of socialism caused by the mismatch between demand and supply remains an open question. do the biding of those superior to them in the hierarchy. Democratic centralism was made to stand on its head. lower echelons of the political structure tended to be mowed down by loyalists and yesmen who would. however. It may be expressed in works of art or scholarship. in our ideas of good and bad. in . fell at certain crucial junctures. who were idolised. in the education we receive. took it for granted that such idolatry did no harm to the tenets of socialism or to the functioning of the system. if democratic centralism were allowed the fullest rein. The shadow. which are produced by the group. The views of the leaders were rendered into axiomatic truth and had to be supported by extempore empirical exercises that were often indistinguishable from plain cheating. For the social scientist it includes all this and much more. Only the form of democratic centralism was maintained. Once the spirit of democracy was enfeebled. in the nature of our relationship to members of our family or to others in the society. The superstructure took the base almost for granted. Whether. it is the latter which was the dominant element in the system that guided the impulses. The leaders. it may be defined as embracing everything that a person acquires as a member of society. centralism held centrestage. and shaped the activities of the economic command. There are few doubts that the centralism of the kind delineated by Lenin and his comrades was violated times without number within the international socialist political movement. the expression of the genius of a people. The command economy did not fail the socialist polity. the humanities. all the habits and capabilities. Democracy gradually disappeared. It is nevertheless important to have the formulation right. It is a humid chapter in the history of socialism. in all seasons. social or economic questions of the day ceased to be important.111 and practice and contributed the basis for the formation of a selfcorrecting and self-redeeming vanguard. Cultural Pluralism in a Changing World For most people culture suggests high artistic or intellectual achievement. In our system of values. philosophy. What masses thought or felt on the major political. the development of art and science.

This list is far from complete. inferior. but it should suffice to indicate the range and complexity of the content of cultures. It is not surprising that a number of writers have described culture as a concept of major importance in the social science because of the demonstration of the extent to which we belong. In that connection it has served as a needed corrective to the widespread notion that differences in the way of life of different groups are determined mainly. by biology or race. In the USA. characterisation the present situation as cultural pluralism. In the language of many of the pre-literature societies described by anthropologists the expression ‘that people’ referred only to one’s own group. for example. It is perhaps not too surprising that in the history of human contacts most groups have been much more impressed by their differences from others than by the similarities. envisaged “a biological merger of the Anglo-Saxon peoples with other immigrant groups and a blending of their respective cultures into a new indigenous American type” the third. it is possible to identify certain counter-currents. but even in situations which are motivated by liberal high-minded programmes such as technical assistance or cooperation. somewhat less than human. in the expectations and hopes we have for the future. It is this wider concept of culture which is used in what follows.112 the kind of houses we build. other groups were often considered strange. in which the receiving areas are expected to adopt the standards and models of the donors. Gordon has distinguished three stages in the approach to the complex American ethnic structure. and by a greater concern on the part of those ‘others’ to maintain that identity. although widespread. but it has certainly played an important part in the relations between people. All too frequently this has been associated with the belief that if they are different from us they must be inferior. demanded “the complete renunciation of the immigrants ancestral heritage in favour of the behaviour and values of the Anglo-Saxon core group.” the second. the sociologist Milton M. which seeks “the preservation of the communal life and significant portions of the culture of the later immigrant groups within the . if not exclusively. characterised by a greater willingness to recognise the rights of others to their own cultural identity. not only in the obvious cases of colonisation and other forms of exploitation. Anglo-conformity. however. in our attitude toward strangers. the melting-pot idea. This attitude. is not necessarily universal. The first. exotic. In this respect.

” In France today we are witnessing a striking development of concern with ethnic identity and the preservation of minority cultures. the Philippines. ‘Occitanie’. Corsica. There was a refusal to accept the notion of “cultural deprivation”. Black nationalism. therefore I am. and because we are. but in the same direction. etc. Belgium and France. One aspect of culture which Blacks have emphasised is that their self-identity is always a people-identity. This included the concept of black Power.113 context of American citizenship and political and economic integration into American citizenship and political and economic integration into American society. various ethnic groups in a number of different countries are now actively seeking the preservation of their own cultural identity. Slavery and its aftermath of an interior socio-economic position within the larger community were clearly not conducive to the development of a positive sense of identity. since the position of the Blacks was that they had their own culture.” This is seen to be in contrast with the Western emphasis on the self as individually unique and different.” Problems remain as to the extent to which such a goal is fully possible or desirable. Black psychologists and psychiatrists spoke of a new Black ethic based upon racial awareness. The same is true for other countries such as Yogoslavia. the Maori in New Zealand. high-esteem. In a recent book by an American social scientist. the slogans “Black is beautiful” and “I’m proud to be Black” African roots and a Black or African culture. “I am because we are. Edmund Glenn. but certainly the acceptance of a variety of cultural forms within the nation-state is much greater now than it was in the past. What happened during the 1960s was something approaching a psychological revolution. an African ambassador in Washington is quoted as saying: “The source of the greatest misunderstanding between Americans and Africans is the positive value attached by the Americans to individualism. not always to the same extent. One of the most striking recent instances of an ethnic group seeking to establish and maintain its cultural identity is that of the Blacks in the United States. and the negative value attached to it by Africans. the . a sense of adequacy and security. In Brittany. this tendency has increased in strength as it has also among the Catalans and minorities in the United States and Canada. identity and pride. With that went the development of a whole complex philosophy (or ideology) of identity. On the other side of the picture.

From this point of view of education for international understanding. there is an important development in recent years which is usually defined as the ‘counterculture’. These variations are often characterised as sub-cultures. it does seem safer to base our relations with other people on knowledge rather than on ignorance. occupation.” Culture. He called instead for an “encyclopaedia of human similarities”. with greater stress on the common-human. Our understanding of culture requires a concern with both similarities and differences. the psychologist Gordon Allport suggested a number of years ago that educators had gone too far in stressing in difference among peoples. it has frequently been suggested that it is important to supply information as to how others behave. and presenting others as strange and even exotic in their behaviour. for each individual.114 aboriginal population in Australia and other ethnic groups in many parts of the world. in a nation-state it may vary considerably from one region to another. The UNESCO Declaration on Race in 1967 includes a statement to the effect that “ethnic groups which suffer discrimination sometimes accepted or tolerated by the dominant group if they totally give up their cultural identity……Ethnic groups should be encouraged to preserve their cultural values. . as has already been indicated. thus contributing to the enrichment of the total human culture. A serious difficulty arises when we attempt to identify the characteristics of a particular culture. although such information does not necessarily lead to friendly attitudes. but it is not easy to determine how many subcultures should be distinguished. or the France of Louis XIV and today? In connection with cultural change. and also with the ease and likelihood with which the differences occur. the kind of culture exhibited or absorbed by the individual will be somewhat different for men and women. On the other hand. Every group is a complex. In addition. A more reasonable position would be to include both the resemblances and the differences. with variations in behaviour according to social class or status. because of the position taken by its adherents in relation to. cultures changes. education or role. refers to behaviour which is specifically human and also to the distinctive ways of life found in different human populations. for young and old. All of these developments appear to be in a direction which we should welcome. Elizabethan and Victorian England. How much continuity is there between Czarist and Communist Russian.

These issues take the form of apparent contradictions or paradoxes. but insists on living intensely the experience of the present (the now generation). For many of the devotees of the counter-culture. Not only do the Eastern religious provide an alternative style. usually the Western world. This. This may be the case. they also reduce or remove any feelings of guilt that may be felt as the result of defection from the goals which the young had been brought up to respect. reflects the United Nations programme. self-realisation.” The Australian psychologist Stephen Bochner . but recent research on the attitude of young men and women with regard to work and their future. Success is seen not in material terms but as personal development.115 and often in opposition to the prevailing values of the larger community. It is mainly confined to the young in industrial societies. it is not concerned with making preparation for the future. as far as possible. The first of these relates to the general programme of technical assistance or cooperation designed to improve the standard of living in developing countries. but the emphasis on contemplation and inner peace must seem very palatable to those trying to escape from a society which stresses hard work and material success. it denies the relevance of many of the ideals of the parents. The whole movement included within the concept of the counterculture has lost many of its adherents. We turn now to number of specific issues in connection with culture contact in the contemporary world which create problems for institutions like UNESCO and the United Nations and for all those who agree with them that the variety of human cultures should. and is frequently considered to have abandoned a good part of its programme. indicates that at least some of its components continue to have an impact. be preserved. The American anthropologist Edward Hall reminds us that the various facets of a culture are inter-related: “touch a culture in one place and everything else is affected. which require careful consideration. too. salvation is to be found in the religions of the Orient. Many parents and teachers of the young in revolt against their society find it hard to understand the attraction of Zen Buddhism or Hinduism. self-fulfilment. but which in practice involves the introduction of industrial and technological models from the ‘modern’. One aspect of this movement is particularly striking in connection with cultural variations. but which no longer satisfied them. the question arises as to whether it is compatible with the survival of traditional cultures.

There is a second paradox to be considered. however. and less to what the donors think they ought to want. in discussing the forces antithetical to cultural preservation. Bochner. be difficult to determine since the political leaders and the leaders in many developing countries have themselves adopted a position close to that of the Western world. The fact remains that technological change is not always accompanied by the disappearance of traditional culture. tends to develop more self-reliance. whereas the West. however. In this connection Galtung analysis the important question of human needs. that their life continues to be affected by the notion of mutual dependence. centred on the individual. for example.” Such ‘moderation’ is. There can be no doubt as to the industrial and technical achievement of the Japanese. with the accompanying interdependence and loyalty characteristic of the family. traditional culture? It has frequently been pointed out that there is a tendency in the industrially world to see itself as a universally valid model to be imitated by others. is seen in the image of a household. however. The United Nations/UNESCO position is in favour of contact among the people of the world. What they want may. among the patterns of universal character put forward there is one more likely to respect diversity in the overall development scheme. increasing exports. It has been suggested.” The real question we ought to ask ourselves is whether.” The question then arises: Can this be done without destroying. better raw material prices. paying more direct attention to what the recipient societies want. no matter how large. precisely what the leaders of the developing Johan Caltung points out that Third World representatives are urging the creation of “a New International Economic Order (NIEO) to have faster industrialisation. and extensive programmes of “exchange of persons” have been developed by both national and international agencies. their universal and variable character. the existing indigenous.116 insists that “there are many examples of societies which have lost their cultural integrity as the price for modernisation. more financial and technological transfers. or at least disrupting. . In Japan a business enterprise. but at the same time they have retained many distinctively Eastern and national traits. includes international education exchange “which acts as the main vehicle for the uncritical diffusion of Western culture and therefore the erosion of non-Western life style.

A transition to democratic regimes appears to be a dominant political pattern at the end of the 20th century. then. hallmarks of democratic polities. past or present. when communists classified the former Soviet Union as a socialist democracy and denied that . though not all evocations of democracy. authoritarian state. are credible. are routinely imprisoned. Today democracy's connotations are honourable. Dissidents in these societies evoked democracy as the ideal alternative to a bureaucratic. The People's Republic of China proclaims itself democratic even as protestors demanding freedom of speech and of the press. The leaders of the Soviet-dominated authoritarian regimes of Eastern Europe called themselves “worker's republics” and wrapped themselves in the mantle of democracy. Are there. wants to be called “antidemocratic. the 20th century has seen a proliferation in the meanings of democracy. and how can they be applied? Democracy The word democracy has many meanings. Whereas in centuries past there were principled opponents to democratic political rule. No one. but in the modern world its use signifies that the ultimate authority in political affairs rightfully belongs to citizens. There was a time when democrat was a term of abuse. virtually synonymous with mob rule or anarchy. As a result. This is especially true given the growth of democratic trends in Eastern Europe following the collapse of the Soviet empire. while necessarily being presented as there are – that is of universal character – are more likely than others to maintain diversity rather than consider it as an obstacle to development. For example. Because democracy is so much in favour. Democracy's opponents tend to be fundamentalists who favour theocratic regimes or adversaries who find democracy wanting because it seems not to meet certain abstract standards of justice or perfect freedom. it seems.117 For there are many advantages in diversity and these advantages are not only cultural but also economic. the only way to distinguish between arbitrary definitions and coherent ones is to observe under what circumstances positive or negative judgments are made concerning the absence or presence of democratic institutions. such antidemocrats are rarer today in nearly all societies. patterns and ideologies which. even dictators and authoritarians embrace the democratic idiom to characterize their regimes and their actions.” In view of the variety of ways in which the term democracy is used.

The converse is also true. the majority of the adults governed. and modern democracies. therefore. which since the birth of the American republic have stressed the operating presence of inalienable rights. One such working conception is the view that a democratic government is one in which the minority or its representatives may peacefully become the majority or the representatives of the majority. the reasons listed for denying the democratic nature of the Spanish state would also apply to the communist states these advocates had labelled democratic. to supplement the above definition with a working conception that will enable us to distinguish democratic regimes from others. of course. Democracy as a political process is obviously a matter of degree—depending on the areas of society open to political debate and adjudication and the number of adults qualifying as citizens within the political system. But the reasons they gave for refusing to describe communist regimes as democratic largely invalidated their ascription of a democratic character to Spain during the years of Franco's reign.118 Spain under the regime of Gen. The presupposition is. But this rhetorical ploy is used to minimize and confuse the difference between democratic and non-democratic states. It becomes necessary. a central or basic concept of democracy may be presented that will approximate most nonarbitrary uses. This makes democracy essentially a political concept even when it is used—and sometimes misused—to characterize non-political institutions. The differences between non-democratic and democratic states are sometimes characterized as being “merely” one of degree. Defenders of Franco's authoritarian order characterized Spain as a democracy in some sense and scornfully rejected the view that communist countries were democracies in any sense. and expresses the freely given consent of. The implications of the presence of freely given consent call attention to the difference between ancient democracies. which stressed only majority rule as a validating principle. Democracy is a form of government in which the major decisions of government—or the direction of policy behind these decisions—rests directly or indirectly on the freely given consent of the majority of the adults governed. Francisco Franco had an organic democracy. and using the historical context to control specific applications of the term. . Proceeding in this way. that this transition is made possible by.

a republican form of government is one in which the position of the chief titular head of government is not hereditary. and vae victis (“woe to the vanquished”) often described the fate of the defeated. Even where power was in the hands of the majority. there can be no direct democracy if laws are defined not only in terms of their adoption but also in terms of their execution. literally construed. there was no democracy in the modern sense. for minority rights were not considered. there is a valid distinction between the kinds of government that existed in antiquity in which the freemen—however limited in numbers—were the source of ultimate political authority and governments in which the authority of government was vested in a dictator or an absolute monarch. This distinction breaks down because. disorderly.119 Before developing the implications of this distinction. the terms democracy and republic. The first is the view that the only genuine democracy is “direct” democracy in which all citizens of the community are present and collectively pass on all legislation. not only legislating but also executing the laws together. although particular regimes usually embody a complex mingling of republican and democratic principles. and frequently a preface to the emergence of a strongman or dictator. Under such circumstances democratic rule was bloody. as was practiced in ancient Athens or as is the case in a New England town meeting. The former were democracies. From this point of view an “indirect” or “representative” democracy is not a democracy but a constitutional republic or commonwealth. The second misconception is the identification of. or confusion between. even though the free citizenry or its representatives recognized no limitation on the nature and exercise of their rule and others enjoyed no political rights. it is necessary to dissolve certain misconceptions that have often plagued discussions of democracy. Strictly speaking. The result of elections in the ancient democracies often was the civil equivalent of a military victory. A republic can have an undemocratic form of government. . whereas a monarchy can be a democracy. There is no necessary connection between the two terms. Delegation of authority is inescapable in any political assemblage unless all citizens are in continuous service at all times. Majority Rule and Minority Rights. Nonetheless. The basic question is whether the delegation of authority is reversible—controlled by those who delegated it. Any community in which a majority of the adult population are slaves cannot be considered democratic.

But it may be necessary for a government to take positive measures to ensure that different groups in the population have access to the means by which public opinion is swayed. the way was prepared for a conception of democracy in which the principle of majority rule was a necessary but not a sufficient condition. whether ancient or modern. minorities. Since unanimity among human beings about matters of great concern is impossible. and where there is no institutional control over the instruments or facilities of communication. and of assembly and the right to a fair trial. and of assembly. What are the signs of freely given consent. of the press. The will of the majority was to enjoy democratic legitimacy only if it was an expression of freely given consent. These may be considered negative conditions for the presence of democratic rule. In their absence a plebiscite. but not unspoken.120 With the emergence of a theory of human rights beginning in the 17th century and its explicit development in the writings of Thomas Hobbes and.S. assumptions of the British constitution after the Cromwellian revolution expressed the limits set by human rights on the power of ruling majorities. is the only one that makes democracy a viable alternative to tyranny. even if unanimous. the exercise of which might enable the minority to win over the electorate and come to power. including freedom of speech. is not democratically valid. Majorities could do everything except deprive minorities of their civil rights. or monarchs. of the press. when there is no arbitrary restriction placed on freedom of speech. Bill of Rights and the unwritten. John Locke. the majority principle. Minorities might do everything within the context of these human rights to present their case. or under what conditions is it present? Briefly. but so long as they accepted the principles of democratic organization. freely given consent exists when there is no physical coercion or threat of coercion employed against expression of opinion. where there is no monopoly of propaganda by the ruling party. If. for example. an individual or a group had a monopoly of newsprint or television channels and barred those with contrary . they were bound by the outcome of the give and take of free discussion until another opportunity for persuasion might present itself. The specific provisions of the U. These are minimal conditions for the existence of freely given consent. insofar as it truly respects human rights. above all.

both the spirit and letter of democracy would be violated. to a point where the whole concept of democracy acquired a new dimension. the borough. have called attention to certain positive conditions the presence of which quickens and strengthens the democratic process. Foremost among these is the availability of education. A second positive condition for the existence of an effective democracy is the active participation of the citizens in the processes of government. Let a person have nothing to do for his country. “The food of feeling. But modern means of mass communication and persuasion. as the 17th-century philosopher Barukh Spinoza declared. The result may be widescale apathy and a decay in democratic vitality. If. has been the nearly universal claim of most democratic theorists. men and women may be enslaved by their ignorance. By involving the greatest number of citizens in different . allowing for an informed and critical awareness of the issues and problems of the times.121 views from using them. Participation is all the more essential as government grows in size and complexity and as individual citizens may be tempted to succumb to a feeling of ineffectiveness in the face of anonymous forces controlling their destiny. and the debate promises to grow more intense given the explosion in information technology in the last quarter of the 20th century. however. even when democratic forms are preserved. the state. especially political advertising. present challenges to this fondly held dictum of democratic faith. and John Dewey. an educated electorate can become aware of the consequences and costs of past policies and of the present alternatives. John Stuart Mill.” observed Mill. and he will not care for it. and the nation. The more informed and better educated the electorate. “is action. the city.” It was Dewey and Jane Adams. How does one distinguish between unacceptable manipulation of the citizenry and wholly legitimate efforts to persuade? There is no consensus on these matters. the region. It is this fear of mass ignorance or the excitability and gullibility of “the herd” that is one root of opposition to democracy. the healthier the democracy is. Citizen Participation. If the avenues of communication are open. Philosophers of democracy. who stressed the importance of participation in the day-to-day political affairs of the street. at least. uninformed freedom of choice may lead to disaster. especially Thomas Jefferson. This.

. This is an intelligent scepticism concerning claims to absolute truth. Scepticism and Judgment. The possibility of abuse of the delegation of power both in ordinary and extraordinary times reinforces the fourth positive condition for a healthy democracy. plural centres are developed to counteract the tendency to expansion and centralization of government. it is necessary during periods of crisis to entrust certain institutions and persons with emergency powers to ensure the defense and preservation of the community. The problems and challenges of democracy are many.” This reinforces the third positive condition for effective democracy.” Dewey wrote. One does not have to be a cook to judge the claims of great cooks. “Democracy. and not everybody can do everything equally well. evoking religious language. This denies Jefferson's insistence that one of the fruits of democracy is the emergence of an “aristocracy of virtue and talent.” However. a general to know when the war has been won or lost. Jr. Some have interpreted it to mean that there is no place for expertise in a democracy. described American democracy as an ideal of a “beloved community. the possession of charisma among leaders. In a democracy the citizen is and should be king. “is a name for a free and enriching communion. the assumption of both democratic thought and common sense is that one does not have to be an expert to evaluate the work of experts. Intelligent delegation of power and responsibility is essential because no community can sit in continuous legislative session. and the conditions of “a Great Community” are established. this generous conception of a participatory democracy can be misunderstood and vulgarised. or a civil servant to discover whether the policy of bureaucracy leads to well-being or woe. or the infallibility of experts. feared that its extension would lead to the erosion of personal freedom by imposing legal restrictions on the use of property and on personal behaviour. Alexis de Tocqueville and other critical observers of democracy.” Civil rights leader Martin Luther King. As indispensable as experts are. that all citizens are capable of administering all things. In addition.. as well as friends of democracy such as Mill. Some flow from the tension between the emphasis on equality in the democratic outlook and the desire to preserve individual variation and freedom.122 ways and on different levels in political action. and that all opinions not only have a right to be heard but also are entitled to receive equal weight.

