PROVISIONAL LIST OF BIRDS IN THE NANAY-MISHANA RETREAT AREA

Based on a field expedition by Zoologist Frank Lambert in January 2006

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Mishana Retreat Centre – Amazon Rainforest, Peru We have 57 Hectares (140 acres) of land with a lodge in the Allpahuayo Mishana Nature reserve. Our lodge is located directly on the river which is part of a 58,070 hectare nature reserve. Due to a combination of geological factors and diverse soil types, the reserve supports a unique community of plant and animal species. It is the ‘jewel’ in the crown for bird-watchers and contains dozens of species which are unique to this area. The Reserve contains one of the highest biodiversities known in the Amazon basin. The Lodge is located directly on the Rio Nanay which is a tributary of the Amazon River. Our lodge is situated in-between two bends of the river giving an amazing panoramic view. We have our own boat so trips can be made to some interesting, and extraordinarily beautiful places along the river. The lodge is a 2 hour river journey from Iquitos by power boat. Our accommodation is in comfortable traditional cabins or tambos (dieting huts), a leaf roof supported by poles and with open sides (the most intimate way to sleep in the jungle). The beds benefit from a comfortable mattress and fly nets when necessary. The tambos are spread out to assure privacy and minimum disturbance from others. Participants have a choice of using either the cabins in the 'Casa Grande' annex or tambos for their retreat. During the day when there are no activities, there will be hammocks to relax in, and you can read, or wander into the forest, or swim in the river (there is a small sandy beach). Our ceremonies and meeting will be held in either the Casa Grande with an open platform on stilts directly on the river with a magnificent view of the rainforest and star filled sky. or our maloca (ceremonial temple), a large circular tambo made of natural materials and shaped like a womb. We will eat our meals in the lodge, the traditional meeting place, where food is cooked on a wood fire.

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Contents
Tinamous Tinamidae White-throated Tinamou Tinamus guttatus Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus Cinereus Herons Ardeidae White-necked Heron Ardea cocoi Striated Heron Butorides striatus American Vultures Cathartidae Black Vulture Coragyps atratus Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus Hawks and Eagles Accipitridae Grey-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris Falcons Falconidae Black Caracara Daptrius ater Red-throated Caracara Daptrius americanus Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima Buckley´s Forest-falcon Micrastur buckelyi Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus Guans, Curassows & Allies Cracidae Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata Pigeons and Doves Columbidae Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis Plumbeous Pigeon Columba plumbea Ruddy Pigeon Columba subvinacea Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti Gray-fronted Dove Leptotila rufaxilla Parrots Psittacidae Dusky-headed Parakeet Aratinga weddellii
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Maroon-tailed Parakeet Pyrrhura melanura Canary-winged Parakeet Brotogeris versicolurus Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanopter Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus Cuckoos, Anis and Hoatzins Cuculidae Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana Black-bellied Cuckoo Piaya melanogaster Greater Ani Crotophaga major Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani Typical Owls Strigidae Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum Nighthawks and Nightjars Caprimulgidae Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis Swifts Apodidae Grey-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyura Fork-tailed Palm-Swift Tachornis squamata Hummingbirds Trochilidae Pale-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes leucurus Black-throated Hermit Phaethornis atrimentalis White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata Sapphire-spangled Emerald Polyerata lacteal Trogons and Quetzals Trogonidae Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis Collared Trogon Trogon collaris Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Trogon violaceus Kingfishers Alecedinidae Ringed Kingfisher Ceryle torquata American Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea

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Motmots Momotidae Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota Puffbirds and Nunbirds Bucconidae Brown-banded Puffbird Notharchus ordii Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa Barbets Capitonidae Gilded Barbet Capito auratus Toucans and Aracaris Ramphastidae Many-banded Aracari Pteroglossus pluricinctus Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus White-throated Toucan Ramphastos tucanus Woodpeckers and Piculets Picidae Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus Spot-breasted Woodpecker Colaptes punctigula Scaly-breasted Woodpecker Celeus grammicus Chestnut Woodpecker Celeus elegans Cream-colored Woodpecker Celeus flavus Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis Woodcreepers Dendrocolaptidae Northern Barred Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus Long-billed Woodcreeper Nasica longirostris Straight-billed Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus picus Striped Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus obsoletus Elegant Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus elegans Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus

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Furnarids or Ovenbirds Furnariidae Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus Grey-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus albigularis Black-tailed Leaftosser Sclerurus caudacutus Tawny-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus Short-billed Leaftosser Sclerurus rufigularis Typical Antbirds Thamnophilidae Black-crested Antshrike Sakesphorus Canadensis Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus Plain-winged Antshrike Thamnophilus schistaceus Mouse-coloured Antshrike Thamnophilus murinus Amazonian Antshrike Thamnophilus amazonicus Spot-winged Antshrike Pygiptila stellaris Cinereous Antshrike Thamnomanes caesius Pygmy Antwren Myrmotherula brachyura Moustached Antwren Myrmotherula ignota (Short-billed Antwren Myrmotherula obscura) White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris Gray Antwren Myrmotherula menetriesii Stipple-throated Antwren Myrmotherula haematonota Grey Antbird Cercomacra cinerascens Black Antbird Cercomacra craserva Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis cantator Black-chinned Antbird Hypocnemoides melanopogon Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird Myrmeciza castanea White-shouldered Antbird Myrmeciza melanoceps Bicolored Antbird Gymnopithys leucaspis Spot-backed Antbird Hylophylax naevius Contingas Cotingidae Black-necked Red-Cotinga Phoenicircus nigricollis Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans Pompadour Cotinga Xipholina punicea

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Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata Manakins Pipridae White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus Wire-tailed Manakin Pipra filicauda Blue-crowned Manakin Pipra coronata Striped Manakin Machaeropterus regulus Orange-crested Manakin Heterocercus aurantiivertex Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin Neopelma chrysocephalum Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin Tyranneutes stolzmanni Wing-barred Piprites Piprites chloris Tyrant Flycatchers Tyrannidae Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus Double-banded Pygmy-tyrant Lophotriccus vitiosus Spotted Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum maculatum Golden-winged Tody-flycatcher Poecilotriccus calopterus Rusty-fronted Tody-flycatcher Poecilotriccus latirostris Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tyrannulus elatus Olive-faced Flatbill Tolmomyias viridiceps Cinnamon Attila Attila cinnamomeus Citron-bellied Attila Attila citriniventris Grayish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis Grey-capped Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus Varzea Schiffornis Schiffornis major Thrush-like Schiffornis Schiffornis turdinus White-winged Becard Pachyramphus polychopterus

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Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata Vireos and Greenlets Vireonidae Yellow-green Vireo Vireo flavoviridis Wrens Troglodytidae Coraya Wren Thryothorus coraya Buff-breasted Wren Thryothorus leucotis Gnatwrens and Allies Sylvidae Long-billed Gnatwren Microbates Ramphocaenus melanurus Swallows and Martins Hirundinidae White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Tanagers Thraupinae Magpie Tanager Cissopis leveriana White-winged Shrike-Tanager Lanio versicolor Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus Grosbeaks and Saltators Cardinalinae Blue-backed Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides Lesser Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus Greyish Saltator Saltator coerulescens American Orioles Icteridae Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora Gnatcatcher Polioptila clementsi MAMMALS

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Giant Otter Pteronura brasiliensis Tamarins Saguinus Common Squirrel Monkey Saimiri sciureus Titi Monkey Callicebus

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Tinamous Tinamidae
The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. Although they look similar to other grounddwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family Tinamidae within their own order, the Tinamiformes. Of Gondwanan origin, they are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emu, and kiwi. Although the fossil record in South America is generally poor, the known tinamou fossil record goes back 10 million years. Together with the ratites, they make up the Paleognathae, or “Old Jaws”, as distinct from the vast majority of modern birds in the Neognathae, or “New Jaws”. There are 47 species of tinamou in South America and north to Mexico, occurring in a wide range of habitats. They eat a variety of food including insects and berries. The smallest species, the Dwarf Nothura, is about 42 grams (1.4 oz) and 15 cm (6 inches) long. The largest tinamou, the Gray Tinamou, weighs 1.6 kg (3.6 lbs) and measures up to 50 cm (20 inches) long. Tinamou are rarely seen. Most inhabit the tropical lowlands of South America, typically in dark, dense forest, but some species range as far north as Mexico and occur in a wide range of habitats. Although some species are quite common, they are shy and secretive. A small number of species live in more open, grassy country, but even these are wary. Tinamous lay several eggs which are attractively coloured and have a hard gloss like porcelain. The young are precocial, and can run almost as soon as they hatch.

White-throated Tinamou Tinamus guttatus
The White-throated Tinamou is a species of bird native to the Amazon rainforest of Peru and Brazil. These birds measure between 32 and 36 cm in length. They inhabit forests as well as bush. They eat seeds, fruits and invertebrates. Along with other species of tinamous, they are often caught for food during the rainy season of the Amazon. Tinamous are easy to catch because while flying they will often become fatigued or run into dense foliage, causing them to fall next to the bank of the river. They lay a clutch of 4 or 5 eggs of an intense blue green color. It is a relatively abundant species in its habitat and the main threat to it is deforestation.

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Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus Cinereus
The Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus cinereus is a type of ground bird found in lowland moist and swamp forest up to 700 m altitude. This species is native to Eastern Colombia, southern Venezuela and the Guianas south across amazonian Brazil to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and Ecuador. The Cinereous Tinamou is a shy and secretive Tinamou. It is approximately 30 cm in length. It is recognized by its smoky-grey with reddish-brown crown and nape. Its dark phase is uniformly in sooty brown color. This species has a loud distinctive whistle heard mainly at dawn and dusk.

Herons Ardeidae
The herons are wading birds in the Ardeidae family. Some are called egrets or bitterns instead of herons. Within the family, all members of the genera Botaurus and Ixobrychus are referred to as bitterns, and—including the Zigzag Heron or Zigzag Bittern— are a monophyletic group within the Ardeidae. However, egrets are not a biologically distinct group from the herons, and tend to be named differently because they are mainly white or have decorative plumes. The classification of the individual heron/egret species is fraught with difficulty, and there is still no clear consensus about the correct placement of many species into either of the two major genera, Ardea and Egretta. Similarly, the relationship of the genera in the family is not completely resolved. For example, the Boat-billed Heron is sometimes classed as a heron, and sometimes given its own family Cochlearidae, but nowadays it is usually retained in the Ardeidae. Although herons resemble birds in some other families, such as the storks, ibises and spoonbills, they differ from these in flying with their necks retracted, not outstretched. They are also one of the bird groups that have powder down. The members of this family are mostly associated with wetlands, and prey on fish, frogs and other aquatic species. Some, like the Cattle Egret and Black-headed Heron, also take large insects, and are less tied to watery environments. Some members of this group nest colonially in trees, others, notably the bitterns, use reedbeds

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White-necked Heron Ardea cocoi
The White-necked Heron, Ardea pacifica also known as the Pacific Heron is found throughout New Guinea and Australia, except for the most arid regions, and is a vagrant to New Zealand. It is a large, robust looking heron, with dark slaty wings and body, and white head and neck. Its habitat mainly comprises freshwater wetlands and wet grasslands. It feeds on small terrestrial and aquatic animals. It nests in dead or living trees associated with freshwater wetlands. Widespread throughout its large range, the White-necked Heron is evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Striated Heron Butorides striatus
The Striated Heron (or Mangrove Heron or Little Heron), Butorides striatus, is a small heron. Adults have a blue-grey back and wings, white underparts, a black cap and short yellow legs. Juveniles are browner above and streaked below. Their breeding habitat is small wetlands in the Old World tropics from west Africa to Japan and in South America. They are mostly nonmigratory. They nest in a platform of sticks often in shrubs or trees, sometimes on the ground, often near water, laying 3-5 eggs. These birds stand still at the water's edge and wait to ambush prey, but are easier to see than many small heron species. They mainly eat small fish, frogs and aquatic insects. They sometimes use bait, dropping a feather or leaf carefully on the water surface and picking fish that visit it.

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American Vultures Cathartidae
Vultures are scavenging birds, feeding mostly on the carcasses of dead animals. Vultures are found in every continent except Antarctica and Oceania. A particular characteristic of many vultures is a bald head, devoid of feathers. This is likely because a feathered head would become spattered with blood and other fluids, and thus be difficult to keep clean. A group of vultures is occasionally called a venue in literature. When circling in the air, a group of vultures is called a kettle. The German word Geier does not have a precise meaning in ornithology, and is sometimes used to refer to a vulture in English, as in some poetry.

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus
A common New World vulture, the American Black Vulture, or Black Vulture, Coragyps atratus, tends to have a more southerly distribution than its compatriot, the Turkey Vulture, which breeds well into Canada. These are very large birds of prey at 65cm length and with a 1.5m wingspan. Their plumage is mainly glossy black; they have broad wings with white tips, a short tail and a featherless greyish head. The female lays 2 or 3 eggs on the ground in a wooded area or in a hollow log or other cavity. Both parents incubate and feed the young, regurgitating food at the nest site. They eat mainly carrion, but also eggs and decomposing plant material. They may scavenge at garbage dumps and sometimes kill young animals. These birds on occasion forage in groups. They soar high when searching for food, holding their wings flat when gliding. Though not having any natural predators, they have become scarce in some areas due to lack of suitable nesting habitat

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Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura
The Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura, is the most common American vulture. It is an extremely graceful bird in flight. It seldom needs to flap its long wings once airborne, but soars high overhead looking for carcasses. Despite the similar name and appearance, this species is unrelated to the Old World vultures in the family Accipitridae, which includes eagles, hawks, kites and harriers. The American species is a New World vulture in the family Cathartidae. Soaring adult holds its wings up in characteristic Vshape. These large birds of prey are mostly brownish black, but the flight feathers are gray, creating a contrasting pattern. The head is small in proportion to the body and has no feathers on it; adults' heads are red and immatures' are black. The birds have a wing span of about 2 metres. While soaring, they hold their wings in a V-shape and often tip "drunkenly" from side to side, sometimes causing the gray flight feathers to look silvery as they catch the light. The flight style, small-headed and narrow-winged silhouette, and underwing pattern make this bird easy to identify at great distances. These birds soar over open areas, watching for dead animals or other scavengers at work. Unlike most other birds, they also rely on smell to help locate their food. They also eat some vegetation. The nesting site is in a protected location: on a cliff, inside a hollow tree or in a thicket. There is little or no construction of a nest. Females lay two eggs, cream-colored with brown spots. Both parents incubate, and the young hatch at around 40 days. The adults regurgitate food for them and care for them for 10 to 11 weeks. Often, small to large groups of these birds spend the night at communal roosts. Favoured locations may be reused for many years. This bird got its common name because the adult's bald red head was thought to resemble that of a male Wild Turkey. This bird is said to be the most damaging bird to aircraft in birdstrikes as rated by the Smithsonian Institution's Feather Identification Laboratory.

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Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus
The Greater Yellow-headed Vulture, Cathartes melambrotus, also known as the Forest Vulture, is a species of bird in the New World Vulture family Cathartidae. It was considered to be the same species as the Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture until they were split in 1964. It is found in southern Central America and South America in subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is a large bird, with a wingspan of 166178 centimeters (65-70 inches). The body plumage is black, and the head and neck, which are featherless, range in color from deep yellow to pale orange. It lacks a syrinx, and its vocalizations are therefore limited to grunts or low hisses. The Greater Yellow-headed Vulture feeds on carrion and locates carcasses by sight and by smell, an ability which is rare in birds. It is dependent on larger vultures, such as the King Vulture, to open the hides of larger animal carcasses, as its bill is not strong enough to do this. Like other New World Vultures, the Greater Yellow-headed Vulture utilizes thermals to stay aloft with minimal effort. It lays its eggs on flat surfaces, such as the floors of caves, or in the hollows of stumps. It feeds its young by regurgitation. Hawks and Eagles Accipitridae Eagles are large birds of prey which inhabit mainly the Old World, with only two species (the Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle) found in North America north of Mexico, a few in Middle and South America, two (the White-bellied Sea Eagle and Wedgetailed Eagle) in Australia, and the Philippine Eagle in the Philippines. They are members of the bird order Falconiformes (or Accipitriformes, according to alternative classification schemes), family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera which are not necessarily closely related to each other in any sort of way. Eagles are differentiated from other broad-winged birds of prey mainly by their larger size, more powerful build, and heavier head and bill. Even the smallest eagles, like the Booted Eagle (which is comparable in size to a Common Buzzard or Red-tailed Hawk), have relatively longer and more evenly broad wings, and more direct, faster flight. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from the vultures. Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, and powerful talons. They also have extremely keen eyesight to enable them to spot potential prey from a very long distance. This keen eyesight is primarily contributed by their extremely large pupils which cause minimal diffraction (scattering) of the incoming light. In Britain before 1678, Eagle referred specifically to the Golden Eagle, the other native species, the White-tailed Eagle, being known as the Erne. The modern name "Golden Eagle" for Aquila chrysaetos was introduced by the naturalist John Ray. Eagles build their nests, which are sometimes called eyries (mostly in Australia) in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many

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species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick frequently kills its younger sibling once it has hatched. Eagles are sometimes used in falconry. They appear prominently in myth and literature. In the Old World, such references are commonly to the Golden Eagle (or possibly closely related species found in warm climates).

Grey-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis
The Gray-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis is a raptor found in open woodland and swamp forests. It shares the genus Leptodon with the extremely rare White-collared Kite. It breeds from eastern Mexico and Trinidad south to Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. The nest is of sticks lined with grass and built high in a tree. The clutch is a one or two white eggs, purplish at one end and spotted brown. The Gray-headed Kite is 46-53 cm in length and weighs 410-605 g. The adult has a grey head, black upperparts, white underparts, and a black tail with two or three white bars. The bill is blue and the legs grey. The flight is a deliberate flap-flap-glide. Immature birds have two colour morphs; the light phase is similar to the adult, but has a white head and neck, with a black crown and eyestripe, black bill and yellow legs. The dark phase has a blackish head, neck and upperparts, and dark-streaked buff underparts. The Gray-headed Kite feeds mainly on reptiles, but also takes frogs and large insects. It usually sits on an open high perch from which it swoops on its prey. The call is a mewling keow.

Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens
The crane hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens) is an uncommon raptor species found from Mexico to Argentina. It seems that its long legs are often used to reach into crevices or hollow logs to seize prey. Adult crane hawks are dark gray.

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Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris
A common bird throughout its range, the Roadside Hawk can be found in Mexico, Brazil, and the Northern parts of Argentina. With the possible exception of dense forests, the Roadside Hawk is well adapted to most ecosystems of its range. Fairly small compared to other members of the Buteo genus, the Roadside Hawk can be identified by its lengthy tail and disproportionately short wings. The breast and underparts of the bird are barred brown and white and the tail has four or five grey bars. The eyes of the Roadside Hawk are usually yellow in color and rufous patches on the bird's wings can be observed while the hawk is in flight. The Roadside Hawk's diet consists mainly of small mammals, insects, and reptiles.

Falcons Falconidae
A Falcon is any of several species of raptors in the genus Falco. The word comes from Latin falco, related to Latin falx ("sickle") because of the shape of these birds' wings.

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Black Caracara Daptrius ater
Easy to tell from the Red-throated Caracara by its lack of a white belly although it does have white on the rump and at the base of the tail. They are omnivorous eating carrion, fish, insects, frogs, fruit, etc... It is said that they like to eat ticks off Tapirs and that, on hearing the cries of the Black Caracara, a Tapir will let out a squeal to attract the Caracara and will then lie belly-up to let the Caracara eat its ticks. They are normally found in the Amazon forest near rivers.

Red-throated Caracara Daptrius americanus
It can look a bit like a guan from a distance but the Redthroated Caracara is quite distinctive close up with its red bare skin on the throat and its white belly. It is much clumsier than its close relations, the falcons. They usually move around in small groups and are capable of making an ear-shattering noise when disturbed which leads to them being used by other forest species as a sentinel. A major item of their diet is eggs and larvae of wasps and bees. However, it never seems to get stung despite its bare throat.

