Nationalism VS muslim nationalism

Nationalism involves a strong identification of one's social identity with that of a nation or state. The subject can include the belief that one'snation is of primary importance.[1] It is also used to describe a movement to establish or protect a homeland (usually an autonomous state) for an ethnic group. In some cases the identification of a homogeneous national culture is combined with a negative view of other races or cultures.[2] Nationalism is sometimes reactionary, calling for a return to a national past, and sometimes for the expulsion of foreigners. Other forms of nationalism are revolutionary, calling for the establishment of an independent state as a homeland for an ethnic underclass. Nationalism emphasizes collective identity - a 'people' must be autonomous, united, and express a single national culture.[3] However, some nationalists stress individualism as an important part of their own national identity.[4] National flags, national anthems, and other symbols of national identity are often considered sacred, as if they were religious rather than political symbols. Deep emotions are aroused.[5][6][7][8] Some scholars see the word "nationalism" as pejorative, standing in opposition to a more positive term, patriotism


Ideology of pakistan
Ideolgy is the systematic body ofg concepts espacially about life or culture. It comes from divine guidence or from great minds. It constitutes a system of human life including theories, objectives and assertions of life. In a society. the individuals should have common ideology.

Ideology of Pakistan The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their future in a 'Democratic India' dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state. The ideology of Pakistan stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality in the Hindu society. The Muslims believed that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but are

The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith. Mahmud of Ghazna launched 17 attacks and opened the gate to preach Islam. created reaction amongst the Muslim ulama to preserve the pure Islamic character and save it from external onslaught. Bakhti movements.two social orders that produced two distinct cultures. The British won over the Muslim rulers due to the industrial and scientific developments and modern war strategy. traditions. Islam. music. they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. The War of Independence (1857) was a shattering setback to the Indian Muslims who were held responsible for the rebellion by the British. Equality and social justice inspired conversions to Islam. Islam could not be absorbed in Hinduism. They. Thus a strong Muslim community had emerged in India who had its own way of life. in the Indian coastal areas. rejecting the vices in the Indian society. This was one of the outstanding motivations that paved . wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH). Evolution of 'Two Nation Theory' Concept of Muslims as a Nation developed before the establishment of Pakistan. It pledged the redemption of the humankind establishing a benign society based on Qur'anic teachings. Their eating habits. Deen-e-Ilahi. Miran Hussain Zanjani etc. presented the pure practical picture of the teachings of Islam and got huge conversions. Pakistan was the product of this concept of nationhood rather than Pakistan creating a concept of nationhood. The Arab traders had introduced the new religion. Muhammad bin Qasim was the first Muslim invader who conquered some part of India and after that. history and culture. Qutubud-Din Aibuk permanently established Muslim dynasty in India that followed Sultanate and Mughal dynasties. Retrospectively the Muslim nationalism emerged with the advent of Islam that introduced new principles pertinent to every sphere of life. architecture and script. The Muslim sufi (saints) like Ali Hejveri. Role of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi and others is noteworthy. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims are not confined to the struggle for political supremacy but are also manifested in the clash of two social orders. entered Sub-Continent. There is no compatibility between the two. etc. Despite living together for more than one thousand years. heroes. The Muslims were put 1 into the backwardness with the help of Hindus. The beginning of the Muslim nationalism in the Sub-Continent may be attributed to the first Indian who accepted Islam. They demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state. Islam. all are poles apart.