Balancing individual rights against one another in light of the legitimate need of communities for safety and security promises to be one of the great democratic challenges of the 21st century. So long as there is recognition of the area of personal privacy that may not be invaded by public power. rights may conflict. In such circumstances the rights of a minority may have to be abridged. on the freedom and safety of majorities. and tolerance of. review. there is far greater allowance for. these rights depend. or on society as a whole. According to some latter-day voices. it does so slowly and reluctantly. However. the rights of minorities cannot be construed as absolute. it is abridged only for a limited period of time and is restored as soon as normalcy returns. the most basic right of all. is increasingly jeopardized.123 To some extent restrictions on individual freedom in a democratic society flow not from the theory and practice of democracy but from the complexity of social relations in a growing community. This is particularly true in the United States. rather. . What. Freedom of speech may interfere with a person's right to a fair trial and sometimes. is the difference between democratic and nondemocratic governments? Do not the latter also abridge the rights of citizens in the alleged interests of the common good? The first distinction is that democratic government recognizes the intrinsic as well as the instrumental value of civil rights. and check by an independent judiciary. as when an orator is inciting a lynching mob. is implicated in dangerously high rates of homicide and assault in large urban areas. deviant ideas and practices in all areas of personal life in contemporary democratic society than was the case in the less democratic world of these scholars. in part. on the consequences of the actions of minorities. When it moves to restrict or abridge civil rights. Finally. where the proliferation of weapons of deadly force in private hands. Second. In addition. the restrictions imposed by government agencies on every level in a democracy are subject to appeal. if and when the exercise of a civil right creates a clear and present danger of a social evil that threatens other human rights. with the victim's right to life. then. Many critics claim that this right has been extended to the point where public safety. Despite the fears of Tocqueville and Mill. The acceptance of the inviolable rights of minorities reduces the danger of dictatorship by the majority in a democracy. under the constitutional right to bear arms. freedom faces no intolerable threats. the sphere of personal freedom has been extended to a point where law and order seem threatened.

hence political democracy is either destroyed first as a prelude to such centralization. but it does complicate any simplistic picture of “haves” versus “have nots” as characteristic of capitalist regimes. Furthermore. democracy could not exist. Measures of partial economic socialization adopted in Britain and the Scandinavian countries in the post–World War II era did not erode democratic political processes. as in Nazi Germany. Nonetheless. In these situations political democracy was destroyed. making it less likely that a narrow elite will exert disproportionate control. . or concentrating economic power foreshadows the assault on democratic political forms. or where it was brought under complete political control. it is claimed. these contentions overlook the fact that political processes in a democracy make possible the limitation of economic power not only by establishing free trade unions or other solidaristic organizations as countervailing forces to capital but also by the use of taxation and the regulation of elections. and control of all aspects of economic life was a central feature of the overall assault on democracy. Concentrations of power of this magnitude will always pose a threat to political democracy even as democracy must challenge excessive centralization of power. because the monopoly of control and the necessities of a totally planned economy necessarily result in dictatorship over the lives and movement of citizens. It is sometimes argued that the collective ownership of the means of production is incompatible with democratic government. gives a disproportionate influence over the electorate to those who command great wealth. new information-technologies have decentralized political power. as in the Soviet Union. This by no means eliminates the disparity between social classes. there is an antidemocratic thrust to a completely socialized and statedominated economy. Though not without merit. Some have argued that capitalism is incompatible with democracy because private ownership of the means of production gives entrepreneurs control over the lives of those who earn their living by using those means of production. although economic centralization and democracy are not incompatible in principle. Such ownership.124 The relation between democracy and forms of property is extremely tangled. It is true that in societies where the economic system was centralized and socialized. Laws protecting civil liberties guarantee a dramatic extension of free expression and keep open the free marketplace in ideas.

the middle and lower classes acquired the strength and opportunity to carry democratic principles into other dimensions of the social system. and educational facilities and a higher standard of living became available to greater numbers of citizens. particularly through the redistribution of wealth. whether of a single leader or of the proletariat. a massive system of social security developed in most democratic countries. tools. The origins of modern democracy are rooted in the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries and in the industrial and technological revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. Those who have moved down this latter path are responsible for much of the horror of 20th-century . factories. and social reform movements than on the actions of traditionally established institutions. sought allies among the lower classes and therewith extended the scope of political suffrage and recognition in dramatic and irreversible ways. But the democrat holds that the solution to such dilemmas is more informed democratic action rather than salvation in a dictatorship. It is true that democracies are imperfect and democratic citizens may do foolish or dangerous things. With the extension of political suffrage. once we distinguish between personal property —home. The faith in democracy ultimately rests not in the belief in the natural goodness of human beings but in the belief that most human beings are open to democratic responsibility and possibility. land. books—and property in the large social instruments of production—mines. As a result. dissident religions. These upheavals enlarged the imaginations of citizens and would-be citizens by making what seemed merely possible probable. in their struggles with each other. The welfare state emerged as a consequence of the influence of political democracy on other areas of social life.125 Furthermore. Thus they transformed social relations to a point where persons whose status was one of relative powerlessness—appendages of machines—began to demand first suffrage and then their fair share of the social product. Because power limits power. This faith derives from a notion of the human person as deserving of recognition and respect. plantations—we can appreciate the insight of Locke and Jefferson that ownership of the former actually may be a source and guarantee of individual freedom. the landowning and capitalist classes. The growth of political democracy depended more heavily on the activities of trade unions.

and the right to equal treatment under law. Civil Rights and Civil Liberties The terms “civil liberties” and “civil rights” have no fixed and uniform definition. and sometimes the phrase is used to mean non-political rights granted by law. the citizens of democratic states face new and daunting challenges.126 politics. and violence have functioned and will continue to function as an aspiration to the subjects of non-democratic regimes. “Eternal vigilance. and intelligence to struggle for it. Often they are used broadly and interchangeably. Having secured and extended democracy throughout the years of the Cold War. Civil rights. . tortured. may also be meant to include basic economic and social rights. Democracy. One way of distinguishing the two phrases is to say that a person enjoys a civil “liberty” when he is protected against some government action. Nor is democracy indivisible on the international scene in the sense that the world must soon become one democratic community. It only makes an extension possible to those who have the vision. such as the right to own property. Thus the right to speak freely would be a civil liberty. ignorance. However the line is drawn between them. is not indivisible—all or nothing—in the sense that its political form necessitates the extension of the democratic principle to other areas of experience. or tormented to varying degrees. the right to use public facilities on an equal basis would be a civil right. is the continuing price citizens of a democracy pay to sustain and secure freedom for future generations. but enjoys a civil “right” when the law confers upon him a positive power to do something. courage. civil liberties and civil rights taken together encompass freedom of speech and religion. as we have seen. the rights afforded to criminal suspects.” in Jefferson's memorable phrase. Democratic regimes are compelled to coexist with nondemocratic regimes for the sake of peace and security. the rights of citizens to participate in the political process. in certain contexts. but so are nationalism and intolerance. Freedom may be infectious. In common usage “civil rights” often refers specifically to the rights of minority groups to equal treatment. with its millions of human beings lost to political terror and millions others displaced. What can be expected is that the ideals of freedom in flourishing democratic cultures still struggling to solve problems of poverty.

is enhanced. In a libertarian society preventing the dissemination of error and reducing immoral acts to a minimum are not considered central functions of government. The word may be used to mean the absence of external restraint. private institutions also play an important role in determining the practical bounds of individual freedom. and they are the only senses in which the term will be discussed here. The first two of these senses of freedom are associated with the relationship of individuals to government in a liberal democratic society. They argue that the freedom to believe error and to do wrong is not true freedom. A third sense of freedom is the freedom to do what is right. it may conflict with other goods. only those who can pay are free to go to Europe. The speaker's freedom is maximized if he is allowed to incite a riot. Some thinkers have reasoned that a person is genuinely free only when he or she believes what is true and does what is morally correct. major private companies discharged employees who expressed unpopular opinions. as in the clash between a home owner's claim to rent to whom he pleases and the claim of a member of a racial minority to equal treatment. The civil liberties and rights granted by the law of any particular society reflect how that society has accommodated the inevitable clashes of values. in the sense of broader opportunity.127 Civil liberties and civil rights are considered a cornerstone of a free society. In many circumstances different kinds of freedom conflict. but the peace of society may require restraint. Nor is eliminating. many persons would hesitate to exercise their legal privilege to speak . In that sense. A second meaning of freedom requires that a person have the opportunity to do something before he can be considered free to do it. but the freedom of the poor. But “freedom” also has many meanings. focuses on how that adjustment is made by law. for example. poor persons in the United States as well as rich ones are free to travel to Europe. Another example is the taxation of the rich for the benefit of the poor. Although freedom—and the liberties and rights that protect it—is an important good. While most discussion. If. A fourth use of freedom refers to the absence of psychological problems that inhibit individual action. They indicate the ways in which a society protects individual freedom. psychological tensions—an end that might be accomplished best by a sharp limitation on freedom in the ordinary senses. or reducing. In that sense. the freedom of the rich to spend their money in the way they choose is restrained. and this article.

Because truth and justice in political and social affairs are difficult to ascertain. the claims of individual liberty should be protected either by legal rules that bind the legislature and executive. The liberal democrat believes that every person has inherent worth. they are generally best arrived at by free and open discussion. as in Britain. important elements of that conception have been drawn from earlier periods. others contend that the government should reduce inequalities. Because government officers are sometimes arbitrary. The kinds of civil liberties and rights enjoyed in the United States and other democracies are the product of an essentially modern view of the nature of man and society. or by historical traditions that restrain those in power. and the weight they should be given as compared with other social interests. also constrain uninhibited discussion. In fact. at least to the extent of positively trying to provide opportunities for those who are disadvantaged. rest on other conceptions. Dictatorships. . More subtle influences. but there is sharp dispute over their philosophic underpinnings. Fulfilment of the individual may include participation not only in political and social life but also in religious. insofar as that is possible and consistent with the interests of others. for example. as in the United States. Individuals should have the chance to work out their own destiny. but it reduces the likelihood of more violent forms of social protest. Some libertarians believe that the government should only avoid promoting inequality. such as the preservation of society from outside attack. Unrestrained discussion is not only a legitimate outlet for dissent. their meaning and application to particular problems.128 freely. and other activities that should not be subject to control by government. such as possible rejection by friends and acquaintances. In Athens and other Greek city-states ordinary citizens participated in the processes of government. In the United States and to a lesser extent in Western Europe there is considerable agreement on the tenets of freedom. artistic. intellectual. Although the civil liberties and rights of liberal democracies reflect a distinctly modern conception of man. It is by no means the only modern view. and members of older societies had rights and liberties that resembled in varying degrees those of the present. whether Fascist or Communist. Each person's interests are entitled to equal consideration. and because the majority of the people may disregard claims of individual liberty in times of crisis or supposed crisis.

Furthermore. much more extensive than in the modern nation-state. and could not be re-elected. Finally. resistance is justified. Magistrates and officials who ruled as representatives of the people were selected by democratic means. could be viewed as a social contract in which some rights are given up so that fundamental rights may be protected. which nobly summed up the ideals of Athenian democracy. Pericles said.129 given ancient Athens' small size and population (probably somewhat more than 300. because Athens had no procedure for conferring citizenship on foreigners who had moved there or on their offspring. the extent to which individual rights may be infringed. in Locke's view. which held the ultimate power to govern. These election procedures and the large popular juries of the courts assured wide citizen involvement in governing. and was. The democratic ideal of the city-state—that the government's good is inseparable from the citizens' and that both goods can be assured best by citizen participation—seems to liberal democrats a great advance from the autocratic forms of government existing outside Athens. the city-state was founded on the idea that fulfilment as a human being requires fulfilment as a citizen. “We … regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs. direct participation could be. another considerable group of residents had no political voice. and the Declaration of Independence of the United States drew from both these sources. If a government oversteps these bounds. had short terms. not as a harmless. The existence of natural rights and the limited grant of power to government given by the social contract restricted. About one third of the population were slaves with few rights. Somewhat similar principles were developed by thinkers of the 18th century French Enlightenment. Locke argued that natural law bestowed on men in the state of nature certain basic and indefeasible rights.000 people). it declared “… that all men are created . in which all human concerns are closely interrelated. The formation of society. the council was subject to control by the Assembly. but as a useless character. Written by Thomas Jefferson. In his Funeral Oration. Although most of the important political powers rested with the Council of Five Hundred. But from the perspective of today the democracy of Athens appears flawed in important respects. he said. …” Both Plato and Aristotle adhered to the Athenian conception of the social nature of man and the organic nature of society. In Athens all male citizens were entitled to attend the Assembly.

and in some cases by using special devices to control emissions of particles into the air. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights. Air Pollution The contamination of air by unwanted gases.000 had smoke-abatement ordinances. that among these are Life. During that period. Laws on air quality were first adopted as early as 1815 in Pittsburgh. air pollution was still regarded as a nuisance worthy of only local attention. particularly by smoke. few people suspected that smoke pollution and general air pollution were not the . that at noon it was sometimes nearly as dark as at midnight. …” The same philosophy is expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789). By 1912. However. and the pursuit of Happiness. and other substances is generally considered a relatively recent phenomenon. has plagued many communities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Finally. Liberty. 23 of the 28 American cities with populations over 200. and visible improvement in the atmosphere of a number of industrial cities. particularly during the winter. Complaints against air pollution were registered elsewhere in Europe as well as in the United States. but their protests were drowned out by the clamour for industrial development. its partial enforcement. These efforts were focused primarily on reducing smoke from fossil fuels. Chicago and Cincinnati followed with smoke-control measures in 1881. When the residents of Los Angeles complained of smog. by regulating the types of coal that could be burned. pollution of the air. in a number of Eastern and Midwestern industrial cities the smoke was so thick.130 equal. smoke particles. From the 1930s to the 1950s. by improving combustion practices. In the 1940s a new type of air-pollution problem emerged. the sheer soiling nuisance of the problem provoked public outcries that resulted in the enactment of smoke-control legislation. The replacement of steam locomotives by diesel engines and the increased use of gas for heating also contributed greatly to the reduction of air pollution. issued by the National Assembly of France at the outset of the French Revolution. particularly coal. By the late 19th century there was considerable agitation by citizens' groups in London who protested the smoke-laden air of the city. when smoke pollution was at its worst in the United States.

and dependence on motor vehicles. Although diesel engines in trucks and other vehicles are minor contributors to the overall problem. and further complicate the action of the more common pollutants. construction and operation of large facilities using fossil fuels for generating electricity. It is responsible for about 56% of the total. Los Angeles used virtually none of the fuels primarily responsible for the smoke problems of other cities. This pattern. production of iron and steel. interact with. trains. Transportation equipment—chiefly cars. and boats can cause problems in certain areas—for example.131 same problem. and transport of pollutants. development of metropolitan areas with their associated urban centres and suburban satellites. They are manifest as seasonal episodes of unhealthy air quality in the Los Angeles south-coastal basin and the Baltimore to Boston urban corridor. and petroleum refining gave rise to regional air-quality problems in many areas of the United States. characterized by rapid industrial growth. These contemporary air quality problems are due to a combination of factors—the physical nature of urban and industrial developments. and the chemical and physical transformation of the plumes of pollution that hang over cities and industrial centres. Another manifestation is the acid-rain phenomenon in several parts of the United States and Canada. Urban development. creates new gaseous and particulate emissions that complement. motor rickshaws and trucks—is the greatest source of air pollution in the Pakistan. airports. While motor vehicles— automobiles and trucks—are the principal villains. and Adirondacks. petrochemicals. Appalachia. increased use of motor vehicles. A wide range of pollutants currently pose an ecological threat in cities all over the United States and in other industrialized countries. It was discovered that the Los Angeles smog was not due primarily to smoke in the air but to the action of sunlight on gases emitted by car exhausts and certain industrial processes. . they produce objectionable odours and noxious fine particulate matter. and as regional hazes and poor visibility in the western Great Basin. dispersion. industrial expansion. The experience of Los Angeles in the 1940s revealed a general pattern of air-pollution problems that developed in the 1950s and 1960s in cities elsewhere in the United States and in other parts of the world. aircraft. land and weather features that affect diffusion. the spatial density of emissions. railroad yards. and yet its smog problem became worse. and harbours.

agricultural burning. coal-waste fires. air pollution has been shown to be associated with a high incidence of asthma. Donora. an industrial town in the mountains of western Pennsylvania. and 20 people died during the five-day smog episode. Another serious episode took place in New York City in 1953 when 200 people died as a result of high levels of sulfur oxides and particulate matter. The London. and solvent disposal contribute 5% of all pollutants. A study indicated that many who survived the episode suffered permanent health impairment. More important than the major disasters are the subtle. Among children.000 deaths. with 15% of the total. and Mexico strongly focuses on smog problems in . Smokers who live in polluted cities have a much higher rate of lung cancer than those in rural areas. That famous “killer smog” is believed to have been responsible for 4. the more overt effects of several major classes of pollutants are well defined and are known to result in about 15. and New York City episodes occurred when unusual weather conditions lasting several days prevented dispersal of the pollutants. Such childhood disorders may lead to chronic disease in later life. affecting almost one of every five persons.000 inhabitants became ill. primarily through incineration.132 Second in importance is stationary combustion—electricpower plants and heating plants—which contributes about 22% of the total air pollutants. Abatement and control of pollution in Australia. Brazil. It also contributes to higher mortality rates from other causes. Miscellaneous pollution sources.000 deaths. and acute respiratory infection. In the United States a similar incident occurred in 1948 in Donora. and solid-waste disposal. The worst episode of air pollution in modern times occurred in London in 1952. including cancer and heart disease. 7 million sick days. longrange effects on human health caused by exposure to low-level but prolonged air pollution. allergies. accounts for the remaining 2%. Industrial processes are a close third. This type of exposure contributes to the incidence of such chronic respiratory ailments as emphysema and bronchitis and to reduced exercise performance by healthy children and adults. forest fires. Although present knowledge of the health effects of those specific contaminants so far identified is incomplete. Japan. Almost half of the town's 14. and 15 million days of reduced performance each year.

Smog in Mexico City. These all favour seasonal accumulation of pollution and aggravate smog formation from emissions of the many motor vehicles and local industries. Motor vehicles in Australia and Japan are equipped with emission-control systems. Estimates vary from about 40. A megaton—1. terrain. on Aug. population. elevation. introduced the most revolutionary weapon ever to be used in warfare. a tool of warfare could create conditions at the earth's surface similar to those at the centre of the sun. Yet in these two attacks the damage was so extensive and so many people were immediately killed that no accurate death count was ever possible.000 to 40. The dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Japan requires very advanced control systems for industrial emissions in cities where land and weather conditions accentuate the health risk of air pollution. and state and local governments inspect vehicles to ensure compliance.000 tons of TNT.000 tons of TNT in the case of the Hiroshima bomb and 20. Japan. Suddenly. The two most common measures of the destructive power of nuclear weapons are the kiloton and the megaton. high actinic radiation. and limits emissions from stationary sources.000 kilotons—releases as much energy as would an explosion of 1 million tons of TNT. A 1-kiloton nuclear explosion releases as much energy as would an explosion of 1. and weather conditions. and another on Nagasaki three days later. Nuclear War Or What would be the scene of the Earth after a Nuclear War Or Devastation and havoc caused by a Nuclear War Warfare involving the use of nuclear weapons called nuclear war.000 to 170. 6. for example. Brazil reduces transportation pollution by use of clean-burning sugarcane alcohol as a partial substitute for gasoline.000 at Nagasaki.000 tons in the case of the Nagasaki bomb. 1945.000 killed at Hiroshima and from 20. By today's standards the two bombs dropped on Japan were small—equivalent to 15.133 metropolitan centres. is particularly difficult to control because of the city's size. Three 1megaton nuclear explosions would release the same amount of .

Prompt effects are those that occur in the interval immediately following detonation of a nuclear weapon. The rapidly expanding fireball in turn compresses the surrounding air. In the case of a 1-megaton bomb. initially moving outward at several millions of miles per hour.134 energy as all the bombs dropped in the six years of World War II. extensive fires would accompany attacks against urban/industrial targets and be more destructive than the shock wave. The nuclear reactions that cause the explosion also create harmful nuclear radiation (gamma rays and neutrons). forming a steeply fronted shock wave of enormous extent and power. Welldocumented studies of the relatively low-yield detonations at . Thus. however. the radiant energy is quickly absorbed by the surrounding air. Because the fireball is so hot. The initial temperature near the center of the explosion is so high that this radiant energy is of a frequency many thousands of times higher than that of visible light. Even at a distance of 6 miles (10 km) it radiates more than 100 times as much heat and light. however.000 times more heat and light than a noontime sun on the earth's desert.5 miles (4 km) the fireball radiates more than 1. while radiating tremendous amounts of light and heat. each section of its surface is radiating about three times as much heat and light as a comparable area of the sun itself. Under ordinary atmospheric conditions at a distance of 2. High explosives such as TNT derive their explosive power from chemical reactions. such comparisons do not yield an accurate picture of the destructive potential of nuclear weapons. it undergoes a violent expansion. creating a superheated sphere of high-pressure glowing-hot gas—a fireball. Since air is not transparent at these frequencies. since much of the energy they release differs in form from that released by high explosives. By the time the fireball reaches its maximum diameter of several thousand feet (over a thousand meters). more than 95% of the explosive power is at first in the form of intense radiation. When a nuclear bomb explodes. In a nuclear explosion. so much energy is released into such a small volume that the temperature can rise quickly to about 100 million degrees Kelvin—about five times hotter than the temperature at the center of the sun. an enormous amount of energy is released in an extraordinarily short interval of time—within hundredths of millionths of a second. Almost all the power of the explosion is in the expanding gases yielded by the reaction. As will be seen in the following sections.