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Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima
The Yellow-headed Caracara, Milvago chimachima, is a bird of prey in the family Falconidae. Unlike the Falco falcons in the same family, the caracaras are not fast-flying aerial hunters, but are rather sluggish and often scavengers. The Yellow-headed Caracara is a resident breeding bird from Panama, Trinidad and Tobago south through South America to northern Argentina. This is a bird of savannah, swamps and forest edges, which lays one or two brown-marked buff eggs in a stick nest in a tree. The Yellow-headed Caracara is 41-46 cm long and weighs 325g. It is broad-winged and long-tailed. The adult has a buff head, with a black streak behind the eye, and buff underparts. The upperparts are brown with distinctive pale patches on the flight feathers of the wings, and the tail is barred cream and brown. The sexes are similar, but immature birds are mottled with brown below. The voice of this species is a characteristic screamed schreee. The Yellow-headed Caracara is omnivorous, and will eat reptiles, amphibians and other small animals as well as carrion. It will also take ticks from cattle, and is locally called “tickbird”. The Yellow-headed Caracara has benefited from forest clearing for cattle ranching. Its status in Trinidad has changed from rare to fairly common, and it was first seen on Tobago in 1987.

Buckley´s Forest-falcon Micrastur buckelyi
The Buckley's Forest-falcon, Carnifex De Buckley, Carnifex De Traylor, Gavilán De Traylor, or Halcón-montés De Buckley (Micrastur buckleyi) is a species of bird of prey in the Falconidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. Forest falcons are members of the genus Micrastur, part of the family Falconidae. They are endemic to the Americas, and are found in the tropical and subtropical forests of Mexico, Guatemala, Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. Although members of the falcon family, in many respects forest falcons resemble hawks or harriers more than other falcons; indeed, they are often called harrier-hawks, a term which is descriptively apt but taxonomically inaccurate. Forest falcons, like many Accipiters but unlike other falcons, are adapted for agility in thick forest rather than outright speed in clear air. They have short wings, long tails, and extraordinarily acute hearing. Diet is a mixture of birds, mammals and reptiles. Hunting is often performed in Goshawk fashion: the bird takes up a perch in an inconspicuous position and waits for a prey species to pass, then strikes with a short, rapid pursuit. Forestfalcons are inventive, flexible hunters, and are also capable of catching terrestrial prey on foot. In 2002, a new species was described, found in southeastern Amazonia and the rain forests of Brazil. It has been named Micrastur mentoni, the Cryptic Forest Falcon.

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Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus
The Great Black Hawk, Buteogallus urubitinga, is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes the eagles, hawks and Old World vultures. The Great Black Hawk is a resident breeding bird in the tropical New World, from Mexico through Central America to Peru, Trinidad and northern Argentina. It resembles the Common Black Hawk, but is larger with a different call and tail pattern. This is a mainly coastal bird of forest and open woodland near water. It builds a large stick nest in a tree, and usually lays one dark-blotched whitish egg. The adult Great Black Hawk is 56 to 64cm long and weighs 1.1 kg. It has very broad wings, and is mainly black. The short tail is white with a broad black tip. The bill is black and the legs and cere are yellow. The sexes are similar, but immature birds are dark brown above with spotting and streaks. Their underparts are buff with dark spots, and the tail has a number of black and dusky bars. The call of Great Black Hawk is a distinctive piping ooo-wheeeeee. The Great Black Hawk feeds mainly on reptiles, other small vertebrates and large insects, often hunted on foot. This species is often seen soaring above woodlands.

Guans, Curassows & Allies Cracidae
The Cracidae are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colourful facial ornaments. There are 50 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Peru. The chachalacas, guans and curassows are birds in the family Cracidae. These are species of tropical and subtropical Central and South America. One species, the Plain Chachalaca, just reaches southernmost Texas in the USA. Two species, the Trinidad Piping Guan and the Rufousvented Chachalaca occur on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago respectively. These are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller Chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colourful facial ornaments. These species feed on fruit, insects and worms. The nest is built in a tree, and two to three large white eggs are laid; the female alone incubates. The Cracidae are an ancient group related to the Australasian Mound-builders. They are sometimes united with these in a distinct order, Craciformes, but this is not supported by more recent research which suggests that either is a wellmarked, basal lineage of Galliformes.

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Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata
The Speckled Chachalaca (Ortalis guttata) is a species of bird in the Cracidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, and heavily degraded former forest.

Pigeons and Doves Columbidae
Pigeons and Doves constitute the family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, which include some 300 species of near passerine birds. In general parlance the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. In ornithological practice, there is a tendency for "dove" to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the term "dove" and "pigeon." This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. The young doves and pigeons are called "squabs." Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. The species commonly referred to just as the "pigeon" is the feral Rock Pigeon, common in many cities. Their usually flimsy nests are made of sticks, and the two white eggs are incubated by both sexes. Doves feed on seeds, fruit and plants. Unlike most other birds (but see flamingo), the doves and pigeons produce "crop milk," which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop. Both sexes produce this highly nutritious substance to feed to the young.

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Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis
The Pale-vented Pigeon, Patagioenas cayennensis (see Johnson et al. 2001), is a large New World tropical dove. It is a resident breeder from southern Mexico south to Bolivia and northern Argentina and on Tobago and Trinidad, although it is very localised on the latter island. It belongs to a clade of Patagioenas which generally lack iridescent display plumage, although this species has some coppery gloss on the nape (Johnson et al. 2001). The Pale-vented Pigeon is common at forest edges, riverbanks, and other partially open areas with some trees. It builds a small twig nest in a small tree, and normally lays one white egg. Its flight is high, fast and direct, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general. It also has a breeding display with a semi-circular glide down to its original perch. The call is a row of soft kuk kuk croo-ooos; the initial short kuk is characteristic for this group of Patagioenas and altogether, this species' song is intermediate between that of its close relatives the Plain and Red-billed Pigeons (Mahler & Tubaro 2001). The Pale-vented Pigeon is 30-32cm long and weighs normally 230-250 g. It somewhat resembles a Scaled Pigeon, which has a similar display flight, but of course lacks that species’ scaly appearance. These two large species are the only pigeons which are often seen flying in the open away from forests. Adult males have a mainly dull purple head, breast and upperpart plumage, with copper glossing on the nape and a whitish throat. The lower back and tail are dark grey and the lower underparts are pale grey. The bill is black and the legs, iris and eyering are red. The female is similar, but duller than the male, and immatures are greyish-brown, very dull, and mainly greyish brown. The southern race P. c. andersoni has white lower underparts, rather than the pale grey of nominate P. c. cayennensis. Pale-vented Pigeon feed mainly on small fruits, berries and seed. This is a fairly solitary bird, but may form small flocks at drinking areas.

Plumbeous Pigeon Columba plumbea
The Plumbeous Pigeon (Patagioenas plumbea) is a species of bird in the Columbidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

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Ruddy Pigeon Columba subvinacea
The Ruddy Pigeon, Patagioenas subvinacea (see Johnson et al. 2001), is a largish pigeon which breeds from Costa Rica south to western Ecuador, Bolivia and central Brazil. It belongs to a clade of small and rather plain species of Patagioenas with characteristic calls (Johnson et al. 2001) that constitute the subgenus Oenoenas (Mahler & Tubaro 2001). It is found in highland forest canopy and semi-open woodland from 1500 m altitude to the timberline. It builds a rudimentary platform nest out of twigs 5 m high in a small tree, and lays one white egg. The Ruddy Pigeon is 28 cm long and weighs 170 g. It is unpatterned and mainly wine-purple in colour, becoming more rufous on the back. The tail and primary flight feathers are dark brown, the bill is black, and the legs and eyes are purple-red. The female is slightly duller and browner than the male, and the juvenile bird has a greyish brown head, neck and breast, with cinnamon or rufous scaling on the head and upperparts. Ruddy Pigeon has a loud and fairly high-pitched coo, ko'COO coo call, with considerable pauses between calls just as in its relatives (Mahler & Tubaro 2001). It is normally seen in pairs as it forages in the tree tops for mistletoe, fruits and berries, but may occasionally be seen on tracks and roadside seeking grit. This species is replaced at lower altitudes by its close relative, the very similar Short-billed Pigeon, Patagioenas nigrirostris. The two species are best separated by call, which is faster and less complex in this species (Mahler & Tubaro 2001).

Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti
The Ruddy Ground Dove, (Columbina talpacoti), is a small New World tropical dove. It is a resident breeder from Mexico south to Peru, Brazil and Paraguay, and on Trinidad and Tobago. Individual birds can sometimes be seen in southwestern USA, from southern Texas to southernmost California, primarily during the winter months. The Ruddy Ground Dove is very common in scrub and other open country, including cultivation. It builds a solid cup-shaped stick nest in a tree and lays two white eggs. Incubation is 12–13 days with another 12–14 days to fledging. There may be a second or third brood. Its flight is fast and direct, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general. Ruddy Ground Doves are small short-tailed pigeons, 17cm long with a weight normally about 47g. Adult males have a pale grey head and neck, and rich rufous upperparts, black-spotted on the wing coverts. The underparts are paler brown, the tail is edged black, and the underwings are cinnamon and black. The female is grey-brown rather than rufous, and has less contrast between head and body than the male.

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The subspecies C. t. rufipennis of Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago shows much more cinnamon on the underwing than the nominate C. t. talpacoti. Ruddy Ground Doves feed mainly on seeds. The call is a soft cooing cur-WOO. This species can be quite approachable. Males frequently threaten each other, and brief fights may ensue.

Blue Ground-Dove Claravis pretiosa
The Blue Ground Dove (Claravis pretiosa) is a small New World tropical dove. It is a resident breeder from southeastern Mexico to northwestern Peru and northern Argentina, and on Trinidad. The Blue Ground Dove is common in open woodland, forest edges, clearings and roadsides, especially in more humid areas. It is found from sea level to about 1200 m altitude. It builds a flimsy dish nest of twigs 111 m high in a tree and lays two white eggs. Blue Ground Doves are small pigeons, 20 cm long with a weight of 65-72 g. Adult males have blue-grey upperparts and paler grey underparts, becoming grey-white on the face. The flight feathers and outer tail feathers are blackish, and the wings are boldly marked with black. The iris is red or yellow, the bare eyering is green, and the legs are flesh-pink. The female has a grey-brown head neck and breast, becoming pale bluegrey on the underwings and belly. The back is ruddy brown, contrasting with the chestnut rump and tail. Young birds resemble the female, but have ruddy scaling on the back. The male is unlikely to be confused with other species, but the female resembles the smaller, shorter-tailed Columbina ground doves. The contrasting rump and woodland habitat are good identification points, and a blue grey and a brown bird flying through the trees together is bound to be this species. Blue Ground Doves occur singly or in pairs. They feed mainly on the ground on seeds and small insects, and take grit. The male’s song, given from the treetops, is a loud boop.

Gray-fronted Dove Leptotila rufaxilla
The Grey-fronted Dove, (Leptotila rufaxilla) is a large New World tropical dove. It is a resident breeder in South America from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guyanas south to northeast Argentina and Uruguay. Several subspecies exists, among them L. r. hellmayrii from Trinidad and the Paria Peninsula in Venezuela. The Grey-headed Dove, Leptotila plumbeiceps, of Central America and the Grenada Dove, L. wellsi, of Grenada were formerly considered conspecific with Grey-fronted Dove. The Grey-fronted Dove inhabits humid forest and woodland. It builds a large stick nest in a bush or on a stump and lays two white eggs. The Grey-fronted Dove is very similar to the closely related White-tipped Dove, Leptotila verreauxi, which, in the area of overlap, prefers more open, drier, woodland. It has an approx. length of 28 cm (11 in) and a weight of 155 g (5½ oz). Adult have a blue-grey crown, a whitish forehead and a grey neck showing purple iridescence. They have a whitish throat and the eye-ring is red. The upperparts and wings are grey-brown, and the underparts are whitish shading to pinkish-buff on the chest. The underwing coverts are rufous. The white tip to the tail is narrower than in the White-tipped Dove. The bill is black, the legs red and the iris is yellow. L. r. hellmayrii has a paler forehead and darker, more rufous, breast. It is best separted from the White-tipped Dove by the buffier lower face and the more contrasting, bluish-grey crown.
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Another feature is the red (not blue) eye-ring of the Grey-fronted Dove, but this is not reliable in all parts of Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, where it typically is red in both. The Grey-fronted Dove is usually seen singly or in pairs, and is rather wary. Its flight is fast and direct, with the regular beats and clattering of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general. The food of this species is mainly seeds obtained by foraging on the ground, but it will also take insects. The call is a deep hollow ooo-wooooo-ou.

Parrots Psittacidae
Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 species in the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions. Also known as psittacines, they are usually grouped into two families: the Psittacidae (true parrots) and the Cacatuidae (cockatoos). Characteristic features of parrots include a strong curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Most parrots are predominantly green, with other bright colors, and some species are multi-colored. Cockatoo species range from mostly white to mostly black, and have a mobile crest of feathers on the top of their heads. Most parrots are monomorphic or minimally sexually dimorphic. Parrots, along with crows, jays and magpies, are some of the most intelligent birds, and their ability to imitate human voices enhances their popularity as pets. Trapping of wild parrots for the pet trade, as well as other hunting, habitat loss and competition from invasive species, have diminished wild populations, and more parrots are threatened with extinction than any other group of birds. The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds and other plant material, and a few species also eat insects and small animals, and the lories and lorikeets are specialised to feed on nectar from flowers, and soft fruits. Almost all parrots nest in tree holes (or nestboxes in captivity), and lay white eggs from which emerge altricial (helpless) young. Extant species range in size from the Buff-faced Pygmy-parrot, under 10 g (0.35 oz.) and 8 cm (3.2 inches), to the Hyacinth Macaw, at 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length, and the Kakapo, at 4 kg (8.8 lbs). Some atypical parrots include the dimorphic Eclectus (the male is green and the female is red), the flightless lek breeding Kakapo. The Kaka, Kea and the Long-billed Corella have especially curved upper mandibles.

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Dusky-headed Parakeet Aratinga weddellii
The Dusky-headed Parakeet or Dusky-headed Conure (Aratinga weddellii) is a small bird in the parrot family. It is generally green in color with a gray-brown head and blue-edged black remiges. The adult is about 28 centimeters (11 inches) in length and weighs about 100 grams. The bird is found in the wild along the Amazon River and its tributaries in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. It inhabits rainforest, marshes, forest remnants and regrowth in cleared areas, and sometimes coffee plantations. It is a common avian species across its range. The Dusky-headed Parakeet is social, and is usually found in pairs or small groups. When food is plentiful it forms flocks of up to 100 members. It is a moderately noisy parakeet, feeding quietly and making sounds mostly during flight. Its call is similar to that of the White-eyed Conure (Aratinga leucophthalmus). The bird eats fruit, seeds, and flowers, and will search decaying wood for insect larvae. It also ingests mineral-rich soil as a supplement. The birds pair to raise offspring together, nesting in woodpecker holes in trees or arboreal termite nests. The Dusky-headed Parakeet can be kept in captivity, most successfully in an aviary. It appreciates water for routine bathing and likes a variety of fruit and vegetables. It is easy to breed if provided with a nest box, and will lay up to three clutches per year.

Maroon-tailed Parakeet Pyrrhura melanura
The Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Pyrrhura melanura) is a species of parrot in the Psittacidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

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Canary-winged Parakeet Brotogeris versicolurus
The Canary-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus) is also known as the White-winged Parakeet. The bird is native to the Amazon River basin from southeast Colombia to the River’s mouth in Brazil. Caged birds have been released in some areas and the birds have established self sustaining populations in Lima, Peru, the Los Angeles, San Francisco, California and Miami, Florida areas of the United States, and in Puerto Rico. Although feral birds are showing some recent declines as nesters in the United States, they seem to be doing well in their native habitat. The bird is 22 cm in length, and is mostly green in color. It has a trailing yellow edge on its folded wings. It’s most distinguished characteristic is the white wing patches most noticed when the bird is in flight. It is closely related to the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet. In fact, it was considered conspecific until 1997. The bird feeds mostly on seeds and fruit in it’s native habitat, and feral populations have adapted to take in blossoms and nectar. Feral birds will also come to bird feeders. Wild birds primarily use disturbed forest and forest clearings around settlements. It rarely uses deep tropical forest. Canary-winged Parakeets usually find holes in trees to nest in. They will also form nesting tunnels in dead palm fronds. It lays 45 eggs. After raising its young, all birds will form rather large communal roosts until the next breeding season.

Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanopter
The Cobalt-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris cyanoptera) is a species of bird in the Psittacidae family, the true parrots. It is found in the eastern Andean foothills, the far western Amazonian regions in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia; in Brazil, the Amazon Basin states of Amazonas, Acre, and Rondonia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest. The range of the Cobalt-winged Parakeet is in the extreme western Amazon Basin in Brazil's states's of Amazonas, Acre, and Rondônia, part of the North Region; also from north to south, southernmost Venezuela, eastern Colombia-EcuadorPeru, and northern and central Bolivia, and in Bolivia within the tributary rivers to the Madeira River flowing northeast to the Amazon River. One small disjunct, localized population occurs in Bolivia's northeast border region near the Guapore River headwaters.

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Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus
The Blue-headed Parrot also known as The Blue-headed Pionus, Pionus menstruus, is a medium large parrot. It is a resident breeding bird in tropical Central and South America, from Costa Rica and Trinidad south to Bolivia and Brazil. Its habitat is forest and semi-open country, including cultivated areas. The Blue-headed Parrot lays three to four white eggs in a tree cavity. The Blue-headed Parrot is about 27 cm long and weighs 245 g. It is mainly green with a blue head, neck and upper breast, red undertail, and some yellow on the wing coverts. Sexes are alike, but immatures have less blue on the head, as well as red or pinkish feathers around the ceres. They molt into their adult plumage at about 8 months of age, but it can take up to two years for the full blue hood to emerge. Blue-headed Parrots are noisy birds and make light, high-pitched squeaking sweenkcalls. They eat fruit and seeds, and sometimes grain. They roost communally in palm and other trees, and large numbers can be seen at the roost sites at dawn and dusk. Blue Headed Pionus Parrots are increasingly popular as pets. Compared to other parrot species (Amazons for example) they are very quiet. They are affectionate, but not known for their talking ability. Some suggest that the Blue-headed Parrot was the inspiration for Monty Python's "Dead Parrot Sketch."

Cuckoos, Anis and Hoatzins Cuculidae
The cuckoos are a family, Cuculidae, of near passerine birds. The order Cuculiformes, in addition to the cuckoos, also includes the turacos (family Musophagidae, sometimes treated as a separate order, Musophagiformes). Some zoologists have also included the unique Hoatzin in the Cuculiformes, though it is now usually placed in an order of its own, Opisthocomiformes. The taxonomy of this enigmatic species, however, remains in some dispute. The cuckoo family, in addition to those species named as such, also includes the roadrunners, the coucals, and the anis. The latter two are often separated as distinct families Centropodidae and Crotophagidae, respectively.

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Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana
The Squirrel Cuckoo, Piaya cayana, is a near-passerine bird. This cuckoo is a resident breeding bird from northwestern Mexico to northern Argentina and Uruguay, and on Trinidad. The Squirrel Cuckoo is found in woodland canopy and edges, second growth, hedges and semi-open habitats from sea level to as high as 2500 m altitude, although it is uncommon above 1200 m. The nest is a cup of leaves on a twig foundation, hidden in dense vegetation 1-12 m high in a tree. The female lays two white eggs. This large species is 43-46 cm long and weighs 95-105 g.

The adult has mainly chestnut upperparts and head, becoming paler on the throat. The lower breast is grey and the belly is blackish. The tail is boldly banded in black and white. The bill and bare eyering are yellow and the iris is red. Immature birds have a grey bill and eyering, brown iris, and less white in the tail. There are a number of subspecies with minor plumage variations. For example, P. c. mehleri, a South American form, has a brown-and-white banded tail. This species’ English name derives from its habit of running along branches and leaping from branch to branch like a squirrel. It normally flies only short distances, mainly gliding with an occasional flap. The Squirrel Cuckoo makes explosive kip! and kip! weeuu calls, and the song is a whistled wheep wheep wheep wheep. It feeds on large insects such as cicadas, wasps and caterpillars (including those with stinging hairs or spines), and occasionally spiders and small lizards. Its static prey is typically taken off the foliage with a quick lunge, but wasps may be picked out of the air.

