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00 for Precision air conditioning (computers and data centres) 2. SHR from 0.65 - 0.75 for Comfort cooling (people) 3. SHR from 0.50 - 0.60 for Dehumidification (pools and outside air) Lower SHR value indicates that the dehumidification requirement will be high and the supply air leaving the cooling coil shall be at lower temperature to meet the dehumidification needs. The supply airflow rate will be less. COOLING & HEATING EQUATIONS Roofs, External Walls & Conduction through Glass The equation used for sensible loads from the opaque elements such as walls, roof, partitions and the conduction through glass is: H = U * A * CLTD (Refer basic Conduction heat formula below) Where • H describes Sensible heat flow (Btu/Hr) • U = Thermal Transmittance for roof or wall or glass. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 24 or 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals, chapter 25. (Unit- Btu/Hr Sq-ft °F) • A = area of roof, wall or glass calculated from building plans (sqft) • CLTD = Cooling Load Temperature Difference (in °F) for roof,wall or glass. For winter months CLTD is ( Ti - T0 ) which is temperature difference between inside and outside. For Summer cooling load, this temperature differential is affected by thermal mass, daily temperature range, orientation, tilt, month, day, hour,latitude, solar absorbance, wall facing direction and other variables and therefore adjusted CLTD values are used. Refer 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 28, tables 30, 31, 32, 33 and 34. Solar Load through Glass, Skylights and Plastic Sheets Heat transfer through glazing is both conductive and transmission. It is calculated in two steps: Step # 1 The equation used for sensible loads from the conduction through glass is: H = U * A * (CLTD) Where • H = Sensible heat gain (Btu/Hr) • U = Thermal Transmittance for roof or wall or glass. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 24 or 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals, chapter 25. (Unit- Btu/Hr Sq-ft °F) • A = area of roof, wall or glass calculated from building plans (sqft) • CLTD = Cooling Load Temperature Difference (in °F) for glass.Refer 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 28, tables 30, 31, 32, 33 and 34. Step # 2 The equation used for radiant sensible loads from the transparent/translucent elements such as window glass, skylights and plastic sheets is: H = A*(SHGC)*(SC)*(CLF) Where • H = Sensible heat gain (Btu/Hr) • A = area of roof, wall or glass calculated from building plans (sqft) • SHGC = Solar Heat Gain Coefficient. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 28, table 35 • CLF = Solar Cooling Load Factor. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 28, table 36. Partitions, Ceilings & Floors The equation used for sensible loads from the partitions, ceilings and floors: H = U * A * (Ta - Tr) Where • H = Sensible heat gain (Btu/Hr) • U = Thermal Transmittance for roof or wall or glass. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 24 or 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals, and Chapter 25. (Unit- Btu/Hr Sq-ft °F) • A = area of partition, ceiling or floor calculated from building plans (sq-ft) • Ta = Temperature of adjacent space in °F (Note: If adjacent space is not conditioned and temperature is not available, use outdoor air temperature less 5 ° F) • Tr = Inside room design temperature of conditioned space in °F (assumed constant usually 75°F) Ventilation & Infiltration Air Ventilation air is the amount of outdoor air required to maintain Indoor Air Quality for the occupants (refer ASHRAE Standard 62 for minimum ventilation requirements) and makeup for air leaving the space due to equipment exhaust, exfiltration and pressurization. Hsensible = 1.08 * CFM * (T0 – Tc) Realize that 1.085 is not a constant! It is the product of density, the specific heat of air and the conversion factor of 60 minutes per hour. These properties of air at “standard” conditions (69.5°F DB dry air at sea level) result in the value 1.085. Air at other conditions and elevations will cause this factor to change. Density = 0.075 lb/ft3 Specific Heat = 0.24 Btu/lb°F .(Specific heat is the measure of heat or thermal energy required to increase or decrease the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by one unit. For example, at a temperature of 15 °C, the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 K (equivalent to 1 °C) is 4186 joules, meaning that the specific heat of water is 4.186 kJ·kg−1·K−1). When you know volume of a fluid and the temperature difference it has to go through, then you need to know its specific heat at that temperature and convert volumetric flow to mass flow as the specific heat is in terms of per pound. 0.075 x 0.24 x 60 min/hr = 1.085 Hlatent = 0.68 x CFM x ▲WGR Hlatent = 4840 x CFM x▲W Lb Htotal = 4.5 * CFM * (ho – hc) Realize that 4.5 is not a constant! It is the product of density of air and the conversion factor of 60 minutes per hour. The density of air at “standard” conditions (69.5°F DB dry air at sea level) results in the value 4.5. Air at other conditions and elevations will cause this factor to change. Density = 0.075 lb/ft3 , 0.075 x 60 min/hr = 4.5 Htotal = H sensible + H latent Where • H sensible = Sensible heat gain (Btu/hr) • Hlatent = Latent heat gain (Btu/hr) • Htotal = Total heat gain (Btu/hr) • CFM = Ventilation airflow rate in cubic feet per minute • To = Outside dry bulb temperature, °F • Tc = Dry bulb temperature of air leaving the cooling coil, °F • ▲WGR = Humidity Ratio Difference (Gr H02O/Lb of dry air) =(WO – WC) • ▲WLB = Humidity Ratio Difference (Lb H2O /Lb of dry air) and= (WO – WC) • WO = Outside humidity ratio, Lb H2O per Lb (dry air) • WC = Humidity ratio of air leaving the cooling coil, Lb H2O per Lb (dry air)