4 km) to kill or seriously injure unshielded or partially shielded individuals.9 mile (1.135 Hiroshima and Nagasaki indicate that nuclear radiation emanating from the fireball was sufficiently intense at 0. Long-term biological effects result from two of the most abundant radioactive by-products contained in fallout—cesium-137 and strontium-90. When this occurs. from 40% to 70% of the immense radioactivity in the cloud can be carried to the ground as the dust settles. and depletion of the ozone layer by nitric and nitrous oxides created by nuclear explosions. large amounts of material can be vaporized.7 to 0. where they mix with the fireball's radioactive materials.1–1. unprotected individuals close enough to the detonation point to suffer injury from nuclear radiations would instead be killed by the far more intense effects of blast and heat. Especially heavy fallout would result from near-surface nuclear explosions needed to destroy hardened underground targets such as missile silos and military command centers. Since the chemical properties of cesium resemble those of the common body chemical potassium. an area of well over 1. For a 1-megaton detonation. The term “delayed” is applied to effects that follow the formation of the fireball and the arrival of the initial shock wave. significant fallout is created at burst altitudes below about 0. heat. which can be carried great distances by wind before it drops from the air onto the ground in the form of fallout. while others may occur or persist months or even years after the detonations.600 sq km) could be so contaminated with radiation-emitting dust that individuals who are unable to immediately evacuate the area or find adequate shelter would suffer serious injury or death from radiation. The result is a cloud of highly radioactive dust. Some such effects occur within minutes of an explosion. The first of these phenomena—radioactive fallout—is formed when a nuclear bomb explodes at such a low altitude that the fireball touches or nearly touches the ground. and carried aloft. in the case of higher-yield weapons (100 kilotons to 10 megatons). lifted into the fireball. The three main delayed effects are radioactive fallout from dust that has been mixed with radioactive bomb products and target debris. Within 24 hours of a near-surface detonation.6 mile (1 km). and toxic gases created by vast fires in and around target areas. However. cesium can find its way into the organs of humans and other animals.000 square miles (2. In the case of a 1-megaton weapon. where its . smoke.

can present a serious long-term hazard. possibly of hurricane force.136 radioactivity can cause cancer and other diseases. both fires and lethal levels of radiation would involve large areas surrounding the detonation point. Within minutes or tens of minutes of such an attack. too. Because of the large area of the fire. an area of more than 300 square miles (775 sq km) could be set on fire within minutes of a nuclear attack. on a bomb-for-bomb basis. The fires would spread. while the larger and heavier pieces of radioactive debris would fall onto the target area and surrounding countryside. the U. Similarly. Conditions in the fire zone could therefore kill many more people than blast effects alone. was 12 times more effective. often called firestorms. A 1-megaton air or near-surface burst usually would immediately initiate fires out to 6 or 7 miles (10–11 km) from the detonation point. Thus. which have radioactive half-lives of about 30 years. another common body chemical. firestorms probably would kill more than two to three times as many people as would blast effects. The heat released from burning debris would drive air temperatures to many hundreds of degrees Fahrenheit. the combined effects of fires and fallout would create a deadly environment for people who survive the prompt effects. In cities struck by only a few nuclear weapons. would be far more devastating than most other fires in human experience. and it. At the end of World War II. For low-altitude nuclear explosions in urban-industrial areas. on a pound-for-pound basis. The devastation caused by large numbers of simultaneously initiated fires can hardly be overstated. the fire zone would act as a gigantic air pump. than a 500-pound (225-kg) high-explosive bomb. driving enormous volumes of air skyward. Such superfires. Large amounts of poisonous smoke and gases would be generated by these mass fires. the incendiaries were found to be one and half times more effective. As cooler air is drawn in to replace the air pumped away by the action of the fire. the pumping action of the fire would create very high ground winds. and types of dwellings—a nuclear explosion could ignite fires at ranges of 10 miles (16 km) or more. atmospheric visibility. incendiaries were about 10 to 85 times more destructive than high explosives.S. Conceivably. can become incorporated into people's bodies. Against fireresistant targets. . These two isotopes. strontium-90 is chemically similar to calcium. In some cases—depending on time of year. Strategic Bombing Survey found that each 70-pound (32-kg) incendiary dropped against targets classified as highly flammable.

estimates of the severity and duration of the summer temperature drop vary widely. when surface temperatures are already low. and other materials injected into the atmosphere would make it relatively opaque. In addition. hundreds or thousands of nuclear weapons might be detonated over highly combustible urban/industrial targets. Coastal regions. where the moderating effects of oceans are likely to be important.” with freezing or near-freezing summer temperatures in mid-continental regions. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of many atmospheric calculations. As the smoke-filled air at high altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere became warmer. while air from the lower atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere moved north. Even if nuclear attacks were confined to the Northern Hemisphere. Also. As with all other climatic effects.137 A general nuclear war between superpowers might have long-term effects on the earth's climate. the blockage of sunlight could cause temperatures to drop—perhaps sharply—in mid-continental regions of the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Even though the changes in land-surface temperatures from smoke spreading in the atmosphere . large amounts of radioactive dust and nitric and nitrous oxides created in the hightemperature radioactive environment of nuclear fireballs would be injected into the atmosphere by the detonations themselves. the reduction in surface temperatures probably would be small during winter months. In such a war. This might set up a circulating pattern in which dust-and-soot-laden air of the Northern Hemisphere upper atmosphere spread south. greatly reducing the amount of sunlight that reaches the earth's surface. The most pessimistic estimates have led to the prediction that a major nuclear war could result in a “nuclear winter. During the late spring and summer months. The resulting firestorms possibly would inject massive amounts of smoke—along with sulphur dioxide and other fire-produced gases—into the upper atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. the climatic effects might not be limited to that region. The massive amounts of soot. would not suffer temperature drops as large as those that might occur in the middle of a large continent. Additional variation is created by differing assumptions about the number and characteristics of the targets attacked in a nuclear war. the nature and scale of this involvement is not well understood. when substantial solar heating of the earth normally occurs. dust. it might expand into the cooler upper atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere.

about 5. If the yield of a nuclear detonation is a megaton or higher. shifts in weather patterns would eliminate the monsoons that normally occur in India. Typically. and for perhaps several years the level of ultraviolet radiation at the earth's surface could be very much higher than normal.000 tons of the oxides are generated per megaton of yield. Other long-lasting climatic consequences might be caused by nitric and nitrous oxides. Since excessive ultraviolet radiation injures living tissue. The climatic effects here described are subject to considerable uncertainty. If nitric and nitrous oxides should be carried to stratospheric altitudes. Numerous factors—such as the time of year. meteorological conditions. under certain circumstances. For example. This would essentially eliminate agriculture on the Indian subcontinent. some research indicates that. the buoyancy and momentum of the rising fireball will carry much of this material into the stratosphere. Nitric and nitrous oxides also may be injected into the stratosphere by a second mechanism. they are expected to enter a complex series of chemical reactions with the molecules normally present at those altitudes. The end result of the reactions could be a loss of stratospheric ozone. Calculations indicate that much of this opaque smoke-filled air would rise into the stratosphere as it is heated by the sun. and . carrying additional amounts of nitric and nitrous oxides into the stratosphere. the reduction in stratospheric ozone might cause widespread destruction of plant and animal life. both because the scientific basis for predicting such effects is still under development and because no one can know what course a nuclear war actually would take. In the aftermath of a nuclear attack large volumes of the atmosphere around target areas could become filled with thick. opaque smoke from mass fires. these might be minor compared with other effects on the weather. The reduced levels of stratospheric ozone would then absorb a much smaller than normal fraction of the sun's ultraviolet rays.138 would have serious ecological effects. These chemical compounds are formed from nitrogen and oxygen in the very high temperatures and radioactive environment of the early fireball. when the surface of the earth would again be exposed to the full radiant energy of the sun. The full effects of this loss would not be felt until after the soot and dust had settled out of the stratosphere.

but several have sought to forcibly suppress nationalities or ethnic groups within their own borders when these groups have demanded the right to selfdetermination. cultural heritage. or Portugal in relation to their colonies. The disintegration of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia in the early 1990s resulted in an upsurge of nationalism and in concerns about its role in contemporary domestic and international politics. as in the case of Great Britain. the republics of the Soviet Union gained independence in 1991 without the use of force. for example. economic. an ideology. Compounding the difficulty of defining nationalism is the fact that the term has been applied to a variety of phenomena that may be related to but are distinct from nationalism: patriotism.139 targeting strategies—would affect the environmental consequences of a nuclear war. Lithuania. nationalism has come to play an important role throughout the world. it is an ambiguous concept. or cultural influence or domination. Led by nationalists. and the general public may regard nationalism as an emotional attachment to a mythical identity. . Scholars debate the meaning and role of nationalism. Nationalism The term nationalism refers to an ideology based on the notion that people who have a sense of homogeneity rooted in a conception of a shared history and a common ethnicity. political leaders and regimes may use it as a means to influence and manipulate public opinion. The consciousness of group identity and sense of the alien become nationalism. For two centuries it has been one of the easiest and most effective means for regimes and leaders of national or ethnic groups to generate political support and influence. for consolidation and disintegration. the Russian immigrants who flooded into Estonia. and Latvia during the five decades of Soviet occupation. Belgium. A political force rooted in 18th-century Europe. when they are linked to political aspirations. The disintegration of multinational states also illuminates the underlying paradox of nationalism: it can be a force for liberation and a force for repression. Partly because nationalism manifests itself in various guises and partly because the term is used for different purposes. chauvinism. for ending conflicts and for bloodshed and war. or external. The “alien” may be internal. language. or religion should be united in a single nationstate free of “alien” political.

a belief that differences in human conduct and achievement are determined by race. and a plan or set of guidelines for reaching that goal. Most often these myths are defined in terms of a heroic. An excessive or belligerent form of patriotism based on a belief of superiority of one's own nation or state is chauvinism. and economic influences. These manifestations of nationalism may be grouped in six categories: anticolonial. For example. any analysis of nationalism is complicated by the impossibility of disentangling its role from that of other political. irredentist. a national consciousness based on myths of common identity and differentiation from others. integrationist. or otherwise romanticized past or a conception of a threat to the existence of the nation. secessionist. a critique of that reality together with a conceptualization of an ideal or preferred reality as a goal to be striven for. in the disintegration of the Soviet Union as it began a process of democratization that allowed a free rein to previously repressed nationalisms. That concept is appropriately called patriotism. fears. and popular sentiment. and ambitions of a nation—from the political context or social and economic circumstances within which it arises—it assumes various forms and plays different roles in the history of a given people or nation. A fear and loathing of foreigners or other ethnic groups is xenophobia. not nationalism. and exclusive. unifying. nationalism can be used to mobilize people for political action by cultivating or even creating. Like other ideologies. Nationalism is not simply a sentiment that focuses on group distinctions. These categories are not mutually exclusive—Northern Ireland. racism. In effect. represents a case of both unifying (with the Republic of Ireland) and secessionist (from Britain) nationalism— . named after Nicolas Chauvin. more recently. Nor is it simply loyalty to the state. through propaganda and education. for example.140 xenophobia. glorious. Finally. These concepts are more limited than nationalism or are extreme manifestations of some aspect of the concept. equivalent to nationalism. a soldier in Napoleon Bonaparte's army. nationalism offers an interpretation of the historical and contemporary reality in which a nation finds itself. it is difficult to determine what role nationalism played in the disintegration of the war-weakened Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires or. cultural. Because nationalism is an ideology that acquires its specific content from the particular grievances. Nor is racism.

Many of these movements have been engaged in decades-long violent struggles that have cost hundreds and even thousands of lives. Iraq. Iran. and Azerbaijan. The . Within the first three decades after World War II. Indonesia. and the Russian Federation. notably China. ideologically based on a Marxist-Leninist analysis. In the 1990s more than a dozen nationalities were seeking independence or autonomy in the republics of the former Soviet Union. this process of decolonization had been considered part of the last phase in the history of nationalism. France. the Netherlands. India. Estonia. Economic exploitation of the Third World by Western colonial powers has been a major theme of anti-colonial rhetoric. nearly 50 African and more than 30 Asian states became independent as Britain. The Kurds.141 but the categories are sufficiently distinct to merit separate description of their dominant characteristics. Some multinational states. but a revival of nationalist movements occurred as the Soviet Union began the process of economic and political reform in the mid-1980s. Iraq. and almost two dozen in Asia. and later Spain and Portugal lost their colonial empires. Latvia. There were a half-dozen such movements in Europe and North America. which had been annexed by the Soviet Union in the course of World War II but not integrated into the regime's centers of power. Nationalism in the form of anti-colonialism has been linked primarily to Asian and African independence movements. Among the last to regain independence from an imperial power were the three Baltic republics. straddle the borders of five states: Syria. The more radical of the arguments. who are seeking to establish an independent Kurdish state. Until recently. A second (and the most prevalent) manifestation of nationalism in the last decade of the 20th century takes the form of demands for secession from or autonomy within a state. nearly a dozen in Africa. and Lithuania. several in the Middle East. Turkey. The goal of a third category of nationalist movements is to unite a people that live in areas within the borders of two or more states either by establishing a unified nation-state or by joining a neighboring state of a kindred nationality. have been confronted with several such movements at once. have sought to explain the poverty of the Third World as a result of deliberate colonial policies of exploitation and suppression of commercial and industrial development—policies that are held to account for the economic wealth of the West. including the Irish in Northern Ireland and the Basques in Spain and France.

Territorial claims on other states on the basis that the areas in question are inhabited by a kindred people or were inhabited or controlled by them in the past. who are separated by the French-Spanish border. A fourth category of nationalism manifests itself when there is a dispersed minority within one or more states that seeks reintegration in its former homeland. Aside from these. including Ukraine. but the practice of what has become known as ethnic cleansing assumed particular ferocity in the 20th century. it has been practiced throughout history in the form of expulsion or massacre of religious or ethnic minorities. For centuries. Serbian claims to territories of the mid-14th-century Nemanjid dynasty. however remote. The Ottoman Turks annihilated more than a million Armenians in 1915 and tens of thousands of Greeks at Smyrna in 1922. Both seek to reclaim their homeland and establish autonomous republics. manifestation of nationalism. two dispersed ethnic minorities. the era of the greatest Serbian imperial expansion. are an example of a European people seeking a unified state. Georgia. Finally. Zionism is the best-known case of this form of nationalism. are one example of this form of nationalism. The Germans were moved from their autonomous Volga republic to Kazakhstan and other regions of Central Asia following Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. The Volga Germans and Crimean Tatars are two examples of minorities that were forcibly deported. and the Russian Federation.142 Basques. Tajikistan. Kyrgyzstan. As a nationalist movement claiming Palestine as a Jewish homeland for a people in worldwide diaspora. but distinct. Azerbaijan. Integration. Prolonged armed conflict or terrorism has been a part of several of these nationalist campaigns. is another related. the Tatars were deported from the Crimea in 1944 and dispersed throughout the Soviet Union. nationalism may manifest itself as a claim to national exclusiveness. most other divided people live in the republics of the former Soviet Union. were subject to more or less violent expulsion from many European countries. Israeli claims to territory inhabited for generations by Palestinians on the grounds of Jewish habitation in biblical times are another example of such irredentist claims—a word derived from the 19th-century Italian effort to “redeem” or free areas with historic links to Rome that were under foreign control. As policy. In the name of preserving “ethnic purity. Jews and Gypsies.” Nazi Germany expelled from territories occupied by or incorporated into the Third Reich and ultimately .

Like the biologists. in fewer cases. and shelter and to attain material comforts above the requirements for subsistence. The earth's population doubled—from 2 billion to 4 billion—between 1930 and 1975.” These countries are least able to provide large additions of youngsters with food. the history of nationalism in Europe has descended to its post war nadir. Population scientists (demographers) concentrate on three aspects of population: numbers. and education. If the human species is to survive. . and the numbers inhabiting each segment of a territory.143 killed more than five million Jews and hundreds of thousands of Gypsies and other minorities. of the others by Muslims. The science of population study is called demography. Population The term “population” refers to the inhabitants of a designated territory. remained constant. Demographic matters are high public interest because of unprecedented large increases in the world population. clothing.” As with other animal species it is possible for man to overpopulate his environment. Yet reproduction must not be “too successful. and other consumer essentials. demographers tend to view a human population as an aggregate of living creatures that somehow must organize and adapt themselves to their environment in order to provide food. and train them for survival during the period of immaturity. The viewpoint of demographers is not unlike that of biologists. the numbers of each of several species or types. creating a shortage of food and other necessities of life. and of young adults with jobs. and distribution of persons within the territory they inhabit. who often speak of “animal populations” or “plant populations” and who count the total number of a particular class of organism. characteristics. and. its members must breed. of Serbs and Muslims by Croats. while trying to break out of the vicious circle of poverty created by technological backwardness. With the mass expulsions and killings of Croats and Muslims by Serbs in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina. clothing.9%. A disproportionate share of population growth is among nations that have been defined as “developing. as each tried to establish new or to preserve existing ethnically homogeneous areas. care for their young. 1. and would double again by about the year 2010 if the 1975 annual rate of increase. housing.

and as a major obstacle in the path of worldwide efforts to raise levels of living. These rules. . The mother science of all these activities is called ‘Sociology’ which is the science of human society as a whole. These activities may be economic or political. The United Nations has declared the population crisis equal in importance to the problems of world peace and human rights.144 In many of these areas. Such nations can avert famine only if they are aided by the few remaining countries having large food surpluses or if they embark upon extensive programs of modernizing their agriculture and at the same time try to slow their population growth. like all other science. has been acknowledged by large and influential national and international organizations. Political Science is a science because. rapid accumulation of population has continued to a point where the nations are entering or already have entered a phase of net food deficit without adequate compensating industrial and commercial development. Man is a Social Being: Since the earliest times. The System of Social and Political Life in Democracies There are a number of social sciences. These social sciences cover different aspects of man’s activity. as a threat to world peace. Most nations that have critical population problems now have population control programs. The gravity of this crisis. The activities relating to statecraft are known as political activities. man is known to have lived in society. laws and principles are like the guidelines of certain definite activities or actions.” and “demographic doom. Colourful expressions. The knowledge which covers various aspects (theoretical or practical) of political activities is known as Political Science. it has its broad rules and regulations.” “population bomb. such as “population explosion. The knowledge which relates to any of activities of human beings is known as a social science. These may also be related to his moral actions. Even when he was not so civilised. as a cause of impending mass misery. general laws and general principles.” are often used to dramatize the immediacy and seriousness of the population crisis. A social being performs numerous activities to survive and flourish. Society is made up of all social beings and their variegated groupings.

and with property came inevitable quarrels about ownership and inheritance. That is. The result was a diversity of human groupings. later. These requirements led most farmers to live in settled groups in villages. The situation changed abruptly when groups of men living in favoured parts of the earth entered a stage of communal living. but his dependence on the uncontrolled bounty of nature limited his chances of survival. Various kinds of property became important. Their dependence on society went on gradually increasing with time so that. While the crops were growing they demanded protection and weeding and after harvesting they had to be kept safe from thieves and pests. called for a lot of heavy labour. clothing and shelter. Society was needed even by the primitive people. The types of human communities now so familiar around the world quickly evolved. tribe. it is impossible for humans to have the basic necessities like food. and their sedentary life raised a host of social problems. The village itself was a tangle of difficulties. who wanted to move in? All such problems had to be solved reasonably well or the village would . each characterised by behaviour patterns related to its size. establishing a symbiotic relationship. People began to live in several different kinds of associations. Human Settlements: Preparing fields. these people became farmers and herdsmen. Human Groups: Once man learned to live in effective social groups he became superior to all beasts. They made certain plants and animals. Hunting wild animals and gathering wild vegetable foods could support about one human being per 10 square miles of territory. Symbiosis with plants and animals gave social man a large and dependable food supply and started him towards developing his higher civilisation. Without society. and even this small population was often threatened by droughts and other natural disasters. planting crops and harvesting. part of the human groups. Who should be permitted to build his house and where? And what to do about outsiders. they gave up their nomadic life and started living a family life. in due course. Plato said that society is essential for life while Aristotle improved on this expression by saying that society is essential for good life. But it placed new demands on cooperative effort and required communities more highly organised than those of hunters.145 he lived in the company of his fellow beings whether his society started with his family. by industry. group or a combination of them. to meet the varied needs imposed by agriculture and.

