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Organization Development (OD) is the practice of helping organizations solve problems and reach their

goals. A key emphasis in OD is assisting clients not just in meeting their goal but with learning new
problem-solving skills they can use in the future.

How do OD consultants work?

OD consultants contract with clients to offer a range of services, including:

Change management -- working with departments, committees and other groups to help them plan and
implement significant changes in their organizations. (See our learning topic on Managing Change.)

Group problem solving -- helping a group identify a key issue, gather information about it, and outline
decisions or action plans needed to address the issue.

Meeting design and facilitation -- working with clients to help them plan an agenda, stay with the agenda,
and discuss issues effectively. (See our learning topic on Designing and Facilitating Meetings.)

Team development -- helping a team to develop its ability to work more effectively together. (See our
learning topic on Working on Teams.)

Business Process Redesign -- working with a group to analyze the current way of doing a specific piece of
work to determine whether there is a better way to design how the work gets done. (See our site on Business
Process Improvement.)

Training -- working with a group to develop or renew knowledge, skill or values relative to a group goal.
(More information at

Leadership development -- MIT's Leader to Leader program develops leadership skills within the context
of MIT's culture and aligned to the strategic needs of the Institute.

Who can use OD services?

OED's organization development services are available to all Institute organizations; consultants may work
in Institute-wide, school, or departmental projects. The group's overall priorities are guided by HR and senior
leaders at MIT. We try to help all who ask but when time and resources don't allow that, we will refer you to
other resources that match your need.

Who can I contact to explore my organization development needs?

For additional information contact

Who are OED's Organization Development Consultants?

Our OD Consultants bring a broad range of experiences and a consistent, thoughtful approach to helping
clients solve organizational problems. Learn more about our consultants by reading their biographies.
how to measure the effectiveness of OD programs

Organizational Development
Organizational development (OD) is an application of behavioral science to
organizational change. It encompasses a wide array of theories, processes, and activities,
all of which are oriented toward the goal of improving individual organizations.
Generally speaking, however, OD differs from traditional organizational change
techniques in that it typically embraces a more holistic approach that is aimed at
transforming thought and behavior throughout an entity. Definitions of OD abound, but
they are all predicated on the notion of improving organizational performance through
proactive activities and techniques. It is also worth noting that organizational
development, though concerned with improving workforce performance, should not be
mistaken for human resource development.
"Organization development is the planned process of developing an organization to be
more effective in accomplishing its desired goals," "It is distinguished from human
resource development in that HRD focuses on the personal growth of individuals within
organizations, while OD focuses on developing the structures, systems, and processes
within the organization to improve organizational effectiveness."
Organizational Development Basics
Although the field of OD is broad, it can be differentiated from other systems of
organizational change by its emphasis on process rather than problems. Indeed,
traditional group change systems have focused on identifying problems in an
organization and then trying to alter the behavior that creates the problem.
OD initiatives focus on identifying the behavioral interactions and patterns that cause and
sustain problems. Then, rather than simply changing isolated behaviors, OD efforts are
aimed at creating a behaviorally healthy organization that will naturally anticipate and
prevent (or quickly solve) problems.
OD programs usually share several basic characteristics. For instance, they are
considered long-term efforts of at least one to three years in most cases. In addition, OD
stresses collaborative management, whereby managers and employees at different levels
of the hierarchy cooperate to solve problems. OD also recognizes that every organization
is unique and that the same solutions cannot necessarily be applied at different companies
—this assumption is reflected in an OD focus on research and feedback. Another
common trait of OD programs is an emphasis on the value of teamwork and small
groups. In fact, most OD systems use small teams—or even individuals—as a vehicle to
implement broad organizational changes.
The catalyst—whether a group or individual—that facilitates the OD process is known as
the "change agent." Change agents are often outside consultants with experience
managing OD programs, although companies sometimes utilize inside managers. The
advantage of bringing in outside OD consultants is that they often provide a different
perspective and have a less biased view of the organization's problems and needs. The
primary drawback associated with outside change agents is that they may lack an in-
depth understanding of key issues particular to the company. In addition, outside change
agents may have trouble securing the trust and cooperation of key players in the
organization. For these reasons, some companies employ an external-internal team
approach, which seeks to combine the advantages of internal and external change agents
while minimizing the drawbacks associated with the two approaches. "Are change agents
necessary for organizational development to take place?" "Once we recognize that
organizational development involves substantial changes in how individuals think,
believe, and act, we can appreciate the necessity of someone to play the role of change
agent. But who should play the role? Existing managers? New managers? Or individuals
hired specifically for that purpose? Depending upon the situation, any of these can be
called upon to orchestrate the organizational development process. The point is that the
role of the change agent is necessary for organizational development to occur."
Managing Change Through Organizational Development
Organization development initiatives do not automatically succeed. The benefits of
effective OD programs are myriad, as many executives, managers, and business owners
will attest. But OD interventions that are pursued in a sloppy, half-hearted, or otherwise
faulty manner are far less likely to bring about meaningful change than those that have
the full support of the people involved. Several conditions that had to be present if an OD
intervention could have any meaningful chance of bringing about the desired change:
Ownership and all involved personnel needed to be genuinely and visibly committed to
the effort.
People involved in OD have to be informed in advance of the nature of the intervention
and the nature of their involvement in it.
The OD effort has to be connected to other parts of the organization; this is especially
true of such areas as the evaluation and reward systems.
The effort has to be directed by appropriate managers and guided by change agents
(which, if used, must be competent).
The intervention should be based on accurate diagnosis of organizational conditions.
Owners and managers should show their commitment to OD at all stages of the effort,
including the diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation.
Evaluation is key to success, and should consist of more than asking people how they felt
about the effort.
Owners and managers need to show employees how the OD effort relates to the
organization's goals and overriding mission