Thus the concept of 'separate electorates' was put forward to dawn a new day for the Indian Muslims. constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their heritage. The prominent name among them is Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) who awakened and guided his community well in time. he thought. the Muslims were not in position to involve into the anti-government activities. founded in 1906 and led to its demand for a separate state for the Muslims of India. the Muslim nationalism. All India Muslim League had been founded in Dhaka to promote loyalty to the British and to protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India. The Two-Nation Theory served as the basis of demand for Pakistan by the Muslims in British India. Sir Syed argued that modern education and non-political activities might be the key to Muslim advancement. they demanded safeguards. Later. It has been argued that Sir Syed's fear of Hindu domination sowed the seeds for the "Two Nations Theory" later espoused by the All-India Muslim League. Hindus were biased against Urdu as it was the Muslims' language. heritage.the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism. The Congress worked and helped the British rule. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority. In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded to indicate the beginning of the Indian nationalist movement under the British. Hindi-Urdu Controversy was the major assault by the Hindus on Muslim heritage and legacy of the great Muslim Empire. Initially. They demanded Hindi as the official language replacing Urdu. identity and interests. Hindu nationalism was rival to the Muslim nationalism. proved to be the best means of social mobility for the Muslim gentry under colonial rule. civilization. The Indian nationalism forced Muslims to organize themselves politically to defend their interests effectively. they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards. Sir Syed advised the Muslims not to join it because. Hindi-Urdu Controversy Hindu revivalist movements turned more against the Muslims. culture. The Ali-Garh movement produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims' rights on the Western political lines. The Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history. His educational drive. and future aspirations. There . the Ali-Garh movement. After 1857. The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. There are two major nations in British India. The Muslim scholars sought to reform the teaching of Islamic law and to promote its application in a Muslim society.

were demonstrations against Urdu by the Hindus in Banaras in 1867.Uttar Pradesh. Thereafter. 3. he was not fanatical to the Hanafi school of thought and used to give precedence to the authentic narrations of the Prophet Muhammad above any one else's statements. Protection of the rights and interests of non-Muslims and freedom to practice their beliefs and religions. The Muslim nationalism is manifested with the sublime principles to implement like: 1. named his son 'Qutbuddin Ahmad'. However. socio-economic justice. His complete name was Shah Waliullah Qutbuddin Ahmad and he was born in Phulat. economic. We ought to work towards realization of these goals in reality and create institutions and processes that reflect these principles and values. It was the start of the Hindi-Urdu controversy. Equality of opportunity to all citizens irrespective of caste. equity and fair play. His father. 2. housing. He worked for the revival ofMuslim rule and intellectual learning in South Asia. These principles are enshrined in the constitutions. 1703 ± August 20. a town in Muzaffarnagar. He was a follower of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah and was a sub follower of Hanafi school of thought according to some. equal rights. 'Umar on his paternal side. etc Lineage & Early Life Shah Waliullah is a descendent of the Quraish tribe of Arabia and his genealogy can be traced to the second khalifa of Islam. welfare entitlement of all to food. This enhanced the importance of the sense of Muslim separatism. India on February 21. [edit]Education Shah Waliullah received his education at Madrasa Rahimiyya. His father was his teacher and source of spiritual guidance. Shah wali ullah Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlvi (February 21. Religious and Cultural tolerance. He is also thought to have anticipated a number of progressive. labour protection. 1703. and political ideas of the modern era such as social reform. clothing. 4. 1762) was an Islamic scholar and reformer. He commenced his studies at the tender age of five and completed the recitation and memorization of the Qur'an by the age of seven. sect. Respect for human dignity and rights. Sir Syed foretold about the unstable future of Hindu-Muslim unity. Hindus struggled vigorously to replace Urdu by Hindi in the offices. religion or region. Rule of Law. during a time of waning Muslim power. social. 5. On the very issue. he commenced primary lessons . Shah Abdur Rahim. Shah Waliullah urged Muslim rulers to a jihadagainst the enemies of Islam and hoped to restore the Ulama's former power and influence. He was dubbed as 'Shah Waliullah' because waliullah means "friend of God" and he was a pious individual. He despised the divisions and deviations within Islam and its practice in India and hoped to "purify" the religion and unify all Indian Muslims under the "banner of truth".