Black-bellied Cuckoo Piaya melanogaster
The Black-bellied Cuckoo (Piaya melanogaster) is a species of cuckoo in the Cuculidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Greater Ani Crotophaga major
The Greater Ani, Crotophaga major, is a large nearpasserine bird in the cuckoo family. It is a breeding species from Panama and Trinidad through tropical South America to northern Argentina. This ani is found in mangrove swamps, semi-open woodland near water, and the edges of forests. It is a seasonal smigrant in at least some parts of its range. The nest, built communally by several pairs, is a deep cup lined with leaves and placed usually 2-5 m high in a tree. A number of females lay their chalky deep blue eggs in the nest and then share incubation and feeding. Nests have been found containing 3-10 eggs. The Greater Ani is about 48 cm long and weighs 170g. The adult is mainly blue-glossed black, with a long tail, massive ridged black bill, and a white iris. Immature birds have a

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dark iris. This is a very gregarious species, always found in noisy groups. The calls include croaking and turkey-like gobbling krokoro. The Greater Ani feeds on large insect and even lizards and frogs.

Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani
The Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani, is a large near-passerine bird in the cuckoo family. It is a resident breeding species from southern Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, south to western Ecuador, Brazil and northern Argentina. This ani is found in open and semi-open country and cultivation. The nest, built communally by several pairs, is a deep cup lined with leaves and placed usually 2-6 m high in a tree. A number of females lay their chalky blue eggs in the nest and then share incubation and feeding. Each female is capable of laying up to seven eggs, and nests have been found containing up to 29 eggs, but it is rare for more than ten to hatch. Incubation is 13-15 days, with another 10 days to fledging. Up to three broods may be raised in a season, with the young of earlier broods helping to feed more recent chicks. The Smooth-billed Ani is about 33 cm long and weighs 95 g. The adult is mainly flat black, with a long tail, deep ridged black bill and a brown iris.The flight is weak and wobbly, but this bird runs well, and usually feeds on the ground. This is a very gregarious species, always found in noisy groups. The calls include a whining ooo-leeek. The Greater Ani feeds on termites, large insects and even lizards and frogs; they will occasionally remove ticks and other parasites from grazing animals. This common and conspicuous species has greatly benefited from deforestation. This species called "El pijul" in the Venzuelan folklore. It is mentioned in the popular Venezuelan song "Son Jarocho".

Typical Owls Strigidae
Typical owls (family Strigidae) are one of the two generally accepted families of owls, the other being the barn owls (Tytonidae). The SibleyAhlquist taxonomy unites the Caprimulgiformes with the owl order; here, the typical owls are a subfamily Striginae. This is unsupported by more recent research but the relationships of the owls in general are still unresolved. The nearly 200 species are assigned to a number of genera.

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Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum
The Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) is a small owl that breeds in south-central Arizona in the USA, south through to Mexico, Central America and South America to Bolivia and Argentina. Trinidad, as well as other localities, have endemic subspecies of the owl. The Trinidad version is more rufous above than the continental forms. Recent genetics work has found substantial differences in Ferruginous Pygmy Owls from different regions. This species is a part of the larger grouping of owls known as typical owls, Strigidae, the family that contains most species of owl. The other grouping is the barn owls, Tytonidae. In the southern portion of its range, the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl is a somewhat common bird in open woodland. It is a cavity nesting bird (tree and columnar cactus cavities), laying 3-5 white eggs. Incubation is 28 days, with 27-30 days to fledging. The Ferruginous Pygmy Owl disproportionately large talons. is small (15cm) and stocky with

The upperparts are brown, heavily spotted and/or streaked with white on the crown and wing coverts. The underparts are white, streaked with brown. There are prominent white supercilia above the facial disc. There are two eyespots on the nape. The tail is barred brown and black. Sexes are similar with females slightly larger and more reddish, especially on the brown in the tail. The flight is low to the ground and rapid with long swoops. This species is crepuscular (active at dawn and dusk), and often hunts by day. It can be readily located by the small birds that mob it while it is perched in a tree (up to 40 birds of 11 species have been recorded mobbing one owl). It hunts a variety of birds, lizards, mammals, and insects. The call is a whistled hoo-hoo-hoo-hoo, usually in E flat. It is easily imitated, and is used by birdwatchers to attract small birds intent on mobbing and other pygmy owls. This species was an endangered species in its range in the south-central portion of Arizona in the USA, where its range extended over the border from Sonora, Mexico. It was delisted in 2006.

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Nighthawks and Nightjars Caprimulgidae
Nighthawks are birds of the nightjar family in the New World subfamily Chordeilinae. They are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground and catch flying insects. The Least Nighthawk, at 16 cm (6.3 inches) and 23 grams, is the smallest of all Caprimulgiformes. Nightjars are sometimes referred to as goatsuckers from the mistaken belief that they suck milk from goats (the Latin for goatsucker is Caprimulgus). Nighthawks have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is crypically coloured to resemble bark or leaves. Some species, unusual for birds, perch along a branch, rather than across it. This helps to conceal them during the day. They lay two patterned eggs directly onto bare ground. They are mostly active in the late evening and early morning or at night, and feed predominantly on moths and other large flying insects. Nighthawks are similar in most respects to the nightjars of the Old World, but have shorter bills and less soft plumage. Nighthawks are less strictly nocturnal than many Old World nightjars, and may be seen hunting when there is still light in the sky.

Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis
The Lesser Nighthawk, Chordeiles acutipennis, is a nightjar. The adults are dark with brown, grey and white patterning on the upperparts and breast; the long upperwings are black and show a white bar in flight. The tail is dark with white barring; the underparts are buffy with fine black horizontal streaking. The adult male has a white throat; the female has a light brown throat. This bird looks similar to the Common Nighthawk, but is slightly smaller, has a slightly less deeply forked tail, and is more buffy in coloration. The calls are also completely different. The Lesser Nighthawk has a rapid, low whistled melodious trill, lasting several seconds. It is usually heard only near breeding areas. Their breeding habitat is open country from southwest United States through Central America to tropical South America. They usually nest on bare ground, sometimes in raised locations including stumps and boulders or flat house roofs The two eggs are laid directly on bare ground--there is no nest. Incubation is performed largely by the female and lasts for about 20 days. Young fledge at about 20 days of age. Adults flushed from the nest may try to distract the intruder or defend the nest site by aerial attack. Young birds sometimes perform a defense display by opening up their mouths and spreading their wings, looking to appear threatening and looking larger than they actually are before they run off. These birds are partial migrants. The Lesser Nighthawk retreats from the United States and northern Mexico during the winter months. Occasionally single birds may be found overwintering. The nighthawk is also occasionally found as a vagrant to the US Gulf Coast states to Florida. They catch flying insects on the wing, mainly foraging near dawn and dusk (crepuscular), sometimes at night with a full

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moon or near street lighting.

Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis
The Pauraque, Nyctidromus albicollis, is a nightjar. It breeds in the warmer parts of the New World from southern Texas to northern Argentina. It is the only bird in the genus Nyctidromus. It is found in woodland habitats, preferably forest, but also scrub and cultivation. No nest is made; the two elongated and elliptical pinkish eggs are placed upon the bare ground or leaf litter. Most populations are resident, although the U.S. breeders (N. a. merrilli) may winter in eastern Mexico. This medium-sized (22–28cm long) nightjar has two colour morphs, the plumage being variegated greyish-brown or rufous brown. It is long-tailed and has broad rounded wings. The buff eyering and facial stripe contrast with the reddish sides of the face. The adult male Pauraque has a white band near the wing tips, and the outer tail feathers are mainly white. The female's wing band is narrower and the white in the outer tail is more restricted. There are seven races of Pauraque, differing in size and greyness. The Pauraque is nocturnal, like other nightjars, and starts to fly at dusk. Like its relatives, it feeds on insects caught in flight, usually by flycatching from a low perch, but also by foraging over open ground. This species has long legs with bare tarsi, and is more terrestrial than most nightjars. If disturbed, it will sometimes run rather than fly, and frequently rests on roads and tracks. The male Pauraque's song is very variable, but includes a whistled weeeow wheeooo, soft puk puk and a whip given in the courtship flight as he flutters around the female. Her call is a rapid succession of whip sounds.

Swifts Apodidae
The swifts are birds superficially similar to swallows but are actually not closely related to those passerine species at all; swifts are in the separate order Apodiformes, which they formerly shared with the hummingbirds. The treeswifts are closely related to the true swifts, but form a separate family, the Hemiprocnidae. The resemblances between the swifts and swallows are due to convergent evolution reflecting similar life styles based on catching insects in flight. The family scientific name comes from the Ancient Greek απους, apous, meaning "without feet", since swifts have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead on vertical surfaces. The tradition of depicting swifts without feet continued into the Middle Ages, as seen in the heraldic martlet. Swifts are the most aerial of birds and some, like the Common Swift, even sleep and mate on the wing. Larger species, such as White-throated Needletail, are amongst the fastest flyers in the animal kingdom. One group, the Swiftlets or Cave Swiftlets have developed a form of echolocation for navigating through dark cave systems where they roost. One species, Aerodramus papuensis has recently been discovered to use this navigation at

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night outside its cave roost also. Like swallows and martins, the swifts of temperate regions are strongly migratory and winter in the tropics. Many swifts have a characteristic shape, with a short forked tail and very long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. The flight of some species is characterised by a distinctive "flicking" action quite different from swallows. Swifts range in size from the Pygmy Swiftlet (Collocalia troglodytes), which weighs 5.4 g and measures 9 cm (3.7 inches) long, to the Purple Needletail (Hirundapus celebensis), which weighs 184 g (6.5 oz) and measures 25 cm (10 inches) long. The nest of many species is glued to a vertical surface with saliva, and the genus Aerodramus use only that substance, which is the basis for bird's nest soup.

Grey-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris
The Gray-rumped Swift, Chaetura cinereiventris is a small swift. This species breeds in hill forests from Nicaragua south to Peru, Brazil and northern Argentina, and Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago. The nest is a half saucer of twigs glued to the inside of a tree hole, chimney or similar shaded location with saliva. Gray-rumped Swift is 11.5 cm long and weighs 15 g. The upperparts are black with a grey triangular band across the rump, and the underparts are slate grey. It has a long black-grey tail. Gray-rumped Swift feeds in flight on flying insects. It is often low over roads or clearings in the morning or evening, rising high above the forest, often with other swifts, in the middle of the day. Gray-rumped Swift has a chittering call.

Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyura
The Short-tailed Swift, Chaetura brachyura, is a common resident breeding bird on Trinidad, Tobago, Grenada and St Vincent, and in tropical South America from Panama, Colombia and the Guianas south to Ecuador, Peru and Brazil. This small swift is found in a range of habitats including savanna, open woodland, and cultivation. The nest is a 5 cm wide shallow halfsaucer of twigs and saliva attached to a vertical surface. This is often a man-made structure like a chimney or manhole, as with its relative, the Chimney Swift C. pelagica, but natural caves and tree cavities are also used. Up to seven white eggs (average 3.7) are incubated by both parents for 17-18 days. The young leave the nest in a further two weeks, but remain near it, clinging to the cavity wall without flying, for another two weeks. The Short-tailed Swift is about 10.5 cm long, and weighs 20 g. It has long narrow wings, a robust body and a short tail. The sexes are similar. It is mainly black with a pale rump and tail. It can be distinguished from related species in its range, such as the Band-rumped Swift, C. spinicauda or the Gray-rumped Swift, C. cinereiventris by the lack of contrast between the rump and the tail, the latter being much darker in the other species. The flight call is a rapid chittering stisti-stew-stew-stew. The Short-tailed Swift feeds in flight on flying insects, including winged ants and termites. It is very gregarious and forms communal roosts when not breeding. Predation by bats at the nest sites has been suspected.

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Fork-tailed Palm-Swift Tachornis squamata
The Fork-tailed Palm Swift, Tachornis squamata, is a resident breeding bird from Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and Trinidad south to northeastern Peru and Brazil. This small swift is found locally in marshy habitats, or sometimes open forest, usually near Moriche Palms. It builds a C-shaped nest of feathers, saliva and plant material on the inside of the dead leaf of a Moriche Palm. Three white eggs are laid in the depression of the C, and incubated for 21 days to hatching. Fork-tailed Palm Swift is a slender, narrow-winged species, 13.2 cm long, with a long forked tail, and weighs 11 g. The call is a buzzed djjjjjj, like an insect. The nominate western form T. s. squamata has black-brown upperparts with a slight greenish gloss. The underparts are a paler brown with a white throat and central underbody. The eastern race T. s. semota of Trinidad, the Guianas and central and eastern Brazil is much darker, almost steel-black above and darker brown below. Juveniles are very similar, but have buff fringes to the upperparts and head in fresh plumage. Despite its shape and association with palms, it is in a different genus to the Asian and African Palm Swifts. Fork-tailed Palm Swift feeds in low flight on flying insects. It normally stays at less than 10 m above the ground. It normally occurs in small groups of up to 30 birds.

Hummingbirds Trochilidae
Hummingbirds are small birds in the family Trochilidae, native only to the Americas. They are known for their ability to hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings, 15 to 80 times per second (depending on the species).The Giant Hummingbird’s wings beat 8-10 beats per second, the wings of medium sized hummingbirds beat about 20-25 beats per second and the smallest beat 70 beats per second. Capable of sustained hovering, the hummingbird has the ability to fly deliberately backwards- they are the only group of birds able to do this or vertically, and to maintain position while drinking from flower blossoms. They are named for the characteristic hum made by their wings. Hummingbirds are attracted to many flowering plants—shrimp plants, Heliconia, bromeliads, cannas, verbenas, fuchsias, many penstemons—especially those with red flowers. They feed on the nectar of these plants and are important pollinators, especially of deep-throated flowers. Most species of hummingbird also take insects, especially when feeding young. The Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) is the smallest bird in the world,weighing 1.8 grams (0.06 ounces) and measuring about 5 cm (2 inches). A more typical hummingbird, such as the Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), weighs approximately 3 g (0.106 ounces) and has a length of 10-12 cm (3.5-4 inches). The largest hummingbird is the Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas), with some individuals weighing as much as 24 grams (0.85 ounces) and measuring 21.5 cm (8.5 inches). Most male hummingbirds take no part in nesting. Most species make a neatly woven cup in a tree branch. Two white eggs are laid, which despite being the smallest of all bird eggs, are in fact large relative to the hummingbird's adult size. Incubation is typically 14-19 days.

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Pale-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes leucurus
The Pale-Tailed Barbthroat (Threnetes leucurus) is a species of hummingbird in the Trochilidae family. It is found in the Amazon Basin proper and bordering countries, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps. The taxonomy of the Threnetes leucurus/T. niger complex has caused much confusion in recent years: Schuchmann & Hinkelmann (1999) considered the Sooty Barbthroat a melanistic variant of T. leucurus, but as it was described first, its scientific name was adopted for the entire species; Pale-tailed Barbthroat (T. niger). This, however, has not been accepted by all authorities, notably SACC, which consider both T. niger and T. leucurus as valid species.

Black-throated Hermit Phaethornis atrimentalis
The Hermits are tropical hummingbirds in the subfamily Phaethornithinae, comprising about 34 species in six genera. Their plumage typically involves greens, browns, rufous or grey. They lack the iridescent plumage of many other hummingbird species, and the male and female plumages of hermits are often very similar, only a few species showing the strong sexual dimorphism usually associated with hummingbirds. Hermits in the main genus, Phaethornis, have a long decurved bill with a red or yellow base to the lower mandible, and their two central tail feathers are elongated and tipped with white. The crown of the head is flat, and two pale facial stripes enclose a dusky mask. Hermits usually form leks and congregate on traditional display grounds, where females visit to choose a mate. However, male hermits are less aggressively territorial than other male hummingbirds. Hermits are closely associated with heliconias. The flowers are an important food source accessible to the long decurved bill typical of this group of forest hummingbirds. Many species, including the Rufous-breasted Hermit, also use the plant for nesting, attaching their conical nest to the underside of one of the plant’s broad leaves.

White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora
The White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora) is a large and attractive hummingbird that ranges from Mexico south to Peru, Bolivia and south Brazil. It is also found on Tobago and in Trinidad, but breeding has not been proved on the latter island. Other common names are Great Jacobin and Collared Hummingbird. The White-necked Jacobin is a widespread inhabitant of forest, mostly at higher elevations, being seen usually at a high perch or just above the canopy. It is less common at lower elevations. The 12 cm long male White-necked Jacobin is unmistakable with its white belly and tail, a white band on the nape and a dark blue hood. Females and the similar immature males are bronze-green above and are less obvious.

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Their speckled green underparts and white tail tips are shared with the female Green-crowned Brilliant, but that species has a white moustachial stripe and a straighter bill. Some young Andean Emerald have speckling extending across their breast, but it is never as heavy as in the White-necked Jacobin. The black and white scaling on the vent of the Jacobin is a good field mark. These birds usually visit flowers of tall trees and epiphytes for nectar, and also hawk for insects.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata
The Fork-Tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata) is a species of hummingbird in the Trochilidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montanes, and heavily degraded former forest.

Sapphire-spangled Emerald Polyerata lacteal
The Sapphire-spangled Emerald, Amazilia lactea, is a species of hummingbird that occurs in Brazil from the Amazon south to Santa Catarina, Venezuela, Peru and Bolivia. Both male and female have a bright "sapphire" blue chest and chin and green-blue abdomen with a well-delineated white stripe. The bill is straight with a black upper mandible and orange or pink lower mandible. The Emerald is found in forest edges, mountainous regions and gardens in urban areas. The species has an estimated range of 1,500,000 km², and while its population size is uncertain, it is believed to be large since it has been described as "frequent" in at least some parts of its range. It is not considered to be in decline and has been therefore evaluated as Least concern.

Trogons and Quetzals Trogonidae
The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. Alternatively, they might constitute a member of the basal radiation of the order Coraciiformes (Johansson & Ericson, 2003). The word "trogon" is Greek for "nibbling" and refers to the fact that these birds gnaw holes in trees to make their nests. Trogons are residents of tropical forests worldwide, with the greatest diversity in Central and in South America. The genus Apaloderma contains the few African species, and Harpactes the Asian. The rest are neotropical. They feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons do not migrate. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. They nest in holes in trees or termite nests, laying white or pastel coloured eggs.

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Trogons in the genera Pharomachrus and Euptilotis are called "quetzals". Quetzals are beautifully colored birds of the trogon family (Trogonidae) found in tropical regions of the Americas. The word "quetzal" was originally used for just the Resplendent Quetzal, Pharomachrus mocinno, the famous long-tailed quetzal of Central America, which is the national symbol of Guatemala. It still often refers to that bird specifically but now also names all the species of the genera Pharomachrus and Euptilotis.

Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis
The White-tailed Trogon, Trogon viridis, is a near passerine bird in the trogon family. It occurs from Panama south to southern Brazil, and on Trinidad. It is a resident of moist tropical forests, where it nests in a termite nest or a hole in a rotten tree, with a typical clutch of two or three white eggs. These are incubated for 16-17 days, with a further two weeks to fledging. White-tailed Trogons feed on insects and small fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. They typically perch upright and motionless. Trogons have distinctive male and female plumage, with soft, often colourful, feathers. This relatively large species is about 29 cm long and weighs 82 g. The head and upper breast of the male are blue and the back is green, becoming bluer on the rump. The lower underparts are golden yellow. The undertail has a black centre, broadly edged with white, and the wings are black, vermiculated with white. The female White-tailed Trogon has a brown-grey back, head and breast. This species superficially resembles the Violaceous Trogon, but the latter is smaller and has a barred tail. White-tailed Trogon has a slow cow cow, cow call and a faster caaop, caaop, caaop, ca, ca, ca. The fast call resembles that of Amazonian Violaceous Trogon, and is not given in the wetter forests where both forms occur.