Implementing OD Programs
OD efforts basically entail two groups of activities: [1] "action research" and
[ 2 ]"interventions."
1. Action research is a process of systematically collecting data on a specific
organization, feeding it back for action planning, and evaluating results by collecting and
reflecting on more data. Data gathering techniques include everything from surveys and
questionnaires to interviews, collages, drawings, and tests. The data is often evaluated
and interpreted using advanced statistical analysis techniques.
Action research can be thought of as the diagnostic component of the OD process. But it
also encompasses the intervention component, whereby the change agent uses action
plans to intervene in the organization and make changes, as discussed below. In a
continuous process, the results of actions are measured and evaluated and new action
plans are devised to effect new changes. Thus, the intervention process can be considered
a facet of action research.

2. OD interventions are plans or programs comprised of specific activities designed to

effect change in some facet of an organization. Numerous interventions have been
developed over the years to address different problems or create various results.
However, they all are geared toward the goal of improving the entire organization
through change. In general, organizations that wish to achieve a high degree of
organizational change will employ a full range of interventions, including those designed
to transform individual and group behavior and attitudes. Entities attempting smaller
changes will stop short of those goals, applying interventions targeted primarily toward
operating policies, management structures, worker skills, and personnel policies.
Typically, organization development programs will simultaneously integrate more than
one of these interventions.

A few of the more popular interventions are briefly described below.

INTERPERSONAL INTERVENTIONS. Interpersonal interventions in an OD program
are designed to enhance individual skills, knowledge, and effectiveness. This type of
program utilizes group dynamics by gathering individuals together in loosely structured
meetings. Subject matter is determined by the group, within the context of basic goals
stipulated by a facilitator. As group members try to exert structure on fellow members,
group members gain a greater awareness of their own and other's feelings, motivations,
and behaviors. Other types of interpersonal interventions include those designed to
improve the performance review process, create better training programs, help workers
identify their true wants and set complementary career goals, and resolve conflict.
GROUP INTERVENTIONS. OD group interventions are designed to help teams and
groups within organizations become more effective. Such interventions usually assume
that the most effective groups communicate well, facilitate a healthy balance between
both personal and group needs, and function by consensus as opposed to autocracy or
majority rule.
Group diagnostic interventions are simply meetings wherein members of a team analyze
their unit's performance, ask questions about what the team needs to do to improve, and
discuss potential solutions to problems. The benefit of such interventions is that members
often communicate problems of which their co-workers were unaware. Ideally, such
communication will spur problem-solving and improved group dynamics.
Role analysis technique (RAT) is used to help employees get a better grasp on their role
in an organization. In the first step of a RAT intervention, people define their perception
of their role and contribution to the overall company effort in front of a group of
coworkers. Group members then provide feedback to more clearly define the role. In the
second phase, the individual and the group examine ways in which the employee relies
on others in the company, and how they define his or her expectations. RAT interventions
help people to reduce role confusion, which can result in either conflict or the perception
that some people are not doing their job. A popular intervention similar to RAT is
responsibility charting, which utilizes a matrix system to assign decision and task
INTERGROUP INTERVENTIONS. Intergroup interventions are integrated into OD
programs to facilitate cooperation and efficiency between different groups within an
organization. For instance, departmental interaction often deteriorates in larger
organizations as different units battle for limited resources or become detached from the
needs of other units.
Conflict resolution meetings are one common intergroup intervention. First, different
group leaders are brought together to secure their commitment to the intervention. Next,
the teams meet separately to make a list of their feelings about the other group(s). Then
the groups meet and share their lists. Finally, the teams meet to discuss the problems and
to try to develop solutions that will help both parties. This type of intervention, say
supporters, helps to gradually diffuse tension between groups that has arisen because of
faulty communication.
Rotating membership interventions are used by OD change agents to minimize the
negative effects of intergroup rivalry that arise from employee allegiances to groups or
divisions. The intervention basically entails temporarily putting group members into their
rival groups. As more people interact in the different groups, greater understanding
OD joint activity interventions serve the same basic function as the rotating membership
approach, but these involve melding members of different groups to work together
toward a common goal. Similarly, common enemy interventions achieve the same results
by finding an adversary common to two or more groups and then getting members of the
groups to work together to overcome the threat. Examples of common enemies targeted
in such programs include competitors, government regulation, and economic conditions.
COMPREHENSIVE INTERVENTIONS. OD comprehensive interventions are used to
directly create change throughout an entire organization, rather than focusing on
organizational change through subgroup interventions. One of the most popular
comprehensive interventions is survey feedback. This technique basically entails
surveying employee attitudes at all levels of the company and then disseminating a report
that details those findings. The employees then use the data in feedback sessions to create
solutions to perceived problems. A number of questionnaires developed specifically for
such interventions have been developed.