[edit]Achievements and Services During his sojourn in Makkah. Then. Mu'atta Imam Malik. mathematics. He embarked upon the task of authoring standard works on Islam and was able to complete a number of works on Islam. after which he proceeded to Madina. algebra. he was permitted to teach all of the kitabs of hadith by Shaikh Tajuddin. which were completed in a year. Thereafter. Shah Waliullah had a dream in which Rasulullah commanded him to reform the organization and emancipation of Muslims in India. political. Then. he observed the deterioration of Muslim rule in India and wrote to a number of political dignitaries to attempt to bolster the political life of Muslims in India. economic and spiritual fabric was torn to pieces. studied Mu'atta Imam Malik for a second time under Shaikh Wafadullah Maliki Makki. mysticism. His journey back to India lasted six months and he reached Delhi on January 1. he was inducted into the tradition of bay'at by his father and. This was in a period when Muslims in India were passing through the most critical phase of their history and their entire social. He established several branches of Madrasa Rahimiyya in Delhi in order to effectively disseminate his knowledge. [edit]Literary career .tibb. he started his work in earnest. he returned to Makkah. in 1731. by the age of seventeen. fiqh. Shah Waliullah studied Sihah Sitta. He lived in troubled times and witnessed a number of rulers occupying the throne of Delhi. he was permitted to provide spiritual guidance to and reform his fellow Muslims. kalaam. Shah Waliullah returned to India. after he returned toDelhi. he started to train his pupils in diverse branches of Islam and entrusted them with the mission of enlightening people with the true nature of Islam. He was a prominent intellectual figure whose mission was to reform the Muslims he saw as misguided. Masnad Da'armi. There. Thus. and attended the discourses of Shaikh Tajuddin Hanafi Qala'i Makki on Sihah Persian and Arabic. On the death of his father when he was hardly seventeen years old. Shah Waliullah rose to be an eminent scholar of Islamic studies. His activities were not confined to spiritual and intellectual spheres only. With his keen political insight. Thereafter. He held this position for twelve years. Then. and Imam Muhammad's Al A'saar under him. 1733. oratory and metaphysic s under his father. Shah Waliullah performed Hajj. He completed his studies in philosophy and theology at the age of fifteen and then commenced his studies in mantiq. he became a mudarris (teacher) at Madrasa Rahimiyya. hadith. performed another Hajj. he attended Shaikh Abu Tahir Muhammad bin Ibrahim Kurdi Madani's discourses on hadith. He reached Makkah on May 21 and performed Hajj. Thereafter. spiritualism. he studied the grammar and syntax of Persian and Arabic. On his arrival in Delhi.

The fifth category pertains to his works on Muslim philosophy and kalaam. his works occupy an outstanding position. His theories pertaining to economics and socialism are of revolutionary nature. It contains the nucleus of the Qur'an. Shah Waliullah also wrote a number of works and pamphlets on hadith. Some of these are still unsurpassed in the domain of Islamic literature. The sixth category deals with his works on the problems between Shiasand Sunnis. [edit]Literary works The biographers of Shah Waliullah state that the number of his published literary works are above fifty. Al Faudhul Kabir fi Usoolut Tafsir: A booklet in Persian that follows his Persian translation of the Qur'an. A collection of 40 ahadith which are brief yet of inclusive character. Shah Waliullah was a prolific writer who wrote extensively on several Islamic topics. twenty-eight in Arabic and twenty-three in Persian. .Shah Waliullah was a prolific writer as well.  Al Irshad ila Muhim 2. The miserable condition of Indian Muslims inspired him to improve their character. Shah Waliullah's greatest work isHujjatullahil Baligha. he produced a number of memorable literary works and. The third category deals with fiqh or Islamic jurisprudence. The second category deals with hadith. he wrote a total of fifty-one works of merit. the rules of interpretation. raise their morale. The fourth category deals with mysticism. in which he has left behind several works such as commentaries on Mu'atta Imam Malik in both Arabic and Persian. According to him. which deals with such aspects of Islam that are common among all of the Muslim countries. Fathur Rahman fi Tarjumatul Qur¶an: A translation of the Qur'an into Persian. The first deals with the Qur'an. In his principles of ijtihad. and interpretations of the Qur'an by various eminent scholars. Both in thought and prediction. His works can be classified into six categories. In the realm of Islam. the object of studying the Qur'an is to reform human nature and correct wrong beliefs and injurious actions. which includeslnsaaf fi Bayaan-e-Sahoobul Ikhtilaf. he clarifies whether it is obligatory for a Muslim to adhere to one of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence or whether he can exercise his own judgment. He presented what he considered pure and pristine Islam to people. It includes his translation of the Qur'an into Persian. He overhauled the educational system and separated faith from unlawful invented traditions and unnecessary and unwanted suspicions regarding Islam. His literary masterpieces are as follows: 1. a brief yet informative history of Islamic jurisprudence over the five centuries before his life. and inculcate a feeling of selflessness and love for their fellows in them. His most valuable service to Islam was that he codified the vast store of Islam under separate heads. within a period of thirty years. He also wrote a pamphlet on the principles of ijtihad (independent interpretation) and taqlid (conformity).