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Collared Trogon Trogon collaris
The Collared Trogon, Trogon collaris, is a near passerine bird in the trogon family, Trogonidae. The nominate race breeds in Mexico, Central America and South America south to Peru and the Amazon basin, and T. c. exoptatus occurs in eastern Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. It is a resident of tropical forests, where it nests in a hole in a termite nest or tree, with a typical clutch of two white eggs. Collared Trogons feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. They typically perch upright and motionless. Trogons have distinctive male and female plumages, with soft, often colourful, feathers. This species is about 28cm long. The back, head and breast of the male are green, and a white line separates the breast from the pink underparts. The tail is white with black barring, and the wings are black, vermiculated with white. The female is has a brown back, head and breast, and the underparts are pink rather than the male's scarlet. The call is a plaintive caow, caow, caow.

Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Trogon violaceus
The Violaceous Trogon, Trogon violaceus, is a near passerine bird in the trogon family, Trogonidae. The nominate race occurs in southeastern Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, the Amazon basin, the Guianas and Trinidad. The form T. v. caligatus breeds in Mexico, Central America and south to Peru. The latter form is often split as a separate species, the Northern Violaceous Trogon, Trogon caligatus (Ridgway, 1911), leaving the nominate form as the Amazonian Violaceous Trogon. It is a resident of moist tropical forests, where it nests in a wasp, ant or termite nest or a hole in a rotten tree, with a typical clutch of two or three white eggs. Violaceous Trogons feed on insects and small fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. They typically perch upright and motionless. Trogons have distinctive male and female plumages, with soft, often colourful, feathers. This relatively small species is about 23cm long and weighs 56 g. The head and upper breast of the male are blue and the back is green, becoming bluer on the rump. A white line separates the breast from the golden yellow underparts. The undertail is white with black barring, and the wings are black, vermiculated with white. The female Violaceous Trogon has a dark grey back, head and breast. This species superficially resembles the White-tailed Trogon, but the latter is larger and has a whiter tail. The shade of the blue of the head differs between the two forms, but the call is the main distinction between the Northern and Amazonian Violaceous Trogons. The former has a slurred whistled cuh-cuh-cuh, and Amazonian has a soft cow cow, cow.

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Kingfishers Alecedinidae
Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers). There are about 90 species of kingfisher. All have large heads, long, sharp, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. They are found throughout the world. The taxonomy of the three families is complex and rather controversial. Although commonly assigned to the order Coraciiformes, from this level down confusion sets in. The kingfishers were traditionally treated as one family, Alcedinidae with three subfamilies, but following the 1990s revolution in bird taxonomy, the three former subfamilies are now usually elevated to familial level. That move was supported by chromosome and DNA-DNA hybridisation studies, but challenged on the grounds that all three groups are monophyletic with respect to the other Coraciiformes. This leads to them being grouped as the suborder Alcedines. The tree kingfishers have been previously given the familial name Dacelonidae but Halcyonidae has priority. This group derives from a very ancient divergence from the ancestral stock. Kingfishers live in both woodland and wetland habitats. Kingfishers that live near water hunt small fish by diving. They also eat crayfish, frogs, and insects. Wood kingfishers eat reptiles. Kingfishers of all three families beat their prey to death, either by whipping it against a tree or by dropping it on a stone. They are able to see well both in air and under water. To do this, their eyes have evolved an egg-shaped lens able to focus in the two different environments. The Old World tropics and Australasia are the core area for this group. Europe and North America north of Mexico are very poorly represented with only one common kingfisher (Common Kingfisher and Belted Kingfishers respectively), and a couple of uncommon or very local species each: (Ringed Kingfisher and Green Kingfisher in south Texas, Pied Kingfisher and White-breasted Kingfisher in SE Europe). Even tropical South America has only five species plus wintering Belted Kingfisher. In comparison, the tiny African country of The Gambia has eight resident species in its 120 by 20 mile area. The six species occurring in the Americas are four closely related green kingfishers in the genus Chloroceryle and two large crested kingfishers in the genus Megaceryle, suggesting that the sparse representation in the western hemisphere evolved from just one or two original colonising species. The smallest species of kingfisher is the African Dwarf Kingfisher (Ispidina lecontei), which averages at 10.4 g and 10 cm (4 inches). The largest overall is the Giant Kingfisher (Megaceryle maxima), at an average of 355 g (13.5 oz) and 45 cm (18 inches). However, the familiar Australian kingfisher known as the Laughing Kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae) may be the heaviest species, since large individuals exceeding 450 g (1 lb) are not rare.

Ringed Kingfisher Ceryle torquata
The Ringed Kingfisher (Megaceryle torquata) is a large, conspicuous and noisy kingfisher, commonly found along the lower Rio Grande River valley in southeasternmost Texas in the United States through Central America to Tierra del Fuego in South America. The breeding habitat is areas near large bodies of water, usually in heavily wooded areas where it finds a perch to hunt from. It is mostly a sedentary species, remaining in territories all year long.

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It is 40-41 cm long, with deep blue or bluish-gray plumage with white markings, a shaggy crest and a broad white collar around the neck. Its most distinguishing characteristic is the entire rufous belly, which also covers the entire breast of the male. Females are more colorful than the male, having a bluish-gray breast, and a narrow white stripe separating the breast from the belly. These birds nest in a horizontal tunnel made in a river bank or sand bank. The female lays 3 to 6 eggs. Both parents excavate the tunnel, incubate the eggs and feed the young. It is often seen perched prominently on trees, posts, or other suitable watchpoints close to water before plunging in head first after its fish prey. They also eat small crustaceans, frogs, aquatic insects, small mammals, lizards and berries. Their voice is a loud, penetrating rattle given on the wing and when perched. The Megaceryle kingfishers were formerly placed in Ceryle with the Pied Kingfisher, but the latter is genetically closer to the American green kingfishers.

American Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea
The American Pygmy Kingfisher, Chloroceryle aenea, is a resident breeding bird which occurs in the American tropics from southern Mexico south through Central America to western Ecuador, central Bolivia and central Brazil. It also occurs on Trinidad. This tiny kingfisher occurs in dense forests and mangroves along small streams or rivers with heavily vegetated banks. The unlined nest is in a horizontal tunnel up to 40 cm long made in a river bank, earth heap, or occasionally an arboreal termite nest. The female lays three, sometimes four, white eggs. The American Pygmy Kingfisher is 13 cm long and weighs 18g. It has the typical kingfisher shape, with a short tail and long bill. It is oily green above, with a yellow-orange collar around the neck, rufous underparts and a white belly. The female has a narrow green breast band. Young birds resemble the adults, but have paler rufous underparts, no breast band, and speckled wings and flanks. It gives a weak tik or stony cht cht call. There are two recognised subspecies of American Pygmy Kingfisher. The nominate southern C. a. aenea has two lines of white spots on the wings, and northern C. a. stictoptera has three or four lines of spots and a concealed white patch of feathers on the undertail. The two forms intergrade in central Costa Rica. American Pygmy Kingfishers perch quietly on a low branch close to water before plunging in head first after small fish or tadpoles. They will also hawk for insects. They are quite tame, but easily overlooked as they sit silently amongst riverside branches.

Motmots Momotidae
The motmots or Momotidae are a family of tropical birds in the near passerine order Coraciiformes, which also includes the kingfishers, bee-eaters and rollers. These are medium-sized species of dense forests. They are restricted to the tropical New World (though a fossil has been found in Switzerland; see below). These birds have colorful plumage and long, graduated tails, which they move back and forth in a wag-display. In all but the first two species listed below, the barbs near the ends of the two longest (central) tail feathers are weak and fall off, leaving a length of bare shaft, thus creating the racket shape of the tail. It was however wrongly believed in the past that the Motmot shaped its tail by plucking part of the feather web to leave the racket. This was based on inaccurate reports made by Charles William Beebe. Motmots eat small prey such as insects and lizards, and will also take fruit. Like most of the Coraciiformes, motmots nest in tunnels in banks, laying about four white eggs. The Turquoise-browed Motmot is a national bird in Nicaragua (known as the guardabarranco, "ravine-guard") and in El Salvador (known there as Torogoz).

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Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota
The Blue-crowned Motmot, Momotus momota, is a near-passerine bird which is a resident breeder in the rain forests of Mexico, Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. This motmot is a large tropical bird related to other colourful families such as the kingfishers, bee-eaters and rollers. Like most of the Coraciiformes, motmots nest in tunnels in banks, laying about three or four white eggs. The Blue-crowned Motmot is 41-46cm long, depending on race. Nominate M. m. momota weighs 145g. The tail is very long with a bare-shafted racket tip. The upperparts are green, shading to blue on the lower tail, and the underparts are green or rufous depending on subspecies. The head has a black crown, which is surrounded by a blue and purple band. There is a black eyemask, and the nape of momota is chestnut. The call is a low owl-like ooo-doot. These birds often sit still, and in their dense forest habitat can be difficult to see, despite their size. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards, and will also regularly take fruit. The upland subspecies was formerly split as the Highland Motmot, Momotus aequatorialis (Gould, 1858) a species recognised, for example, by Sibley and Monroe, but this treatment is no longer adopted, following SACC (2005)

Puffbirds and Nunbirds Bucconidae
The puffbirds and their relatives in the near passerine bird family Bucconidae are tropical near passerine birds breeding from South America up to Mexico. They are related to the jacamars, but lack the iridescent colours of that family. They are mainly brown, rufous or grey, with large heads and flattened bills with a hooked tip. The loose abundant plumage and short tails makes them look stout and puffy, giving rise to the English name of the family. They feed on insects and small vertebrates caught by a watch and wait technique. Like most of their relatives, this group are hole nesters, laying 2-3 glossy white eggs in a hole in the ground or a termite mound.

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Brown-banded Puffbird Notharchus ordii
It is found in Amazon Basin areas of Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru; also the Orinoco River region of Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. The Brown-banded Puffbird can be found in north-central Amazonas state Brazil, a northwestern region of the Amazon Basin. A much smaller region of the bird's range is 1500 km south in the southeast border area of Peru with western Bolivia, and the border of extreme southeast Acre state, Brazil. The northern Amazonas range is connected to south-central Venezuela, the upper reaches of the Caribbean north-flowing Orinoco River; this 400 km wide range is split evenly between Venezuela and Amazonas, about 1700 km long. Other localized, small populations occur notably on four tributary rivers: the central Tapajós River, lower Madeira River, lower Rio Negro, and lower Ucayali River; also on the Amazon River, one region downstream of the Tapajós-Amazon River confluence.

Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons
The Black-fronted Nunbird (Monasa nigrifrons) is a species of puffbird in the Bucconidae family. It is found in Amazonian Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; also regions of eastern and southeastern Brazil. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest. The Black-fronted Nunbird is a striking bird, black body with bright red-orange bill. It is found in small gregarious groups in lower to mid-level forests. The Black-fronted Nunbird is mostly found in the Amazon Basin south of the Amazon River; however it does occur in two river regions noth, the first in the east between the confluence with the Xingu River westwards to the Tapajós River. The second region is at the confluence of the Rio Negro and upstream on the Amazon. The species range expands eastward and southward beyond the Tocantins, of the Araguaia-Tocantins River system towards the region of the Cerrado of east-central Brazil. The southwest and western regions of Black-fronted Nunbird's range occurs in Amazonian Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and southern Colombia, with the Amazonian Colombian region being the southwest portion of the entire northwestern Amazon region. The species' range is mostly contiguous; there are two localized populations in eastern coastal Brazil, the northern population in Alagoas state, and the southern locale in Rio de Janeiro state.

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White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus
The White-fronted Nunbird (Monasa morphoeus) is a species of puffbird in the Bucconidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

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Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa
The Swallow-wing (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) is a species of puffbird in the Bucconidae family. It is also called the Swallow-winged Puffbird. It is monotypic within the genus Chelidoptera. It is found in Brazil and the entire Amazon Basin; also Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, the Guianas, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest. The Swallow-winged Puffbird's range is throughout the Amazon Basin to the foothills of the Andes in the west, in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. To the east-southeast, the range encompasses the Amazon's adjacent Tocantins-Araguaia River drainage as well as about 900 km eastward. Southeastwards from the Amazon Basin across the Caatinga, a disjunct population occurs on the southeast coast of Brazil, in a 300-800 km wide strip that extends about 3000 km. On the north Caribbean coast of South America, in the west nearly all of Venezuela is in the bird's range. The coastal range is continuous eastwards through the Atlantic coastal Guianas, and ends east of the Tocantins-Araguaia drainage in the Brazilian states of Maranhão and Piauí.

Barbets Capitonidae
American barbets, family Capitonidae, are near passerine birds of the order Piciformes which inhabit South America. They are closely related to the toucans. The American barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured and live in tropical forest. American barbets are mostly arboreal birds which nest in tree holes dug by breeding pairs, laying 2-4 eggs. They eat fruit and insects. These birds do not migrate. While most South American barbet species inhabit lowland forest, some range into montane and temperate forests as well.

Most are restricted to habitats containing trees with dead wood, which are used for nesting. The diet of barbets is mixed, with fruit being the dominant part of the diet. Small prey items are also taken, especially when nesting. Barbets are capable of shifting their diet quickly in the face of changes in food availability: Numerous species of fruiting tree and bush are visited; an individual barbet may feed on as many as 60 different species in its range. They will also visit plantations and take cultivated fruit and vegetables. Fruit is eaten whole and indigestible material such as seed pits regurgitated later (often before singing). Regurgitation does not usually happen in the nest
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(as happens with toucans). Like their relatives, American barbets are thought to be important agents in seed dispersal in tropical forests. As well as taking fruit, they also take arthropod prey, gleaned from the branches and trunks of trees. A wide range of insects are taken, including ants, beetles and moths. Scorpions and centipedes are also taken, and a few species will take small vertebrates such as frogs. American barbets have little impact on humans. The loss of forest can have a deleterious effect on barbet species dependent on old growth, to the benefit of species that favour more disturbed or open habitat. Two species of American barbet are listed as threatened by the IUCN: The White-mantled Barbet of Colombia is listed as endangered; its limited range is threatened by deforestation for agriculture (including coca nad marijuana), livestock rearing and mining. The quite recently discovered Scarlet-banded Barbet of Peru is considered vulnerable due to its small population size (estimated at under a thousand birds) although its habitat is not immediately threatened.

Gilded Barbet Capito auratus
The Gilded Barbet (Capito auratus) is a species of bird in the Capitonidae family, the barbets, and are close relatives of the toucans. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, in the Orinoco River Basin and western Amazon Basin. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest. The Gilded Barbet is a black-winged bird, with a streaked black and bright-yellow body. It has a bright-yellow cap, and a short, stout bill. The bird also has an orangish throat below a deep black eye mask extending from the bill to the back, and a yellow upper breast, with the side of the breast black and yellow streaked. The Gilded Barbet ranges in the eastern Andes drainages to the rivers of the western Amazon Basin from eastern Colombia-Venezuela, eastern Ecuador, from north to southeastern Peru, and northern Bolivia; in Bolivia the Barbet only ranges on the headwater tributaries to the northeasterly flowing Madeira River. The eastern limit in the southwest Amazon Basin is the Purus River west of the Madeira. In the northwest Amazon Basin, the eastern range limit is central Roraima state Brazil, the south flowing Branco River. The contiguous range to the northwest into Venezuela is all of eastern Venezuela approaching the Guyana border. The Gilded Barbet's range is on the eastern side of the Caribbean north-flowing Orinoco River drainage, but avoids the lower-half riverine strip by 150 km; the range occurs on the upper-half of the Orinoco River extending south into the eastern border area of Colombia. A small range extension goes southeastwards into central Bolivia, also tributaries to the Madeira River.

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Toucans and Aracaris Ramphastidae
Toucans are near passerine birds from the neotropics. They are brightly marked and have large, colorful bills. The family includes five genera and about forty different species. Toucans range in size from the Lettered Aracari (Pteroglossus inscriptus), at 130 g (4.6 oz) and 29 cm (11.5 inches), to the Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco), at 680 g (1.5 lb) and 63 cm (25 inches). Their bodies are short (of comparable size to a crow's) and thick. The tail is rounded, and varies in length from half the length to the whole length of the body. The neck is short and thick, and at the base of the head is a huge, brightlycolored beak that measures, in some large species, more than half the length of the body. A toucan's tongue is long, narrow, grey, and singularly frayed on each side, adding to its sensitivity as an organ of taste. The legs of a toucan are strong and rather short. Their toes are arranged in pairs with the first and fourth toes turned backward. Males and females are the same color. The feathers in the genus containing the largest toucans are generally black, with touches of white, yellow, and scarlet. The underparts of the araçaris (smaller toucans) are yellow, crossed by one or more black or red bands, and the edges of the beak are saw-toothed. The toucanets have mostly green plumage with blue markings. Toucans are frugivorous (fruit-eating), but will take prey such as insects and small lizards. However, the function of the beak in feeding is not known, since many other birds consume these foods without the giant bill to help them. One likely use is to specialize on prey such as nestlings and bats in treeholes. In this view, the beak allows the bird to reach deep into the treehole to access food unavailable to other birds. They are arboreal and nest in tree holes laying 2–4 white eggs. The young hatch completely naked, without any down. Toucans are resident breeders and do not migrate. Toucans are usually found in pairs or small flocks. The name of this bird group is derived from Tupi tucana, via French.

Many-banded Aracari Pteroglossus pluricinctus
The Many-banded Aracari (Pteroglossus pluricinctus) is a species of bird in the Ramphastidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus
The Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) is a near-passerine bird which breeds in Trinidad and in tropical South America as far south as southern Brazil and central Bolivia. Like other toucans, the Channel-billed is brightly marked and has a huge bill. It is typically 48 cm (19 in) long with a 9-14 cm (3½-5½ in) bill. Nominate race (R. v. vitellinus): Its upperparts, belly, tail and most of the bill are black, and the uppertail and undertail coverts are red. The bare eye-patch and bill base are blue, the throat is white, the central breast has a large orange-yellow spot and the lower breast a broad red band. The iris is dark brownish. It is found in the north-eastern part of this species' range. Race culminatus: It resemble the nominate, but has a yellow base of the upper mandible and ridge to its bill, orangeyellow uppertail coverts and the throat and breast are white (occasionally tinged yellow), with just a narrow red band separating the latter from the black belly. It occurs in the eastern and south-central part of this species' range. It is very similar to, and easily confused with, Cuvier's Toucan (Ramphastos tucanus cuvieri). Race ariel: It resemble the nominate, but the base of its bill is yellow, the skin around the pale blue eye is red and the entire throat and chest are orange. It occurs in the south-east Amazon. The unnamed population from the coastal regions of eastern Brazil is virtually identical. Race citreolaemus. It resemble culminatus, but with a clear yellow tinge to the throat, a green tinge to the othewise yellow culmen, a yellow-orange patch at the very base of the bill, and a pale bluish iris. It occurs in northern Colombia and north-western Venezuela. Wherever the distributions of the subspecies meet, individuals with features that are intermediate compared to above described races are common due to hybridization. Some of these intermediate populations have sometimes been awarded subspecies status, e.g. theresae for the population in north-eastern Brazil and pintoi for populations in southcentral Brazil (both are culminatus-ariel intergrades). Found in forest and woodland. Prefers humid regions, but locally extends into drier regions (esp. along rivers). Mainly in lowlands, but locally to an altitude of 1700 m (5600 ft). This species is an arboreal fruit-eater, but will take insects and other small prey, e.g. insects, small reptiles and eggs and nestlings of other birds. The call is a croaking cree-op cree-op cree-op. The parents are both active in raising the young. The white eggs are laid in a high unlined tree cavity. There is have a gestation period of 18 days, and the parents both incubate for 15 to 16 days. However, they can be impatient sitters, often leaving their eggs uncovered for hours at a time. Newborn toucans remain in the nest after hatching. They are blind and naked at birth, and their eyes open after about 3 weeks. They have short bills and specialized pads on their heels to protect them from the rough floor of the nest. The feathers do not begin to expand until they are nearly 4 weeks old. They are helpless and unable to leave the nest for about 8 weeks, dependent upon both parents to feed them. After this, the young can care for themselves. They begin to leave the nest after 40 to 50 days, depending on size

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White-throated Toucan Ramphastos tucanus
The White-throated Toucan (Ramphastos tucanus) is a near-passerine bird found throughout the Amazon in south-eastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia, southern and eastern Venezuela, northern and western Brazil, including the Amazon Basin's adjacent Tocantins-Araguaia River drainage, and the Guianas. It prefers tropical humid forest, but also occurs in woodland and locally in riverine forest within the Cerrado. It was formerly considered to be two species, with the southern and western nominate subspecies, R. t. tucanus, named as the Red-billed Toucan, and the northern and eastern subspecies, R. t. cuvieri, as the Cuvier's Toucan (when considered a species; R. cuvieri, Wagler, 1827). However, the two subspecies, which differ principally in the bill colour, interbreed freely wherever they meet and therefore merit only subspecies status. The subspecies R. t. inca from Bolivia is of questionable validity and may represent a stable hybrid population between tucanus and culminatus. Like other toucans, the White-throated Toucan is brightly marked and has a huge bill. It has a total length of 55-60 cm (21-24 in) and weighs 600 g (22 oz). The bill is typically 14-18 cm (5½-7 in) long. The only species of toucan that surpass it in size is the Toco Toucan. It has a black plumaged with a white throat and breast bordered below with a narrow red line. The rump is bright yellow and the crissum is red. The bare skin around the eye is blue. The bill has a yellow tip, upper ridge and base of the upper mandible, and the base of the lower mandible is blue. The rest of the bill is mainly black in R. t. cuvieri and mainly reddish-brown in R. t. tucanus, with intergrades showing a mixed coloration. Males are larger and longer-billed than females, but otherwise the sexes are alike. Juveniles are noticeably shorter-billed, more sooty-black, and have duller plumage. The White-throated Toucan of the race cuvieri is virtually identical to the related Channel-billed Toucan of the race culminatus, but the latter is smaller and has a proportionally shorter bill with a more strongly keeled culmen. The call is often the best distinction between the species. White-throated has a yelping eeoo, hue hue, whereas Channel-billed has a croaking song. Small flocks or more commonly pairs of birds move through the forest with a heavy, rather weak, undulating flight, rarely flying more than 100 m (330 ft) at a time. This species is primarily an arboreal fruit-eater, but will also take insects, lizards, bird eggs, and other small vertebrate prey. The 2-4 white eggs are laid in an unlined cavity high in a decayed section of a living tree, or in an old woodpecker nest in a dead tree. Both sexes incubate the eggs for at 14-15 days, and the toucan chicks remain in the nest after hatching. They are blind and naked at birth, and have short bills and specialised pads on their heels to protect them from the rough floor of the nest. They are fed by both parents, and fledge after about 6 weeks. The parents cotinue feeding the juveniles for several weeks after they have left the nest.