9 & 10. Heat gain of when driven equipment is located outside the space to be conditioned space and the motor is inside the space or air stream H = 2545 * P * [(1. H = 3. HL = Sensible and Latent heat gain from occupancy is given in 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 28.41 * W * F u * F r * (CLF) Where • H = Sensible heat gain (Btu/hr) • W = Installed rating of appliances in watts. see 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals. Chapter 28. as decimal fraction • F U M = Motor us e factor • F L M = Motor load factor • Note: F UM = 1. air temperature and the number of persons in the building. Chapter 28.0) • F UM = Motor load factor (normally = 1. For computers. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. Power Loads & Motors Three different equations are used under different scenarios: a. Table 5 thru 9 or use manufacturer’s data. Conductive Heat Transfer Conductive heat flow occurs in the direction of decreasing temperature and takes place when a temperature gradient exists in a solid (or stationary fluid) medium. as decimal fraction • F U M = Motor us e factor • F L M = Motor load factor • Note: F UM = 1. Note: CLF = 1. • HS. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. by hour of occupancy.41 * W * F UT * F BF * (CLF) Where • H = Sensible heat gain (Btu/hr) • W = Installed lamp watts input from electrical lighting plan or lighting load data • F BF = Lighting use factor. H se ns ib le = N * (H S ) * (CLF) H la t en t = N * (H L) Where • H se ns ib le = Total Sensible heat gain (Btu/hr) • H la t en t = Total latent heat gain (Btu/hr) • N = number of people in space.0. • F u = Usage factor. Table 6 and 7 • F r = Radiation factor. table 37. as decimal fraction • F UM = Motor us e factor (normally = 1.Chapter 28. convection and radiation while latent heat from persons is transferred through water vapour released in breathing and/or perspiration.0. if operation is 24 hours c.• hO = Outside/Inside air enthalpy. Note: CLF = 1. Tables 8. if operation is 24 hours or of cooling is off at night or during weekends. if operation is 24 hours or if cooling is off at night or during weekends. Sensible heat is transferred through conduction. Table 38. monitors. The total heat transferred depends on the activity.0. Chapter 28.0. by hour of occupancy. Heat gain of power driven equipment and motor when both are located inside the space to be conditioned H = 2545 * (P / Eff) * F UM * F L M Where • H = Sensible heat gain (Btu/hr) • P = Horsepower rating from electrical power plans or manufacturer’s data (HP) • Eff = Equipment motor efficiency. Chapter 25. Heat gain of when driven equipment is located inside the space to be conditioned space and the motor is outside the space or air stream H = 2545 * P * F UM * F L M Where • H = Sensible heat gain (Btu/hr) • P = Horsepower rating from electrical power plans or manufacturer’s data (in HP) • Eff = Equipment motor efficiency. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. Chapter 28.0) • Note: F UM = 1. Chapter 28. Note: CLF = 1.0. if operation is 24 hours or of cooling is off at night or during weekends. clothing. Table 37 and 39. Btu per lb (dry air) • hC = Enthalpy of air leaving the cooling c oil Btu per lb (dry air) Refer to 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals . if operation is 24 hours Appliances H = 3. The equation used to express heat transfer by conduction is known as Fourier’s Law and is expressed as: H = k x A x ▲T / t Where • H (or Q) = Hat transferred per unit time (Btu/hr) • A = Heat transfer area (ft2) • k = Thermal conductivity of the material (Btu/ (hr0F ft2/ft)) • ▲T = Temperature difference across the material (°F) • t (or x)= material thickness (ft) . if operation is 24 hours b. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. as appropriate • F BF = Blast factor allowance. Table 3 (Btu/hr per person depending on nature of activity) • CLF = Cooling Load Factor. Chapter 29.0-Eff)/Eff] * F UM * F L M Where • H = Sensible heat gain (Btu/hr) • P = Horsepower rating from electrical power plans or manufacturer’s data (HP) • Eff = Equipment motor efficiency. by hour of occupancy. The sensible heat influence on the air temperature and latent heat influence the moisture content of indoor space. Lights The lights result in sensible heat gain. Table 6 and 7 • CLF = Cooling Load Factor. for determining infiltration People The heat load from people is both sensible load and the latent load. as appropriate • CLF = Cooling Load Factor. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. printers and miscellaneous office equipment.0. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals.