A partial list of the rest of his works is as follows:  Arba'een (Arabic): matul Ilmul Isnad (Arabic): This work is about the scholars of Hijaz who taught Shah Waliullah. etc.  Al Intibah fi Salaasil ul Auliaullah (Persian): A book which details the history of and a brief introduction to various mystic orders.  At Tafhimatul Ilahiya (Arabic and Persian): This is a mystical work. . Taraajimul Abwaabul Bukhari (Arabic): It expounds the principles which would be found helpful in understanding certain difficult portions of Sahih ul Bukhari. detailing the mystical experiences of Shah Waliullah.   Altaaful Quds (Persian): This work deals with esoteric principles of mysticism. Al Imdad fi Ma'athirul Ajdaad (Persian): A brochure outlining Shah Waliullah¶s genealogical table and containing brief notices about some of his ancestors. which display Shah Waliullah's poetic talent and love towards Rasulullah.  Bawaariqul Wilaaya (Persian): This tract forms part of the Anfaasul Arifeen. as accepted by the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jam'aat sect. Its title is derived from the Qur'an (Suratul An'aam:149). in which Shah Waliullah has described the life and spiritual attainments of his father.     Insanul 'Ain fi Mashaaikhul Haramayn (Persian) Al Insaf fi Bayaanul Asbabul Ikhtilaf (Arabic) Anfaasul Arifeen (Persian) Al Budurul Bazigha (Arabic): This work on theology employs philosophical terminology in discussing human nature and social behaviour.   Tuhfatul Mu'ahhidin: This is a Persian tract explaining the creed of tauhid.   Izalatul Khafa'an Khilafatul Khulafa (Persian) At Tayyabul Naghm fi Madh-e-Sayyidul Arab wal Ajam (Arabic): A collection of odes eulogizing Rasulullah.3. partly in Arabic and partly in Persian.  Tawillul Ahadith (Arabic): It recount the stories of different prophets mentioned in the Qur'an in order to draw out lessons and rules of Shari'a from the Qur'anic description. Hujjatullahil Baligha: Shah Waliullah's greatest literary work.  Al Khair ul Kathir (Arabic): This work on the philosophy of religion elucidates the concept of ma'arifah and the wisdom of divine names. revelation.   Al Juz ul Latif fi Tarjumata ul Abdul Dha'if (Persian) Husnul Aqidah (Arabic): The fundamental creed of Islam. Shah Abdur Rahim. It is a two-volume Arabic manuscript and elaborates about the jurisprudence from the hadith and necessities of the Shari¶a. has been expounded in this work according to the Qur'an and hadith.