Structural change interventions are used by OD change agents to implement

organizational alterations related to departmentalization, management hierarchy, work
policies, compensation and benefit incentives programs, and other cornerstones of the
business. Often, the implemented changes emanate from feedback from other
interventions. One benefit of change interventions is that companies can often realize an
immediate and very significant impact in productivity and profitability (provided the
changes are warranted and implemented appropriately).

Sociotechnical system design interventions are similar to structural change techniques,

but they typically emphasize the reorganization of work teams. The basic goal is to create
independent groups throughout the company that supervise themselves. This
administration may include such aspects as monitoring quality or disciplining team
members. The theoretic benefit of sociotechnical system design interventions is that
worker and group productivity and quality is increased because workers have more
control over (and subsequent satisfaction from) the process in which they participate.

A fourth OD intervention that became extremely popular during the 1980s and early
1990s is total quality management (TQM). TQM interventions utilize established quality
techniques and programs that emphasize quality processes, rather than achieving quality
by inspecting products and services after processes have been completed. The important
concept of continuous improvement embodied by TQM has carried over into other OD
================================================== =========

Approach and Domains Criteria

1. Output Goals
Goal attainment: Achievement of main objectives IN STRATEGIC PLANNING
Outputs-quantity: Productivity (number or value of sales, services*
sometimes per unit or cost of labor); profits, revenues
Outputs-quality: Reliability (e.g., rejects, returns); reputation (customer
satisfaction, expert ratings); institutional standards
(e.g., approval by quality assurance body)
2. Internal System State

Efficiency and costs : Efficiency measures (e.g., output value + cost with
constant quality); wastage; costs per unit of output
Human outcomes: Quality of work life (satisfaction with pay, working
conditions); work effort and commitment (low
absenteeism, turnover); employee health and safety;
motivation; organizational image; citizenship behavior
Consensus/conflict:Goal and procedural consensus; cohesion (mutual
attraction and identification with work group and
organization); cooperation within and between units;
conflict behavior (work stoppages, protests, flights)
Work and information flows:Work coordination (smooth flow of products,
Information between units; few delays and snags);
adequacy and quality of information, multidirectional flows

Interpersonal relations: Trust; moderation of status differences (reduced
prominence of status symbols and executive perks);
openness, honesty of interpersonal communication,
acceptance of diverse backgrounds and orientations

Employee involvement: Empowerment; participation in decision making


Fits : Alignment of internal system, components, subcomponents, and


3. System Resources and Adaptation

Resources-quantity: Size (employees, physical, financial, capital assets);

resource flows (sales, budget allocations)
Resources-quality: Human capital (training, experience of work force);
staff reputation; knowledge base; desirability of clients
(e.g., college selectivity)
Adaptation: Ability to cope with external change and uncertainty;
crisis management capabilities

Proactiveness: Impact on environment-clients (e.g., demand), competitors, suppliers,
regulators; entrepreneurialism

Innovativeness: Technological and administrative innovation; implementation of new

techniques and ideas
Legitimacy : Support by community and by public agencies or regulators; complianre
with legal, professional, regulatory standards

Competitive position : standing compared to competitors (e.g., market share); reputation

for leadership in industry or sector

Fit : Alignment of internal system with environment

4. Multiple Stakeholder Assessments

Standards : Effectiveness domains and criteria selected and defined by stakeholders

Satisfaction : Satisfaction with organization on standards specified by stakeholders;

stakeholders' overall level of satisfaction with organization.



================================================== ==========


Evaluate organizational performance

Assess organizational culture
Conduct employee 360 evaluations
Assess leadership strengths and weaknesses
Assess employee satisfaction levels
Evaluate organizational effectiveness
Analyze and evaluate companies

The choice of the method lies on a number of factors like

-objectives of the exercise

-choice of interventions
-length of the program
-frequency of evaluations
-resource available
-time constraint
etc etc

============================================= .
The following ten FACTORS ARE USEFUL.

1.Be clear about what you are trying to accomplish.

2.Evaluators need good diagnostic skills to work on this task prior to any discussion of
assessment. Good evaluation will also look for goals from various stakeholders as well as
unintended consequences, but formal goals are a necessity, especially when the program
is externally supported. The process is likely to be a cyclical one since goals are refined
through evaluation of progress.

3.Link theory of the intervention to outcomes. Evaluators need to help define theories of
change that underlie their operations - that is, the relationships among their assumptions,
resources, program activities and expected results. The evaluators can help the program
staff determine how important these alliances are in producing the desired program
outcomes, as well as monitor the resources and activities devoted to them. Explicating
these theories of change, or logic models as they are sometimes called, is often a very
useful formative evaluation task in itself since it helps identify gaps among resources,
activities and outcomes. This is a first step toward building a shared understanding in the
organization and provides a framework for dialogue about evaluation findings and
continuous improvement of the project. This is a compelling need in nearly every
organizational setting, and a skill that evaluation and OD professionals should share.

4.Setting the stage properly.

It is important to clarify why the evaluation is being done at a particular point of time and
how that information will be used. These issues need to be dealt with early on and
revisited continually throughout an evaluation. The evaluator needs good brokering skills
to work interested parties to regularly clarify expectations about the purposes of

5.Pay attention to stakeholders. It is important that key stakeholders are involved in the
process - to determine the important questions that need to be addressed and how success
will be measured. Evaluators can start by asking stakeholders what challenges or
dilemmas they are facing in their work. In this way, evaluation has a higher likelihood
that the stakeholders will cooperate with the evaluation and that the results will be used.