Even before his birth an individual needs a society of facilitate his healthy arrival and cordial welcome to the fold of humanity. That. Each nation-state today adopts what is called a ‘constitution’ to regulate the behaviour and activity of most of its nationals. psychology. philosophy. Obligations and Facilities of Citizenship: The basic law of a society very often pouts limitations on the liberty of the citizens of . The problem that has haunted philosophers is whether the society has any right to regulate an individual’s conduct and behaviour. however. the constitution describes the fundamental responsibilities of the state in regard to the functioning of the society as a whole. districts and villages in the country for its governance. in the regions. Sometimes called the “basic law of society”. right from the day he sees the light of this world till his death.146 be rivn by strife and instability. It establishes the form of government at the centre. The constitutions also lays down the basic rules to regulate the behaviour of individuals among themselves and towards the state and society. The knowledge relating to politics makes up one of the social sciences like that of other social sciences – economics. etc. not an exact science because no science which deals with the behaviour of human beings can be declared exact. It also prescribes the outlines of powers and privileges of different wings (executive. With time villages developed into towns. It enumerates the basic objectives which govern the formulation of programmes of the state for the good of its individual citizens. It is. system and other characteristics of the scientific study of specialised branch of human knowledge and fully deserves the title of science. A human beings and his mind are vast vistas of differing thought. It has all the logic. legislature and judiciary) of the government together with the mutual relationships among them. It has been rightly observed that man is a social animal not only by nature but also by sheer necessity. however. New township and larger cities were also established. Individual and the State: State is the most important political institution of society that looks after the material and spiritual interests of its individuals. Individual and Society: An individual and his/her society are interdependent and essential for each other’s existence. does not mean that the knowledge relating to political science should not be classified as a science. It is full of all complexities. or allow the individual to have free expression and action. A human mind seldom has a single track to follow.

electricity. enjoy the social benefits of corporate living like the amenities of cheap drinking water. it may be observed. It is also linked to a territorial region and/or how it fits in the world as a whole. and thereby of societies. According to Atomists.. The social atom is essential for the whole society and the society is essential for the very existence of its social atoms. street sanitation. and political – that functioned in the past. medical care etc. What activities of a man constitute political action? In what way and to what extent does the political action exercise its influence on the life of a person or a body of persons in an area or a region? The answers to these questions depend upon the stage of socioeconomic progress the community has reached. Mafia The mafia had its origin as a secret society fighting foreign rule in Sicily in the 15th century. the idea of social atomism has come up. security of life. either by exploitation. a social atom is an indivisible unit of society and the whole society is made up of such social atoms or living units. economic.147 the state and prevents them from harming the interests of other individuals for elfish gain. are functioning today. Social Atomism: In recent societies. roads. or a nation-state. These facilities include the right to vote and elect political leaders at different levels. Thus. public transport. This has made the life of individuals. In return for this restraint on his liberty. more comfortable. the state gives to the individual numerous facilities of citizenship. They are based on the forces of change – social. economic or social or by material or physical injury. In recent decades the state has further expanded its role in society with a view to serve its citizens with more and more material and spiritual benefits arising from mutual cooperation. interesting and purposeful. Political science is fundamentally linked to the stage of social evolution or revolution of a community. its cultural background and current social objectives. or will function in the future. In 1868 when Sicily became an integral part of Italy the mafia continued to operate with the time- . as well as the right to individual belongings and working opportunity based on merit and capability. that political institutions of a community or a state derive their origin and source of development from its historical or traditional background.

Public outrage was tempered by the arrest in 1993 of the reputed Mafia leader. Mafia. Links with the Italian Mafia were also maintained. some members of the Mafia emigrated to the United States. thus acquiring influence with the police and obtaining legal access to weapons. and.148 honoured methods of organised violence but discovered new goals. the Sicilian word “mafia” did not appear in Italian writings. the Mafia moved into other areas. The Fascist government of Benito Mussolini succeeded for a time in suppressing the Mafia. Beginning in the late 19th century. illicit drugs. Over the next 30 years the Mafia became a power not only in Sicily but all over Italy as well. prosecution of reputed Mafia leaders in the United States increased in the 1980s and 1990s. protection. new purposes and new causes. The Mafia first developed in Sicily in feudal times to protect the estates of absentee landlords. In the mid-19th century. each autonomous within its own district. As in Italy. but another (1876) said “mafia” was the equivalent of “gang” (camorra). but also to the assassination of several key law-enforcement officials in retaliation. Sicilian-Italian dictionaries offered different definitions of the term. but the organization emerged again after World War II. Salvatore Riina. sometimes bound by a blood oath and sworn to secrecy. . By employing terrorist methods against the peasant electorate. Until the 19th century. It continued to challenge to established governments. a rigid code of conduct that included avoiding all contact and cooperation with the authorities. leading not only to a number of arrests and sensational trials. it consisted of many small groups. The members were bound by omertà. in recent years. the Mafia attained political office in several communities. By the 19th century it had become a network of criminal bands that dominated the Sicilian countryside. prostitution. name for an open-ended association of criminal groups. The Mafia had neither a centralized organization nor a hierarchy. especially in the 1920s during Prohibition. They soon became entrenched in American organized crime. One dictionary (1868) said that “mafia” expressed bravado and dignity (“what a mafioso horse!”). After the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 put an end to most bootlegging. such as gambling. The Italian government began an anti-Mafia campaign in the early 1980s.

Gradually the Mafia groups formed alliances that enabled them. political. an alliance of Italians and Sicilians first conquered bootlegging gangs dominated by members of other ethnic groups.” in contemporary western Sicily there are construction trades Mafie. and social—in the western part of Sicily. which were payments for protection against bandits. where face-to-face relations between neighbors predominated. and many others. however. employed in Sicily. public works Mafie. senses in which the word was. became blurred. and is. The crime common to each of these Mafie is extortion. each group had a designated chief and a concept of membership that permitted “men of honor” in the group even if they were not relatives. it has a more specialized meaning and is the name of a world-famous illegal organization.149 These definitions reflect the alternative. to meet changing conditions as Sicily became more industrialized and urbanized. fishing fleet Mafie. his scaffolding is likely to fall. In The Italians (1964). but related. The Sicilian association originated in a peasant society. While the alliance of semiautonomous groups ordinarily is called “The Mafia. They collected taxes. The Sicilian Mafia never was a tightly knit bureaucracy. The device used . When the word is capitalized. with a hierarchy of authority relevant only to family affairs —the patriarch and his heirs. and between peacekeeping and murder. collectively. the same Italians and Sicilians almost destroyed one another. each active only in a limited district and each concerned only with specific occupations. Then. Near the end of the period of national Prohibition. services. to dominate almost all aspects of life—economic. or commodities. The demarcations between taxation and extortion. If a bricklayer does not pay a fee to a Mafia group. in the early 1930s. it always has been an alliance of many small. for example. The kinship groups adapted their organization and operation. The early Mafie provided law and order where the various official governments occupying Sicily did not. religious. in a series of battles in 1930 and 1931. Luigi Barzini says that the word should be spelled with a lowercase “m” when it means a state of mind—admiration for manly bravado. the basic structure of current American organized crime was established as the final product of a series of “gangland wars. By the beginning of the 20th century.” In these armed conflicts. Instead. They tended to be kin groups. semiautonomous groups. wholesale fruit and vegetable Mafie.

Members of this alliance have profited because many Americans demand the illegal goods and services they offer for sale. This arrangement for peaceful coexistence was patterned on that of the Sicilian Mafia. The 1931 “peace treaty” functioned to create a loose alliance between the various Mafia groups that have operated in American cities ever since. and executioners—also are well known. underboss. where members may call themselves “The Syndicate. They also have corrupted some government officials at the local. each with a semi-independent “boss. or of Italian-Sicilian descent.150 to bring this “Castellamarese War” to a close set the pattern for organized crime in America. and to associated syndicates. The persons occupying key positions in the skeletal structure of each “family”—boss.S. and other corporations. where they extort money from employers and. state.” The Federal Bureau of Narcotics started calling this American alliance “The Mafia” in the early 1930s. through understandings and agreements and through mutual deference to a “commission” that is made up of the leaders of the most powerful “families. and federal levels. The “families” are linked to each other. trucking companies. hotels. enforcers.” or capo. They have become identified as loan sharks and as importers and wholesalers of narcotics. and soldiers—are well known to law-enforcement agencies. The American alliance is thought to consist of at least 24 “families. They have infiltrated certain labour unions. cheat the members of the union. but it is seldom heard in Chicago or the West. money movers. Names of persons who permanently or temporarily occupy other positions—buffers. the agreement was to divide the nation into 20 or 30 territories. Basically. It continues. captains. restaurants and bars. Department of Justice dropped both the names Mafia and Cosa Nostra from official use.” “The Outfit. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) used the name “Cosa Nostra” (“our affair”) until 1970. They have managed to secure control of a large part of the illegal gambling in the United States. counsellor. All members of these families are Italians or Sicilians. and news media and some local law-enforcement agencies still use this name. when the U.” “The Mob” occasionally has been used by . at the same time. with modifications.” or “The Organization.” as the membership groups are called. food companies. Mafia members own a wide variety of legitimate retail firms. Organized criminals on the eastern seaboard use the term Cosa Nostra.

In Brazil there are women-only police stations which deal with the problem of violence against women. They are often suspicious of complaints. particularly if there is no sign of injury. The police are often insensitive to issues concerning rape. Most provide sympathetic and knowledgeable support to victims. if the woman knows the offender. Police stations are the traditional rape reception agencies and the police response to complaints requires priority attention. prosecute and punish rapists. the police station and the prosecutor’s office. These are specially designed interview rooms. State discrimination is not pursuing cases involving violence against women has been documented by some groups. the judiciary and general community. Education and training are essential for prejudice and negative attitudes to be eliminated and practical approaches to a complaint imparted. If the woman is seen as being morally dubious. is sexually experienced or is a prostitute. In Malaysia. equipped with a bathroom and examination couch. In the United Kingdom. police have developed “rape suits”. This non-prosecution is a serious issue and can only be overcome by raising awareness among the police. These centres are augmented by non-governmental organisations and government . the allegation will completely in doubt. Service: Many countries have established what are sometimes called “rape crisis centres”. if she delays reporting the rape or if she appears unnaturally calm or unemotional. which is separate from the main station interviewing area. Forms of Violence in a Community All states have an international legal obligation to investigate. They are basically intended to give the victim courage to face the difficult and often embarrassing procedures that the legal process requires. These rape crisis centres provide her with legal and counselling services and work closely with hospitals. Some of these operate a telephone advice service or a short-term residential facility for victims. women-only rape squads have been formed by the police and a policy directive established that only women police officers handle rape victims.151 journalists as well as by some criminals themselves to refer to all organized criminals. The victim is interviewed and examined in the ‘suite’. whether or not they are members of the ItalianSicilian alliance. as who will be if she is living with her boyfriend.

which include information. The consent of such a person is irrelevant. These forms of rape constitute what is sometimes called statutory rape in the United States. The age varies from 12 to 18 in different parts of the world. done away with this marital immunity. Research from all jurisdictions indicates that any woman who has to prove that she did not consent will face enormous difficulty unless she shows signs of fairly serious injury. especially in the Commonwealth. A number of jurisdictions. the offender is unable or chooses not to penetrate his victim in this manner. rather than its sexual nature. Sexual assault within Marriage: In many countries sexual assault by a husband on his own wife is not regarded as unlawful sexual intercourse and thus is not a crime. Under British law they are labelled “unlawful carnal knowledge. rape is defined by statue or by common law as sexual intercourse without the consent of or against the will of the victim. but may force her to perform other acts or demean her in other ways. Questions emerge as to what is “sexual intercourse”. by legal definition. In most cases rape is defined as sexual intercourse with a woman. Legislation: The criminal laws which exist with regard to rape also pose certain problems. also includes sexual intercourse with any person under a specified age. Sexual Intercourse: Most Jurisdictions consider sexual intercourse for the purpose of rape to exist only where there is penile penetration of vagina. The Complaint’s Consent: In most countries. However. have thus taken the view that this concentration on penile penetration is misplaced. Some jurisdictions have. networks. however. Sexual intercourse with a person who is mentally deficient or disordered or under the influence of drugs also constitutes rape. frequently. She still face particular difficulty if she knows or has had a sexual relationship with the man in the past. hotlines and counselling services. against her will and without her consent. The crime of rape. This is based on the assumption that the wife gives herself up to the husband by entering into the contract of marriage. what is “consent” and what are the relevant rules of evidence which should govern a case concerning rape. . These jurisdictions which have redefined rape to include acts beyond penile penetration seek to stress the demeaning and violent aspects of rape. Thus a number of jurisdictions have attempted to shift the emphasis of the crime away from her consent.152 services.

Sexsex during the reigns of King Canute and William the Conqueror. By 1800. murder. It was mentioned in the Code of Hammurabi (1750 BC). focusing on the conduct of the offender. Similarly. more than 200 capital crimes were recognized. Some jurisdictions have introduced the crime of “inducing sexual connection by coercion. in contrast to capital punishment. not involving a threat of physical force. “criminal sexual conduct” is committed when sexual intercourse occurs where the accused uses force or coercion or in circumstances where the victim is deemed to be incapable of giving consent. English law recognized seven major crimes: treason (grand and petty). Related to this concept of consent is the question of whether the consent which is grudging or elicited following substantial pressure being applied should be inoperative. with force or coercion receiving a wide statutory definition. burglary.153 Most take as their inspiration the Michigan Criminal Sexual Conduct Act which eliminated consent as an element of the crime. larceny. rather than the consent of the victim. 1. the death penalty was not used. In England. Lynching. although the results of interrogation and torture were often fatal. Thus. rape. as a result.” which occurs where sexual activity takes place when the offender knows that the complainant consents because of the offender’s position of power.000 or more people were sentenced to death each year (although most sentences were commuted by royal pardon). in circumstances where the victim should not reasonably be expected to resist the threat and where the offender is aware that submission is liable to six years’ imprisonment. legal infliction of the death penalty. illegal use of death as a punishment. Capital Punishment Capital Punishment. is the unauthorized. other provide that where consent to threat”. It would appear appropriate that consent be vitiated where it is gained by the imposition of the other person’s position of authority over or professional or other trusting relation to the victim. In the American . By the end of the 15th century. and. The usual alternative to the death penalty is long-term or life imprisonment. in modern law. and arson. The earliest historical records contain evidence of capital punishment. defined as intimidatory or coercive conduct or other threat. corporal punishment in its most severe form.

by the Italian jurist Cesare Beccaria. and drowning are examples. In one case a posthumous pardon was issued. the reform movement succeeded in Britain in 1965 after a number of dubious and even manifestly wrong executions.154 colonies before the War of Independence. but they have been rejected in Parliament. Blacks. Where complete abolition could not be achieved. firing squad (used only in Utah). Britain repealed all but a few of its capital statutes during the 19th century. flogging. Encouraged by the writings of the philosopher Jeremy Bentham. a short treatise. electrocution (introduced by New York State in 1890). However. In most nations that still retain the death penalty for some crimes. or lethal injection (introduced in 1977 by Oklahoma). inspired influential thinkers such as the French philosopher Voltaire to oppose torture. carried out by hanging. hanging or the firing squad are the preferred methods of execution. In Europe. The death penalty has been inflicted in many ways now regarded as barbaric and forbidden by law almost everywhere: crucifixion. the death penalty is currently authorized in one of five ways: hanging (the traditional method of execution throughout the English-speaking world). In some countries that adhere . It remains the theoretical punishment for a very few offences such as piracy. crushing. A series of miscarriages of justice in Britain in the 1970s and 1980s in what would have been capital crimes emphasized the dangers of executing the innocent and made the return of the death penalty unlikely. in Britain and the United States this reform was led by the Quakers (Society of Friends). the gas chamber (adopted in Nevada in 1923). Several states in the United States (led by Michigan in 1847) and a few countries (beginning with Venezuela in 1853 and Portugal in 1867) abolished the death penalty entirely. reformers concentrated on limiting the scope and mitigating the harshness of the death penalty. Efforts to abolish the death penalty did not gather momentum until the end of the 18th century. On Crimes and Punishments (1764). tearing asunder. beheading. and the death penalty. impalement. boiling in oil. the death penalty was commonly authorized for a wide variety of crimes. were threatened with death for many crimes that were punished less severely when committed by whites. whether slave or free. in the previous two decades. stoning. drawing and quartering. Since then there have been regular and determined attempts to restore the death penalty. burning alive. In the United States.

beheading or stoning are still occasionally employed as punishment. Those who argue against the death penalty as a deterrent to crime in the United States cite the following: adjacent states. in which one has a death penalty and the other does not. states that use the death penalty seem to have a higher number of homicides than states that do not use it. traitors. although definitely established cases of this sort in recent years are rare. In the early 1970s. Defenders of the death penalty insist that because taking an offender's life is a more severe punishment than any prison term. "Let the punishment fit the crime" is its secular counterpart. Critics of the death penalty have always pointed to the risk of executing the innocent. or for those who have not yet been caught but who would be liable to a life term if arrested. Proponents of capital punishment have also claimed that society has the right to kill in defence of its members. Supporters also argue that without capital punishment there is no adequate deterrent for those already serving a life term who commit murder while incarcerated. Both maxims imply that the murderer deserves to die. and whether it is more effective than the alternative of long-term imprisonment. just as the individual may kill in selfdefence. by man shall his blood be shed" (Genesis 9:6) has usually been interpreted as a divine warrant for putting the murderer to death. states that abolish and then reintroduce the death penalty do not seem to show any significant change in the murder rate.155 strictly to the traditional practices of Islam. show no significant long-term differences in the murder rate. They have also argued that one can . The fundamental questions raised by the death penalty are whether it is an effective deterrent to violent crime. The classic moral arguments in favour of the death penalty have been biblical and retributive. no change in the rate of homicides in a given city or state seems to occur following a local execution. as well as for revolutionaries. The analogy to self-defence. as long as the effectiveness of the death penalty as a deterrent to violent crimes has not been proved. and spies. The current prevailing view among criminologists is that no conclusive evidence exists to show that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent to violent crime than long-term imprisonment. is somewhat doubtful. but subsequent research has discredited this finding. it must be a better deterrent. terrorists. however. "Whosoever sheds man's blood. some published reports purported to show that each execution in the United States deterred eight or more homicides.

some Western nations had no capital punishment. for example. About a dozen European countries have carried out executions since the 1970s. During a visit to Mexico and the United States in January 1999. have insisted that. for example. in some African. Capital punishment was reviewed by the Supreme Court of the United States in the 1970s. are rarely sentenced to death and executed. for example. Women. By the late 1980s. these kinds of discrimination are not a sufficient reason for abolishing the death penalty. granted clemency. racist. After he made a direct request on behalf of a death-row inmate. for a crime that does not take or threaten life. Capital punishment experts and religious officials described the successful intervention as an unprecedented act of papal influence. and social status. and the state. Middle Eastern (Arab). In many countries the death penalty is inflicted for a range of crimes against people. in the early 1990s the trend of Supreme Court rulings was to cut back on the appeals that death row inmates could make to the federal courts. However. proportioning the severity of punishment to the gravity of the crime does not require the primitive rule of "a life for a life". In addition. many court decisions of the 1980s and early 1990s have lowered bars to executions. Defenders of the death penalty. as. or class bias in its use. the state governor of Missouri. where the pope was speaking. Opponents have replied that the death penalty is inherently subject to caprice and mistake in practice and that it is impossible to administer fairly. public order. even though 20 per cent of all homicides in the United States in recent years have been committed by women. because nothing inherent in the laws of capital punishment causes sexist. calling the death penalty "cruel and unnecessary". however. Pope John Paul II made some of his strongest denunciations of capital punishment to date. making it unconstitutional to impose the death penalty in certain circumstances.156 accept a retributive theory of punishment without necessarily resorting to the death penalty. property. the chief objection to capital punishment has been that it was always used unfairly. In the United States. and Asian nations. . sex. while others had abolished it except for military or national security offences. in at least three major ways: that is. with regard to race.

a budget year—which rarely coincides with the calendar year. The accumulated deficits of all previous fiscal years is the government's debt. the budget is “in surplus. government's fiscal year begins on October 1 and ends the following September 30. Surpluses in the budgets of nations tend to slow their economic growth by withdrawing wealth from the private sector. and from investors abroad. For politicians. The government budget both affects and is affected by the economy. is known as fiscal year 1995. The president or prime minister prepares estimates of the revenues and expenditures required for the government's programs. In most countries government budgeting is executive centered. Deficits tend to fuel economic growth by pumping money into the private sector. The budget lies at the very core of a government's decision-making process. the fiscal year runs from July 1 through June 30. these payments usually have first call on the government's revenues and must be made if the government is to remain solvent and creditworthy. financing the debt is a central ongoing part of the budget process.” If expenditures exceed revenues. budgeting centers on deciding how to raise revenues and on what programs to spend the money.S. Governments prepare their budgets for a fiscal year—that is. In most state and many local governments. Because virtually all governments have a debt. when a government's revenues equal its expenditures. from banks. It is the task of deciding what share of a society's resources ought to be devoted to public purposes and how much ought to be left in private hands. 1995. In democracies these estimates are typically submitted as proposals to the legislature for its approval. the government budget is said to be “in balance. The fiscal year is numbered by the year in which it ends. One of the most important decisions of national budget makers thus is their calculation of the effect of their budget . 30. the budget is “in deficit. It is a virtual lightning rod for political conflict. thus the federal budget year ending on Sept. The U. for example. Governments finance their debt through borrowing—from their own citizens.157 Budget The process of making decisions about raising revenues and spending money for public purposes. Borrowed funds are repaid with interest.” A budget deficit is therefore a snapshot of a government's financial condition in a given fiscal year.” If revenues exceed expenditures. In a given fiscal year.

