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INE 623: The Foundations of Language Learning
BY ELIF GUVENDI YALCIN
SUBMITTED TO: Assit. Prof. Dr. Dilek ÇAKICI
Dec. 14, 2010 Samsun
2 The Condition of Learning 1.1 Gagne’s Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes 1.Table of Contents Introduction Chapter 1: Gagne’s Instructional Theory 1.3 Events of Instruction Chapter 2: Strength and Weaknesses of the Theory and its Assumptions Conclusion References 2 .
According to Gagné (1974) . 3 . Robert Gagne's theory of instruction has provided a great number of valuable ideas to instructional designers. and the events of instruction. When Robert Gagné initially published his influential book. there was a flurry of activity within the field of instructional development that focused on systems of instruction. The Conditions of Learning (Gagné. I will focus on each of these three areas while briefly describing strengths and weaknesses of the theory. However. The arrangement of external events to activate and support the internal processes of learning constitutes what is called instruction”. 1916– April 28. In this paper. and how these different classes of learning objectives relate to the appropriate instructional designs. 1985). 2002) was an American educational psychologist best known for his"Conditions of Learning".Introduction Robert Mills Gagné (August 21. the conditions of learning.' He was also involved in applying concepts of instructional theory to the design of computerbased training and multimedia-based learning. During the 1960s. Gagné's theories evolved to incorporate cognitivist psychology theories. 1970. In his book. his instructional design theories were heavily rooted in the behaviorist psychology paradigm. specifically the information-processing model of cognition. Later he went on to develop a series of studies and works that helped codify what is now considered to be 'good instruction. 1977. It was during this time that the components of the instructional system and their system properties were articulated. in later editions of The Conditions of Learning (Gagné. Gagné pioneered the science of instruction during WWII for the air force with pilot training. (cited in Reigeluth: 1999. Gagne described the analysis of learning objectives. In 1965 Robert Gagne published his book entitled The Conditions of Learning. 196) "This model posits a number of internal processes that are subject to the influence of a variety of external events. and teachers. 1965). I will discuss Gagne's theory of instruction in terms of the taxonomy of learning outcomes. trainers.
• • Attitudes: Act as you feel-ex. the teaching objectives you identify for your course 4 . In 1984 Gagné pointed out that the verbal information category could also be termed “declarative knowledge” and the intellectual skills category could be termed “procedural knowledge. addition and subtraction • Cognitive strategies: Personalize ways to guide learning. and using rules. thinking.-ex. Gagne's taxonomy of learning outcomes is somewhat similar to Bloom's taxonomies of cognitive. how one feels about reading a book Motor skills: Use muscles to perform -ex.” Instructors begin by identifying learning outcomes desired for the course. concrete. be able to identify concrete concepts or feature (pick all the green M & Ms). concepts.1 Gagne’s Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes Bloom’s taxonomy dealt with the cognitive outcomes. Gagne’s Instructional Theory 1. feeling – ex. and psychomotor outcomes. Both Bloom and Gagne believed that it was important to break down humans' learned capabilities into categories or domains. Gagne’s taxonomy however was the first to identify learning outcomes in all three domains. and higher order rules -. Bloom then worked with Masia to develop a taxonomy that dealt with the affective domain. exploring the action of a magnet. learning the alphabet. affective. In their book Norton and Wilburg (1998: 56-57) describe Gagne's outcomes or objects of learning which consist of five major categories of human capabilities: • Verbal information: Being able to state previously learned material -ex. use defined concepts. Because courses and instruction can vary greatly. Simpson’s plan dealt with the psychomotor domain. • Intellectual skills With five subcategories: discriminations. In theory. rules. fastening buttons. defined concepts.Be able to discriminate objects or features(hear different pitches).Chapter 1.
cognitive strategies. That is. or dependent on age. these simple skills are able to be generalized to other situations. 5 . Therefore. The internal conditions can be described as "states" and include attention. internal and external. 1. 121) 1. and this learning itself is developed intellectually by teachers through planned or directed learning. countable.3 Events of Instruction Robert Gagne believes that within any learning hierarchy. motivation and recall. The external conditions deal with the stimuli that is presented externally to the learner. and include the arrangement and timing of stimulus events. Gagne believes learning is cumulative. The internal conditions deal with previously learned capabilities of the learner. Thus. The external conditions can be thought of as factors surrounding one's behavior.2 The Condition of Learning Gagne distinguishes between two types of conditions. his phases of learning include: • • • • Phase I: receiving the stimulus situation Phase II stage of acquisition Phase III storage Phase IV retrieval (Merill:1994. Such directed learning assumes that learning is sequential. less complex skills transfer positively to more complex skills (Merill. For example. determinable. universal. and objectively defined. Once skills are taught.should fall into one of the following forms of learning: verbal information. or motor skills. intellectual skills. what the learner knows prior to the instruction. attitudes. Or in other words. what instruction is provided to the learner. 1994:130). Gagne does not believe that learning is maturational. skills build on skills to achieve higher levels of learning.