6.Integrate evaluation into the program. The stakeholders need to build in at the outset the
expectation that evaluation should be done and also the resources to do it well. Too often,
the thought for evaluation comes once a program is finished with the result that useful
baseline data and resources are missing to make evaluation meaningful and reliable.

7.Integrate evaluation into daily work. Evaluation activities can be integrated into routine
work such as assessing needs at staff level, although the information processing demands
on employees represent a significant challenge to keep in mind. The point here is to take
advantage of relevant and accessible data rather than requiring additional work for
information gathering. Evaluators who are sensitive to workload and workplace dynamics
can be helpful in this process.

8.Identify just a few things to evaluate. Pick the fewest indicators that provide the most
information about program assumptions, resources, activities and outcomes. Evaluators
who are knowledgeable about information overload in organizations will obviously be
helpful in this process, as will well developed theories of change to identify key
information needs.

9.Coordinate evaluation reports with internal decision-making. Findings need to be

presented on a timely basis to inform learning and action and throughout a program's life
- not just at the end. Evaluators need skills in understanding organizational power,
budgeting, decision-making and culture that will attune them to how and when findings
can be useful.

10.Use evaluation as a process not simply as a report. Stakeholders and staff get more out
of the evaluation process than its final report. Regular feedback and opportunities for
varied interpretations of findings strengthen a program as well as any evaluation of it.
Methods other than written reports, such as video, photos, and human-interest stories, can
serve as effective communications tools within the program as well as with stakeholders.

Do evaluation only when an organization is ready. Clear goals and theories of change are
important for effective evaluation, but other conditions are also essential. As documented
from the field of OD, evaluation is truly useful when there is a commitment to and
resources for candid feedback.
we have pushed on the field of OD program evaluation to embrace the OD practitioner's
skills as a means of creating more dynamic, learning organizations in the nonprofit
sector. This shift in emphasis, while still requiring technical and methodological
expertise, would be used to accomplish several critical goals including:
Surfacing multiple points of view
Helping to make hidden agendas visible
Contributing to building a sense of community and connection
Facilitating individual, team and organizational reflection and learning
Creating the capacity for adaptation and change
The skills that are needed to accomplish these goals, such as group process, negotiation,
team building, and interpersonal communications, are common to the OD field but new
to the evaluation field.

Draws from multiple disciplines that inform an understanding of human systems,
including applied behavioral and physical sciences

Approaches stakeholders and organizations as open systems; that is, acts with the
knowledge that change in one area of a system always results in changes in other areas;
and change in one area cannot be sustained without supporting changes in other areas of
the system.

ACTION Research
Continuously reexamines, reflects and integrates discoveries throughout the process of
change in order to achieve desired outcomes. In this way, the staff members are involved
both in doing their work, and in dialogue about their reflection and learning in order to
apply them to achieve shared results.

Intervenes in organizational processes to help bring about positive change and help the
STAFF work toward desired outcomes

Involves proactive inquiry and assessment of the internal environment in order to
discover and create a compelling need for change and the achievement of a desired future
state of the organization . Some methods include survey feedback, assessment tools,
interviewing, focus groups, story telling, process consultation and observation.

STAFF Centered
Focuses on the needs of the STAFF in order to continually promote STAFF ownership of
all phases of the work and support the STAFF’s ability to sustain change after the
consultant engagement ends.
================================================== =====
What is an OD intervention? How HR go for it.
These are some of interventions that OD practitioners choose from in partnering with
organizational leaders to create "planned change."

Applying criteria to goals

Here the leadership establishes objective criteria for the outputs of the organization's
goal-setting processes. Then they hold people accountable not only for stating goals
against those criteria but also for producing the desired results.

Establishing inter-unit task forces

These groups can cross both functional parts of the organization (the "silos") as well as
employee levels. They are ideally accountable to one person and are appropriately
rewarded for completing their assigned task effectively. Then they disband.

Experimentation with alternative arrangements

Today organizations are subject to "management by best-seller." The OD practitioner

attempts to get leaders to look for changes that may take 3-5 years to work through. The
meta-goal in these interventions is to create what is being called a "learning
organization," one that performs experiments on organizational structure and processes,
analyzes the results, and builds on them.

Identifying "key communicators"

The OD professional here carefully determines who seems to be "in the know" within the
organization. These people often do not know that they are, in fact, key communicators.
This collection of individuals are then fed honest information during critical times, one-
on-one and confidentially.

Identifying "fireable offenses"

This intervention deepens the understanding of and commitment to the stated values of
the organization. The OD professional facilitates the work of the organization's leaders to
answer the critical question, "If we're serious about these values, then what might an
employee do that would be so affrontive to them that he/she would be fired?"

This is actually a set of interventions that leaders plan with OD's help in order to
"acculturate" everyone in the organization into an agreed-upon vision, mission, purpose,
and values. The interventions might include training, goal setting, organizational survey-
feedback, communications planning, etc.

Team Building

This intervention can take many forms. The most common is interviews and other
prework, followed by a one- to three-day offsite session. During the meeting the group
diagnoses its function as a unit and plans improvements in its operating procedures See J.
E. Jones & W. L. Bearley, TEAMBOOK, published by HRDQ, for a catalog of team-
building interventions.