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Woodpeckers and Piculets Picidae
The avian family Picidae includes the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks. Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia, Madagascar, and the extreme polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in desert areas. The Picidae is just one of the eight families in the order Piciformes. Members of the order Piciformes, such as the jacamars, puffbirds, barbets, toucans and honeyguides, have traditionally been thought to be very closely related to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks. Recent molcular studies have strengthened this view. There are about over 200 species and about 30 genera in this family (for the full species list, see Woodpecker). Many species are threatened or endangered due to loss of habitat or habitat fragmentation. Two species of woodpeckers, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker and the Imperial Woodpecker, have been considered extinct for about 30 years (there has been some controversy recently whether these species still exist). The smallest woodpecker is the Bar-breasted Piculet, at 7 g and 8 cm (3.2 inches). The largest woodpecker was the Imperial Woodpecker, at an average of 58 cm (23 inches) and probably over 600 g (1.3 lbs). The Ivorybilled Woodpecker is (or was) slightly smaller at 50 cm (20 inches) and a weight of 500 g (1.1 lbs). If both the Ivory-billed and Imperial Woodpeckers are indeed extinct, the largest extant woodpecker is the Great Slaty Woodpecker of Southeast Asia, at about 50 cm (20 inches) and 450 g (1 lb). Most species possess predominantly white, black and brown feathers, although many piculets show a certain amount of gray and olive green. In woodpeckers, many species exhibit patches of red and yellow on their heads and bellies. Although the genders of a species tend to look alike, male woodpeckers will have brighter reds and yellows than the females. Members of the family Picidae have strong bills for drilling and drumming on trees and long sticky tongues for extracting food. Woodpecker bills are typically longer, sharper and stronger than the bills of piculets and wrynecks; however their morphology is very similar. Due to their smaller bill size, many piculets and wrynecks will forage in decaying wood more often than woodpeckers. The long sticky tongues, which possess bristles, aid these birds in grabbing and extracting insects deep within a hole of a tree. Woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks all possess zygodactyl feet. Zygodacytl feet consist of four toes, two facing frontward and two facing back. This type of foot arrangement is good for grasping the limbs and trunks of trees. Members of this family can walk vertically up a tree trunk, which is beneficial for activities such as foraging for food or nest excavation. The diet of these birds consists mainly of insects, such as ants and beetles, nuts, seeds, berries, some fruit and sap. Species may feed generally on all of these, or may specialize on one or two. All members of the family Picidae nest in cavities. Woodpeckers and piculets will excavate their own nests, but wrynecks will not. The excavated nest is usually only lined from the wood chips produced as the hole was made. Many species of woodpeckers excavate one hole per breeding season, sometimes after multiple attempts. It takes around a month to finish the job. Abandoned holes are used by many other birds and animals, such as flying squirrels. Members of Picidae are typically monogamous. A pair will work together to help build the nest, incubate the eggs and raise their altricial young. However, in most species the male does most of the nest excavation and takes the night shift while incubating the eggs. A nest will usually consist of 2-5 round white eggs. Since these birds are cavity nesters their eggs do not need to be camouflaged and the white color helps the parents to see them in dim light. The eggs are

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incubated for about 11-14 days before the chicks are born. It takes about 18-30 days before the young are ready to leave the nest. Picidae species can either be sedentary or migratory. Many species are known to stay in the same area year around while others, such as the Eurasian Wryneck and the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, travel great distances from their breeding grounds to their wintering ground.

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus
The Tellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus) is a species of bird in the Picidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.

Spot-breasted Woodpecker Colaptes punctigula
The Spot-breasted Woodpecker (Colaptes punctigula) is a species of bird in the Picidae family. It is found in South America in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela; also eastern Panama of Central America. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, and heavily degraded former forest.

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Scaly-breasted Woodpecker Celeus grammicus
The Scaly-breasted Woodpecker (Celeus grammicus) is a species of bird in the Picidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Chestnut Woodpecker Celeus elegans
The Chestnut Woodpecker, Celeus elegans, is a resident breeding bird in South America from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas south to Ecuador, Bolivia and northern Brazil, and on Trinidad. The habitat of this large woodpecker is forest and other closed woodland. The nest hole is in a dead tree, with the chamber floor up to 30 cm below the entrance. Three white eggs are laid. The Chestnut Woodpecker is 28 cm long and weighs 127g. It is a rich unbarred chestnut brown with a yellow rump and flanks and a yellowish crest. The wings and tail are black and the bill yellow-white. The male has a red malar stripe, but otherwise the sexes are similar. C. e. leotaudi of Trinidad is smaller, paler, and much brighter than the mainland forms. Other subspecies have differing crest colours. The Chestnut Woodpecker mainly feeds in trees and bushes on insects, including termites, and some fruit, and will come to table scraps. It is a noisy species with a harsh parrot-like squawk whEEjer. Both sexes drum.

Cream-colored Woodpecker Celeus flavus
The Cream-colored Woodpecker, Celeus flavus, is a species of woodpecker native to South America, from Colombia and the Guianas to Peru, Bolivia, and the eastern part of Brazil. It is colored creamy yellow, except for the wingtips and tail, which are much darker. Males also have dark rings around their eyes. It has a large crest that is always raised. It eats mainly tree ants, although it does eat other insects and some fruits. It is not known how the Cream-colored Woodpecker nests, although it is believed that they nest in holes in trees. They do not migrate.

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Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus
The Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) is a very large woodpecker which is a resident breeding bird from Mexico south to northern Argentina and on Trinidad. The habitat of this species is forest borders and other open woodland. Three white eggs are laid in a nest hole is in a dead tree and incubated by both sexes. The young are fed by regurgitation. The Lineated Woodpecker is 34 cm long and weighs 200 g. It resembles the closely-related Pileated Woodpecker of North America, but within its range the confusion species is the Crimson-crested Woodpecker. Adults are mainly black above, with a red crest and white lines down the sides of the throat and shoulders. The underparts are white, heavily barred with black. They show white on the wings in flight. Adult males have a red line from the bill to the throat and red on the front of the crown. In adult females, these plumage features are black. Crimson-crested Woodpecker is the only bird of similar plumage and size. In that species, the white face line is broader, and the white shoulder lines meet on the back. Lineated Woodpeckers chip out holes, often quite large, while searching out insects in trees. They mainly eat insects, especially ants and beetle larvae, with some seeds, such as Heliconia, and fruits, berries and nuts. The call of this widespread but wary bird is a loud, ringing wic-wic-wic. Both sexes drum.

Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis
The Red-necked Woodpecker (Campephilus rubricollis) is a species of bird in the Picidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

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Woodcreepers Dendrocolaptidae
Amazonian Barred- Woodcreeper The woodcreepers, Dendrocolaptinae, comprise a subfamily of sub-oscine passerine birds endemic to the neotropics. They were formerly considered a distinct family, Dendrocolaptidae. Generally brownish birds, the true woodcreepers maintain an upright vertical posture, supported by their stiff tail vanes, and feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks. However, woodcreepers often form part of the core group at the center of flocks attending army ant swarms. Though unrelated, they superficially resemble the Old World treecreepers. Woodcreepers are arboreal cavity-nesting birds; 2-3 white eggs are laid and incubated for about 15 days. These birds can be difficult to identify in that they tend to have similar brown upperparts, and the more distinctive underparts are hard to see on a bird pressed against a trunk in deep forest shade. The bill shape and call are useful aids to determining species. The former family has been merged into the ovenbird family, Furnariidae. Analyses of mt and nDNA sequence data showed Sclerus leaftossers and Geositta miners to be basal to the Furnariidae and the woodcreepers (Irestedt et al. 2002). Maintaining Dendrocolaptidae as a separate family between them and the other furnariids created a paraphyletic Furnariidae, hence the merger. Interestingly, the xenops, which were usually considered to be ovenbirds with a somewhat woodcreeper-like plumage, are in fact closely related to the latter (Fjeldså et al., 2005). They are best considered to form a separate tribe and give a good impression of how the ancestors of the woodcreepers must have looked like. The true woodcreepers are characterized by a belly feather growth pattern not found in any other birds. The systematics of the Dendrocolaptinae were reviewed by Raikow (1994, based on morphology) and Irestedt et al. (2004, based on analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences). As the latter paper revealed, the commonplace convergent evolution of bill morphology hampered Raikow's analysis. Color patterns, on the other hand, were more in agreement with the molecular data, but the generally drab coloration of the woodcreepers renders this character less informative than desirable. The work of Irested et al., on the other hand, was severely limited by unavailability of samples of many phylogenetically interesting taxa. For example, the Deconychura species apparently belong into separate genera, but only D. longicauda was available for molecular analysis. Moving Lepidocolaptes fuscus to Xiphorhynchus restores monophyly of Lepidocolaptes, and Xiphorhynchus was very much under-split (Aleixo, 2002a,b). Hylexetastes may contain anything from 1 to 4 species. It remains unresolved whether the Scimitar-billed and Long-billed Woodcreepers' distinctiveness is due to strong selective pressure (and therefore rapid morphological evolution) of forms related to Lepidocolaptes and Dendrexetastes, respectively, or to long-time evolution of distinct lineages which separated early in the evolution of the group, with genetic similarity due to long branch attraction. The data gained from the myoglobin intron II DNA sequence disagrees strongly with mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data regarding the validity of Lepidocolaptes in general Irestedt et al. (2004); as the latter agrees much better with morphological and biogeographical data it therefore is used here. More detailed studies are needed to resolve these questions, namely reevaluation of morphological data in the light of the molecular findings, and new molecular studies which thoroughly sample the questionable genera.

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Northern Barred Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae
The Northern Barred-woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) is a species of bird in the Dendrocolaptidae family. It was formerly considered to be conspecific with the Amazonian Barred-woodcreeper (D. certhia). It is found from southern Mexico through Central America to Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador.

Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa
The Plain-brown Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa), is a suboscine passerine bird which breeds in the tropical New World from Honduras through South America to northern Argentina, and in Trinidad and Tobago. This woodcreeper is typically 22cm long, and weighs 37g. It is drab even by woodcreeper standards. As its name implies, it lacks the streaking shown by most of its relatives, and is plain brown above and below. The bill is longish and straight. The normal call is a loud stick, but when following army ants, the groups keep up a noisy chatter. The song is a descending te-te-te-tutu-tu-tue-tue-tue-chu-chu-chu. The Plain-brown Woodcreeper is an insectivore which feeds on ants and other insects. It feeds low in trees, on the trunk or foliage, but rarely on the ground. It will follow columns of army ants, often in groups of up to a dozen birds. If specialist ant feeders like antbirds or larger woodcreepers are present, it tends to keep higher than those species. It also accompanies coatimundis (Nasua nasua) on their foraging excursions, especially when they feed in trees during the dry season. Though it may eat the occasional army ant and coatis might benefit from the birds spotting predators before they do, in both cases the Plain-brown Woodcreeper is typically a commensale, snatching prey that flees before the more formidable predators. This woodcreeper is a common and widespread forest bird which builds a leaf-lined nest in a palm tree stump; 2-3 white eggs are laid.

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Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus
The Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) is a passerine bird which breeds from southern Mexico through tropical Central and South America to northern Argentina, and also on Tobago. The species is throughout the Amazon Basin, but is absent from the lowest reaches of the basin, including much of the adjacent Guyanas. It is the only member of the genus Sittasomus, but the taxon includes several vocally and morphologically distinct forms, so this species may be split in the future. This small woodcreeper is a slender bird, typically 15cm long, and weighing 13g. The head, upper back and underparts are greyish olive, and the wings, tail and lower back are light rufous. The bill is short and thin. The normal call is a fast, high-pitched trill wu-wu-wu-we-we-we-we-ee-ee-ee-ee-we-we-wewe. The Olivaceous Woodcreeper is a common and widespread bird of forests and other woodlands. The Olivaceous Woodcreeper feeds on insects and spiders. It normally forages on tree trunks or large branches or on the ground, usually alone. However, birds associate with foraging groups of Golden Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) to snatch prey startled by the monkeys. It builds a nest lined with dead leaves in a tree hole, and lays three white eggs.

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus
The Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Glyphorynchus spirurus), is a passerine bird which breeds in the tropical New World from southern Mexico to northern Bolivia, central Brazil and the Guianas; it is absent from the Pacific coastal areas except between Costa Rica and Ecuador. It is the only member of the genus Glyphorynchus. It is easily distinguished from its relatives by its small size and distinctive bill. The Wedge-billed Woodcreeper is typically 14-15 cm long, and weighs 14-16.5 g. It has brown upperparts, with fine streaking on the head sides, a buff supercilium, and a chestnut rump, wings and tail. The throat is buff, and the rest of the underparts are brown spotted with buff chevrons, most heavily on the breast. A buff wing bar is obvious from below in flight. The short wedge-shaped bill is quite different in shape from that of other woodcreepers. Young birds are duller with less distinct breast streaking. The call is a sneezy schip. The song varies geographically, perhaps refecting the different subspecies of this bird. In Costa Rica it is a trilled keekekekiki, whilst in eastern Bolivia it is an ascending too-e too-e tu-tu-tu-tue-twu-twu-tweeet. This common and widespread small woodcreeper is found in lowlands up to 1500 m altitude, although normally below 1100 m, in damp forests, adjacent semi-open woodland and old second growth. It feeds on small spiders and insects, creeping up trunks and extracting its tiny prey from the bark. It has a strong preference for trees with fine flaky bark. It is seen alone, in pairs, or sometimes as part of a mixed-species feeding flock. Birds are largely resident, but may disperse locally. For example, a vagrant individual was observed on May 12 1998 at Cerro Campana, Ecuador, the first record for that country. It builds a cup nest in a narrow tree cavity such as a rotting stump or space between buttresses. It may occasionally nest up to 6 m high in a tree, but is usually much lower, often at or below ground level. It lays two white eggs between March and June.

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Long-billed Woodcreeper Nasica longirostris
The Long-billed Woodcreeper (Nasica longirostris) is a species of bird in the Dendrocolaptinae subfamily. It is in the monotypic genus Nasica. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

Straight-billed Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus picus
The Straight-billed Woodcreeper (Dendroplex picus) is a species of bird in the woodcreeper subfamily (Dendrocolaptinae). Its genus, Dendroplex, was recently confirmed to be distinct from Xiphorhynchus. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, and heavily degraded former forest. The Straight-billed Woodcreeper's range is in central and north South America, east of the Andes cordillera, and encompasses the entire Amazon Basin. The species is found in Panama of Central America, and only the four countries of southern South America are excluded from the south american range.

Striped Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus obsoletus
The Striped Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus) is a species of bird in the woodcreeper subfamily (Dendrocolaptinae). It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.

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Elegant Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus elegans
The Elegant Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus elegans) is a species of bird in the woodcreeper subfamily (Dendrocolaptinae). It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus
The Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus is a passerine bird which breeds in tropical South America from southeast Colombia to the Guyanas, excluding most of the Guiana Shield, and also in the northern Mata Atlântica. It was formerly believed to include the Cocoa Woodcreeper and Lafresnaye's Woodcreeper as subspecies. This woodcreeper is typically 27-28cm long, and weighs 64g. The head and neck are buff-streaked dark brown, the upper back is lightly streaked dark brown, and the rest of the upperparts, wings and tail are rufous. The underparts are olive-brown with broad cinnamon streaks on the breast. The bill is long, pale, slightly decurved, and hooked at the tip. The normal call is a loud chev-re chev-re. Buff-throated Woodcreepers are common and widespread birds of forests and other woodland. They are insectivores which feed on ants and other insects and spiders. It feeds low in trees, usually alone, but groups will follow columns of army ants. The species builds a bark-lined nest in a tree hole or hollow stump and lays two white eggs. The smaller Cocoa Woodcreeper, X. susurrans, was formerly included in this species, but is now normally considered being distinct (AOU, 1998); it is found northwest of the Andes into Central America. Some other former subspecies were recognized to be another distinct species, Lafesnaye's Woodcreeper (X. guttatoides) (Aleixo, 2002a,b). Biogeography and molecular data suggest that the relationship between the remaining subspecies and the taxa now included in X. guttatoides and X. susurrans deserves further study (Aleixo, 2002a,b; Remsen, 2003). Depending of the outcome of these studies, the species could be restricted to the southern coastal population, which is endangered by habitat fragmentation, making a change in conservation status necessary. The most likely evolutionary scenario is that from lower Amazonia, the ancestors of Lafresnaye's Woodcreeper spread west- and southwestwards to the Andes, and those of the Buff-throated and Cocoa Woodcreeper downriver and then along the coast of northern South America, where X. susurrans then branched off as the northern lineage. Indeed, it may be that the trans-Andean forms of the latter may constitute yet another good species, Lawrence's Woodcreeper.

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Furnarids or Ovenbirds Furnariidae
Ovenbirds or furnariids comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They form the family Furnariidae. They should not be confused with the Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus, which is a wood warbler in the family Parulidae. This is a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. The Spanish word for "oven" gives the conspicuous horneros their name. Furnariid nests are always constructed with a cover, and up to six pale blue, greenish or white eggs are laid. Most species are forest birds, but some are found in more open habitats. Recently, the woodcreepers (formerly Dendrocolaptidae) were merged into this family; following analysis of mtDNA cytochrome b and several nDNA sequences (Irestedt et al. 2002). The systematics of the Dendrocolaptinae were reviewed by Rajkow (1994) based on morphology and by Irestedt et al. (2004) based on analysis of more nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Using the latter approach, the suspected major lineages of the Furnariinae (foliage-gleaners, spinetails, and true ovenbirds) were confirmed, but some new lineages were discovered and the relationships of several genera had to be revised (Fjeldså et al., 2005). The taxonomic arrangement presented below is based on a synthesis of current data (e.g. Cheviron et al., 2005). Many species or entire genera have not been sampled to analyze DNA sequences, and as the recent studies have discovered that convergent evolution is commonplace in the family, it seems not advisable to place them in the taxonomic sequence without further research. Several genera are in need of revision too.

Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus
The Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (Automolus ochrolaemus) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family. It is found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

Grey-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus albigularis
The Grey-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus albigularis) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

Black-tailed Leaftosser Sclerurus caudacutus
The Black-tailed Leaftosser (Sclerurus caudacutus) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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Tawny-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus
The Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus mexicanus) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family. It is found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador (unconfirmed but likely as a breeding species), French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests

Short-billed Leaftosser Sclerurus rufigularis
The Short-billed Leaftosser (Sclerurus rufigularis) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Typical Antbirds Thamnophilidae
The antbirds are a large family of smallish passerine bird species of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are closely related to the antthrushes and antpittas in the family Formicariidae, the tapaculos, and especially the gnateaters (Irestedt et al. 2002, Rice, 2005). These are forest birds, but tend to feed on insects at or near the ground. A sizable minority of them specialize in following columns of army ants to eat the small invertebrates that leave hiding to flee the ants. Many species lack bright colour; brown, black and white being the dominant tones in their appearance. Some species of antbirds communicate warnings to each other by exposing white patches on their back feathers, "like a sort of Morse code". They lay two or three eggs in a nest in a tree, both sexes incubating. Slender Antbird There are some 200 species, variously called as antwrens, antvireos, antbirds and antshrikes. These terms refer to the relative sizes of the birds (increasing in the order given) rather than any particular morphological resemblance to the true wrens, vireos or shrikes. The genus Phlegopsis is the bare-eyes, Pyriglena the fire-eyes and Neoctantes and Clytoctantes are the bushbirds. Although the taxonomical layout of the group is based on studies from the mid-19th century when less than half the present species were known to science, comparison of the myoglobin intron 2, GAPDH intron 11 and the mtDNA cytochrome b DNA sequences (Irestedt et al., 2004) has largely verified it. Two major clades - most antshrikes and other larger, strong-billed species as well as Herpsilochmus versus the classical antwrens and other more slender, longer-billed species - exist and the monophyly of most genera was confirmed. The Thamnophilidae contain several large or very large genera, and a considerable number of small or monotypic ones. Several of these, which have always been difficult to assign, seem to form a third, hitherto unrecognized clade independently derived from ancestral antbirds. The results also confirmed suspicions of previous researchers that some species, most notably in Myrmotherula and Myrmeciza, need to be assigned to different genera. Still, due to the difficulties of sampling from such a large number of often poorly known species, the assignment of some genera is still awaiting confirmation.

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Black-crested Antshrike Sakesphorus Canadensis
The Black-crested Antshrike, Sakesphorus canadensis, is a passerine bird in the antbird family. It is a resident breeder in tropical South America in Trinidad, Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, northern Brazil and northeastern Peru. This is a bird of undergrowth in mangrove or other swampy forest and thickets near water. It is usually found as territorial pairs. The female lays two purple-lined white eggs in a deep cup nest suspended below a branch or vine. They are incubated by both sexes for 14 days to hatching, the female always brooding at night. The chicks fledge in another 12 days. The Black-crested Antshrike is typically 15.7 cm long, and weighs 24 g. The adult male has a black head, prominent crest, throat and breast, a rufous-brown back, black wings with white feather edges, a short black tail and a white belly. The female and immature males have a chestnut crest and head with black and white barring on the cheeks, dull brown upperparts, black-streaked buff underparts, and browner wing and tail feathers than the male. The Black-crested Antshrike feeds on insects and other arthropods gleaned from foliage. It will also take small lizards and berries. It is an inconspicuous species, often first located by its song, an accelerating and ascending series of musical notes cuew-cuew-cuew-cue-cue-cue-cu-cu-cu-cu, or the call, a snarled churrrr.

Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus
The Barred Antshrike, Thamnophilus doliatus, is a passerine bird in the antbird family. It is a resident breeder in the tropical New World in Mexico, Central America, Trinidad and Tobago, and also South America east of the Andes down to northern Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. This is a common bird of thickets, mangroves and gardens, usually found as territorial pairs. The female lays two purple-marked creamy white eggs in a deep cup nest in a shrub, which are incubated by both sexes for 14 days to hatching. The chicks fledge in another 12-13 days. The Barred Antshrike is typically 16.5 cm long, and weighs 25 g. It has a yellow iris. The male is barred all over with black and white, and has a whitebased black crest that is raised in display. The female is rufous above with a chestnut crest. The sides of her head and neck are streaked with black, and the underparts are rich buff. The Tobagoian race T. d. tobagensis is distinctive; males are whiter below, and females darker, than in the nominate subspecies. Barred Antshrike is an insectivore which feeds on ants and other arthropods at or near the ground; it sometimes follows columns of army ants, and will take small lizards and berries. It is a skulking species, which may be located by its chuckling hu-hu-hu-hu-hu-hu song, often performed as a duet by a pair of birds, or a growled graaaaa.

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Plain-winged Antshrike Thamnophilus schistaceus
The Plain-winged Antshrike (Thamnophilus schistaceus) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

Mouse-coloured Antshrike Thamnophilus murinus
The Mouse-coloured Antshrike (Thamnophilus murinus) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Amazonian Antshrike Thamnophilus amazonicus
The Amazonian Antshrike (Thamnophilus amazonicus) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

Spot-winged Antshrike Pygiptila stellaris
The Spot-winged Antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Pygiptila. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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Cinereous Antshrike Thamnomanes caesius
The Cinereous Antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Pygmy Antwren Myrmotherula brachyura
The Pygmy Antwren (Myrmotherula brachyura) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family, the antbirds. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest. The Pygmy Antwren is a bird of the entire Amazon Basin, the Guianan region, and the southeast Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela; besides northern Brazil, it occurs in Amazonian Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.

Moustached Antwren Myrmotherula ignota (Short-billed Antwren Myrmotherula obscura)
The Moustached Antwren (Myrmotherula ignota) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris
The White-flanked Antwren, Myrmotherula axillaris, is a passerine bird in the antbird family. It is a resident breeder in tropical Central and South America from El Salvador and Honduras south to Amazonian Bolivia and southern Brazil, and on Trinidad. The White-flanked Antwren is found throughout the entire Amazon Basin as well as to the southeast in the adjacent Tocantins-Araguaia River drainage, and then in disjunct groups on the southeast coast of Brazil; it also ranges through the Guyanas on the northeast of South America to Pacific and Caribbean coastal regions of Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela; also, the entire eastern Venezuela Orinoco River grouping is part of the northern Amazon range. The northern Andes cordillera bifurcates the Central American and coastal groups of the northwest from the Amazonian range. This is a common and confiding bird of primary and second growth forest, usually found in small groups. The female lays two purple-marked white eggs, which are incubated by both sexes for 16 days to hatching, in a small plant fibre and dead leaf cup nest low in a tree or shrub. The White-flanked Antwren is typically 10.7 cm long, and weighs 8.1 g. The adult male has dark grey upperparts, black underparts, and black wings with bars of white spots. The flanks and underwings are white. The female and immature male have brown upperparts, yellowish-buff underparts and weakly barred rufous wings. Her flanks and underwings are white, much like the male. Males of the distinctive western race M. a. melaena have black upperparts and underparts, and the female is darker than nominate M. a. axillaris. The White-flanked Antwren feeds on small insects and other arthropods taken from twigs and foliage in the lower branches of trees. It has a queep whistle followed by a trilled trrrrrr. M. a. melaena has a two note call, naa-who and a whistled descending pee pee pee-pee-pee-pee-pee-puu-puu call. Given the differences in plumage and vocalisations, the two forms may possibly be different species.

Gray Antwren Myrmotherula menetriesii
The Grey Antwren (Myrmotherula menetriesii) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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Stipple-throated Antwren Myrmotherula haematonota
The Stipple-throated Antwren (Epinecrophylla haematonota) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It was formerly placed in the genus Myrmotherula. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Grey Antbird Cercomacra cinerascens
The Grey Antbird (Cercomacra cinerascens) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Black Antbird Cercomacra craserva
The Black Antbird (Cercomacra serva) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis cantator
The Warbling Antbird (Hypocnemis cantator) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest. Recent work has documented distinctive vocal differences within this group, suggesting it would be appropriate to split it into six species:

• • • • • •

Guianan Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis cantator, with subspecies notaeae). Imeri Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis flavescens, with subspecies perflava). Peruvian Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis peruviana, with subspecies saturata). Yellow-breasted Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis subflava, with subspecies collinsi). Rondonia Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis ochrogyna). Spix's Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis striata, with subspecies implicata and affinis).

These are almost entirely allopatric (separated by major rivers), although H. cantator and H. flavescens are locally parapatric and limited sympatry has been documented between H. peruviana and H. subflava.

Black-chinned Antbird Hypocnemoides melanopogon
The Black-chinned Antbird (Hypocnemoides melanopogon) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical swamps.

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Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird Myrmeciza castanea
The Chestnut-tailed Antbird (Myrmeciza hemimelaena) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru. It is sometimes split into two species, the Southern Chestnut-tailed Antbird, Myrmeciza hemimelaena and the Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird, Myrmeciza castanea. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

White-shouldered Antbird Myrmeciza melanoceps
The White-shouldered Antbird (Myrmeciza melanoceps) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical swamps.

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Bicolored Antbird Gymnopithys leucaspis
The Bicoloured Antbird (Gymnopithys leucaspis) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Spot-backed Antbird Hylophylax naevius
The Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevius) is a species of bird in the Thamnophilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

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Contingas Cotingidae
The cotingas are a large family of passerine bird species found in tropical South America. They are birds of forests or forest edges, which mostly eat fruit or insects and fruit. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. The males of many species, such as the cock-of-the-rocks, are brightly coloured, or decorated with plumes or wattles, like the umbrellabirds, with their umbrella-like crest and long throat wattles. Some, like the bellbirds, have distinctive and far-carrying calls. The females of most species are duller than the males. The cock-of-the-rocks are more terrestrial than other species, and have an elaborate group mating display.

Black-necked Red-Cotinga Phoenicircus nigricollis
The Black-necked Red-cotinga (Phoenicircus nigricollis) is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. This is a very impressive lekking cotinga, robed in bright crimson and black, that was virtually unknown until ~20 years ago. In the 1980s, a lek was discovered quite close to Exploronapo Camp (an outlying venture of Explorama Lodge headquartered in Iquitos, Peru) that does allow birders to observe this great bird (which I have done). Its cousin, the Guianan Red-Cotinga P. carnifex, could also easily be picked on any "top 50" list. The displays of both species have only recently been studied; and both are almost impossible to find away from leks.

Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans
The Screaming Piha (Lipaugus vociferans) is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is known as the Pwe-pwe Yoh by the Cofan people of Ecuador because of the males distinctive cry while during mating season. Males of the species, like male hermit hummingbirds, are known engage in lekking behavior during mating season.

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Pompadour Cotinga Xipholina punicea
The Pompadour Cotinga (Xipholena punicea) is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata
The Purple-throated Fruitcrow (Querula purpurata) is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Querula. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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Manakins Pipridae
The manakins are a family of some sixty small passerine bird species of subtropical and tropical mainland Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. These are compact forest birds, the males typically being brightly coloured, although the females of most species are duller and usually green-plumaged. Manakins feed on small fruits, berries and insects. Many manakin species have spectacular lekking courtship rituals, which are especially elaborate in the genus Pipra. Manakins make buzzing, snapping, and other sounds with their wings, which are heavily modified in two species (the White-collared and Orange-collared Manakins). Nest-building, incubation for 18-21 days, and care of the young are undertaken by the female alone, since manakins do not form stable pairs. The normal clutch is two eggs.

White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus
The White-bearded Manakin, Manacus manacus, is a small passerine bird which breeds in tropical South America. It is found from Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad south to Bolivia and northern Argentina. This manakin is a fairly common bird of forests, second growth and plantations. The female builds a shallow cup nest low in a tree; two brown-mottled white eggs are laid, and incubated entirely by the female for about 18-19 days, with a further 13-15 days to fledging. The young are fed mainly on regurgitated fruit with some insects. Like other manakins, White-bearded Manakin is a compact, brightly coloured forest bird, typically 10.7 cm long and weighing 16.5 g. The adult male has a black crown, upper back wings and tail, and the plumage is otherwise white. He has orange legs. The female and young males are olive-green and resemble female Golden-headed Manakins, but they have orange legs. The race endemic to Trinidad, M. m. trinitatis is larger than mainland birds, and the female has yellower underparts.

The male White-bearded Manakin has a fascinating breeding display at a communal lek. Each male clears a patch of forest floor to bare earth, and perches on a bare stick. The display consists of rapid leaps between sticks and the ground, accompanied by a loud wing snap, the whirring of the wings, and a chee-poo call. Groups of up to 70 birds may perform together, the largest leks being in Trinidad. Apart from the buzzing display song, White-bearded Manakin has a number of other calls, including a trilled musical peeerr. These manakins eat fruit and some insects. In South America, two thirds of White-bearded Manakin's range is in the combined Amazon Basin, the Guianas, and the Orinoco River drainage of Venezuela; also eastern Colombia. Three disjunct populations occur: Pacific coastal Ecuador, with southwestern Colombia; coastal and inland western Venezuela with northwestern Colombia; and the largest, southeastern Brazil, with inland regions bordering Paraguay in the south, and from Paraná state to coastal Pernambuco in the northeast. Only one area of the Amazon Basin does not have the species, the 2200km Purus River region in southwestern Amazonas state.

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Wire-tailed Manakin Pipra filicauda
The Wire-tailed Manakin (Pipra filicauda) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is found upriver in the western Amazon Basin and the neighboring countries of northern Peru, eastern Ecuador and Colombia, and southern and western portions of Venezuela. In Venezuela it occurs upriver in the Orinoco River basin, but not the final 1300kms; its range in Venezuela continues around the Andes cordillera to the northwestern coast. In northwest Brazil, the species ranges from Roraima and Amazonas west to Venezuela and Colombia, and southwest from Rondônia and Acre to Peru and Ecuador. Wire-tailed Manakin's natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

Blue-crowned Manakin Pipra coronata
The Golden-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix vilasboasi) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is endemic to Brazil. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Striped Manakin Machaeropterus regulus
The Striped Manakin (Machaeropterus regulus) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

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Orange-crested Manakin Heterocercus aurantiivertex
The Orange-crested Manakin (Heterocercus aurantiivertex) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is found in Ecuador and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical swamps and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.

Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin Neopelma chrysocephalum
The Saffron-crested Tyrant-manakin (Neopelma chrysocephalum) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.

Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin Tyranneutes stolzmanni
The Dwarf Tyrant-manakin (Tyranneutes stolzmanni) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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Wing-barred Piprites Piprites chloris
The Wing-barred Piprites (Piprites chloris) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

Tyrant Flycatchers Tyrannidae
The tyrant flycatchers are a family of passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America, but are mainly tropical in distribution. They are now considered the largest family of birds on earth, with over 400 species. Tyrant flycatchers superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but have a tendency to be more robust with stronger bills. They are members of suborder Tyranni (suboscines) that do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain, and many have erectile crests. As the name implies, most are insectivorous, but some will eat fruit. The smallest family member is the Short-tailed Pygmy-tyrant, which is, at a length of a mere 6.8 cm (2.7 inches) and a weight of 4 grams, among the smallest passerines on earth. The largest tyrant flycatcher is the Great Shrike-Tyrant at 29 cm (11.5 inches) and 88 grams (3.1 oz). The becards and tityras were formerly considered to be cotingas, but are now usually included in the Tyrannidae. They are also sometimes given their own family, the Tityridae. Species richness of Tyrannidae, when compared to habitat, is highly variable. The habitats of tropical lowland evergreen forest and montane evergreen forest have the highest single site species diversity while many habitats including rivers, palm forest, possible white sand forest, tropical deciduous forest edge, southern temperate forest, southern temperate forest edge, semihumid/humid montane scrub, and northern temperate grassland have the lowest single species diversity. The variation between the highest and the lowest is extreme; ninety species can be found in the tropical lowland evergreen forests while only one species can be found at the habitats listed above. This may be due in part to the fewer niches found in certain areas and therefore fewer places for the species to occupy. Tyrannidae specialization among habitat is very strong in tropical lowland evergreen forests and montane evergreen forests. These habitat types therefore display the greatest specialization. The counts differ by three species (tropical

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lowland evergreen forests have 49 endemic species and montane evergreen forests have 46 endemic species). It can be assumed that they both have similar levels of specialization. Regionally, the South Atlantic Coast has a significantly higher species richness with the Manabí-Tumbes region following closely behind. The Northern Beardless Tyrannulet (Camptostoma imberbe) and the Rose-throated Becard (Pachyramphus aglaiae) are protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus
The Ochre-bellied Flycatcher, Mionectes oleagineus, is a small bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds from southern Mexico through Central America, and South America east of the Andes as far as southern Brazil, and on Trinidad and Tobago. This is a common bird in humid forests, usually in undergrowth near water. It makes a moss-covered ball nest with a side entrance, which is suspended from a root or branch, often over water. The female incubates the typical clutch of two or three white eggs for 18-20 days, with about the same period for the young, initially covered with grey down, to fledge. Adult Ochre-bellied Flycatchers are 12.7cm long and weigh 11g. They have olive-green upperparts, and the head and upper breast are also green. The rest of the underparts are ochre-coloured, there are two buff wing bars, and the feathers of the closed wing are edged with buff. The male is slightly larger than the female, but otherwise similar. There are a number of subspecies, which differ in the distinctness of the wing bars or the shade of the upperparts. This species was previously placed in the genus Pipromorpha. Ochre-bellied Flycatcher is an inconspicuous bird which, unusually for a tyrant flycatcher, feeds mainly on seeds and berries, and some insects and spiders. The calls of the male include a high-pitched chip, and a loud choo. His display includes jumping, flutter-flight and hovering. He takes no part in rearing the young.

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus
The Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher, Terenotriccus erythrurus, is a small passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in lowlands from southeastern Mexico to northern Bolivia, north-central Brazil and the Guianas. This flycatcher ranges east of the Andes cordillera into the entire Amazon Basin of norhern Brazil and the Guianas; to the west of the Andes in Colombia and Ecuador into Central America. It is the only member of the genus Terenotriccus, but some authorities place it in genus Myobius. However, it differs in voice, behaviour, and structure from members of that group. This tiny flycatcher breeds from sea level to 1000 m altitude, locally to 1200 m, in wet mountain forests and in adjacent tall second growth. The nest is a pear-shaped pouch of plant fibres and leaves with a visored side entrance, built by the female 2-6 m high in the undergrowth and suspended from a twig or vine. The two chocolate-blotched white eggs are incubated by the female for 15-16 days to hatching, the male playing no part in the care of the eggs or young.
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The Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher is 9-10.2 cm long and weighs 7 g. The upperparts are grey-olive, with a rufous rump, tail, wings and eye ring. The throat is buff and the breast is cinnamon, becoming pale buff on the belly. Sexes are similar, but young birds are brighter above and have a browner tail and breast. The Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher is mainly solitary, and only occasionally joins mixed-species feeding flocks. It feeds on insects, especially leafhoppers, picked from foliage or taken in acrobatic aerial pursuit. This species has a see-oo see call, and a repetitive eek eek eek eek eek song. It sometimes flicks both wings up to make a faint whirring sound.

Double-banded Pygmy-tyrant Lophotriccus vitiosus
The Double-banded Pygmy-tyrant (Lophotriccus vitiosus) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, and Suriname. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum maculatum
The Spotted Tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum maculatum) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family, the tyrant flycatchers. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela, and is mostly a species of the Amazon Basin countries and Guianan countries. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, and heavily degraded former forest. The Spotted Tody-flycatcher is a bird of the Amazon Basin and in the east the neighboring Araguaia River of the Araguaia-Tocantins River drainage. It ranges on the Caribbean coast into eastern Venezuela and the Guianas. Its range is mostly absent in the northeast Amazon Basin, the Guiana Shield region, where its sister species, the Painted Tody-flycatcher has the center of it's range.