providing feedback. Eliciting the performance 7. Instructors should strive to reinforce learning and help students apply it to other situations. Providing learning guidance 6. Second. And the final event of instruction involves retention and transfer. whether students have achieved your initial learning outcomes. First it is imperative to gain students’ attention.According to Norton and Wilburg (1998:60) Gagne's model for design of instruction includes a sequence of nine instructional events and its corresponding learning processes that guide the design of instruction. Presenting the stimulus material 5. the eighth step is to assess performance— specifically. students should be given a chance to demonstrate they’ve learned the information. you might suggest an effective way for students to organize the new information. portfolio. Gagné’s “nine events of instruction” refer to steps instructors should take in an effort to meet learning outcomes. and/or a film in order to meet desired outcome Show an example of a problem. Fourth. Sixth. Assessing the performance Clarifying Example Teacher flip lights on and off to gain Teacher tells students what they will study Reviews yesterdays work Books. is corrective rather than final. After having done so. Third. Informing learner of the objective 3. it is important to help students recall previously learned information which might be helpful in learning new material. Ask students to solve 10 questions Reinforcement and error correction of material learned Does student perform new skill. the fifth step is for instructors to provide students with learning guidance. new material should be presented. Providing feedback 8. The seventh step. Gaining attention 2. skill demonstrations 6 . Once feedback has been provided and any mistakes have been addressed. instructors should make students aware of the learning outcome(s). Stimulating recall of prerequisites 4. For example. Nine Events of Instruction: 1. tests.
The domains of learning help teachers to better organize their thoughts and the objectives of the instructional lesson.9. classifies. discriminates. First of all. putting them into the correct learning outcome category. Additionally. and then creating objectives using Gagne's standard verbs. The way Gagne's theory is put into practice is as follows.e. etc. This proves to be very beneficial since most teachers are always looking for a good way to put more structure into the objectives of their lesson plans. And finally. the domains of learning helped to better understand what types of learning they are expecting to see from students. Gagne's formulated nine events of instruction. these events are intended to promote the transfer of knowledge or information from perception through the stages of memory. The instructor then uses the conditions of learning for the particular learning outcome to determine the conditions necessary for learning. Enhancing retention and transfer Able to generalize and transfer skills to new problems or situations To put it simply. This problem can be broken into two parts. One of the greatest weaknesses that is experienced with Gagne's theory is taking the goals for my students. Each of the objectives must be stated in performance terms using one of the standard verbs (i. The events in essence become the framework for the lesson plan or steps of instruction. the instructor determines the objectives of the instruction. the events of instruction necessary to promote the internal process of learning are chosen and put into the lesson plan. states. Gagne bases his events of instruction on the cognitive information processing learning theory. When followed. 7 .) associated with the particular learning outcome. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Theory and it's Assumptions I will first examine the domains of learning outcomes. Chapter 2. These objectives must then be categorized into one of the five domains of learning outcomes.
many teachers are faced with changing their goals into a performance objective using one of the standard verbs. but that many are not as easy to categorize. if the events of instruction really match up with the learning process. Conclusion In conclusion. The final point I would like to cover deals with the learning theory upon which Gagne bases his theory. First of all. Gagne's theory of instruction would not fit their needs. 8 . I would like to summarize the points I have tried to cover in this paper. After the experience with categorizing the goal into the proper learning outcome. Many teachers would not agree with this idea of how learning takes place. The second half of this weakness has to do with creating objectives using Gagne's standard verbs. Second.First. cognitive information processing is not acceptable to all teachers. particularly those who like to be creative. the systematic nature of the theory may be a turn-off for many teachers. some goals are easy to classify into the learning outcome categories. The theory is very systematic and rigid at most points. It is almost like a cookbook recipe to ensure successful teaching and ultimately learning by the students. and who don't believe in a cookbook approach to ensure learning. For those who disagree with cognitive information processing. Gagne's theory does provide a great deal of valuable information to teachers like myself. then I do not believe it would be advisable to change the sequence of the events or to leave certain events out of the sequence altogether. First of all. I believe it is mostly appealing to those teachers who may be early in their teaching careers and are in need of structure for their lesson plans and a holistic view of their teaching. don't like rigidity. However.
December 12. Norton.References Merill. (1994) Instructional Design Theory: Educational Technology Publications Englewood Cliffs. FL: Harcourt Brace & Company. Charles M. M.wayne. (1999) Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory.otl. (1998) Teaching With Technology. Orlando. New Jersey. Volume II. David.edu/pdf/newsltr/may03. Teaching Matters. and Wiburg. K. 2010: Available at: http://www. P. Lawrance Earlbaum Associates Press 9 . M.pdf Reigeluth.