Intergroup Problem Solving

This intervention usually involves working with the two groups separately before
bringing them together. They establish common goals and negotiate changes in how the
groups interface. [See J. E. Jones & W. L. Bearley, Intergroup Diagnostic Survey,
published by HRDQ, for a catalog of intergroup interventions.

Management/leadership training

Many OD professionals come from a training background. They understand that

organizations cannot succeed long term without well-trained leaders. The OD
contribution there can be to ensure that the development curriculum emphasizes practical,
current situations that need attention within the organization and to monitor the degree to
which training delivery is sufficiently participative as to promise adequate transfer of
learnings to the job.

Setting up measurement systems

The total-quality movement emphasizes that all work is a part of a process and that
measurement is essential for process improvement. The OD professional is equipped with
tools and techniques to assist leaders and others to create measurement methods and
systems to monitor key success indicators.

Studies of structural causes

"Root-cause analysis" is a time-honored quality-improvement tool, and OD practitioners

often use it to assist organizational clients to learn how to get down to the basis causes of

This technology is probably the most powerful way that OD professionals involve very
large numbers of people in diagnosing situations that need attention within the
organization and to plan and implement improvements. The general method requires
developing reliable, valid questionnaires, collecting data from all personnel, analyzing it
for trends, and feeding the results back to everyone for action planning.

"Walk-the-talk" assessment

Most organizations have at least some leaders who "say one thing and do another." This
intervention, which can be highly threatening, concentrates on measuring the extent to
which the people within the organization are behaving with integrity.

This article covers the most common OD interventions. Every practitioner augments this
list with both specially designed interventions that meet the precise needs of clients and
with other, more complex interventions such as large-group sessions, and other popular
programs. It is important, however, that all OD professionals be completely grounded in
these basic interventions.

Organization Development Interventions

Organization Development (OD) interventions techniques are the methods created by OD
professionals and others. Single organization or consultant cannot use all the
interventions. They use these interventions depending upon the need or requirement. The
most important interventions are,

1. Survey feedback
2. Process Consultation
3. sensitivity Training
4. The Managerial grid
5. Goal setting and Planning
6. Team Building and management by objectives
7. Job enrichment, changes in organizational structure and participative management and
Quality circles, ISO, TQM

Survey feedback: The intervention provides data and information to the managers.
Information on Attitudes of employees about wage level, and structure, hours of work,
working conditions and relations are collected and the results are supplied to the top
executive teams. They analyse the data, find out the problem, evaluate the results and
develop the means to correct the problems identified. The team are formed with the
employees at all levels in the organization hierarchy i.e, from the rank and file to the top
Process Consultation : The process consultant meets the members of the department and
work teams observes thie interaction, problem identification skills, solving procedures et.
He feeds back the team eith the information collected through observations, coaches and
counsels individuals & groups in moulding their behavior.

Goal setting and planning : Each division in an organization sets the goals or formulates
the plans for profitability. These goals are sent to the top management which in turn
sends them back to the divisions after modification . A set of organization goals thus
emerge there after.

Managerial grid: This identifies a range of management behavior based on the different
ways that how production/service oriented and employee oriented states interact with
each other. Managerial grid is also called as instrumental laboratory training as it is a
structured version of laboratory training. It consists of individual and group exercises
with a view to developing awareness of individual managerial style interpersonal
competence and group effeciveness. Thus grid training is related to the leadership styles.
The managerial grid focuses on the observations of behaviour in exercises specifically
related to work. Participants in this training are encouraged and helped to appraise their
own managerial style.

There are 6 phases in grid OD:

First phase is concerned with studying the grid as a theoretical knowledge to understand
the human behavior in the Organization.
Second phase is concerned with team work development. A seminar helps the members
in developing each member’s perception and the insight into the problems faced by
various members on the job.
Third phase is inter group development. This phase aims at developing the relationships
between different departments
Fourth phase is concerned with the creation of a strategic model for the organization
where Chief Executives and their immediate subordinates participate in this activity.

Fifth phase is concerned with implementation of strategic model.. Planning teams are
formed for each department to know the available resources, required resources,
procuring them if required and implementing the model Sixth Phase is concerned with
the critical evaluation of the model and making necessary adjustment for successful

Management by Objectives (MBO) is a successful philosophy of management. It replaces

the traditional philosophy of “Management by Domination”. MBO led to a systematic
Goal setting and Planning. Peter Drucker the eminent management Guru in 1959 has first
propagated the philosophy since then it has become a movement.

MBO is a process by which managers at different levels and their subordinates work
together in identifying goals and establishing objectives consistent with Organizational
goals and attaining them.
Team building is an application of various techniques of Sensitivity training to the actual
work groups in various departments. These work groups consist of peers and a
Sensitivity training is called a laboratory as it is conducted by creating an experimental
laboratory situation in which employees are brought together. The Team building
technique and training is designed to improve the ability of the employees to work
together as teams.

Job enrichment is currently practiced all over the world. It is based on the assumption in
order to motivate workers, job itself must provide opportunities for achievement,
recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth. The basic idea is to restore to jobs
the elements of interest that were taken away. In a job enrichment program the worker
decides how the job is performed, planned and controlled and makes more decisions
concerning the entire process.