The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is thermal resistivity. etc. U-value is the inverse of R-value (hr sq-ft °F /Btu). (Unit. of Poles 1800 RPM Motor – slippage makes it about 1750 3600 RPM Motor – slippage makes it about 3450 SPECIFIC DENSITY = 1/Specific Volume . since in a wall we will have several materials with different k and t (thickness) Values we use U as overall heat transfer co-efficient which is a sum of k1/t1+k2/t2+ k3/t3 +…… also since we have properties of of air in terms of resistance we inverse this a t/k+Rair ) Thermal conductivity is defined as the quantity of heat (Q) transmitted through a unit thickness (t) in a direction normal to a surface of unit area (A) due to a unit temperature gradient (ΔT) under steady state conditions and when the heat transfer is dependent only on the temperature gradient. wherez` as this H = U * A * (CLTD) formula is derived from the basic formula where the overall thermal heat transfer co-efficient U is nothing but k/t (k/t is nothing but Conductance). In equation form this becomes the following: Thermal Conductivity = heat × distance / (area × temperature gradient) k = Q × t / (A × ΔT) . Heat Loss by Conduction & Convection through Roof & Walls Heat loss by conduction and convection heat transfer through any surface is given by: H sensible = A * U * (Ti – To) Where • H = heat transfer through walls. The energy associated with having to raise the temperature of infiltrating or ventilating air up to indoor air temperature is the sensible heat loss. Thermal conductance is k/x the quantity of heat that passes in unit time through a plate of particular area and thickness when its opposite faces differ in temperature by one Kelvin. (Btu/hr) • A = surface areas (sq-ft) • U = air-to-air heat transfer coefficient (Unit. glass. the greater the material's resistance to heat flow and the better is the insulating value. The losses are from the edges of the slab and insulation on these edges will significantly reduce the heat losses. roof. can be described. which is estimated by: H sensible = V * рair * Cp * (Ti – To) Where: • H sensible = Sensible heat loss • V = volumetric air flow rate • рair is the density of the air • Cp = specific heat capacity of air at constant pressure • Ti = indoor air temperature • To = outdoor air temperature The energy quantity associated with net loss of moisture from the space is latent heat loss which is given by: Hlatent = V * рair * hfg * (Wi – Wo) Where • Hlatent = Latent heat loss • V = volumetric air flow rate • рair is the density of the air • Wi = humidity ratio of indoor air • Wo = humidity ratio of outdoor air • hfg = latent heat of evaporation at indoor air temperature WATTS (POWER) = volts x amps or P = E x I VA (how the secondary of a transformer is rated) = volts X amps Example: 24V x .This above formula is the basic formula for heat transfer by conduction.Btu/Hr Sq-ft °F) • P = Perimeter of slab (ft) • T i = Inside temperature (°F) • T o = Outside temperature (°F) Heat loss from slab-on. • t = thickness (ft) Notes: The lower the U-factor.41A = 10 VA RPM of motor = 60Hz x 120 / No. When dealing with a known amount of material. Heat loss through Infiltration and Ventilation The heat loss due to infiltration and controlled natural ventilation is divided into sensible and latent losses.Btu/Hr Sq-ft °F) • Ti = indoor air temperature (°F) • To = outdoor air temperature (°F) Heat Loss through Floors on Slab The slab heat loss is calculated by using the following equation: H = F* P * (T i -T o) Where: • H = Sensible heat loss (Btu/hr) • F = Heat Los s Coefficient for the particular construction and is a function of the degree days of heating. its thermal conductance and the reciprocal property. R-Values/U-Values R = 1/ C = 1/(K / t) U = 1/ ΣR Where • R = R-Value (Hr Sq-ft °F/Btu) • U = U-Value (Btu/Hr Sq-ft °F) • C = Conductance (Btu/hr Sq-ft °F) • K = Conductivity (Btu in/ hr Sq-ft °F) • ΣR = Sum of the thermal resistances for each component used in the construction of the wall or roof section.grade foundations is a function of the slab perimeter rather than the floor area. thermal resistance.