Golden-winged Tody-flycatcher Poecilotriccus calopterus
The Golden-winged Tody-flycatcher (Poecilotriccus calopterus) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

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Rusty-fronted Tody-flycatcher Poecilotriccus latirostris
The Rusty-fronted Tody-flycatcher (Poecilotriccus latirostris) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tyrannulus elatus
The Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet (Tyrannulus elatus) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Tyrannulus. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest.

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Olive-faced Flatbill Tolmomyias viridiceps
The Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, or Ochre-lored Flatbill, Tolmomyias flaviventris, is a small passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in South America from Colombia and Venezuela south to Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil, and on both Trinidad and Tobago. Birds from the far south of the range are smaller and sometimes split as the Olive-faced Flatbill, T. viridiceps. This species is found in the upper levels of forests, secondary growth and the edges of mangrove swamps. The bottle nest is made of plant fibre and suspended from a branch, usually near a wasp nest, which presumably provides some protection from predators. The typical clutch is two or three creamy white eggs, which are marked with violet, mostly at the larger end. Incubation by the female is 17 days to hatching. The Yellow-breasted Flycatcher is 12.7 cm long and weighs 11.3g. The head and upperparts are olive-green with darker, yellow-edged, wing and tail feathers. There are two yellowish wing bars. The throat, breast and eye-ring are golden yellow, the lores are ochreous, and the abdomen is dull yellow. The bill is flattened laterally, and is black above and white below. Sexes are similar. There are other races, differing in the tone of the upperpart or underpart colour. Yellow-breasted Flycatcher are inconspicuous birds, tending to keep to high perches from which they sally forth to catch insects. The call is a loud whistled peeee-it.

Cinnamon Attila Attila cinnamomeus
The Cinnamon Attila (Attila cinnamomeus) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family, the tyrant flycatchers. It is found in northern South America in the Amazon Basin of Brazil and the Guianas. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, French Guiana, Guyana, and Suriname; also Amazonian Ecuador, Peru, and regions of Bolivia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical swamps. The Cinnamon Attila is found in one contiguous range centered on the Amazon Basin. In the southwest it is at the Basin's headwaters in Ecuador and Peru; in northwest Bolivia it is centered on headwater tributaries of the Amazon's Madeira River; in Bolivia's northeast it is only on the headwater's of the Guapore, (on the Brazil-Bolivia border), but not on downstream sections, that flow into the Madeira. Northwest of the Amazon Basin the continuous range extends into central and northeastern Colombia. In southeastern Venezuela, the Cinnamon Attila range occurs on the upper Orinoco River drainage; it continues into

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eastern and northeastern Venezuela and the Guianas, avoiding only the central Orinoco. Its range stays contiguous along the Caribbean coast through the Guianas and only ends south and southeast of the Amazon River outlet, and the outlet of the downstream Tocantins River, in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão on the Atlantic coast.

Citron-bellied Attila Attila citriniventris
The Citron-bellied Attila (Attila citriniventris) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Grayish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex
The Greyish Mourner (Rhytipterna simplex) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox
The Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.

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Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus
The Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) is a large tyrant flycatcher. This bird breeds from southern Arizona and the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the USA through Central America, South America as far as south as central Argentina and western Peru, and on Trinidad and Tobago. Their breeding habitat is semi-open areas with trees and shrubs, including gardens and roadsides. They make a flimsy cup nest in a tree. The female incubates the typical clutch of two or three cream eggs, which are marked with reddishbrown, for 16 days, with about 18-19 further days to fledging. These birds aggressively defend their territory against intruders, even much larger birds such as Magnificent Frigatebirds, toucans, caracaras or hawks. The adult Tropical Kingbird is 22cm long and weighs 39g. The head is pale grey, with a darker eye mask, an orange crown stripe, and a heavy grey bill. The back is greyish-green, and the wing and forked tail are brown. The throat is pale grey, becoming olive on the breast, with the rest of the underparts being yellow. The sexes are similar, but young birds have pale buff edges on the wing coverts, Birds from the northernmost and southern breeding areas migrate to warmer parts of the range after breeding. Tropical Kingbirds wait on a prominent open perch and sally out to catch insects in flight, sometimes hovering to pick food off vegetation. They also eat some berries. The call is a high-pitched twittering trill, tree-e-e-e-e-e-e, with a more complex version sung by the male at dawn.

Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua
The Boat-billed Flycatcher, Megarynchus pitangua, is a passerine bird. It is a large tyrant flycatcher, the only member of the genus Megarynchus. It breeds in open woodland with some tall trees from Mexico south to Bolivia and Argentina, and on Trinidad. The nest, built by the female, is an open saucer of sticks. The typical clutch is two or three whitish eggs heavily blotched with brown. These are incubated mostly by the female for 17-18 days with a further 24 days to fledging. Adult Boat-billed Flycatchers are 23cm long. The head is black with a strong white eyestripe and a concealed yellow crown stripe. The upperparts are olive-brown, and the wings and tail are brown with only faint rufous fringes. The underparts are yellow and the throat is white. The massive black bill, which gives this species its English and generic names, is the best distinction from the similar Great Kiskadee, which also has more rufous tail and wings, and lacks the olive tone to the upperparts. The call is a strident trilled nya, nya, nya. Boat-billed Flycatchers wait on a concealed perch high in a tree and sally out to catch insects in flight. They will also take invertebrates off the foliage and eat some berries.

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Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis
The Social Flycatcher or Vermilion-crowned Flycatcher, Myiozetetes similis, is a passerine bird from the Americas, a member of the large tyrant flycatcher family (Tyrannidae). It is sometimes split into two species, with the Social Flycatcher, Myiozetetes texensis, from Costa Rica northwards to Mexico, and the Vermillion-crowned Flycatcher, M. similis proper, from southwest Costa Rica across South America. In appearance the Social Flycatcher resembles a smaller Boat-billed Flycatcher or Great Kiskadee. The adult is 16-18 cm long and weighs 24-27 g. The head is dark grey with a strong white eyestripe and a usually concealed orange to vermillion crown stripe. The upperparts are olive-brown, and the wings and tail are brown with only faint rufous fringes. The underparts are yellow and the throat is white. Young birds have a paler eye mask, reduced crown stripe, and have chestnut fringes to the wing and tail feathers. The call is a sharp peeurrr and the dawn song is a chips-k’-cheery. This species is most similar to its closest living relative, the Rusty-margined Flycatcher, and also to the White-bearded Flycatcher and Lesser Kiskadee. In fact, except at close range these are all but indistinguishable from appearance alone. They and the two larger similar species mentioned above share much of their range.

Though they all are apparently fairly close relatives, the group to which they seem to belong also includes species with rather different head-pattern, like the Grey-capped Flycatcher which also belongs to Myiozetetes. It is enigmatic why such a "kiskadee pattern" of coloration would evolve, and it is unlikely to be purely a coincidence due to the number of different genera and species involved. One of three reasons usually applies in such cases: the coloration could of course be an underlying plesiomorphy with no special significance that was already present in the last common ancestor of all these genera, and partly or in whole lost in a few of the group's species. More intriguing is the possibility that these birds are a case of mimicry. This could either be Batesian mimicry, with the smaller species gaining some protection by being similar at first sight to the larger and decidedly pugnacious ones. Perhaps the most interesting possibility is that it is Batesian or even Müllerian mimicry in response to some, maybe all of these birds being unpalatable or even slightly poisonous. While such a situation almost certainly exists in the entirely unrelated genus Pitohui from the New Guinea region, the possible presence of nauseous toxins in these bird, while theoretically possible, has not yet been studied. What can be said at present is that the "kiskadee pattern" consists largely of typical aposematic colors like prominent black-andwhite stripes and vivid yellow, and that some tyrant flycatchers indeed are less than palatable to many predators. In any case, individuals of the smaller "kiskadee-patterned" species seem to recognize their own kind maybe by details of the song structure, and almost certainly by the color of the crown stripe which gets raised in social display. Social Flycatchers breed in plantations, pasture with some trees, and open woodland from northwestern Mexico south to northeastern Peru, southern Brazil and northwestern Argentina. Social Flycatchers sally out from an open perch in a tree to catch insects in flight. They also regularly hover to take small berries, and will enter shallow waters to predate tadpoles. The nest, built by the female in a bush, tree or on a building, is a large roofed structure of stems and straw, which for protection is often built near a wasp, bee or ant nest, or the nest of another tyrant flycatcher. The nest site is often near or over water. The typical clutch is two to four brown- or lilac-blotched cream or white eggs, laid between February and June.

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Grey-capped Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis
The Grey-capped Flycatcher, Myiozetetes granadensis, is a passerine bird, a member of the large tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in cultivation, pasture, and open woodland with some trees from eastern Honduras south to northwestern Peru, northern Bolivia and western Brazil The nest, built by the female in a bush, tree or on a building, is a large roofed structure of stems and straw, which for protection is often built near a wasp, bee or ant nest, or the nest of another tyrant flycatcher, such as the similar Social Flycatcher, Myiozetetes similis. The nest site is often near or over water. The typical clutch is two to four brown or lilacblotched dull white eggs, laid between February and June. In appearance the Grey-capped Flycatcher resembles the Social Flycatcher, which shares much of its range. The adult Grey-capped Flycatcher is 16.5-18 cm long and weighs 26-30 g. The head is grey with a short weak eyestripe and, in the male, a concealed vermilion crown stripe. The upperparts are olive-brown, and the wings and tail are brown with only faint rufous fringes. The underparts are yellow and the throat is white. Young birds have no crown stripe, and have chestnut fringes to the wing and tail feathers. The best distinction from the Social Flycatcher is the latter’s strong blackand white head pattern. The call is a sharp nasal kip and the dawn song is a kip, kip, kip, k’beer. Grey-capped Flycatchers sally out from an open perch in a tree to catch insects in flight. They sometimes hover to take small berries.

Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus
The Great Kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus, is a passerine bird. It is a large tyrant flycatcher; sometimes its genus Pitangus is considered monotypic as the Lesser Kiskadee may be sparated in Philohydor. It breeds in open woodland with some tall trees, including cultivation and around human habitation, from southern Texas and Mexico south to central Argentina, and on Trinidad. It was introduced to Bermuda in 1957 and to Tobago in about 1970. Adult Great Kiskadees are 22cm long and weigh 63g. The head is black with a strong white eyestripe and a concealed yellow crown stripe. The upperparts are brown, and the wings and tail are brown with usually strong rufous fringes. The black bill is short and thick. The similar Boat-billed Flycatcher has a massive black bill, an olive-brown back and very little rufous in the tail and wings. The call is an exuberant BEE-tee-WEE, and gives the bird its name in different languages and countries: In Brazilian Portuguese the birds name is bem-te-vi, that is, "I've spotted you. In Spanishspeaking countries it is often "bien-te-veo", with a similar meaning, as in a Mexican name, luis bienteveo. In El Salvador it is know as "Cristofue"; in French it is tyran quiquivi, and in Paraguay it's known as "pitogüé".

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Varzea Schiffornis Schiffornis major
The Greater Schiffornis (Schiffornis major), also called Varzea Mourner, is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family, the cotingas. It is found in most western regions of the Amazon Basin, and Amazonian Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru; also regions of Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical swamps.

Thrush-like Schiffornis Schiffornis turdinus
The Thrush-like Schiffornis (Schiffornis turdina), also called Thrush-like Mourner, is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family, the cotingas. It is found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

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White-winged Becard Pachyramphus polychopterus
The White-winged Becard (Pachyramphus polychopterus) is a species of bird of the pachyramphus genus, the becards, in the Cotingidae family, the cotingas. It is found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest. Chile is the only country of South America without the White-winged Becard's rangings. The White-winged Becard ranges east of the Andes cordillera, except in the north in Colombia.

Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata
The Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata) is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family. It is found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and heavily degraded former forest.

Vireos and Greenlets Vireonidae
The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in color and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. The four genera of these insectivorous birds make up the family Vireonidae, and are believed to be related to the crow-like birds in family Corvidae and the shrikes in family Laniidae. The four genera can be conveniently categorised as the true vireos, the greenlets, the shrike-vireos and the peppershrikes.

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Yellow-green Vireo Vireo flavoviridis
The Yellow-green Vireo, Vireo flavoviridis, is a small passerine bird. It breeds from the mountain ranges of western and eastern, north Mexico, (the Sierra Madre Occidentals and Sierra Madre Orientals), and southern Texas in the United States south to central Panama. It is migratory, wintering in the western Amazon basin, (at the eastern Andes). The adult Yellow-green Vireo is 14-14.7 cm in length and weighs 18.5 g. It has olive-green upperparts and a duskyedged grey crown. There is a dark line from the bill to the red-brown eyes, and a white supercilium. The underparts are white with yellow breast sides and flanks. Young birds are duller with brown eyes, a brown tint to the back, and less yellow on the underparts. Adult Yellow-green Vireo differs from Red-eyed Vireo in its much yellower underparts, lack of a black border to the duller grey crown, yellower upperparts and different eye colour. Some individuals are difficult to separate from the similar Red-eyed Vireo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific, even in the hand. Its exact status as a passage bird in countries such as Venezuela is therefore uncertain. The Yellow-green Vireo has a nasal nyaaah call and the song is a repetitive veree veer viree, fee’er vireo viree, shorter and faster than that of Red-eyed Vireo. This species rarely sings on its wintering grounds. This vireo occurs in the canopy and middle levels of light woodland, the edges of forest, and gardens at altitudes from sea level to 1500 m. The 6.5 cm wide cup nest is built by the female from a wide range of plant materials, and attached to a stout twig normally 1.5 - 3.5 m above the ground in a tree, but occasionally up to 12 m high. The normal clutch is two or three brown-marked white eggs laid from March to June and incubated by the female alone, although the male helps to feed the chicks. The breeding birds return to Central America from early February to March, and most depart southwards by mid-October Yellow-green Vireos feed on insects gleaned from tree foliage, favouring caterpillars and beetles. They also eat small fruits, including mistletoe berries, and, in winter quarters, those of Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae) and Gumbo-limbo (Bursera simaruba).

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Wrens Troglodytidae
The wrens are passerine birds in the mainly New World family Troglodytidae. There are about 80 species of true wrens in about 20 genera, though the name is also ascribed to other unrelated birds throughout the world. Troglodyte means "cave-dweller," and the wrens get their scientific name from the tendency of some species to forage in dark crevices. They are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. They range in size from the White-bellied Wren (Uropsila leucogastra), which averages under 10 cm (4 inches) and 9 grams, to the Giant Wren (Campylorhynchus chiapensis), which averages at about 22 cm (8.7 inches) and 50 grams (1.8 oz). Only one species occurs in the Old World, where it is commonly known simply as the "Wren"; it is called Winter Wren in North America. The 27 Australasian "wren" species in the family Maluridae are unrelated, as are the New Zealand wrens in the family Acanthisittidae.

Coraya Wren Thryothorus coraya
The Coraya Wren (Thryothorus coraya) is a species of bird in the Troglodytidae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest.

Buff-breasted Wren Thryothorus leucotis
The Buff-breasted Wren (Thryothorus leucotis) is a species of bird in the Troglodytidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest.

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Gnatwrens and Allies Sylvidae
Long-billed Gnatwren Microbates Ramphocaenus melanurus
The Long-billed Gnatwren, Ramphocaenus melanurus, is a very small bird in the gnatcatcher family. It is the only member of the genus Ramphocaenus (Vieillot, 1819). It is found in the undergrowth and vines of dry forest and secondary woodland from Mexico south to Peru and Brazil, and on Trinidad. Long-billed Gnatwrens build a deep cup nest very low in a small plant or sapling. The two white eggs are incuated by both parents for 16-17 days to hatching, with a further 11-12 days to fledging. Adult Long-billed Gnatwrens are 10.9cm long and weigh 10.3g. They have a long thin bill and a short cocked tail. The upperparts are grey-brown, with rufous on the sides of the head. The throat is white, shading to buff on the rest of the underparts. The tail is black with white tips to all but the central feathers, and is frequently wagged. R. m. trinitatis, of eastern Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad has paler underparts, and buff flanks and head sides. Long-billed Gnatwrens forage actively in vegetation, eating mainly insects, insect eggs and spiders. The call is a trilled drdrdrdrdrdrdrdrdrdr. This unmistakable bird usually occurs in pairs or family groups.

Swallows and Martins Hirundinidae
The swallows and martins are a group of passerine birds in the family Hirundinidae which are characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Swallow is also used in Europe as a synonym for the Barn Swallow. This family comprises two subfamilies: Pseudochelidoninae (the river martins of the genus Pseudochelidon) and Hirundininae (all other swallows and martins). Within the Hirundiniae, the name "martin" tends to be used for the squarer-tailed species and the name "swallow" for the more fork-tailed species; however, there is no scientific distinction between these two groups. It is believed that this family originated in Africa as hole-nesters; Africa still has the greatest diversity of species. Swallows have adapted to hunting insects on the wing by developing a slender streamlined body, and long pointed wings, which allows great manoeuvrability and endurance. Like the unrelated swifts and nightjars, which hunt in a similar way, they have short bills, but strong jaws and a wide gape. Their body length ranges from about 10–24 cm (3.9–9.4 in) and their weight from about 10–60 g (0.4– 2.1 oz). The wings are long, pointed, and have nine primary feathers. The tail has 12 feathers and may be deeply forked, somewhat indented, or squareended. A long tail increases manoeuvrability and may also function as a sexual adornment, since the tail is frequently longer in males. Female Barn Swallows will select mates on the basis of tail length. The legs are short, and their feet are designed for perching rather than walking, as the front toes are partially joined at the base, causing the bird to display a waddling gait.

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The most common hirundine plumage is glossy dark blue or green above and plain or streaked underparts, often white or rufous. Species which burrow or live in dry or mountainous areas are often unglossed brown above (eg Sand Martin and Crag Martin). The sexes show no, or only limited, sexual dimorphism, with longer outer tail feathers in the adult male probably being the commonest distinction where one exists. The chicks hatch naked and with closed eyes. Fledged juveniles usually appear as duller versions of the adult. Swallows typically build mud nests close to overhead shelter in locations that are protected from both the weather and predators. Many cave and cliff dwelling species of swallow nest in large colonies. In historical times, the introduction of man-made stone structures such as barns and bridges, together with forest clearance, has led to an abundance of colony sites around the globe, significantly increasing the breeding ranges of some species. Birds living in large colonies typically have to contend with both ectoparasites and conspecific nest parasitism. Old males benefit most from coloniality, since they are able to maintain their own nests and benefit from frequent extra-pair copulations. Swallows are excellent fliers, and use these skills to attract a mate and to defend territory. In general, the males select a nest site, and then attract a female using song and flight, and guard their territory. The size of the territory varies depending on the species of swallow; in colonial-nesting species it tends to be small, but it may be much larger for solitary nesters. The air speed of a fairly typical unladen European swallow is estimated to be roughly 24 miles per hour. Pairs of mated swallows are monogamous, and pairs of non-migratory species often stay near their breeding area all year, though the nest site is defended most vigorously during the breeding season. Migratory species often return to the same breeding area each year, and may select same nest site if they were previously successful in that location. First-year breeders generally select a nesting site close to where they were born and raised. Most species hunt over open country or near water. Swallows are able to produce many different calls or songs, which are used to express excitement, to communicate with others of the same species, during courtship, or as an alarm when a predator is in the area. Begging calls are used by the young when soliciting food from their parents. The typical song of swallows is a simple, sometimes musical twittering.

White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer
The White-winged Swallow, Tachycineta albiventer, is a resident breeding bird in tropical South America from Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad south to northern Argentina. Being non-migratory, stray birds are not often encountered; one was seen on July 6, 1996, on the Tuira River downstream of Unión Chocó, Panama, and another one at Schoelcher, Martinique, on August 10, 1993. The adult White-winged Swallow is 13.2 cm long and weighs 17 g. It has iridiscent blue-green upperparts, white underparts and rump, and white edgings to the secondary flight feathers. The sexes are similar, but juvenile plumage is grey brown above apart from the white rump. The call is a harsh chirrup. White-winged Swallows are easily distinguished from the related Tree Swallow, which has occurred within its range, by the white in the wings; this is lacking in the otherwise quite similar Tree Swallows.