Organization's today are moving with ever-changing speed and changes. The success
factors of organization like people, task, structure and technology are highly open
and flexible in approach. Organization demands changes to be inculcated in every
step and dimension so that a unique image and market leadership leading to
organization success and growth can be achieved.

Development is a subjective idea but is the ultimate objective of any organization.

Organization first need to prepare all such factors for accepting changes and then
implement the same.

O.D is a planned strategy which aims towards development of individuals and groups
in an organization and solving problems which directly or indirectly have an impact
on organization growth.

As per Cecil., Wendell and French O.D. is a "Long term effort led and supported by
top management to improve organization visioning , empowerment , learning and
problem solving skills through an ongoing collaborative process with emphasis on
intact work teams , and utilizing consultant –facilitator role , theory and technology
of behavioral science including the action research model ."

Characteristic features of O.D. - O.D. is a planned developmental strategy that

aims at improving performance of individual's .The main characteristic of O.D. are –

* O.D is a planned change

* O.D. is a holistic approach
* O.D is a problem oriented and solution providing approach
* O.D. Focuses on organizational process rather than content
* O.D. focuses on relationship social, human and structural.

Defining O.D.Intervention – O.D being process of bringing desired change and a

innovative way of doing things the technique varies as per the problem and area
where the intervention needs to be applied
They are planned activities in which clients and consultants participate during the
course of an organization development program. They are set of planned activities
which aim to bring desired change. They refer to action component to improve
organization fit between individual and organization

These intervention whether aimed to improve poor morale, productivity,

communication problems , organization culture ,poor quality , conflict
management .poorly designed task etc. demand intervention of different type
suitable to the type of problem.

The intervention to be applied depends on and nature of problem. There is various

intentions which can be applied by the facilitator or the consultant after reviewing,
analyzing, diagnisosing the problem area e.g. Team interventions, sensitivity
training, survey feedback, process consultation, Role analysis technique, role
negotiation technique force field analysis, intercrop team interventions the effectively
and success of any intervention will depend on how well the suitability and accuracy
the intervention is been applied.

Process of O.D. –Different authors have given different methods and ideas about
how to implement an O.D. intervention Again varying right from the needs, severity
and the type of expertise required the interventions differ from organization to

It is generally carried out in 4 phases.

a) Diagnosing the problem

b) Developing plans for change
c) Implementing change plan for organization
d) Follow up and evaluation

Approach towards O.D.

O.D is different in approach when discussed in terms of development because the

approach and the type of intervention vary as per the requirement .It should be
followed with such an approach –

* Motivation for change

* Problem identification and diagnosis
* Planning strategy for change
* Intervening in the system
* Reinforcement and follow up
* Monitoring and evaluation

Utility of Warner Barkers approach towards implementing O.D. process in

an organization

Warner Barkers gave an insight into how O.D process should be implemented after
identifying and analyzing the problem area .He gave 7 phases for implementing

1) Entry –In this phase the organization interacts and consults external or internal
facilitator to acquaint him with the problem of organization. This is the first step
where the management should be very cautious while conveying the same to the
consultant because this decides the further success of the implementation of

2) Contracting - In this phase the organization briefs his expectation and expected
improvements from the consultant and both the employer (organization side) and
consultant clarify what they expect from each other.

3) Diagnosis – In this stage the consultant or the facilitator starts interacting with
the employees of an organization to know where exactly the problem and this gives
an in depth idea about the problem.

4) Feedback –This phase is again very crucial to decide the growth of an

organization. In this phase the consultant after analyzing and collecting data about
the organization provides his feedback to the management and observation about
the problem It is .this phase the right match between the problem recognition and
the tools needed to resolve them comes into picture.

5) Planning change – This is the stage where the management after discussion
with consultant, his expertise, information, observation and including other
departmental heads or authorities in the same starts planning the changes needed
and develop a consensus on the process.

6) Intervention –The final stage where after having a lot of checks and cross
checks and depending upon the severity, intensity and the requirement of the
problem a suitable intervention is applied .The success and result of any intervention
will again depend on the communication, awareness and involvement of employees
in the same.

7) Evaluation – I order to see and measure the accuracy of the intervention applied
it becomes imperative to see whether the applied intervention seems to be giving
desired outcome or not.

Essential factors before implementing O.D. program

a) Top management support

b) Influential managers
c) Planned efforts
d) Clarity in objectives
e) Setting a suitable reward system
f) Consistent approach

For this purpose evaluating an O.D intervention by observation, behavioral change,

attitude change, productivity improvement, level of motivation, sound Industrial
relation, industrial harmony or such indicators which help in perceiving that
intervention has brought changes can e done.

Irrespective of the type of intervention applied the affectivity and outcome in form of
desired change acceptance on part of employees and employer always depend on a
wise judgment at every stage right from selection of consultant to informing the
employees about the same or the method of selection .At every stage it becomes the
prime responsibility of both management and employees to extend their full co-
operation in order to accept changes by way of intervention so that organization
dream of bringing positive change in organization can be fulfilled.

With the help of such techniques not only problem focused area can be met out but
such changes also help in building trust motivation of employees and results into
stability among employees The competition which the organization face today can
also be made better only when consistent effort aimed towards organization well
being is practiced.