The economy. The national budget also expresses the government's fiscal policy. bring the budget into balance. in turn. To assist in achieving these objectives. lower economic growth tends to increase the deficit by driving up spending for unemployment. fiscal policy must accord with monetary policy decisions of the central bank. and because economic forecasting is more art than science. Instead. has a profound effect on government budgets. One of the first steps in preparing a government budget. . there is a high premium on accurate forecasting. especially because interest costs on the debt tend to increase at the same time. the government may choose to reduce the deficit. Given the persistently high deficits with which most major countries have struggled—and their inability to bring them under control—national budgets have become far less useful tools for steering the economy. If inflationary pressures persist. This has tied government spending even more closely to the economy's performance. income security. often conflicting. is to forecast economic growth and inflation and to project what effects they will have on government revenues and expenditures.158 on the economy. To be effective. Because these forecasts have to be prepared more than a year in advance of the end of the fiscal year. Moreover. High inflation is likely to increase government deficits. therefore. objectives: promoting maximum employment. and pursuing economic stability and growth. Since even small errors in economic forecasts can produce large errors in estimating the budget. unexpected changes in the economy can easily disrupt a government's economic plans. Higher economic growth is likely to reduce government deficits by increasing revenues faster than spending. the decisions of central banks. or produce a budget surplus to restrain the economy. and government health care. Governments are faced with numerous. which make national monetary policy—managing the supply of currency and the level of interest rates—have become much more important in guiding the economy. governments are indexing more expenditures to the level of inflation so that service recipients keep even with the cost of living. fighting inflation. the government may decide to stimulate the economy by operating with a budget deficit.

understood that these are not "weapons" in the traditional sense of conferring a viable military advantage on the possessor. Most modern nuclear weapons are scientifically more advanced and belong in the second category of hydrogen or thermonuclear weapons. dissemination and use of nuclear weapons and military nuclear technology. and landmines. but it is now widely accepted that a competent nuclear physicist could glean all the information needed from readily available scientific literature. it seemed that weapons development had finally gone beyond the bounds of proportionality and utility. The first use of nuclear weapons in war took place in August 1945. so a wide variety of delivery systems were developed: missiles of various ranges launched from the air. ground. when the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. though not universally. . it has been widely. The first delivery system was the long-range bomber. shipborne depth charges and torpedoes.159 Nuclear Proliferation Or Non-Nuclear Proliferation Nuclear Warfare and Nuclear Proliferation. As the Cold War progressed. A nuclear weapon involves a delivery system as well as the bomb or warhead. but also to destroy and contaminate much of the Earth's surface. From the moment nuclear weapon technology was revealed in 1945. causing the release of a huge amount of energy in a very short time. and sea. Atom bomb design and construction is very precise. The British strategist Basil Henry Liddell Hart commented that "with the advent of atomic weapons. we have come either to the last page of war or the last page of history". When the use of nuclear weapons threatened to annihilate not just the belligerents in any conflict. much larger than that from an atomic bomb. battlefield artillery. Nuclear weapon technology is now so diffuse that an effective means of delivery could be as simple as the boot of a car or the proverbial "suitcase bomb". The yield or explosive force of nuclear weapons has also increased dramatically. There is then a massive release of energy. Atomic or fission bombs involve a self-sustaining atomsplitting chain reaction in a mass of uranium or plutonium. These weapons employ a fission explosion to create sufficient energy for the hydrogen fusion process to take place. There is theoretically no limit to the size of a thermonuclear explosion.

In 1962 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics exploded a thermonuclear bomb with a staggering yield of 58 megatons. Nuclear weapons have also become extremely accurate: the "circular error probable" of a US MX missile is just 100 metres. each had well over 10. Nuclear radiation. North Korea. intercontinental) warheads. The US tested a thermonuclear bomb in 1952. could destroy communications systems. while not damaging to humans or buildings. which maximized lethal direct radiation to kill tank crews but which kept the blast effect to a minimum. prompting US fears of a "missile gap". Both sides then raced to produce bombers. missiles. meaning that there is a 50 per cent chance of the 11. such as Israel and. and Pakistan. China. The yield of some US and Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) was in the region of 1. resulting in widespread destruction and fires. India. The best known special design was the so-called "neutron bomb". and radiation from radioactive fallout. In 1957 the Soviets launched the Sputnik satellite into the first global orbit.000 tonnes of TNT.5 megatons.e. and the Soviet Union followed suit one year later. until recently. with many more in the substrategic range. It is possible to design weapons which augment one or other effect. and other means of delivery. are widely suspected of possessing nuclear weapons. Other suspected "threshold" states. South Africa.000-kilometre-range missile delivering a warhead within 100 m of the target. or 1. those thought to be capable of developing nuclear weapons.000 tonnes of TNT explosive. and a massive blast. Weapons designed to be used against military units might produce a high EMP in order to break down the military communications network. and France. The dismantling of Iraq's nuclear weapons programme after the Gulf War revealed it to be well on the way to developing a nuclear device. Other acknowledged possessors of nuclear weapons are Britain. Several states. comes in the form of direct radiation at the time of the explosion. By the end of the Cold War.160 The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs had a yield of about 13 kilotons-equivalent to 13.500. The United States had the monopoly in atomic bombs from 1945 until the first Soviet test in 1949.000 strategic (i. include Iran. extremely harmful to all forms of life. or enhanced radiation/reduced blast bomb. The first effects of a nuclear explosion are an extremely bright and hot wave of thermal radiation. . the dirt and debris sucked up and irradiated during the explosion and falling back to Earth. A series of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) are also released which.

brought the counter-threat of a pre-emptive strike on the facilities by US bombers. Non-signatories. amongst other proposed policies. India. In an important benchmark decision. the International Court of Justice of the United Nations ruled in July 1996 that the use of . include Israel. The regime has several elements. and acquisition in exchange for access to civil nuclear technology. There is a fundamental difficulty in distinguishing between civil and military use of nuclear technology. inspection and verification agencies. Many states criticize the NPT as discriminatory. And it is not beyond the realms of possibility that a terrorist organization might eventually acquire and use its own bomb.161 The "proliferation". and it seems increasingly difficult to control the traffic in key components and materials. or spread of nuclear weapons has taken place in two ways. The NPT. The non-proliferation regime faces several other challenges. bans on weapon testing. however. and is controlled through arms control agreements between the possessors. and demand that the nuclear "haves" do more to meet their part of the bargain by working more conscientiously towards nuclear disarmament and complete test bans. to avoid opening its nuclear facilities to inspection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In essence. with permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. now with over 170 signatories. North Korea's threat to withdraw from the NPT in 1993. "vertical" and "horizontal". The prevention of horizontal proliferation is the object of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. was in 1995 the subject of a major international review conference to meet its official expiry in May. promising concerted retaliation against any state guilty of nuclear attack or threats against an NPT signatory. The key to the regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) signed in 1968. including national and multilateral export controls. development. and. secured indefinite continuation of the NPT regime by. the NPT is a bargain in which non-nuclear states agree to renounce weapons-related research. Vertical proliferation is the expansion and development of existing arsenals. The major powers possessing nuclear weapons. and Pakistan: three almost certainly nuclear-armed states that have fought several wars in recent history. most recently. It may also be that the taboo against the viewing of nuclear weapons as acceptable weapons of war has been eroded in various parts of the world. an attempt to prohibit further production of fissile material.

which find themselves under considerable economic and environmental pressure in developed nations that have been installed in Pakistan. the products and residues of the chemical industry pose unprecedented risks to human health and environmental quality. etc. chemicals synthetics. While talking of the environment. without much attention being paid to its black-lash created in its wake. Indiscriminate industrial expansion to cater the growing needs. There are cases like the H-acid plants. Increased use of chemicals in industry and agriculture and toxic and hazardous substances into the human food chain and into soil. water regimes. reflecting the concern of the non-nuclear majority at the possession of nuclear weapons by the "nuclear club" of permanent UN Security Council members. we must realise that global environment is an interconnected web. Without an effective mechanism for enforcement. the decision is significant chiefly as a moral precedent. Liquid waste that runs into a stream from a factory can kill wildlife and cause health problems for humans. The Pakistani scenario of chemical industries sector looks grim with the industrialists often going in for outdated low efficiency processes and technologies associated with higher level of pollution. enhanced economic opportunities and the quality of life in general. Pesticides like DDT. except in "extreme circumstances". water and the living biota are often global. In the United Kingdom the amount and quality of wastewater a factory can discharge is strictly regulated.162 nuclear weapons in warfare was contrary to the rules of war. Hazards of Industrial Pollution and Demand for Clean Technologies Much of the development being made is based on the use of increasing amount of raw materials. The scale and complexity of our requirement for these resources have increased greatly with the rising level of population and production. Notwithstanding the role of chemicals in improved health and life expectancy. which were banned or obsolete in industrialised countries are still being produced in the country. forests and ultimately in the environment. increased agricultural production. The links among the natural systems of air. pollution and subsequently environmental degradation. A ruling was initially requested in December 1994 by a large majority vote of the UN General Assembly. The decision rendered the use of tactical or theatre nuclear weapons illegal in any circumstances. BHC. energy. .

Applying cleaner production means systematically addressing all phases of the production process and product life-cycle. Cleaner production encompasses energy and raw material conservation. we often neglect the long term impact mainly due to inadequate knowledge. If you go deep into the theme of cleaner production. As a result. All these options have the same aim. cleaner production cannot always eliminate the generation of all wastes and emissions. to reduce the risks to humans and the environment from industrial activities and consumption. it is basically efficiency that counts. The prosperity of nation’s and individuals depends upon the quality of the environment and the availability of natural resources. mainly in the industrialised countries of Europe. Environment protection today is evolving and incorporating a whole new strategy to try to avoid the waste and pollution that has all too often characterised rapid industrialisation. The use of chemicals. but the gas that went up high in the atmosphere formed acid droplets after reacting with the moisture there. a new complementary prevention and control approach is required. tall stacks were designed. and to do so in the most cost-effective way possible. such as CFCs and DDT are few examples in this regard. Now. The second option is . Thus to protect the environment. In this new hierarchy. It is a well-known fact that most of the European coal is rich in sulphur content. with the constant aim of reducing risk. high sulphur dioxide emission takes place during coal burning. the first option is cleaner production. as more than two-third of the European forests are being categorised as degraded and most of the lakes are slightly acidic. Every environmental problem has got short-term as well as long term impact. its impact is pathetic. The human race relies on the environment and therefore must manage it wisely. Yet it is principally human activities that degrade the global environment and deplete the world’s natural resource base. No doubt.163 Disturbing any one of them can have unexpected results that are remote in both space and time. To avoid its build-up in the proximity of human environment. During the course of rapid industrialisation. reduction in the use of toxic substances and product and process changes that reduce the wastes and pollutants previously produced. Another example of overlooking the longterm effects of pollution is being manifested in the form of acid rain. these stacks were able to avoid the emission of this gas on the surface level. Unfortunately.

Nowadays. is now parabolic. these days pollution control and environmental protection have become an integral part of the design of the industries. At present. the environment continued to get more and more polluted. which is gaining momentum these days. Some other sectors of industries are being persuaded to adopt relatively clean technologies. the preventive part. water and soil pollution through fly ash. has taught the . It is true that industrialisation has caused severe environmental degradation. at least in the case of medium and large scale industries. and whenever an economically viable and suitable technology is evolved. which was almost linear in the past decade. The third option is to select an appropriate and environmentally sound treatment system that destroys the hazardous characteristic of the material. there would still be a change for air. pollution control was not considered by industrialists at the designing and financing phase. EOP wastes.000 MW of electricity. Recycling of condensate water in sugar industries. which gained popularity in the recent past and ultimately reduced the burden on environment. processes and products themselves. although less hazardous than the raw wastes.164 to find ways to recycle the wastes and pollutants that still exist back into the production system. waterways and soil without any due consideration. intoxicated air and other results of industrial developments. caustic recovery in large pulp and paper mills and fibre recovery in small pulp and paper industry are the few technologies. end-of-pipe (EOP) devices. The use of beneficiated by the thermal power plants may reduce a great amount of air pollutants and fly ash. The fourth and last option is to restore what still remains in safest possible way. were in turn emitted to air. To produce 54. most of the industries take keen interest in that technology. was overlooked when thought of protecting the environment first emerged a few decades ago. were devised to solve the problems of polluted surface waters. Unfortunately. On the contrary. Little thought was given to correcting the root cause. even after treatment systems were adopted by most of the industries. Previously. even if proper air-polluted control measures are adopted. As a result. bio-methanation in distillery industry. there is a great hunt for clean technologies in every sector of industry. the thermal power plants in the country consumes as much as 66 per cent of total coal utilised in the country. Only the control methods. The strict enforcement of Water (Cess) Act. but the link between number of industries and polluted load.

. The emission of fluoride in pot room depends upon the design of the pots. It is not that pollution control methods are not available at every stage. The people working here always remain in the fluoride environment. lots of dust and particulate matters are emitted. The process of mining itself is a great hazard to the environment. sulphur dioxide. our legal provisions are adequate and more strict than most of the developed countries. It is wellknown that continues exposure to fluoride leads to a disease. aluminium is important because it serves as basic input for a number of industries. hydrogen sulphide and oxides of nitrogen are present in calcinations area. During the production of aluminium. mostly three pot designs are used – PB. pollution may be controlled by simple precautions. unloading of railway. The NGO’s should educate the people regarding environment and only then would the common man be able to participate in environmental protection and conservation plans. Consumption has increased its production in recent years. anode bake oven and pot room. it is also widely used in household appliances. like carbon monoxide. The precipitation area in the industry has caustic vapours and this affects the skin. In our country. participation by the public and NGOs is an essential factor. Due to restricted funds and manpower. The most dangerous areas are green anode shop. The cope up with the environmental hazards of rapid industrialisation. At each stage. The past few years have witnessed a steep rise in aluminium consumption. These can lead to respiratory disorders in the workers. it is difficult for government agencies to keep a constant watch on each and every industry. all sorts of pollutants are generated. To protect the environment. Aluminium is probably the second metal after steel in terms of importance and production. fluorosis in which bones and teeth are affected. HSS and VSS. During mining. But since the one and only aim of industries is to produce more and more aluminium at any cost they pay scarce attention to this aspect. The era of economic liberalisation has increased the pace of industrialisation but impact on the environment and natural resources is now being monitored continuously. Toxic and hazardous gases. crushing and mixing of additives. The PB pot emits 16 kg fluoride per ton of aluminium while the rest emit 20 kg per ton. However.165 industrialists the conserve water. In today’s industrial civilisation. wagons.

The Great Depression of the 1930’s was a product of the ruinous trade policies followed in the name of economic nationalism. But stout American opposition to ITO prevented establishment of this all important member of the envisaged ratio of institutions meant to impart orderliness to the flow of international trade and finance in the post-war world. an international institution which would ensure orderliness to the free flow of trade among nations. further accentuated the practice of economic nationalism on the part of major economies of the world. The Depression. USA. financing reconstruction and development of world economies and determination of exchange value of a currency in world’s other currencies. restoring to export promotion through dumping of their products in foreign markets and engaging in heavy doses of devaluation of their currencies with the avowed object of making their currencies with the avowed object of making their exports cheap in other countries and imports from them in the domestic market dearer. An organised reordering of international trade in the post-war era was an imperative if that goal was to be achieved. free flow of international trade had been badly disrupted by various European countries. which would guide and regulate international trade. when it came. which they would like to banish at any cost. 1919-39. During the interwar periods. as the World Bank. the proposal to set up the international Trade Organisation (ITO). Hence. Canada and Japan raising high tariff walls and imposing quota restriction in import of goods into them while. It is after almost a lapse of 50 years that the vacuum existing since then is now being filled and ITO. The Bretton Woods Conference in 1945 gave birth to the twin financial institutions of the IMF and The World Bank. for brief. This beggar thy – neighbour policy of trade not only led to heavy shrinkage of the volume of world trade but also to a severe decline in national income and employment levels all around. in its new . thereby leading to further deepening of the depression. at the same time. ITO was to be part of the institutional framework consisting of Internal Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) known. The spectre of the depression haunted the Allies at the end of the war.166 World Trade Organisation The proposal to have an international trade organisation as mooted first in 1945 at the end of the World War II.

1993 that the deal was struck and approval given to the Final Act. This is not a sudden development. WTO is going to be a permanent entity. Unlike GATT. The way to WTO starting its operations on the designated date has been cleared. it covered trade in agricultural products. was conceived to be a negotiating body devoted to bringing down tariff rates and removing. WTO will start with a membership of around 125 countries. It was also far more comprehensive than the earlier rounds in as much as. Rather. the Uruguay Round being the last and most productive among them. all of which are likely to get the GATT agreement approved by their respective legislatures by the end of 1995. The agreement is based on Dunkel proposals. 1995. This was to be done by the GATT engaging in successive rounds of multilateral negotiations among member countries for effecting an agreement on a given amount of reduction in the level of custom duties on imports. which was an ad hoc affair. as the Uruguay Round Agreement is called. December 15.167 incarnation of World Trade Organisation (WTO) has been taking shape from January 1. The course of negotiations was tortuous and there was uncertainty about completion of the agreement till the deadline. legislation to that effect is before the American Congress which would have ratified the GATT agreement by the end of October 1994. seven rounds of GATT negotiations were undertaken over the fifty years from 1946 to the present day. besides trade in manufactured goods. non-tariff restrictions on the free flow of international trade. These doubts have now been removed. GATT that came into operation in 1946. There were some doubts earlier that US Congress may not accord its approval to the GATT agreement and thereby thwart the birth of WTO on January 1. it is the outcome of fifty-year working of the system of General Agreement Trade and Tariffs (GATT) that the USA had suggested in 1945 as an alternative to the proposed ITO. 1995. The Final Act was signed by 123 nations. Nor is it a result of any backtracking on the part of USA to its approach to the subject. It is going to join IMF. insurance and shipping. One of the clauses of these proposals is that GATT would cease to exist and its place would be taken by a permanent body to look after the affairs of international trade. step by step. The Uruguay Round was the most exhaustive and prolonged one. taking sever years to complete. and World Bank as the . intellectual property rights (IPR) and services like banking. That body is to be called the World Trade Organisation. In all.

exercising a single vote in . It is possible that countries like the USA may get away with their highhandedness in treatment of their trading partners but this can only be for sometime. The advantages of having WTO are obvious. under its trade law 301 and Super 301. WTO would save weaker trading countries from bilateral excesses and arbitrariness that characterise strong trading countries. It is possible that some rich and large trading countries may be even hurt. For. imposition of sanctions. The gain from free flow of tax is. China and even Pakistan. In the last two years. holds promise of enormous increase in trade opportunities and volume of world trade. finance and development. is singularly arbitrary and totally opposed to the spirit of free trade can have no place in the merging global trade order that the WTO is charged with the responsibility to administer. the world’s largest and richest trading nations today. Third. has kept hanging like the sword of Damocles over the heads of its perceived erring trade partners like Japan and China by the USA. albeit temporarily. the importance of putting an institution. Second. Free trade is going to prove an economic boon to all member-countries of WTO. it is also going to act as a sort of international court of justice for settling trade disputes among member-nations. every membercountry of WTO is an equal partner. USA. by the new world trade order that the GATT agreement and the WTO are about to rig in. It smoothens trade flows worldwide which. in dealing with their weaker trading partners. it is the most progressive instrument for world economic reforms. much higher grown rate of world economy. has shown a degree of arrogance that hardly becomes the mighty nation which presents itself to be the world’s biggest advocate of the principle of free trade. of course. For future reordering of world economic relations along smoother course and more equitable lines. not going to be equally distributed among all member countries. unlike in IMF and World Bank.168 third premier institution looking after the conduct of international economic relations in respect of trade. First. which to say the least. and increase in incomes and employment world over. some are obviously going to gain more than others. in turn. This law. WTO is not only going to supervise the implementation of Final Act or the last GATT agreement reached in December 1993. is going to benefit from the new dispensation in the end. cannot be overemphasised. like WTO in place on a permanent basis. in its dealings with Japan. notably USA. But the world as a whole is going to gain enormously and USA.

Germany. all governments have economic and social objectives. as soon as the resolution proposing issue of 16 billion SDRs was labelled. The issue of SDR 36. would help some of the poor nations to finance their trade gap without restoring to additional international borrowing by them for the purpose. Other businesses. even in the Councils of World Bank and IMF is brought out by the experience of Madrid meeting of these two institutions. may be discouraged by heavy taxes. in order to fund public expenditure. In the past 50 years. depends on the willingness of the people governed to surrender or exchange a measure of control over property in return for protection and other services.169 decision-making in the councils of the World Trade Organisation. Why this so? . corporations. which is equivalent to US$ 50 billion. and how much to tax. This was the 50th annual meeting called to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the two institutions. and property. UK. Not this time. Instead. Taxation is one form of this exchange. But the problem is that tax-paying culture has been missing the country. Britain. and Japan. That should prevent any single country. exercising an undue influence in decision-making. may be encouraged by tax breaks. France. set its face strongly against the proposal. howsoever powerful. The effectiveness of any government. In deciding whom. No sane Pakistani would question the necessity of tax collection. the Developing Tax Culture System of compulsory contributions levied by a government or other qualified public body on people. such as those operating in depressed areas. That developing countries have started standing up to arbitrariness of the rich and powerful-nations. which is distributed among member-countries in proportion to the share quota held by them respectively in the IMF share capital. G-7 countries had carried through the IMF Council all resolutions proposed by it unanimously. Canada. Some types of business activity or product. SDR is a sort of reserve currency or “created money”. But the rich Group7 nations. Or taxation may be used to bring about social reforms through altering the distribution of wealth. they proposed an issue of only 16 billion SDRs for the avowed aim of providing succour to Russia and East European economies. It was proposed to have an issue of 36 billion worth of SDRs by the IMF. what. such as cigarettes. at central or local level. which comprise USA.

no amount of tax collection would help. as well as old age benefits. and provide civic amenities like. telephone and postal facilities). The major’s reply was a truthful portrayal of Allied policy. Britain would see it get too big for their boots. to revolt against the Turks to hasten an Ottoman defeat. sanitation. water supply at the mercy of tanker mafia. fighting with muskets. the Sharif of Makkah. including heavy guns. clean water. Once this was done. at affordable cost. the taxpayer’s lack of confidence in the state institutions’ competence is understandable. bureaucracy and judiciary. military. robberies. The issue was imperialist real politik: Britain wanted Haussain bin Ali. Unless proper financial management is undertaken. could be better allies if they were given modern arms. They are also for creation of more jobs. In such a situation and also when at least one third of population is below the poverty line. negate all the sense of security. If the taxpayer is convinced that social and economic benefits would be accruing to the country. The people have a right to ask: whether even a fraction of this has been achieved? Does anyone.170 In a democracy the people are sovereign. Shorn of its diplomatic frills and trappings. honour and property. attack on villages. battle by some of the nuclear club’s self-righteous members to retain their monopoly of . They pay tax and employ (public) servants to use this money to ensure the security of their life. the mindset behind the remark has shown a surprising degree of chutzpah to creep its way into the twenty-first despite its obsolescence. Non-proliferation: not a moral issue Even though the background quote is the second decade of the twentieth century. especially when law-enforcers too are involved in crimes. even if the tax is successfully collected. he will certainly pay his dues. “nonproliferation” boils down to a desperate and losing. food autarky. air service. daylight. electricity. massacres. manage the national affairs through police. even in Islamabad and Karachi. education. even those employing security guards feel secure? Widespread lawlessness. communications (road rail. and healthcare for all. Lieutenant Lawrence – “Lawrence of Arabia” – pleaded with his boss that Hussain’s men. gang-rapes.

forcing Pakistan to match New Delhi’s re-assertion of its nuclear capability in 1998. for evidence now available confirms that Washington not only helped Britain develop her nuclear arsenal. Japan. Morally. for it is the US more than any other nuclear power that is manipulating all the levers of power available to it to create and perpetuate the myth of a morality behind non-proliferation. India exploded a bomb at Pokhran. the United States. it lay in inventor’s obvious desire to test the efficacy of his weapon and to obtain the scientific results of a bomb dropped from the air. however. In August 1945. Ten years later. the nuclear bomb was still an all-white. Stalin. killing and maiming for life 300. In 1964. the US air force hurled death and destruction on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. and when France went nuclear on the Bikini atoll. Above all. Among all these nations – recognised nuclear powers as well as those seeking recognition – the United States is the only country have actually dropped nuclear bombs on human beings. leaving Japan alone to face the wrath of Allied military power. for it is doubtful if – placed in a similar situation – the Germans would have suffered an American strike. there was this comfortable assurance that the bomb was being used against a non-white. focuses on the United States. it is the last country on earth to lecture others on the virtues of a nuclear-free world. . There was no tactical or strategic need for doing so. had already had his bomb. parochial in origin. There is no higher moral end in view. Essentially. now making the greatest noise about the spread of nuclear weapons and sermonising others on the lethality of such proliferation. America’s nuclear policy initially aimed at confining nuclear weapons to the English-speaking world. Of special relevance here are the policies of non-nuclear. meanwhile. for Germany had already surrendered in May.000 people. This article. all-Christian affair. If at all there was a reason for using nuclear weapons.171 the weapons of mass destruction. To its presumed innocence in matters nuclear we will come presently. Thus. together with London it pursued a rabidly anti-French policy when Gen de Gaulle made up his mind to secure France\s membership of the nuclear club. non-Christian people. Beijing shattered this idyll at Lop Nor. is the only country in the world to have used nuclear weapons on human beings.