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The White-winged Swallow is usually found near water, and feeds primarily on flying insects. It normally occurs in pairs or small flocks. This swallow builds a cup nest lined with other birds' feathers and some seed down in a tree hole, between boulders or in man-made structures. The clutch is 3-6 white eggs. A nest in Cuyabeno Faunistic Reserve (Ecuador) was found to contain recently-hatched young on August 30, 2003.

White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata
The White-banded Swallow (Atticora fasciata) is a species of bird in the Hirundinidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is rivers.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis
The Southern Rough-winged Swallow , Stelgidopteryx ruficollis, is a small swallow. It occurs in Central and South America from Honduras south to northern Argentina and Uruguay. It also occurs on Trinidad. Southern birds of the nominate race S. r. ruficollis, are migratory, moving north in winter, but the northern S. r. aequalis is sedentary. The adult is 13.5 cm in length and weighs 15 g. It is brown above, with blackish wings and tail and a pale grey rump. The throat and upper breast are rufous with the lower underparts yellowish-white. The tail is slightly forked. It is similar in appearance to its northern counterpart, the Northern Rough-winged Swallow but is more uniform in colour, particularly on the rump. It is found in open areas and forest clearings. It nests in grass-lined cavities of various types, including holes in banks or walls, or disused kingfisher and jacamar nests. It does not form colonies. The clutch is 3-6 white eggs, incubated by the female for 16-18 days and with another 13 days to fledging. Southern Roughwinged Swallow forages for insects in flight, usually flying low with a slow deliberate flight. The call is an unmusical chirrup. "Rough-winged" refers to the serrated edge of the outer primary feathers on the wing of this bird; this feature would only be apparent when holding this bird.

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Tanagers Thraupinae
There were traditionally about 240 species of tanagers in the bird family Thraupidae. They belong to the order Passeriformes. The taxonomic treatment of this family's members is currently in a state of flux. As more of these birds are studied using modern molecular techniques it is expected that some genera may be relocated elsewhere. Already the Euphonias and chlorophonias, which were once considered part of the tanager family, are now treated as members of Fringillidae, in their own subfamily (Euphoniinae). Likewise the genera Piranga, Chlorothraupis, and Habia appear to be related to members of the Cardinal family, and may soon be reassigned by the AOU.

Magpie Tanager Cissopis leveriana
The Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana) is a tanager. It is the only member of the genus Cissopis. Length 26-29 cm. Weight 69-76 g. lives in the Andes in Venezuela, and in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Also in Brazil Argentina, and Bolivia. Elevation 1200-2000 m. Seen in river floodplains and forest edges among grass and shrubs. Also occurs in plantations near human settlements. Occurs in groups of 3-10 individuals. Very loud. Seem to jump far from branch to branch. Moves tail up and down, seems to enjoy displaying tail feathers when takes flight. Eats seed and fruits and insects. Cup nest lined with grass, leaves or other plant materials. Located near ground on short trees or in shrubs in dense vegetation. Clutch size 2 eggs red/brown with brown spots. Captive bird incubated egg for 12-13 days. The binomial commemorates the English collector Sir Ashton Lever.

White-winged Shrike-Tanager Lanio versicolor
The White-winged Shrike-tanager (Lanio versicolor) is a species of bird in the Thraupidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis
The Masked Crimson Tanager (Ramphocelus nigrogularis) is a species of bird in the Thraupidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical swamps and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland.

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Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo
The Silver-beaked Tanager, Ramphocelus carbo, is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder in South America from eastern Colombia and Venezuela south to Paraguay and central Brazil, and on Trinidad. It is common and conspicuous in some areas—it may be the bird most often heard and seen in Suriname. It occurs in light woodland and cultivation. The bulky cup nest is usually built in a bush, and the normal clutch is two green-blue eggs blotched with blackbrown. The female incubates the eggs for 11-12 days to hatching, with about the same time again before the chicks fledge. Silver-beaked Tanagers are 18 cm long and weigh 25 g. Adult males are velvety crimson black with a deep crimson throat and breast. The upper mandible of the bill is black, but the enlarged lower mandible is bright silver in appearance. The bill is pointed upwards in display. The female is much duller, with brownish upperparts, reddish brown underparts and a black bill. There is considerable plumage variation between the various subspecies, differing mainly in the degree of contrast between the upperparts and the throat and breast. These are social birds which eat mainly fruit, but insects are also taken. The Silver-beaked Tanager is often seen in groups of six to ten, frequently giving a call described as cheeng. Its song is a slow thin kick-wic

Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum
The Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder from Nicaragua south to Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil. It also breeds on Trinidad and, since 1962, on Tobago. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is known by colloquial names such as the 'Palmiste' and the 'Green Jean'. It occurs in semi-open areas including cultivation and gardens. The bulky cup nest is built in a tree, usually a palm, or under the eaves of a house, and the female incubates three, sometimes two, brown-blotched cream eggs for 14 days, with another 17 days to fledging. Adult Palm Tanagers are 19 cm long and weigh 36g. They are dull olive-green with a paler crown. The flight feathers are black, and the long tail is black edged with green. A yellow wingbar shows in flight. Sexes are similar, although females may be somewhat paler. Palm Tanagers are social, restless but unwary birds which eat a wide variety of small fruit. They also regularly take some nectar and insects, including caterpillars. The song is fast and squeaky.

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Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster
The Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster) is a species of bird in the Fringillidae (finch) family. They were formerly considered tanagers (Thraupidae). It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza
Green Honeycreeper – Male The Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza is a small bird in the tanager family. It is found in the tropical New World from southern Mexico south to Brazil, and on Trinidad. It is the only member of the genus Chlorophanes (Reichenbach, 1853). This is a forest canopy species. The female Green Honeycreeper builds a small cup nest in a tree, and incubates the clutch of two brown-blotched white eggs for 13 days. The Green Honeycreeper is 14 cm long, weighs 17 g, and has a long decurved bill. The male is mainly blue-tinged green with a black head and a mostly bright yellow bill. Females and immatures are plumaged grass green, paler on the throat, and lack the black head. The call is a sharp chip. The Green Honeycreeper is less heavily dependent on nectar than the other honeycreepers, fruit being its main food (60%), with nectar (20%) and insects (15%) as less important components of its diet.

Green Honeycreeper – Female

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Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus
The Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus is a small bird in the tanager family. It is found in the tropical New World from Colombia and Venezuela south to Brazil, and on Trinidad. A few, possibly introduced birds have been recorded on Tobago. The species is a bird of northern South America and besides the Amazon Basin and the Guianas, a coastal range occurs west of the Andes cordillera, including parts of southern Panama. This is a forest canopy species, but also occurs in cocoa and citrus plantations. The female Purple Honeycreeper builds a small cup nest in a tree, and incubates the clutch of two brown-blotched white eggs.

The Purple Honeycreeper is 11.5cm long, weighs 12g and has a long black decurved bill. The male is purple with black wings, tail and belly, and bright yellow legs. Females and immatures have green upperparts, and green-streaked yellowish-buff underparts. The throat is cinnamon, and there is a blue moustachial stripe. The Trinidadian race C. c. longirostris has a longer bill than the mainland forms. The call of Purple Honeycreeper is a thin high-pitched zree. The Purple Honeycreeper is often found in small groups. It feeds on nectar, berries and insects, mainly in the canopy. It responds readily to the call of the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl.

Grosbeaks and Saltators Cardinalinae
Grosbeak is the name given to several species of seed-eating passerine bird with large bills, in the finch and cardinal families. The following is a list of grosbeak species - note that the groups of species are not each other's closest relatives - they share the name grosbeak purely because of morphological similarity. The finch family, Fringillidae contains the following 11 extant species (plus two species of Grosbeak Canary)

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Blue-backed Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides
The Blue-Black Grosbeak (Cyanocompsa cyanoides) is a species of cardinal (bird) in the Cardinalidae family. It is found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.

Lesser Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis
The Lesser Seed-finch (Oryzoborus angolensis) is a species of bird in the Emberizidae family. It is found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.

Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus
The Buff-throated Saltator, Saltator maximus, is a seedeating bird. Traditionally placed in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae), it actually seems to be closer to the tanagers (Thraupidae). It breeds from southeastern Mexico to western Ecuador and northeastern Brazil. This is the type species of Saltator. Consequently, it and its closest allies would retain the genus name when this apparently polyphyletic group is eventually split up. The Buff-throated Saltator is on average 20 cm long and weighs 42-52 g. The adult has a slate-grey head with a white supercilium and a greenish crown. The upperparts are olive green, the underparts are grey becoming buff on the lower belly, and the throat is buff, edged with black. The thick convex bill and legs are black. Young birds are duller, and have a white-mottled blackish throat and breast, and brown markings on
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the lower underparts. The common call is a high seeeer. Males duet melodiously with a warbled cheery cheery answered by cheery to you. This is a species of dense vegetation. The Buff-throated Saltator feeds on fruit, buds, nectar and slow-moving insects. It forages at low and mi levels, sometimes with mixed species flocks. The two pale blue eggs per clutch measure some 22-32 mm long by about 16.5-21.5 mm wide and weigh about 4.8-6.1 grams each. They are laid in a bulky cup nest up to 2 m high in a tree or bush.

Greyish Saltator Saltator coerulescens
The Greyish Saltator, Saltator coerulescens, is a seedeating bird. Traditionally placed in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae), it actually seems to be closer to the tanagers (Thraupidae). In El Salvador, it is well-known as dichoso fui after the "elaborate" version of its call, which sounds like a drawn-out ¡dichoso fui!, Spanish for "I was happy!"

American Orioles Icteridae
Orioles are colourful Old World passerine birds in the family Oriolidae and genus Oriolus. They are not related to the New World orioles, which are Icterids, family Icteridae. The orioles are a mainly tropical Old World group, although one species breeds in more temperate regions. The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. The name, meaning "jaundiced ones" (from the prominent yellow feathers of many species) comes from the Ancient Greek ikteros, through the Latin ictericus. This group includes such popular forms as the New World blackbirds, New World orioles, the Bobolink, meadowlarks, grackles, cowbirds, oropendolas and caciques. Despite the similar names, the first groups are not related to the Old World Blackbird (a thrush, Turdidae), or the Old World orioles (Oriolidae).

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Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela
The Yellow-rumped Cacique, Cacicus cela, is a passerine bird in the New World family Icteridae. It breeds in much of northern South America from Panama and Trinidad south to Peru, Bolivia and central Brazil. The Yellow-rumped Cacique is a bird associated with open woodland or cultivation with large trees. It is a colonial breeder, with up to 100 bagshaped nests in a tree, which usually also contains an active wasp nest. The females build the nests, incubate, and care for the young. Each nest is 30–45 cm long and widens at the base, and is suspended from the end of a branch. Females compete for the best sites near the protection of the wasp nest. The normal clutch is two dark-blotched pale blue or white eggs. Females begin incubating after laying the second egg; hatching occurs after 13 or 4 days. The young fledge in 34 to 40 days, usually only one per nest. This is a slim bird, with a long tail, blue eyes, and a pale yellow pointed bill. It has mainly black plumage, apart from a bright yellow rump, tail base, and lower belly and wing epaulets. The female is smaller and duller black than the male and the juvenile bird resembles the female, but has dark eyes and a brown bill base. The male is 28 cm long and weighs 104 g, and the female is 23 cm long and weighs 60 g. This gregarious bird eats large insects and fruit. The song of the male Yellow-rumped Cacique is a brilliant mixture of fluting notes with cackles, wheezes and sometimes mimicry. There are also many varied calls, and an active colony can be heard from a considerable distance. The Yellow-rumped Cacique has benefited from the more open habitat created by forest clearance and ranching.

Yellow-rumped Cacique nest

Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora
The Giant Cowbird, Molothrus oryzivorus, is a large passerine bird in the New World family Icteridae. It breeds from southern Mexico south to northern Argentina, and on Trinidad and Tobago. It may have relatively recently colonised the latter island. It is associated with open woodland and cultivation with large trees, but is also the only cowbird that is found in deep forest. It is a quiet bird, particularly for an icterid, but the male has an unpleasant screeched whistle, shweeaa-tpic-tpic. The call is a sharp chek-chik. They are also very adept mimics. Like other cowbirds, it is a brood parasite, laying its eggs in the nests of oropendolas and caciques. The eggs are of two types, either whitish and unspotted, or pale blue or green with dark spots and blotches. The host’s eggs and chicks are not destroyed, but there is considerable doubt about the theory that the young Giant Cowbirds benefit the host’s chick by removing and eating parasitic flies. Their icterid hosts breed colonially, and defend their nests vigorously, so even a large, bold and aggressive species like the Giant Cowbird has to cover an extensive territory to find sufficient egg-laying opportunities. Several Giant Cowbird

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eggs may be laid in one host nest. The male Giant Cowbird is 36 cm long, weighs 180 g and is iridescent black, with a long tail, long bill, small head, and a neck ruff which is expanded in display. The female is 28 cm long and weighs 135 g. She is less iridescent than the male, and the absence of the neck ruff makes her look less small-headed. Juvenile males are similar to the adult male, but browner, and with a pale, not black, bill. This gregarious bird feeds mainly on insects and some seeds, including rice, and forages on the ground or in trees. It rarely perches on cattle, unlike some of its relatives, but in Brazil it will ride on Capybaras as it removes horse flies.

Gnatcatcher Polioptila clementsi
The 15-20 species of small passerine birds in the gnatcatcher family occur in North and South America (except far south and high Andean regions). Most species of this mainly tropical and subtropical group are resident, but the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher of the USA and southern Canada migrates south in winter. These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their structure and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers are mainly soft bluish grey in colour, and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. Many species have distinctive black head patterns (esp. males) and long, regularly cocked, black-and-white tails. The skulking gnatwrens are browner, more thickset, and with proportionally shorter tails and longer bills. The gnatwrens typically occur in the undergrowth of dense, often humid, forest, while gnatcatchers, depending on the species involved, occur in anything from dry scrubby habitats (e.g. the California Gnatcatcher) to the canopy of humid Amazonian forest (e.g. the Guianan Gnatcatcher). The North American species nest in bushes or trees, but the breeding behavior of several of the Neotropical species is essentially unknown. A species new to science, the critically endangered Iquitos Gnatcatcher (Polioptila clementsi), was first described in 2005. This species is a member of the P. guianensis complex, which recently has been proposed split into three species (four w. the Iquitos Gnatcatcher), but not all authorities have accepted this (e.g. SACC). Furthermore, other groups should possibly be split, notably the P. plumbea and P. dumicola complexes, but at present scientific papers on these matters are lacking.

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MAMMALS Giant Otter Pteronura brasiliensis
The Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) inhabits South America, especially the Amazon river basin, but is becoming increasingly rare due to poaching, habitat loss, and the use of mercury and other toxins in illegal alluvial gold mining. This gregarious animal grows to a length of up to 1.8 metres (6 feet), and is more aquatic than most other otters. The Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, (also known as the river wolf) is the longest of the world's otters, as well as the largest mustelid. It is native to South America but is endangered and is also very rare in captivity. A group of giant otters is called a romp, a bevy, a family, or a raft. The Giant Otter can reach up to 6 ft (1.8 m) in length, and weigh up to 76 lb (34 kg). The females are smaller and weigh only 57–60 lb (26–27 kg). It has a lifespan of 12 years in their natural habitat, and 21 years in captivity. Its fur is dense, thick and velvety, and is highly sought after by fur traders. The guard hairs are short, 5/16 in (8 mm) long, twice as long as the under-fur. The fur is water repellent and is a deep chocolate brown in color. A unique white mark is located on the throat that can be used to distinguish between individuals. The head is round and the ears are small. The nose is completely covered in fur, with only the two slit-like nostrils visible. The eyes are large and they have acute vision, an adaptation for hunting underwater. The legs are short and stubby and end in large webbed feet tipped with sharp claws. The Giant Otter is well suited for an aquatic life, and can close its ears while underwater. Giant Otters can also close their nostrils when they swim under water. The Giant Otter is one of the largest predators of its region, and so can choose from a wide variety of animals to feed on. It feeds mainly on fish, such as catfish, piranha, and perch, but will also feed on crabs, small caimans, and snakes, including small anacondas. It can hunt both in groups and alone, tending to head towards the deeper waters while in groups. It consumes up to 10 lb (4.5 kg) of food each day, using mostly its eyesight to locate its prey. The giant otter has very few natural predators. Caimans and large anacondas prey upon both young and adult otters by ambush. On land jaguars are also a threat to otters when they are in search of more suitable water reserves in the dry season. The Giant Otter is a highly social animal and lives in extended family groups of between 4-8 members. Group members share roles within the group, structured around the dominant breeding pair. The females have a gestation period of 6570 days, giving birth to 1-5 young. Mothers give birth in an underground den near the river shore. Otter pups are taught to swim after two months and left to fend for themselves after two to three years. The Giant Otter is very sensitive to human activity, and tourists boating too close to a nursing mother can cause her so much stress that she stops producing milk, causing her young to starve. The Giant Otter gives birth annually. The Giant Otter is the only species of mustelid that is monogamous.

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Tamarins Saguinus
The tamarins are any of the squirrel-sized New World monkeys from the family Cebidae, classified as the genus Saguinus. The closely related lion tamarins are in genus Leontopithecus. Tamarin habitats range from southern Central America (Costa Rica) through middle South America (Amazon basin and north Bolivia, however not in the mountainous parts). The various species of tamarins differ considerably according to their appearance, ranging from nearly all black through mixtures of black, brown and white. Many species typically have mustache-like facial hairs. Their body size ranges from 18 to 30 cm (plus a 25 to 44 cm long tail) and they weigh from 220 to 900 grams. Tamarins differ from marmosets primarily in the fact that the lower canine teeth are clearly longer than the incisors. Tamarins are inhabitants of tropical rain forests and open forest areas. They are diurnal and arboreal, and run and jump quickly through the trees. Tamarins live together in groups of up to 40 members consisting of one or more families. More frequently, though, groups are composed of just three to nine members. Tamarins are omnivores, eating fruits and other plant parts as well as spiders, insects, small vertebrates and bird eggs. Gestation is typically 140 days, and births are normally twins. The father primarily cares for the young, bringing them to their mother to nurse. After approximately one month the young begin to eat solid food, although they aren't fully weaned for another two to three months. They reach full maturity in their second year. In captivity, tamarins live to be 18 years old.

Common Squirrel Monkey Saimiri sciureus
The Common Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) is a small New World primate from the Cebidae family, and native to ten different countries of South America: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela and Puerto Rico. It lives in very large groups, up to 300 individuals, on moist tropical forests, and usually forages in the medium and lower levels of the forest and sleeps close to the canopy. The females are the dominant members of the group. It is a very agile monkey, with a high metabolic rate, and although an omnivorous animal, it feeds primarily on insects and other invertebrates. It also feeds on fruits, seeds and other plant parts. It is common to see these squirrel monkeys in mixed groups, moving along with other primate species and birds.

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Titi Monkey Callicebus
The titis, or titi monkeys, are the New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus. They are the only extant members of the Callicebinae subfamily, which also contains the extinct genera Xenothrix, Antillothrix, Paralouatta, Carlocebus, Homunculus, Lagonimico and possibly also Tremacebus. Titis live in South America, from Colombia to Brazil, Peru and north Paraguay. The different titi species vary substantially in size and coloring, but resemble each other in most other physical ways. The fur is long and soft, and it is usually reddish, brownish or black and with a lighter underside. Some species have a bright collar or black stripes at the head. The tail is always furry and is not prehensile. Diurnal and arboreal, titis predominantly prefer dense forests near water. They easily jump from branch to branch, earning them their German name, "jumping monkey". They sleep at night, but also take a midday nap. Titis are territorial. They live in family groups that consist of parents and their offspring, about three to seven animals. They defend their territory by shouting and chasing off intruders. Their grooming and communication is important for the co-operation of the group. They can typically be seen in pairs sitting or sleeping with tails entwined. The diet of the titis consists mainly of fruits, although they also eat leaves, flowers, insects, bird eggs and small vertebrates. Titis are monogamous, mating for life. The female bears a single young animal after about a five-month gestation. Twins occur rarely. The more "laid-back" adult cares for the young. Often it is the father who cares for the young, carrying it and bringing it to the mother only for nursing. The young are weaned after 5 months and are fully grown after two years. After three or more years, they leave their family group in order to find a mate. Their life expectancy is up to 12 years in the wild.

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