At higher elevations.01 = a constant In small to medium size hydronic systems. The boiling point of water is 100 °C (212 °F) at standard pressure. H2O per lb of dry air) Cooling Tower Tons A cooling tower ton is defined as: 1 cooling tower ton = 15. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition.01 x ρ x c x ▲T) Where: • Q= Water volume flow rate (GPM) • H = Heat load (Btu/hr) • ▲T = Intended temperature drop (°F) • ρ = Fluid's density at the average system temperature (lb/ft3) • c = the fluid's specific heat at the average system temperature (Btu/lb/°F) • 8.39 kPa) and the boiling point of water is 69 °C.325 kilopascals or 1 atm). Thus. where the atmospheric pressure is much lower. between inlet and outlet of air stream across coil (lb-H2O perlb of dry air) • W GR = Specific Humidity diff.000 Btu/hr (3782 kCal /hr) This is roughly 25% more than chiller ton because the heat of compress ion of the refrigeration compressor is added to the condenser/cooling tower.33 x 7000) Where • Q Cond = Air Conditioning condensate generated (GPM) • Q air = Air Flow Rate through the air-handling unit cooling coil (Cu-ft / minute) • SpV = Specific Volume of Air (Cu-ft per lb of dry air) • W Lb = Specific Humidity diff. considering the freezing point and economics. Saturation pressure and saturation temperature have a direct relationship: as saturation pressure is increased so is saturation temperature.(Expansion tank cal sheet) A saturated liquid contains as much thermal energy as it can without boiling (or conversely a saturated vapor contains as little thermal energy as it can without condensing).2 °F). between inlet and outlet of air stream acros s coil (Gr. The boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the surrounding environmental pressure. On top of Mount Everest.01 x ρ x c) can be taken as 500 for water. 479 for 30% glycol. a liquid at saturation pressure and temperature will tend to flash into its vapor phase as system pressure is decreased.CHILLER HEAT LOAD & WATER FLOW The flow rate necessary to deliver the full output of the heat source at a specific temperature drop can be found using equation below: H = Q (8. Saturation pressure is the pressure for a corresponding saturation temperature at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. is about 40°F ( 4. Similarly. a vapor at saturation temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as thermal energy (heat) is removed. The lowest practical temperature for refrigeration. The total heat removed by air condition chilled water installation can thus be expressed as H = 500 x Q x ▲T Where • H = total heat removed (Btu/h) • Q = water flow rate (gal/min) • ▲T = temperature difference ( 0F) Evaporator Flow Rate The evaporator water flow rate can be expressed as Qe = Htons x 24 / T CONDENSATE GENERATION Condensate generation in an air condition system where specific humidity before and after are known can be expressed as Q Cond = Q air x W Lb / (SpV x 8. The boiling point decreases 1°C every 285 m of elevation . The saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. at 8. the boiling point is dependent on the pressure. Saturation temperature means boiling point.33) Q Cond = Q air x W GR / (SpV x 8. and 450 for 50% glycol. If the pressure in a system remains constant (isobaric). Similarly. the boiling point is also lower. (156.4C) . vapor at saturation pressure and temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as the system pressure is increased.848 m elevation. Usually. the pressure is about 260 mbar (26. a liquid at saturation temperature and pressure will boil into its vapor phase as additional thermal energy is applied. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. The boiling point increases with increased pressure. boiling points are published with respect to atmospheric pressure (101. If the temperature in a system remains constant (an isothermal system). the product of (8.
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