The last desperate bid was in March 1945 when a German U-boat carrying 1. with two Japanese officers on board. What needs to be brought on record here is that Japan’s stand on nuclear proliferation today is in sharp contrast to its policy during the war. Japan’s entering the Second World War by an act of aggression against the Unites States on December 7. The Japanese officer committed suicide. a brilliant scientist who built Japan’s first cyclotron. However. its amazing victories during the initial stages of the war. history is full of “ifs” and one can go on arguing what would have been the course of history if the Japanese had been able to develop nuclear weapons ahead of the Americans. Japan is not that innocent when its comes to nuclear weapons. One thing. must be said in Japan’s favour: it has shown consistency in its . 1941. is the moral position of the two of the world’s leading advocates of nuclear non-proliferation. whom they despised more than the others. headed for Japan to help its scientists to develop nuclear arms. Actually.172 The other country trying to outdo the United States in the act is Japan. Of course. thus. Japan made a desperate bid to acquire nuclear weapons but was beaten in the race by the United States. half way through the voyage Germany surrendered.120 pounds of uranium oxide. however. for unknown to most people. The account of Japan’s nuclear ambitions is contained in at least two books – Edward Behr’s Hirohito and Robert Wilcox’s Japan’s Secret War: Race Against Time to Behind Its Own Atom Bomb. especially the Chinese. Japan also had a nuclear installation in occupied Korea at Hungnam. The man behind the scientific effort in this direction was Yoshio Nishina. and the causes of its defeat are beyond the scope of this discussion. Given the life-and-death situation in which Japan was engaged then. Behind this anger lies Japan’s image as the world’s only country that has suffered a nuclear holocaust. and the submarine commander refused to proceed further and decided to surrender to the Americans. By attacking a neutral country and thus turning a European war into a wider conflict. This. In May 1998. Japan did no service to mankind or to its own people. there is nod doubt the fascists in power in Tokyo would have used nuclear weapons without the slightest hesitation against their enemies. Tokyo reacted more angrily than perhaps Washington when Pakistan went nuclear.

which took birth through terrorism and which has survived through terrorism (both state terrorism of the kind we see in Indian-occupied Kashmir and the cloak-and-dagger operations for which this racist state has acquired notoriety. . for the Israeli nuclear reactor at Demona was gifted by Paris). depending upon which side of the moral divide one is). like the Americans. inventors and possessors of nuclear weapons want to maintain their monopoly and would hate. amerces has let Israel enjoy the fruits of aggression.173 nuclear policy and has not. which has committed repeated acts of aggression against its neighbours. Israel now has anything between 200 and 300 nuclear weapons. with the difference that while an American-led-coalition punished Iraq for its invasion of Kuwait. Pakistan should be guided solely by its national interests. like the British army officer. To recap. for it brazenly permits an uninterrupted development of Israel’s nuclear weapons’ development programme while forbidding it for others. Laws like the Symington amendment (ignoring the Pakistan-specific Pressler amendment) which forbade American aid to any nation developing nuclear weapons did not apply to Israel. Israel is also the only country in the Middle East. however. This being the moral standing of the world’s leading protagonist of nuclear non-proliferation. the world’s leading champions of non-proliferation do not have any moral legs to stand on: Japan tried but failed to develop nuclear weapons while the US chose to use Asian human guinea pigs for testing its nuclear weapons. Evidently. took the lead. All of America’s non-proliferation laws punishing nations suspected of developing nuclear weapons do not apply to Israel. (France. flouted any principles. besides the fee which Israel extracts from the US for using Israeli port facilities for its naval units. Non-proliferation is not a moral issue but a geopolitical one. America is perfectly happy with nuclear weapons in the hands of this rogue state. which continues to be the recipient of America’s economic and military aid in the form of both loans and outright grants. besides Iraq. or fame. What the successive American administrations have been guilty of is the pliable kind of non-proliferation yardstick they have developed and perfected. some of them made out of the uranium which the American government one day discovered “missing”. to see “them” become independent.

a secular side to the early peace movement which took an increasingly active approach. This argument was amplified by the free trade movement of the mid-19th century and the belief that “commerce. it is better understood as a loose alliance of individuals. campaigning organizations. In 17thand 18th-century Europe. Political philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that their goal of reformed. Although the modern peace movement is often characterized as a monolithic. pressure groups.is rapidly rendering war obsolete” (J. however.. arms control and disarmament.. among them the prevention and avoidance of war. For centuries. rather than a mere attribute. Arguing from a variety of political and religious perspectives.174 War and Peace Peace Movement. In the secular view. and the reduction of military spending. the Peace Societies occupied an important but somewhat isolated position in the developing debate on the conduct of inter-state relations and the resort to war. religious thinkers and philosophers have pursued some means or rationale for the prevention of war. and Immanuel Kant were among the most important attempts to prescribe the path to a lasting peace. Richard Cobden. Jacques Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. But the antecedents of the modern movement can best be traced to early 19th-century Great Britain. civilized societies would result in a world in which war and conflict would be unnecessary and at worst an infrequent occurrence. the works of William Penn. especially in the post-war era. Another English thinker. conflict between states would be so seldom that nothing more than an arbitration system would be required to deal with occasional aberrations. the modern peace movement addresses a wide range of issues. and educational bodies. The early Peace Societies in Britain and America reflected the Quaker doctrine of absolute Christian pacifism and their faith in the essential goodness of human nature. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In 1816 the “Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace” was founded by the Society of Friends. More spiritual than political in their orientation. non-governmental organizations. Mill). organized international body of opinion pressing for disarmament and other goals often associated with pacifism. . left-wing organization. or Quakers. the resolution of conflict. took the argument further by insisting that peace should be the purpose. There was. the demilitarization of society. of free trade. S.

An overwhelming majority of those who voted supported the policy of collective security.and early 20thcentury Europe saw renewed interest in earlier ideas that peace could be brought about through some form of international mechanism or federation of states. especially. Pacifist convictions drove many Quakers. However. World War I had a powerful effect on the peace movement. rather than an attempt to impose a superior authority upon states. to the view that fascism in Europe could only be stopped by war. proposals for European and even worldwide federal systems made no progress. and Erich Maria Remarque. Other legacies of the war were the work of the war poets and writers. In 1918 the American industrialist Andrew Carnegie set up his Endowment for International Peace. Christian pacifism was dismissed in many quarters as utopian and even subversive. What was needed was some form of international organization. most notably the 1925 Geneva Protocol . which has funded research into the subject ever since. and cooperation between national parliaments. the British Peace Pledge Union was founded.175 As the 19th century progressed. however. the number of wars and challenges to national interest made it plain that free trade was less of a pacifier than might have been expected. the first permanent international body dedicated to the pursuit of peace and collective security. The ICRC campaign for humanitarian conduct in warfare resulted in the series of Geneva Conventions beginning in 1864 and the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907. By the end of the century. Siegfried Sassoon. The League of Nations. making a firm impression on the government of the day. The inter-war period saw further progress in the humanitarian law of war. The League was from the outset an arrangement between states and their governments. the secular side of the peace movement was dominated by ideas of international law and arbitration. to the establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). was formed in 1919. The conduct of wars in late 19th-century Europe also led. socialist members of the Fabian Society. a pacifist movement opposed to the Spanish Civil War and. In 1935 the British League of Nations Union organized a Peace Ballot on the policies of the League of Nations. such as Wilfred Owen. At the same time. and philanthropic efforts to further the cause of peace. The following year. in 1863. and others to become conscientious objectors to active military service. late 19th. As a result. Some campaigners concluded that unrestrained state sovereignty remained the greatest threat to European and world peace. The Inter-Parliamentary Union was established in 1892.

Much attention was focused on the so-called “merchants of death”. In time CND lost some of its popular appeal. One of the first acts of the new pressure group was the march on the Aldermaston weapons research establishment during Easter 1958. Great Britain's first atomic bomb test took place in 1952. the North Atlanic Treaty Organization agreed the “dual-track” policy. and at a time when British defence policy was stressing the advantages of nuclear weaponry. In the aftermath of World War II another institutional solution was attempted in the form of the United Nations Organization. prompting the response that the only safe way to disarm was to do so mutually.176 against the use of gas and biological weapons. particularly during the “student revolt” of the late 1960s. East-West relations deteriorated dramatically and détente came to an end. During this period. in the form of multilateral arms control treaties. In the same month. peace campaigners turned their attention to other issues. While some sections of the peace movement had previously sought to formulate an ideal. But within a matter of years. during the Cold War attention became focused more closely on the actions of governments. Although the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by atomic bombs had shocked and horrified many. many governments created special export control systems to curb the arms trade. the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) came into being. Thereafter. but it was eventually to make its presence felt for the duration of the Cold War. After Britain's hydrogen bomb test in 1957. the peace movement became closely associated with nuclear disarmament. With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. prompted and exacerbated conflict. As a result. Calls for unilateral disarmament continued through to the end of the Cold War. hopes for a peaceful new world order were dashed by the onset of the Cold War and the race by East and West to rearm. particularly as superpower arms control agreements were achieved and East-West relations improved during the détente of the 1970s. partly through unwillingness to be associated with the stigma of pre-1939 appeasement. peaceful international system. and the plutonium accident at the Windscale plant in the same year. the post-war peace movement was slow to develop. allegedly. particularly in the area of the development and acquisition of atomic weapons. the arms dealers whose unrestrained activities had. The United States' involvement in the Vietnam War was an especially inflammatory issue. by which several hundred Pershing and Tomahawk intermediate range nuclear weapons were to be .

and revisited some which had previously been thought peripheral. the peace movement widened its agenda to take in many new ideas and issues. declared that: “The movement for peace. the veteran CND campaigner and founder of END. so it appeared that the European peace movement had once again lost its purpose. West and East. Edward Palmer Thompson. Europe-wide protest movement developed. The beginning of the end of the Cold War also meant that henceforth the “peace movement” would have to be defined in still broader terms. to be replaced by a notional Commonwealth of Independent States. has been the focus of a specially designed international campaign and it may be that other .” One well-known feature of the campaign was the “Women's Peace Camp” outside Greenham Common air force base in England. and the relationship between foreign aid and the arms trade.177 deployed in Western Europe. the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact struggled to maintain a role for itself until its collapse on July 1. One weapon. the Strategic Defense Initiative or “Star Wars” plan of US President Ronald Reagan provoked intense discussion of the suitability of seeking complete protection from nuclear strikes. set up in 1983 when the first US missiles arrived under the 1979 deployment plan. can no longer be content with contesting missiles. In 1981. As enemies and military threats became harder to define. Within six months the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had followed suit. The peace movement in Europe also began to look at other. have received more attention from sections of the peace movement. The campaign was not successful in stopping the deployment of the nuclear weapons. Instead. non-nuclear issues such as territorial or “nonoffensive” defence. if equipped with anti-tank rockets rather than tanks. One such area is nonoffensive defence. including not only the reinvigorated CND but also a new movement known as European Nuclear Disarmament (END). and of the financial and technological resources which would be devoted to the scheme. but it did bring the issues of peace and disarmament back into open debate. In November 1989 the Berlin Wall was brought down. 1991. local militias would be structurally incapable of aggression and their deployment would therefore defuse tension. A huge. With dwindling membership. In the 1980s. The trade in weapons and related technology. We must strive to loosen Europe from the military hegemony of both superpowers and to press forward measures of demilitarization in every part of our continent. led in Britain by the Campaign Against the Arms Trade. which has received increasing interest in academic and policy-related research. the anti-personnel landmine.

style. the monitoring. the provision of security assurances by the nuclear weapon states to the “nuclear have-nots”. environmental. Other peace campaigners have focused on freedom of information and parliamentary oversight in matters of defence and security. the main concern is nuclear proliferation of technology and weapons. as has the structure of Europe's security “architecture” and the future role of NATO. and social considerations. will be treated similarly. and chemical weapons of mass destruction. biological. On a more conceptual level. However. and the adequacy of the safeguards system operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. in order to compel the nuclear-weapon states to honour disarmament promises made in 1968.178 weapons. governments and pressure groups now share similar concerns regarding the dangers of proliferation. highlighted by the sarin gas attack on Tokyo's subway system in March 1995. There is now wide acceptance that security can no longer be defined solely in traditional military terms. Where weapons of mass destruction are concerned. storage. The various non-governmental organizations and pressure groups involved have become technically expert and politically astute. In other areas such as the international arms trade and the anti-personnel landmines issue. and on the conversion of defence industries to civilian manufacturing. With the Gulf War. The discovery of sophisticated nuclear. biological. former Yugoslavia. and legitimacy of military intervention have also received attention. CND called for only a limited extension of the treaty. and the likelihood that nuclear weapons and materials are now available on the international black market. and Somalia in mind. With the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) due to be reviewed in 1995. Other issues connected to the NPT review include the negotiation of a comprehensive nuclear test ban. The principal interest of the post-Cold War peace movement remains the control and/or abolition of nuclear. the fears generated by North Korea's nuclear programme. to the extent that they often appear to be campaigning more within government than against it. In spite of the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. and chemical weapon facilities in Iraq after the Gulf War. the definition and value of such terms as “defence” and “security” after the Cold War preoccupy many within the modern peace movement. and reprocessing of fissile material. problems of enforcement and verification persist in both the biological and chemical areas. . and that account must now be taken of economic. have combined to create a common sense of danger and urgency. and are arguably more effective as a result. such as laser projectors. the purpose.

Britain's main voice in the international peace movement is the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND). shown here on a mass demonstration headed by the former Labour party leader. These activities may take the form of work by pressure groups or looser associations of campaigners. and may be divided into four broad categories: 1) Single-issue campaigning organizations.179 previously thought to be second-order problems. particularly in democratic societies. Founded in 1958. For instance. Whatever the issue. and will continue to bring issues of defence and security into more open debate. The roots of modern environmentalism may be found in Victorian Britain when natural history became a popular pastime. the first national parks were being established in the United States. By campaigning and other actions environmentalists. the peace movement has retained more of its traditional. whether local or global.000 in the mid-1980s following the stationing of cruise missiles at Greenham Common US Air Force base in Berkshire. The first recorded environmental pressure group was the Commons. the peace movement in all its forms is sure to retain a large and vocal following. such as Friends of the Earth. or the World Wide Fund for Nature. Environmentalism Approach to economic and ecological questions stressing that factors of environmental impact (such as pollution or loss of biodiversity). Today’s environmentalists can be seen as the direct descendants of these early movements. Green peace. CND saw its membership soar to 250. founded in 1865. 2) Advocates of environmental protection within other . must be taken into account and properly weighted in assessing the acceptability of human actions. usually as members of a like-minded group. in the 4th century BC the Greek philosopher Plato worried about the effects of deforestation and soil erosion. Michael Foot. confrontational character. Gradually. the emphasis shifted from the study of nature to a desire to protect it. seek to raise awareness of specific environmental concerns. At about the same time. Open Spaces and Footpaths Preservation Society. as the effects of rapid and often uncontrolled industrialization became evident. or the parliamentary processes of the various parties involved in green politics. Concern about environmental degradation is not a new phenomenon.

a group of insurance companies. business. a growing number of local projects demonstrated how these policies might work in practice. or professional bodies. or renewable energy technology. and the G-77 group of developing countries worked together to influence the first review of the Convention on Climate Change agreed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (commonly known as the Earth Summit. Membership of environmental organizations outstripped that of political parties and began to challenge other mass membership organizations. education. social justice. Real World was founded in the United Kingdom—a coalition of over 30 pressure groups covering issues of the environment. During the 1980s a new phase of environmentalism began: policy responses to a wide range of environmental problems were developed. For instance. such as trade unions. Sustainable development is increasingly seen as a central concept in evolving new strategies for future growth. 1992). From the late 1960s to the mid-1980s the first three of these groups brought the issues to the attention of both governments and the public. held in Rio de Janeiro in June. and united by what members see as the root cause of their individual areas of concern—the inherent unsustainability of current world trends in economic and social policy. and people began to accept environmental protection as a matter for sustained everyday concern. One high-profile instance is the UK anti-roads campaigns. in some countries green parties were formed. These have involved coalitions of small. rating it in opinion polls alongside unemployment and other manifestations of economic insecurity. such as the M3 extension at Twyford . including sometimes confrontational campaigning. locally based groups joining forces to target and disrupt specific road-building projects.180 organizations and institutions such as the Church. Greenpeace. By the mid-1990s. using various tactics. such as ecological economics. 3) Developers of relevant theories and practices for environmental protection. The Greenpeace and Real World initiatives echo at international and national level the partnership approach which has been active at local level for some time. In April 1996. organic farming. and democratic renewal. development. the need properly to integrate environmental protection with social and economic policies has led environmental activists to form strategic partnerships. 4) “Green” political parties.