The experience-based nature of the OD process derives from an underlying belief of most
OD practitioners that people learn how to do things by doing them. And they learn about
organizational dynamics by experiencing them and reflecting on the experience. People
learn about the need to manage conflict when they experience the deleterious effects of
conflict; people learn to make decisions by making some and then evaluating them. When
people are engaged in real experiences, they are engaged with their minds, emotions,
strivings — their whole beings. There are no artificial separations engendered, say, by
memorizing something so that at some future time one may act in a certain way.

Organizational change involves moving from the known to the unknown. Because the
future is uncertain and may adversely affect people's competencies, worth, and coping
abilities, organization members generally do not support change unless compelling
reasons convince them to do so. This requires attention to two related tasks: creating
readiness for change and overcoming resistance to change.

Instead of ladders and paths, there are now webs and mazes. Your employees must learn,
if they haven't already, to think of a career less as a ladder and more as a web. Webs have
a center but no top and a lot of paths that connect. Unlike ladders, webs often dissolve
when their purpose is fulfilled. Smart workers will move along the webs, picking up new
skills that meet the organization's needs, looking for problems to solve, and working on
team projects. And if a web breaks or dissolves, it can always be rewoven in a similar or
different pattern.

Peak performers have high standards

Have you ever noticed that peak performers surround themselves with other peak
performers? They have high expectations of those around them – the people they work
with, their friends and associates, their family members. Not unrealistically high
expectations, of course, but they certainly don't settle for 'second best'. Why should they?

People with this style try to shape the environment by influencing or persuading others to
see things their way. They really enjoy being involved with people and getting
recognition for their accomplishments. They fear rejection or loss of social approval.
They may have a dislike for handling complex details or working as "lone rangers". They
prefer to deal with people rather than things.

This highly social individual loves opportunities to verbalize thoughts, feelings, and
ideas. So provide opportunities for them to do this when possible. When it's deserved,
praise their work enthusiastically and publicly.

Know how effective your talent efforts are today and continue to measure these efforts
using the metrics outlined next to gauge your efforts over time. Are they working? Also,
continuously benchmark internal and external talent. The grass is hardly as green on the
other side as you want to believe. Still, knowing who is out there, what they are doing,
and how your internal talent stacks up is an essential element of strategic talent planning.

Performance review is the final phase of an effective performance management system. It

involves the individual and the manager discussing the performance appraisal document
that the manager has created. The performance management process both ends and
begins anew with the performance review meeting. At the beginning of the meeting, the
individual's past year's performance is reviewed and the success of the development plan
is evaluated. At the end of the meeting, the appraiser and the individual set a date to
create the plan for next year's goals, objectives, and development.

od process
Organizational development OD process

Aug 27, 2006

Human Resource Management
The Organizational Development (OD) process is complicated and it takes long time to
complete the process. It takes minimum of one year and sometimes continues
indefinitely. There are different approaches to OD process but the typical process consists
of seven steps, viz., initial diagnosis, data collection, data feedback and confrontation,
action planning and problem solving, team building, inter group development and
evaluation and follow–up.
1. Initial Diagnosis:
If executives recognize that there are inadequacies within organization which can be
corrected by OD activities, it is necessary to find out the professional and competent
people within the organization to plan and execute OD activities. If competent people are
not available within the organization the services activities are to be taken. The
consultants adopt various methods including interviews, questionnaires, direct
observation, analysis of documents and reports for diagnosing the problem.
2. Data Collection:
Survey method is used to collect the data and information for determining organizational
climate and identifying the behavioral problems.
3. Data Feedback and Confrontation:
Data collected are analyzed and reviewed by various work groups formed from this
purpose in order to mediate in the areas of disagreement or confrontation of ideas or
opinions and to establish priorities.
4. Selection and Design of Interventions:
The interventions are the planned activities that are introduced into the system to
accomplish desired changes and improvements. At this stage the suitable interventions
are to be selected and designed.
5. Implementation of Intervention:
The selected intervention should be implemented. Intervention may take the form of
workshops, feedback of data to the participants, group discussions, written exercises, on-
the-job activities, redesign of control system etc. Interventions are to be implemented
steadily as the process is not a “one-short, quick cure� for organizational malady.
But it achieves real and lasting change in the attitudes and behavior of employees.
6. Action Planning and problem Solving:
Groups prepare recommendations and specific action planning to solve the specific and
identified problems by using data collected.
7. Team Building:
The consultants encourage the employees throughout the process to form into groups and
teams by explaining the advantages of the teams in the OD process, by arranging joint
meetings with the managers, subordinates etc.
8. Inter group Development:
The consultants encourage the inter group meetings, interaction etc., after the formation
of groups/teams.
The organization finally has to evaluate the OD programs, find out their utility, and
develop the programs further for correcting the deviations and/or improved results. The
consultants help the organization in this respect. All the steps in the OD processes should
be followed by the organization in order to derive full range of OD benefits.\
Motivating employees through fun activities