exchange of wealth. The whole nation is participant in the production of wealth. a well-known biography of Rasulullah. Ad Duroos Thama'in fi Mubashshiratul Nabi'ul Amin (Arabic): A collection of the glad tidings that Shah Waliullah and his ancestors received from Rasulullah. Risala: This pamphlet was written in reply to certain mystical issues raised by Shaikh 'Abdullah bin Abdul Baqi.  Sharhul Taraajimul Abwaabul Sahih ul Bukhari (Arabic): An annotation on certain chapters of Sahih ul Bukhari. The first principle is that people living in specific geographic boundaries has the right over the resources of that area. Shawaariqul Ma'arifah (Persian): This is a biography of Shah Waliullah's uncle.   Zahrawain: A commentary on Suratul Baqara and Suratul Imran. so it should be distributed in the whole nation. distribution of wealth. . Shaikh Abdul Raza.      Iqdul Jid fi Aakhamul Ijtihad wat Tajdid (Arabic) Fathul Kabir (Arabic): A glossary of the intricate words of the Qur'an. food and houses. He has narrated Hazrat Abu Bakkar Siddique in Aizaalatul Khifa ³Equality is better in economics than giving priority to one group over other. Fathul Wadud lil Ma'arifatul Junood (Arabic): It pertains to ethics and mysticism.    Shifahul Quloob (Persian): A tract on mysticism. That economic system in which all the people are equal no single person or specific class can get hold of the resources. Al Fadhlul Mubin fil Musalsal min Hadithul Nabi'ul Amin (Arabic) Izalatul Akhfa : An explanation of the Qur'an [edit]Shah waliullah¶s 4 basic principles of economics Shah Waliullah has discussed about the four basic principles of economics. He established the principles for distribution of wealth among people as well as the values that how the wealth should be consumed. Sururul Mahzun (Persian): A concise Persian translation of Kitab Nurul 'Uyoonul Aminul Ma'mun. Al Atiyyatus Samadiyya fi Anfaasul Muhammadiyya (Persian): A small brochure which contains a biographical sketch of Shah Waliullah's maternal grandfather. Shaikh Muhammad Phulti. consumption of wealth. such as Production of wealth. Not that the whole nation should have same clothing. Second principle is that everybody has the right to have limited owner ship as the abilities of every individual are different.   Diwanul Ashar (Arabic): A collection of the Arabic poetry of Shah Waliullah.  Risala Danishmandi (Persian): A valuable tract containing detailed directions with regards to the methodology of teaching. That economic system is successful which establishes the principles for these four branches.

ie. Shah waliullah stressed on the creation of a party on such principles which will end the outmoded system and built a new system which ensures the development of society as a whole. Shaikh Muhammad. Shah Waliullah died and was buried in the graveyard of Munhadian. Man possesses the qualities of intelligence and choice. Ammatul Aziz. becoming a Muslim. they are obedient to God and submissive to his laws. 1762. beside his father. Fourth principle is that such a balance should be maintained in these factors that society develop as a whole. Islam means submission to the will of God and obedience to His law. and a daughter. . Meanings of islam I slam is derived from the Arabic root "Salema": peace. Moses. become a Muslim. [edit]Death On August 20. Islam dates back to the age of Adam and its message has been conveyed to man by God's prophets and messengers. In the religious sense. from his first wife. Shah Rafiuddin. Everything and every phenomenon in the world other than man is administered totally by God-made laws. together with obedience to His beneficial Law. is the best safeguard for man's peace and harmony. ie. and Shah Abdul Ghani.Shah Abdul Qadir. thus he is invited to submit to the good will of God and obey His law. [edit]Family Shah Waliullah had a son. submission and obedience. ie.Third principle is that any practice which concentrates wealth in certain hands will not be tolerated and the system will oppose it. purity. Jesus and Muhammad. His second wife bore him four sons: Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddis Dehlvi. they are in the State of Islam. including Abrahim. Submission to the good will of God.

.e. Contents [hide] 1 Example of qiyas 2 Shi'a view of qiyas 3 See also . The word Allah in the Arabic language means God. Lord of all lords. andIjma' (consensus) as sources of Islamic law. Sources of knowledge intuition Quran hadis jima qiyas n Sunni Islamic jurisprudence. whereas Shi'a Islam uses 'aql (intellect). either explicitly rely on qiyas or use methods of analysis that are similar in their understanding of qiyaas. istihsan (juristic preference). such as mafhm al-nass (the clear implication of the text). As a result of this method. is only the case providing that the set precedent or paradigm and the new problem that has come about will share operative causes (illah)[1]. The One and Only Eternal God. Creator of the Universe. the ruling of the Sunnah and the Qur'an may be used as a means to solve or provide a response to a new problem that may arise. The illah is the specific set of circumstances that trigger a certain law into action. or more accurately. in order to make an analogy with a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. King of all kings. This. the qiyas (Arabic ) is the process of analogical reasoning in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Quran. Sunni Islam uses qiyas as the fourth source. the Sunnah. tamthil (similarity or likeness). Muhammad. The word Allah to mean God is also used by Arabic speaking Jews and Christians.Islam's message has been restored and enforced in the last stage of the religious evolution by God's last prophet and messenger. i. however. Other methods of deducing the law. Most Merciful. or istislah (consideration of public interest). Most Compassionate. Both Sunni Islam and Shi'a Islam share Qur'anic interpretation. although the two sects differ significantly with regards to the manner in which they use these sources. The sects also differ on the fourth source.