The first time an environmental issue was taken to the polls was when the United Tasmania Group (UTG) in Australia. when the world’s first nationwide green party was formed in neighbouring New Zealand. the M11 extension in north London.. Originally called People (later Ecology party and finally Green party). One month later. published by the British magazine The Ecologist.181 Down. the first European green party was founded in Britain in 1973. it was as much about community and political integrity as environmental protection. the M77 extension in Glasgow. environmentalism has consolidated in and around the democratic process with political parties taking certain issues into their electoral agenda. an electoral process in which small parties have difficulty gaining representation in Parliament has meant that environmentalists have tended to bypass party politics altogether. green parties are now viewed as an established part of the political spectrum. it called itself Values. its founder members were greatly influenced by the idea of a rapidly growing population putting an intolerable strain on the Earth’s capacity to provide resources and absorb pollution. In much of Western Europe and beyond. either through organizing in more powerful coalitions of the type described above. contested state elections in April 1972. be sustained indefinitely while giving optimum satisfaction to its members” would be: (1) minimum . amid contoversy over a hydroelectric plan to flood Lake Pedder. such as Germany and Sweden. One of the popular books of this time was Blueprint for Survival. and the Bath and Newbury bypasses. Hampshire. In the United Kingdom. When UTG leader Richard Jones wrote a pamphlet entitled New Ethic to outline his group’s programme. Blueprint suggested that the principal characteristics of a society that could “to all intents and purposes . or through a kaleidoscope of local self-help activities which cross traditional activist group boundaries. This understanding eventually led to the setting up of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In some countries. From it People drew the basis of its political programme. Inspired by the Tasmanian and New Zealand greens.. however. These coalitions have been remarkable in uniting advocates of anarchist and new-age philosophies with more conservative elements among local settled communities in a common front against what they see as an unacceptable trade-off between the conflicting interests of road transport and the environment.

which are closely related to the concept of sustainable development. have had a green mayor. as the difficulties of reforming economies and building a civil society became apparent. (3) a population in which “recruitment” (births) equals “loss” (deaths—that is. (4) a social system in which individuals can enjoy. such as Ecoglasnost in Bulgaria. . Beyond Europe. It was the gain in 1983 of 28 seats in the German Bundestag by Die Grünen.182 disruption of ecological processes. a static. population). make up the programmes of most green parties today. Two years later four greens were elected to the Belgian parliament. the Danube Circle in Hungary. the Republic of Ireland. Dublin and Rome. rather than feel restricted by. that really heralded the birth of a new political force—the first for over half a century. Daniel Brélaz. A Swiss. Tasmanian Green Independents have held seats in the state parliament. The Federation of European Green Parties notes the existence of over 70 parties on six continents. Developments of these principles. many of these seats were lost in subsequent elections. and Values has re-formed as the Green Party of New Zealand. Two capital cities. green parties have won seats at some level of local government in a large number of countries. and entered both the European parliament and 20 national parliaments (see table). greens there have managed to keep (and in Sweden’s case regain) most of their parliamentary seats. For greens in Canada and the United States. However. made history in 1979 by becoming the first green to be elected to a national parliament. with several greens joining transitional governments or winning seats in parliaments when elections were held. and Switzerland. steady progress has occurred in the Netherlands. In March 1995 Finland’s Pekka Haavisto became the first green to join a national government (as Minister for Environment and Planning). Although in some countries the nature of the electoral system or weak internal organization of green parties has prevented electoral success. Finland. the Ecological Library in East Germany. And despite domestic political upheavals in Italy (the anti-corruption drive) and Sweden (the collapse of social-democratic consensus). Since then. the first three conditions. led by the charismatic Petra Kelly. Neither event made much impact. rather than increasing. (2) maximum conservation of materials and energy. and the Polish Ecological Club. Many of the democratic movements in Eastern Europe had their roots in environmental groups.

coal. when a dozen governments get together they are unlikely to agree on the time of day. within the carrying capacity of the Earth’s life-support system”) has become a main objective for all parties. pressure groups and coalitions of activists. This success story dates back to 1987.183 the difficulties of nationwide organizing have kept activity local. the public will become despondent until they feel paralysed—and then they will do nothing about the problems. The world’s governments moved in just nine months (instant speed for governments) to conclude a treaty to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-destroying chemicals. Yet 163 governments signed the treaty. Green parties are active in Africa and in South and Central America. To tackle it we need to reduce our consumption of fossil fuels. decibels-loud voice. At the same time. But there’s plenty of good news too. As in Japan. Let’s start with the atmosphere and climate. If environmentalists offer too much bad news. where women of the Chipko Andolan used the slogan “ecology is permanent economy” and hugged trees to prevent the logging which was destroying their communities. I would tune out the bad news in the first place. All too often. With governments in broad agreement over the seriousness of environmental problems. while in Japan. seek to bring about a fundamental shift in perceptions of the environment in the public at large. working through specific and often emblematic issues. We need it. The Club promotes “green” consumption and. and especially in countries where access to the political process is difficult or impossible. has influenced production of both agricultural and manufactured goods. viz. and natural . The ozone layer is on the point of recovering. oil. This is a natural human reaction. We hear lots of bad news about the environment. it has tended to be non-party activity which has had the biggest political impact. One of the best-known examples comes from northern India. I would do it myself. So here are some pieces of good news. when scientists began to speak with a single. with a turnover of around US$300 million per year. but only the long-established Partido Verde of Brazil is represented in a national parliament. the green party has been eclipsed by the Seikatsu Club. global warming. Now for what many scientists believe is the biggest environmental problem ahead. In the 1990s environmentalism entered a new phase. sustainable development (defined by UNEP as “development which improves people’s quality of life.

We would cut back not only on carbon dioxide but acid rain and urban smog as well—and we would put money in our pockets. more than 80 per cent of homes are lit with low-power and long-lasting bulbs that give light as good as conventional bulbs. and the Lovins’s energy savings paid off their capital investment within two years. In Japan. we could save two-fifths of our carbon dioxide emissions straightaway. All items had long been available at the local store. In Norway. a Colorado scientist. generating capacity has risen rapidly until wind power is now the fastest-growing energy source. Amory Lovins. It is what is known in the trade as a “win-win” situation where nobody ends up a loser. we should build more efficient cars. If price trends of the 1990s continue.000 more than by hooking up with the central power grid. If all of us made use of them. 25. Much the same applies to wind power. To cut back on fossil fuels. Burning fossil fuels gives off carbon dioxide. making it the world’s most energetic (sic) windpower market. while China plans on 1.000 in total) are powered by photovoltaics.000 homes are electrified with solar cells.100 feet in the Rocky Mountains where the winter temperature often plunges below freezing every night for weeks if not months on end.000 MW. solar technologies will provide power at 6 cents per kWh by the year 2000.700 turbines generating enough electricity to supply all of San Francisco’s people. Consider how our house lighting can save on electricity and hence on fossil fuels. making it broadly competitive with electricity derived from fossil fuels. Their house with its exceptional energy-efficiency installations leaves them with an annual heating bill of less than $50 (£30). its output has topped 1. In Kenya. By late 1995. India possesses the second fastest growing windpower industry with 500 MW installed. During just the past few years. one home in every 25 (50. insulate our buildings better.184 gas. Nor did the house need way-out and costly technology. He and his wife Hunter live at 7. In California there are 1. In Germany.000 wind turbines worldwide produced .300 MW by the year 2000. is well on the way to inventing a streamlined and hybrid-power car that will drive from New York to Los Angeles on a single tankful of petrol. or 3. An average British household could save enough during a year to take the family off for a long weekend holiday. and the build-up of that greenhouse gas causes half of global warming processes. 20. The same applies to most other forms of energy efficiency. and use advanced light bulbs.

makers of scotch tape and many other office supplies. The fossil-fuel industries. Many of the states now treat . droughts. The eco-technology market as a whole was worth $210 billion in 1992 in developed countries.1 per cent of the world’s electricity. came together around a United Nations table and tackled their common problem with a common solution. making wind one of the least expensive electricity sources. thanks to its Clean-Up Plan. and Spain and Morocco. Virtually all the coastal states have ratified the Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution (1976) and its associated protocols. now worth $350 billion. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing. Much eco-technology is being deployed in the Mediterranean countries. As wind turbines enter mass production. following a remarkable political breakthrough that is coming to full fruition.000 MW of power. Today the Mediterranean is in better shape than for decades. with all manner of knock-on effects for banks and other finance institutions such as pension funds.5 trillion worldwide. the insurance industry. work to counter this treat. worth $1. among them some traditional enemies such as Israel and Syria. The governments concerned. and they can mobilize impressive financial muscle for lobbying campaigns. albeit only 0. and is expected to reach $320 billion by the year 2000— only a little less than the global chemicals industry. costs should soon fall below 4 cents per kWh. Egypt and Libya. By the mid-1970s concern was rising that the Mediterranean Sea was dying from industrial effluents and the like. hurricanes. has saved more than $750 million since 1975 through its recycling and waste management practices. will. and other extreme weather events. Insurers have suffered from ever-increasing payouts for floods. and in many regions it has become competitive with new coal-fired power plants. Both fishing and tourism were in steep decline. Examples of environmentally friendly practices making good business sense are increasing. it could precipitate a crisis in the industry by the year 2000.185 nearly 5. Greece and Turkey. In many parts of the world. of course. all of which are steadily on the rise as probable portents of global warming. However. the cost of wind-generated electricity has fallen by two-thirds since 1990. they are being challenged by another corporate giant. worth over $1 trillion worldwide. France and Algeria. thus affecting all citizens. Insurance leaders on both sides of the Atlantic have asserted that if the trend persists.

The Mediterranean Clean-Up Plan is being replicated in other “regional seas”. Finally. the extra cost to the rich-world taxpayer would be the equivalent of a beer every second month. We already save four million children a year. they won’t be interested in family planning. as the large increase in environmental pressure groups and public opinion surveys show. and at such trifling cost. the Middle East. It adds up to a splendid opportunity. The two measures together would cost only $15 (£9) per child a year. industrial pollution has been reduced. let us remind ourselves that there is no limit to what we can do when we set our minds to it. But that is changing. but we could easily save another three million from this scourge. In developing countries. To save the additional five million children each year. There is still. the Cold War. much to be done. of course. that the threat from the skies is no longer nuclear missiles but climate dislocation. It is partly in response to this growing public awareness that political and military leaders are starting to recall what one visionary statesman. including the Persian Gulf where Iran and Iraq sit side by side at the negotiating table. there can hardly be a more widespread pollution problem today than dirty water. We could save a further two million children from other water-related diseases through mass immunization. It is the source of 90 per cent of all disease there. Rich countries usually contribute one quarter of the bill. No other generation has ever had the chance to save so many children. and it helps to kill millions of children every year. Mikhail Gorbachev. said. Why is it taking so long to do something about it? A major reason is the lack of awareness. the rest being paid by developing countries themselves. and the Soviet Union. and we made solid moves toward peace in South Africa. Who would have taken on a bet in 1989 that we would achieve that much by the year 2000? .186 their sewage before discharging it into the sea. and El Salvador. As long as parents see their children dying. and eight out of ten beaches are considered safe for swimming once more. So a prime means to defuse the population explosion lies with clean water—and it is the main defence against the number one problem. Communism. while avoiding future medical costs averaging $150 (£90). Rather they will produce as many children as they can manage in order to be sure that at least some survive to support the parents in old age. Just the four years 1989-1992 saw the end of the Berlin Wall. diarrhoea.

However. The total explosive power of nuclear test explosions carried out to date is estimated to be the equivalent of about 510 million tonnes (510 megatons) of TNT.187 And in light of the good news items above. and building canals. and to improve the safety of nuclear weapons. Nuclear tests have been conducted in space. and spectacle of the above-ground tests were essential elements of Cold War competition between the nuclear powers. equivalent to 40. extinguishing burning oil wells. on the surface of land. for creating underground storage cavities for gas. These may be new designs under development or existing stockpile weapons. extracting gas and oil. and on water (carried on a raft or contained in a ship. objections to “peaceful” nuclear explosions tend to be mainly economic and environmental. Nuclear weapons exploded in the atmosphere have been dropped as bombs from aircraft. for example. Some observers argue that zeroyield tests and computer simulation allow nuclear-weapon powers to . existing stockpile weapons are tested to check that they still work reliably (a warhead is taken at random from the stockpile and exploded). suspended on balloons. The sheer numbers. under water. and fired aloft by rockets. new safety features incorporated in the weapons. A new type of nuclear weapon requires about seven or eight tests before it is put into a country’s nuclear arsenal.000 times the size of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945. power in terms of megatons. shouldn’t we consider that we face insurmountable opportunities? Nuclear Testing Nuclear explosions conducted to test nuclear weapons. which to many was considered the true purpose of the tests. Zero-yield or subcritical tests involve high explosives and fissile material in which the fissile material does not reach a critical mass and therefore does not produce significant fission energy but allows scientists to assess design features and safety. in the atmosphere. In these tests. for example). In addition. Non-military nuclear explosives are similar to nuclear weapons and military information can be obtained from exploding them. are tested. exploded on towers. such as nonsensitive high explosives. Nuclear explosions have also been carried out for nonmilitary purposes. Computer simulation of nuclear explosions has also been carried out by the major nuclear weapons laboratories.

In 1962 alone. the 500 atmospheric nuclear tests had a total explosive power equivalent to that of about 30. on the subcontinent. France in 1960. about 1. and the United Kingdom have also conducted tests under water. and China in 1964. and under water. New Mexico. It is also argued that fundamental civilian scientific research will provide nuclearweapons designers with the knowledge needed to develop an entirely new generation of nuclear weapons. public opposition to atmospheric testing grew. The five officially recognized nuclear powers carried out most of their atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at remote sites. it had an explosive power equivalent to that of 58 megatons. . code-named Trinity. until 1963.050 nuclear explosions. France stopped conducting nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1974. the Marshall Islands and Christmas Islands in the Pacific Ocean. The United States. India officially became a nuclear power when it conducted five underground nuclear tests and a missile test in May 1998. the United Kingdom followed in 1952. Moruroa and Fangataufa. As the culmination of the Manhattan Project. and the United Kingdom signed a Partial Test Ban Treaty. and Maralinga in Australia. was conducted by the United States on July 16. 1963. outer space. France. two atolls in French Polynesia. the USSR. These tests raised fears of a nuclear arms race.000 Hiroshima bombs. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) began testing nuclear weapons in 1949. Out of a total of 2.188 improve the performance of their existing nuclear weapons and possibly even develop new types of nuclear weapons. the Trinity test was set up to try out the first plutonium weapon using the implosion method of detonation. there had been 178 tests.300 have been carried out by the United States. the United States. about four times larger than the largest US test. such as in the Nevada desert in the south-western United States. The first nuclear test. China. and underground thereafter. The largest of these—and the most powerful explosion ever—was conducted by the USSR at Novaya Zemlya in 1961. As the Cold War gathered pace. the USSR. or even a conflict. Each of these four powers conducted nuclear tests in the atmosphere. in the desert near Alamogordo. and on August 5. in 1980. 1945. with Pakistan following suit days later with six underground tests. Others claim that the development of new types of nuclear weapons is not possible without actually testing them. banning nuclear explosions in the atmosphere.

In Australia. partially buried radioactive debris. Australian. and tumours. were conducted at the bottoms of shafts bored to depths of up to 1. Medical examinations carried out on adults in Rongelap between 1970 and 1974. Exposure to the radiation from this radioactive fallout has already resulted in hundreds of cancer deaths.189 Underground nuclear tests were typically conducted at the bottom of shafts. showed that there was a higherthan-average incidence among those exposed of anaemia. many Aborigines suffered radiation sickness and died. which was resumed briefly in 1995 and has caused the atoll to begin sinking—some 5 m (16y ft) by the mid-1980s—into the lagoon. Near the test sites. In 1979 a bomb was trapped in the 800-m (2. and American exservicemen began to die of cancer. The fragile Moruroa Atoll has been seriously affected by the French nuclear testing programme. Instruments used to measure the characteristics and effects of the nuclear explosions were placed in tunnels running off the shafts. for example. it is estimated that eventually the death toll may rise to about 2 million people. rheumatic heart disease. when British. vast areas of which were left contaminated with scattered. only in 1983 were the inhabitants of Rongelap made aware of these findings.625-ft) test shaft and exploded. which compared exposed and unexposed inhabitants.000 ft) into the basalt core of the atoll. they produced intense radioactive fallout. the effects on army personnel taking part in the tests—most of whom had no protective clothing or . according to current medical opinion.200 m (4. On average. All water samples taken from Bikini and Enewetak islands showed that the level of radioactive contamination was too high to allow consumption of food grown on the island or fished from the sea. As a result. This dose was. they received a radiation dose of about 190 rems (radiation units). thyroid disease. in 1985 they had to evacuate to a smaller. In the Marshall Islands tests. Atmospheric nuclear tests have resulted in polluting the Earth with radioactive isotopes. British tests were conducted on Aboriginal lands. They also spread radioactivity around the globe that will persist for thousands of years. the inhabitants of Rongelap were seriously exposed to radiation. French tests at the Moruroa and Fangataufa atolls. In the 1980s. uncultivated island on Kwajalein Atoll. causing a tidal wave. seriously harming the health of local populations and the environment. sufficient to cause a 1 in 7 (extra) risk of dying of cancer.

detonating a nuclear device at remote Mururoa atoll in the South Pacific. they leave behind large amounts of long-lived radioactive wastes in an underground cavity. supplemented by atmospheric monitoring stations. children playing nearby rubbed the ash on their faces and arms. France. It is probable that some radioactivity will escape into the groundwater and then into the human environment at some of the many sites where underground nuclear tests have been carried out. which is expected to put an end to all nuclear testing. Underground nuclear testing produces high levels of fallout when the explosion is not totally contained underground. was set off. . In many cases. It has been claimed that the test was carried out with the knowledge that winds were blowing directly towards unevacuated islands. as training for the possible future use of nuclear weapons on the battlefield. Livestock were also used as experimental animals in many early nuclear tests. code-named Bravo. the explosion destroys the ability of the cavity to contain the radioactivity. Many underground tests are known to have vented in this way. and Israel. France began a series of nuclear weapons tests [on] Tuesday. which can detect reliably any nuclear test with an explosive yield with an equivalent to 1. When the biggest US bomb. France Detonates Nuclear Device at Pacific Test Site Paris—Defying growing worldwide protests. the treaty has to be ratified by 44 countries known to have either nuclear weapons or nuclear reactors from which nuclear weapons might be derived. which are now severely blighted. including the UK . servicemen would observe the explosion and then undertake military combat exercises thereafter. radioactive white ash fell on Rongelap. but instead escapes through vents into the atmosphere. Even when the tests are contained. However. A Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature at the United Nations General Assembly in September 1996.190 medical monitoring for after-effects—began to be known. such as Semipalatinsk in the former Soviet Union. out of this total.000 tonnes of TNT (1 kiloton). Verification will rely on a global network of seismic stations and hydroacoustic arrays. Generally. A comprehensive test ban can only be effective if it is verified. which is likely to last for thousands of years. contaminating food and drinking water. some 13 countries have completed the process of ratification. in order for the parties to the treaty to have confidence in it. By April 1998 the CTBT had been signed by 149 countries.

Last month. to refrain from further nuclear tests and to join in a global moratorium as we work to complete and sign a comprehensive test ban treaty in 1996. who had earlier pressed the French not to conduct the tests at all. (2:30 p. a French military spokesman in Papeete. Abel Moittier. including France.191 The underground explosion marked the first of as many as eight tests that the French government has said it will conduct in the South Pacific through[out] May. He also has promised that when the testing is complete.m.000 tons of TNT —was detonated at 12:30 p. . “The world has to unleash as much pressure as it possibly can at this stage to ensure this becomes a reality. Tahiti. “This is the first test. a spokesman in Fiji for the environmental group Greenpeace. asked Chirac's government to at least refrain from staging the test while President Clinton was presiding over V-J Day commemorations in Hawaii over the weekend. but it has to be the absolute last. diplomats. France will end its tests and sign an international nuclear test ban treaty.” The bomb—the equivalent of less than 20.” said Sebia Hawkins.S. PDT [Pacific Daylight Time]). according to Col. arguing that the explosions would give scientists important information and allow them to do future tests by computer simulation. “The nuclear deterrent guarantees our independence and the ultimate protection of our vital interests. “We continue to urge all of the nuclear powers. which has repeatedly mounted protests against France's nuclear-testing plans. “These programs are indispensable so that we can be in a position to guarantee the viability and the certainty of our nuclear arms in the long term. In Washington on Tuesday. the capital of French Polynesia in the South Pacific.m.” the statement said. the White House issued a statement expressing regret at the French move.” French President Jacques Chirac had decided during the summer to begin what he described as a final round of tests at the French-owned Pacific atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. and it is sure to add fuel to the international campaign against France that has spawned angry demonstrations from Australia to Japan to France. U.” said a statement issued by the French Defense Ministry.

In Europe.192 Congressman Eni Falcomavaega. Although Australia has been one of the most vocal opponents of the resumption of French tests. Greenpeace has sailed its flagship Rainbow Warrior 2 to within a few miles of the Mururoa atoll. about 600 miles northwest of the blast site. About 3 million people have signed petitions against the tests. French military officers also arrested several divers who swam beneath the testing platform. as well as in Australia. where French commandos had arrested and briefly detained him while he was aboard the Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior 2 near Mururoa over the weekend. Mururoa has been used for most of those. particularly wine and other well-known symbols of the country. Falcomavaega. France conducted 204 nuclear tests. . which former President Francois Mitterrand declared without consulting his own scientists or military officials. anti-nuclear activists have called on consumers to launch their own economic boycott against French products. Opponents of the tests. The ship has twice been stopped by French commandos and towed back into international waters. Police in Paris last week banned a protest march through the center of the city and then arrested 300 demonstrators trying to deliver a petition to Chirac's office at the Elysee Palace. had returned earlier [on] Tuesday from French Polynesia. denounced the tests as “a very sad commentary on French colonialism” and called for a worldwide boycott of French products. on Friday. 17 of them in the 1960s in the Sahara desert and the remainder in French Polynesia. Dozens of marches and hunger strikes have been staged in Papeete. Between 1960 and 1992. the French atolls are actually closer to Los Angeles than to Sydney. Protesters in Australia have burned the French flag—one person even set fire to a French consulate—and the Australian government is engaged in a trade war with France over the issue. During the last clash with Greenpeace. Japan and France. had employed a wide variety of tactics in an effort to persuade Chirac to back away from his decision. arguing that they could damage the environment. a Democrat. the non-voting delegate from American Samoa in the Pacific. The Tuesday blast ended France's 3-year-old moratorium on nuclear tests.200 French scientists. including 1.

Coral adheres to the mountain. But anti-nuclear activists argue that the tests may have done damage.000 to 3. . In the lagoon waters of the atolls. Atolls are used in nuclear testing because they lie atop great volcanic mountains on the floor of the ocean. About 2. Nuclear tests are typically carried out deep inside the dead volcanic mountains. radiation levels are slightly above normal but still below levels in the Baltic Sea. which the government says was cleaned up. which are opposed by 60% of the French according to recent opinion polls. sensors have one-millionth of a second to record the blast data before they are destroyed. according to the French. Scientists dig a well 2. Current government statistics indicate that the level of radiation in the atolls is lower than in France. It even invited foreign reporters to Mururoa. then put long cylinders into the well that contain measuring equipment and the nuclear device. eventually creating a strip of land above water that is the atoll. Two tests in 1966 and a third in 1973 caused some contamination at Mururoa and 25 miles away at Fangataufa. French scientists told reporters in Mururoa last month that the blasts create a molten lava inside the well that turns within minutes into a glass-like substance that traps the radioactivity in the mountain. scientists and technicians live on Mururoa.000 feet deep. where the effects of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in the former Soviet Union still are measurable. thickening and growing upward over millions of years. a closed atoll. French government scientists contend that of the more than 200 tests the country has conducted in the past. When the device is detonated. only three have caused radiation contamination.000 French soldiers. to the fragile coral reef. sailors. still undetected. although not considered to be a health threat. the French government has released a barrage of information on its nuclear program. including details of radiation contamination.193 France and China are the only countries known to be conducting nuclear tests. last month to answer questions about its program. Seeking to counter widespread condemnation of the tests. China carried out its most recent test last month.