Sep 2, 2009
Human Resource Management
Companies are increasingly becoming aware of the fact that only a motivated person can
do full justice to his / her work. Having a driven work force also acts as key
In turbulent times, every organization counts on the performance of its employees for
growth and success. Keeping an employee working at full potential is the best way to
achieve results. It is the ultimate goal of employee motivation programs.
Fun at work is fast becoming the corporate buzzword, with most companies adopting
unique approaches to motivating employees through fun activities. Tavant Technologies,
for instance, has instituted a wide range of initiatives to encourage and foster employee
motivation at workplace, in addition to rewards and recognition programs such as the
Tavant Excellence Awards. A different spot award scheme and Best Interviewer Award
was made, they also have many unique Fun at Work Schemes. Their KGB forum
conducts various fun activities such as Tavant Premier League (TPL) Pino Pong Wars
and online games such as KodeBreak and Pechchaan Kaun. Other means of motivation
include mentoring and grooming initiatives such as discussing career paths through
programs like 1 UP – Career Development initiative and Individual Development Plan
(IDP). The organization encourage work life balance and a flexible leave policy and
support an open communication channel through open house sessions, monthly news
letter from the CEO, etc. They value good health of their employees through stress
management, health camps, parenting, personal counseling, nutrition, yoga, etc. Synergy,
a month long sporting event covers various indoor games and out door sports.
On similar lines Aviva Life Insurance takes some key initiatives to motivate employees
include fun at work program in which they create a Base Camp – a challenging, fun and
organized series of spaces, events, and initiatives. The Base Camp has seven peaks
starting from Community Climber Activities for CSR exposure, Financial Climber
Activities for providing tax and legal assistance, career climber activities on presentation
skills, time management skills, grooming, etc, Fit Climber activities like marathons,
cricket tournaments, adventure clubs, Social Climber stage for Kid’s Day, festivals etc,
Personal Climber Activities to create a fit mind through life skills workshops, personal
counseling sessions and Possibility Climber Activities to create a forums for expression
such as My voice portal. They have also launched CEO Awards program, IDEA’s
interactive channel for inviting ideas and Talking Talent initiative for identifying building
and managing the strong performers.
For many companies motivation programs are built into the system, in everyday
practices. The key drivers for motivation in such a case are transparency, stability and
wellbeing of employees. ITC Infotech elucidate their approach to employee motivation
by first encouraging business practice heads to become completely transparent in their
dealings. This ensures of the pyramid get the correct picture about the organization.
For many companies motivation programs are built into the system, in everyday
Opportunity in adversity:
Times of recession act as propelling factors for employees to seek opportunities to
upgrade their skill sets in order to add more value to the organization. It has also been
noticed candidates who might have lost their jobs are making use of their time to take up
higher studies, so that the additional qualification gives them the edge at the recovery
stage. A slowdown is a perfect opportunity for employees to demonstrate innovation and
commitment to make sure that the company is able to tide over the crisis, This, in fact, is
an opportunity to make a lasting impression on management and lay the foundation for
career advancement.

Working with a difficult boss

Sep 2, 2009
Human Resource Management
Competent bosses are a rare variety. If you are working with a difficult boss, then you
have to learn to cope with your situation.
I’m fed up! Is this what comes to your mind every time you think of office? Does your
job leave you lethargic de-motivated, drained, unhappy and frustrated because of a bad
boss? Dealing with a poor manager is a challenge faced by many professionals across
industries so you are not the only victim. Don’t sympathize with your self, there are ways
to deal with things.
Let’s start the list of complaints with a visibly upset P, working with an FMCG firm. He
says his boss can’t even draft an e-mail by himself. Very often he and his colleagues do it
for him and he conveniently copy-pastes the text and sends it through his e-mail account
(on one occasion even a spelling mistake was a part of the mail he sent). This shows
clearly, that he doesn’t even care to read the matter.
An associate manager say AM in an IT firm, fumes. He is perpetually doing the
disappearing act. AM has to struggle to get in touch with him if suggestions / advice is
needed. His gadgets, be it laptop or mobile phone, crash as per his convenience. Due to
his absence if AM takes a call his ego is hurt; further to coddle his ego, he will list down
1001 mistakes in the decision of AM or his colleagues.
While some employees complain about having to deal with control freaks, others are
struggling with a lack of professionalism punctuality and corporate discipline. Another
executive complains the boss refuses to acknowledge their efforts and there is no respect
for them as professionals. The boss takes his team for granted and often requests them to
help him with his personal work.
Bad managers are part of every organization. While some lack knowledge of the product,
others are plain lazy and try to push their responsibilities to their juniors – usually in the
pretext of giving them exposure. A bad manager could be a tyrant, a discriminating jerk,
sexist, racist, a plain dumb person, or someone who smartly eludes work every time. A
manager who is misleading or lies to his team about the company’s targets and turnover
just to build false hopes can also be categorized under this head.
It is a common problem. The main reason being the fact that companies have young
managers, who lack relevant experience. Today, people are offered managerial positions
based on their academics. So they lack knowledge about ground work. For dealing with
this you have to first find out whether your manager knows that the team is unhappy.
Managers do things in a certain way as they think it is apt. Unless it is communicated to
them what the team thinks otherwise, they never know. But telling your boss directly that
s/he is detrimental will backfire. This is where the 360 degree evaluation helps. But as
many companies don’t have this practice, employers have to use tact.
Speaking up doesn’t always help as some managers are not willing to change. Making a
collective effort as a team can be your next move. For instance, if all efforts to make your
manager realize his short comings are in vain, how about communicating the problem to
the management as a team? But this should be your last resort.
Meanwhile, you could look out for other openings outside your company. But remember,
a movement does not necessarily assure you of a good boss.
One common mistake employees make is to assume that their job is the end of the world,
and if they are not happy with it, they are doomed. They all tend to forget that it’s after
all just a job. If not for this one, there are many opportunities availab