[edit]Shi'a view of qiyas The Shi'a view the use of qiyas (analogy) as being an innovation which can easily lead the user to erroneous conclusions regarding matters of Fiqh. During the Islamic Golden Age. For example. in the chapter on knowledge. Wine drinking is haraam. The reason behind the known ruling is applied to the unknown thing. It is therefore prohibited. Other Islamic scholars at the time. On the other hand.[2] Liberal movements within Islam often extend qiyas by the disputed practice of istihsan in order to redefine Islamic law away from conservative and traditional forms. which Ibn Hazm (994-1064) disagreed with. known thing or action that might bear a resemblance to the modern situation. Abu Muhammad Asem al-Maqdisi) argued that qiyas refers to analogical reasoning in a real sense and categorical syllogism in a metaphorical sense. such as the wine drinking. but refers to categorical syllogism in a real sense and analogical reasoning in a metaphorical sense. removing the user from mindfulness of God. 1. prohibited. In Usul al-Kafi. Identification of the reason behind the known ruling ('illah). wine drinking is haraam because it intoxicates. inductive reasoning or categorical syllogism.4 References 5 External links [edit]Example of qiyas For example. however. For instance cocaine use intoxicates the user. one finds many traditions cited from the Shi'a Imams that forbid the use of qiyas. qiyas is applied to the injunction against drinking wine to create an injunction against cocaine use. For example: "H 103. al-Ghazali (1058-1111) (and in modern times. 4. Some Islamic scholars argued that qiyas refers to inductive reasoning. Intoxication is bad because it removes Muslims from mindfulness of God. 11. Ch. Identification of a clear. h 9 . This reason behind the reason is termed hikmah. 2. Identification of the ruling on the known thing. 3. there was a logical debate among Islamic logicians. arguing that qiyas does not refer to inductive reasoning. philosophers and theologians over whether the term qiyas refers toanalogical reasoning. argued that the term qiyas refers to both analogical reasoning and categorical syllogism in a real sense.

"I never heard any thing like a statement I heard from Imam abu µAbdallah (a. µPierced my heart." [3] IJMA Ijm ' ( ) is an Arabic term referring ideally to the consensus of the ummah (the community of Muslims. They claim that truly democratic consensus should involve the entire community rather than a small and conservative clerical class. they will face destruction and lead others to their destruction. Various proponents of liberal movements within Islam criticize the traditional view that ijm ' is only a consensus among traditional Islamic scholars (Arabic ulema). especially since there is no hierarchical system in Islam. Importance of quran . Technically it is ³the unanimous doctrine and opinion of the recognized religious authorities at any given time´. the prophetic practice or Sunnah.) who said. or followers of Islam). Many conservative Muslim writers have claimed that the use of ijm ' makes Islamic law compatible with democracy. the clear text and that which requires interpretation.¶" The Imam (a.Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn µIsa from Yunus from Dawad ibn Farqad from one he narrated from ibn Shubruma (a judge in al-Kufa during the rule of al-Mansur) who has said the following. "My father narrated from my great-greatgreat-great grandfather.a.) and it is almost as he said. the holy Prophet (s. Those who give fatwas without the knowledge of the abrogating and the abrogated.s. Usuli Shia accepts ijm ' under restricted conditions as a source of Islamic law. The analogical reasoning or qiyas is described as fourth source in Sunni Islam.s. after the divine revelation of the Qur'an. The hadith of Muhammad which states that "My community will never agree upon an error" is often cited as support for the validity of ijm '. µThose who act on the basis of analogy will face their destruction and lead others to their destruction. SunniMuslims regard ijm ' as the third fundamental source of Sharia law.) said. whereas Shi'a Islam uses 'aql (intellect).