Its purpose is to promote international monetary co-operation and to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade through the establishment of a multilateral system of payments for current transactions and the elimination of foreign trade restrictions. Members who have temporary balance of payments difficulties may apply to the fund for needed foreign currency from its pool of resources. taxation. On joining the fund. some SDR 25. the fund's unit of account since its establishment in 1969. how much foreign exchange it may withdraw from the fund. currently comprising 182 countries. and gives technical assistance for central banks. Membership. The IMF is a permanent forum for consideration of issues of international payments.194 International Monetary Fund (IMF) Specialized agency of the United Nations. accounting.5 million.5 billion. and other financial matters. in 1997 the United States has the largest quota. (In early 1999 the SDR was worth US$0. to which all members have contributed through . while the United States has slightly less than 20 per cent (1999). along with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank). The total quotas at the end of August 1998 were SDR 145.3 billion. Members undertake to keep the IMF informed about economic and financial policies that impinge on the exchange value of their national currencies so that other members can make appropriate policy decisions. the smallest quota is about SDR 3. Thus. Each member's quota is an amount corresponding to its relative position in the world economy. is open to all sovereign nations.) This replaced the old system whereby subscription of members was to be 75 per cent currency and 25 per cent gold. in which member nations are encouraged to maintain an orderly pattern of exchange rates and to avoid restrictive exchange practices.7338. and how many SDRs it will receive in periodic allocations. each member is assigned a quota in special drawing rights (SDRs). The amount of the quota subscription determines how large a vote a member will have in IMF deliberations. whose value is based on the weighted average value of five major currencies. the European Union has almost 30 per cent of the voting strength. New Hampshire. promotes world policy coordination. As the world's leading economy. at the UN Monetary and Financial Conference held in 1944 at Bretton Woods. established. The IMF began operations in 1947. It also provides advice on economic policy and fiscal policy.

In 1971 the IMF's par value system was renegotiated to allow a 10 per cent devaluation of the dollar and a broadening of fluctuation ranges to 2. concluded in 1962 when it became clear that the fund needed increasing. By the end of April 1998 it had provided SDR 6. to offset trade and balance of payments difficulties experienced by any member country abandoning artificial price control policies. after which the currency is to be returned to the IMF's pool of resources. established in 1993.195 payment of their quota subscriptions. but sells countries SDRs in exchange for their own currency. and the General Agreement to Borrow of 1962 gave it the right to borrow from the so-called “Paris Club” of industrialized countries. the member whose currency is used receives almost all of these interest payments.25 per cent. The sharp oil price rises after 1973 severely affected member countries' balances of payments. It initially aimed to confine exchange rate fluctuations between member currencies to within 1 per cent of a par value quoted in terms of the US dollar and hence linked to gold. The IMF is thus not a bank. which have undertaken to make up to US$6.4 billion to 48 countries. The IMF may also borrow from official institutions. and led effectively to the end of the Bretton Woods agreement to restrict exchange rate fluctuations. 25 per cent of members' subscriptions were to be in gold. The member may use this foreign exchange for a certain time (up to about five years) to extricate itself from its balance of payments problem. Revision of the fund's articles in 1976 ended gold's role as a basis for the IMF and hastening the demise of the gold standard. such as the establishment of functioning free market economies in the former Warsaw Pact countries. This includes a special temporary fund. The first major change in policy was the General Agreement to Borrow. The 1967 IMF meeting in Rio de Janeiro led to the creating of the Special Drawing Right as a standard international unit of account. Its Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) assists developing countries with economic reform. which the dollar left in 1978. The IMF commenced operating in 1947. the remainder goes to the fund for operating expenses. . Loans under IMF terms frequently have stiff clauses attached regarding domestic economic policy: these have been the cause of some friction between the IMF and its debtors in the past.5 billion available if needed (this sum was raised to US$17 billion). The borrower pays a below-market rate of interest for the IMF resources it uses. The IMF also supports economic development.

such as the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. which represents member nations individually (for larger countries) or in groups. The financial crises in Mexico in 1995. . The debt crisis by this time had largely abated. This role was initially met through a series of new funds for overhauling the former command economies of Central and Eastern Europe. and the ERM's breakdown in 1992 demonstrated the IMF's relative impotence when confronted with currency problems in modern developed economies. and elsewhere. showed once more that IMF funds are now unequal to the vast amounts of private capital circulating in the world economy. caused by excessive lending to developing countries. the IMF established new facilities. Day-to-day operations are the responsibility of the 24member executive board. and in Asia and Russia during 1998. Modern regimes that control exchange rates. using funds borrowed from better-off members. The IMF has to some extent lost its original form and purpose. made up of leading monetary officials from each of the member nations. In November 1998 it agreed a rescue package for the Brazilian economy that helped to forestall the threat of a global financial collapse due to economic turbulence in Asia. The board of governors. it encouraged additional lending from commercial banks. D. In conjunction with its own loans. The managing director chairs the executive board. It assisted indebted members to devise programmes of economic adjustment and has backed this assistance with massive lending. is the highest authority in the IMF.C.196 From 1982 the IMF devoted much of its resources to the resolution of the worldwide debt crisis. Main headquarters is in Washington. since exchange rates are now largely left to the currency markets to determine. are usually tied to convergence programmes design to produce international currencies. The financial crisis in Mexico in 1995 showed once more that IMF funds are now unequal to the vast amounts of private capital circulating in the world economy. to provide money in larger amounts and for longer periods to members that seek to reorganize their economies. Latin America. As the realization grew that the problems of its members involved long-term structural inadequacies. The IMF acquired an important new remit at the end of the 1980s with the implosion of European Communism and the appearance of a host of European states determined to join the global capitalist system.

applies a tax-rate structure to the base. Simple tax mechanisms are suitable only to the needs of those governments that are extremely limited in scope. Elaborate networks of fiscal reporting become . such as those operating in depressed areas. even today. The effectiveness of any government. although taxes are levied in terms of money.197 Taxation System of compulsory contributions levied by a government or other qualified public body on people. as a form of tax. may be discouraged by heavy taxes. taxes were customarily paid not in money but in the form of labour or other payments in kind (such as work on local roads or supplies of grain or other farm produce). property holdings. Other businesses. for example. Or taxation may be used to bring about social reforms through altering the distribution of wealth. In deciding whom. Taxation is one form of this exchange. or a given commodity). may be encouraged by tax breaks. and collects the tax (equal to the base multiplied by the applicable rate) from the stipulated legal taxpayer. both to feed the workers or troops and to provide for other government needs. such as cigarettes. and how much to tax. In modern industrial nations. In medieval times. at central or local level. When government responsibilities are extensive and diverse (as. Tax systems. and property. in order to fund public expenditure. what. are as varied as the nations that devise them. In the same manner. depends on the willingness of the people governed to surrender or exchange a measure of control over property in return for protection and other services. grain levies could be imposed on landowners. when taxes are used to modify economic inequalities and to distribute benefits in ways that are considered equitable). corporations. ranging in complexity from the most basic arrangements to computerized revenue systems. all governments have economic and social objectives. Rulers could require feudal lords to provide. this form of taxation satisfied most governmental needs reasonably well. Some types of business activity or product. the fundamental pattern remains: the government designates a tax base (such as income. workers or soldiers in numbers that reflected the noble’s rank and wealth. the underlying system of taxes must be sophisticated. As long as the government’s services consisted largely of military actions and the provision of roads and other public works.

as in the repayment of loans to students by . Local governments traditionally depend most heavily on property taxes. depending on the responsibilities expected of the enacting government. When government services confer identifiable personal benefits on some individuals and not on others. however. at least partly. by taxing the people who benefit is considered fair. in proportion to what they receive from the government. are criteria of fairness. depending on the situation. Both “ability to pay” and “benefits received”. In concert with its control over the money supply (that is. Tax and expenditure policies reveal the fundamental ideology of a government and a political system. In prosperous times. tax increases may be needed to hold down or prevent the inflation caused by too much money chasing too few goods. can borrow or even create money. Fairness Of fundamental importance is that any tax must be fair—that is. Local governments are required to keep their expenditures within the budgetary limits. the government aims to maintain the stability of the economy. financing the benefits. A tax is considered fair if those who have the means to pay are assessed either in proportion to their capacity to pay or. as do legal enforcement and a standard of public education adequate to ensure a high degree of taxpayer compliance. In depressions. Taxation is also the basic instrument of fiscal policy. and when it is feasible to expect the users to bear a reasonable part of the cost. determined by their own revenues augmented by payments received from central government. taxes may be lowered and budget deficits incurred so that consumers will have money to buy goods and investors will have capital to put into industry. Among the tax systems of different nations. therefore. The central government. or if the government prefers to control inflation through interest rates. wide variations exist in how money is raised and spent. its monetary policy). and central governments on sales taxes and income taxes. though in some circumstances they can borrow money. thus stimulating production. citizens should be taxed in proportion to their abilities to pay (a concept that Smith defined somewhat ambiguously as “in proportion to the benefit they derive from the government”). for example. Most democracies today derive their general notions of what constitutes a good tax system from four principles enunciated in the 18th century by the Scottish economist Adam Smith. Tax systems perform differing functions.198 essential. it does not have to raise enough from its tax system to balance its budget. taxes may be cut for political or other ends.

The application of a tax should be clear and certain. above-board transactions into hidden. the automatic response of taxes to changing economic conditions without adjustments in tax rates. waste can also be created by excessive tax rates. and from open. this method does not apply to such services as public welfare payments. (Obviously. Historically. When this happens. what they spend. however. Just as important is horizontal equity—the principle that people who are equally able to pay and who benefit equally should be taxed equally. likewise. has often been underestimated in modern tax systems (in which open and impartial administration usually can be taken for granted). considered very important by Smith. the public can have no confidence in the system.) Taxation in accordance with appropriately applied standards of ability to pay or of benefits received is said to meet the requirements of vertical equity (because such taxation exacts different amounts from people in different situations).199 subsequent taxation. Worse still. Where the application of taxes is uncertain and arbitrary. from productive enterprises into tax shelters. A good tax system should be structured so that it can be administered efficiently and economically. This principle. Other basic principles have been added to the list. Compliance with income tax laws increased dramatically where a system of deducting tax from earnings before they are paid has been introduced. In designing tax systems. off-the-record participation in the underground economy. implied by Smith. windfall taxes introduced by a government on gains produced by the policies of a previous government can appear uncertain. but some have occasionally been proven counter-productive.into low-yielding activities. Smith’s tax maxims have stood the test of time remarkably well. Taxes that are costly or difficult to administer divert resources to non-productive uses and diminish confidence in both the levy and the government. The old British tax on numbers of house windows was disliked and widely resisted partly because its rationale was unclear. is violated. and what they earn. . economic efforts are then shunted from high. governments customarily consider three basic indicators of taxpayer wealth or ability to pay: what people own. An example is the desirability of tax elasticity—that is. Taxes should be easy to calculate and collect. the important principle of tax neutrality (which maintains that a tax should not cause people to change their economic behaviour).

Many people think of ability to pay largely in terms of income. ranging from excises on specific commodities (such as the ancient salt tax) to levies aimed at taxing designated transactions. Inheritance tax on bequeathed wealth has also come under . (The stamp tax levied by the British government on American colonists became so prominent as a symbol of tyranny—of “taxation without representation”—that it helped trigger the American War of Independence. a number of countries in Europe and elsewhere had adopted it. In the United States. became the earliest lucrative tax base. Thus. Many countries levy sales taxes at the retail level. at each stage of production. or use have a far longer history than do taxes on what people earn or otherwise receive in income. however. levied both to yield revenue and to control the amount and kind of imported merchandise. is losing ground as the inequities in modern income tax systems become increasingly apparent. Because no single form of wealth is a perfect indicator of taxpayer ability to pay. most modern nations try to diversify their tax systems.200 agriculture.) Also widely used today are excise taxes of many kinds. buy. levied on goods and services. Movable property was somewhat harder to tap as a source of taxation. International commerce gave rise to customs duties. taxes on what people own. but as market places developed. among major revenue sources. however. is the stamp tax on bills of sale and other legal and financial documents. A personal income tax was first used in Britain in 1799. It was dropped for a time and then revived. countries exempt necessities such as food and prescription drugs. the use of which governments wish to regulate. still widely used in some parts of the world. Because an individual income tax is complex and difficult to administer. To lighten the burden on the poor. on the value added at that stage. transfer. taxes on the sale or transfer of goods became productive sources of revenue. Domestic trade spawned a variety of taxes. By the end of the 19th century. European Union countries use a value added tax. This assumption. especially on luxury items and on goods such as alcohol and cigarettes. this kind of tax was slow to take hold. Although the value added tax is comparatively new. as the fundamental basis of the subsistence economy. the 16th Amendment to the Constitution (ratified in 1913) was needed to establish the legality of a federally imposed income tax. the property tax on land and its produce is the oldest of modern taxes. and has been in continuous use in Britain since 1842. An example of the latter.

when the general fund may be in need while special funds are more than adequately filled. exceptions. No tax is levied with perfect evenness or on a completely comprehensive base. partly. they come from administrative inefficiency or inability to deal with the extremely complex tax structure. To . the tax burden may simply be shifted on to consumers. Corporate income tax may in some cases simply result in lower corporate profits and dividends. These include petrol taxes that are earmarked principally for road maintenance and construction. which is presumed to fall entirely on the legal taxpayer. it influences decisions to work. save. its burden inevitably falls more heavily on some taxpayers than on others: this unfortunate fact exacerbates the basic unpopularity of taxes per se. in other cases. especially in times of economic stress. and as taxpayers grow ever more resentful of the taxes they are asked to pay. and social security taxes allocated to worker casualty-insurance and retirement funds. and partly. Even personal income tax. The effects of taxation are difficult to judge. A comprehensive form of taxation on consumption expenditures has gained support among tax specialists. business levies collected to provide unemployment insurance. but public acceptance has been lacking.201 considerable criticism. Aside from simple user charges such as those on public leisure amenities (which may be thought of more as prices than as taxes). interest has grown in levies designed to achieve fairness in terms of benefits received. though in fact all revenues are generally pooled regardless of notional earmarking. it may broadly reduce the incomes of all owners of property and businesses. and other loopholes in tax laws are partly the result of humanitarian concern for those who might be overburdened. governments can attempt to ensure that the tax burden falls fairly across all taxpayers. the benefits standard is apparent in many major levies. To the extent that corporations compensate for the tax by raising the prices of their products. and invest. or to foresee all possibilities for tax evasion. By using a variety of taxes. and these decisions affect other people. The effectiveness of earmarking is a much disputed issue. it can also create budgetary distortions. has indirect consequences in the economy. The exemptions. but it tends to appeal to politicians. As governments find it ever harder to finance all their commitments. Although earmarking can make raising new revenue easier. they reflect political pressures.

or automatically adjusted upward. the old distinction between direct and indirect taxes becomes relatively meaningless. a generally progressive tax structure is considered desirable for two reasons. Inclusion of the sales tax in the Retail Price Index insulates recipients of indexed incomes against inflationinduced tax increases and therefore puts the burden of those increases on the recipients of non-indexed incomes. . and dues from the vassals. First. in exchange for military service. Despite the difficulties of precise measurement. and a progressive tax structure tends to moderate such extremes. In the early 1980s concern about this problem attracted the attention of policymakers to so-called supplyside economics—to economic theories emphasizing the importance of ensuring that taxes do not drain away incentives to investment. a vassal brings a tax payment to his lord. governments are appropriately concerned with the vertical pattern of the tax burden: does it fall proportionately more heavily on the rich than on the poor (progressive taxation)? Does it burden everyone to the same degree in relation to taxpaying ability (proportional taxation)? Or does it place a relatively heavier burden on the poor (regressive taxation)? In most modern nations. On the other hand. a progressive tax is considered more equitable (because the wealthy have more ability to pay). tax rates that are too progressive—that rise too steeply—may discourage both work and investment by removing much of the reward. either by individuals or by businesses. lords gave land and protection to their subjects. Similar disagreements arise over the incidence of local property taxes and over the employers’ share of social security payroll taxes. called vassals. taxes. the incidence of the tax is shifted backwards to workers. income payments such as social security) are indexed. extremes of wealth and poverty are considered injurious to the economic and social well-being of a society. Even the long-established view that retail sales taxes are shifted forward from retailers to consumers is challenged in a world in which wages and government transfers (that is. In this undated drawing. As awareness grows of the difficulties in pinning down the burden patterns of various taxes. for inflation.202 the extent that tax-reduced corporate profit margins hold down wages. Second. In the system of feudalism that dominated Western Europe during the Middle Ages.

While continuing to bombard Kabul. Muhammad Omar Akhund. military training. and many Afghans. particularly fellow Pashtuns. consisted mostly of Pashtuns intent on once again dominating the central government in Kabul. Again they advanced to the capital in October. In late 1994 and early 1995. The name “Taliban”. Uzbeks. in the southern Afghan town of Kandahâr. and subsequent internal civil strife in Afghanistan. The Taliban promoted itself as a new force for peace and unity. Taliban soldiers advanced and took control of eastern Afghanistan. but after Soviet withdrawal. and other support. the Pashtuns. During the 1980s Afghanistan was occupied by Soviet troops and thereafter ruled by a Soviet-backed government. The Taliban movement emerged out of the chaos and uncertainty of the Afghan-Soviet conflict of 1979-1988. but were ousted by government forces in March. a coalition government that included Tajiks.203 Taliban Islamic fundamentalist movement in Afghanistan and unofficial government of most of the country since 1996. civil war broke out between the mujahedin factions and the central government. and other minority groups came to power. a quasi-military unit in Pakistan. although most members have known war all their lives and consequently have been students only for rudimentary religious training. Pakistan also provided places of refuge. They were trained and armed by the Frontier Constabulary. taking control of Kandahâr and many other towns and cities dominated by fellow Pashtuns. meaning “student”. supported the Taliban in hopes of respite from years of war. Afghanistan’s long war with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its Afghan puppet government was largely fought by mujahedin (guerrilla) factions with military assistance from the United States. Herât and most of the other towns along the main southern and western highway soon followed. supposedly refers to the group’s origins. as well as the remote central area. which emerged as a mujahedin faction. The Taliban. The Taliban movement was created in August 1994 by a senior mullah. In February 1995 the Taliban reached the outskirts of Kabul. Afghanistan’s central government had long been dominated by the country’s majority ethnic group. the Taliban moved through the south and west of Afghanistan. . After the Soviets withdrew in 1989. Hazaras. which also has a significant Pashtun population.

and women were forbidden to work outside their homes. and hanged in a public area. and bulldozed bottles and cans of alcohol taken from foreign hotels. and allowed stonings. After taking over Kabul. and Hazaras. Taliban leaders banned music. Government troops fled as Pashtun control was once again restored to the capital. and his brother. Men were ordered to grow full. The Taliban made murder. the Taliban created a government agency. dark screens in front of the eyes. and were rounded up and beaten with sticks in an effort to force prayer in the mosques. Even Iran has censured the Taliban’s excesses in the name of Islam. who were the sole sources of income for their families. were dragged out by Taliban soldiers. The Taliban’s rapid takeover of Kabul in September 1996 paved the way for their conquest of the rest of the country. of women escorted by men who are not related to them. Many of these laws have alarmed humanrights groups and provoked worldwide condemnation. hospitals lost almost all their staff and children in orphanages were abandoned. Some of these rules had little to do with Islamic Shari’ah law. Women were told to cover themselves from head to toe in burkas (long veils covering the whole body) with woven. As a result. shut down cinemas and burned the films. The Taliban continued to announce additional rules and laws. and were more influenced by ancient Pashtun tribal beliefs. until they were able to advance in September 1996 and capture the city. Shortly after the city fell to the Taliban. shot. and drug dealing punishable by death. President Burhanuddin Rabbani and . improperly dressed women were beaten. both of whom had taken refuge in the UN compound in Kabul in 1992.204 The Taliban continued their siege of Kabul intermittently throughout 1996. found themselves unable to work. the last Soviet-backed president of the country. widows. In a country where hundreds of thousands of men had been killed in warfare. to enforce its fundamentalist rules of behaviour. as Taliban soldiers advanced north to the mountain strongholds of the Tajiks. Uzbeks. Other rules enforced by the Taliban include the punishment of theft by amputation of the hand. and trucks equipped with loudspeakers. beaten. however. using Radio Kabul. the security chief Shahpur Ahmadzai. called the Ministry for Ordering What is Right and Forbidding What is Wrong. adultery. Girls’ schools were closed. Muhammad Najibullah. untrimmed beards (in accordance with orthodox Islam). some of which have been fatal.

Thousands of refugees streamed into UN-supported camps outside Herât. However. In November 1996 the Taliban were driven back toward Kabul. remaining in the northern part of the country and fighting the Taliban alongside other factions. particularly against women. Sporadic fighting between the Taliban and the northern factions reached a stalemate in early 1997 with all but northern Afghanistan under Taliban rule. by mid-1997 the Taliban had captured some of the northern area. . the UN. thus bringing most of Afghanistan under their control.205 Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar fled when the Taliban took over the capital. Despite concerns over human rights abuses. have held diplomatic talks with the Taliban in an effort to restore peace to the area. and also the United States and other countries.

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