REPORTED SPEECH

• the exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words. • No quotation marks

REPORTED STATEMENTS (information)
• say, tell, advise, explain, promise + that-clause. • Pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the context / reference
Direct Speech: He explained ‘I can’t fix it myself.’ Reported Sp.: He said he couldn’t fix it himself.

BACKSHIFTING
• • • • Verb tenses Adverbs of time and place Pronouns possessive adjectives

change according to the context

BACKSHIFTING- TENSES
TENSE
PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT SIMPLE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE SIMPLE

DIRECT SPEECH
We eat healthy food We are eating healthy food We have eaten healthy food We have been eating healthy food We ate healthy food We were eating healthy food We had eaten healthy food We had been eating healthy food We will eat healthy food

REPORTED SPEECH
She said that they ate healthy food She said that they were eating healthy food She said that they had eaten healthy food She said that they had been eating healthy food She said that they had eaten healthy food *She said that they had been eating healthy food She said that they had eaten healthy food She said that they had been eating healthy food She said that they would eat healthy food

TENSE
PAST SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT SIMPLE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT SIMPLE *PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT SIMPLE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE SIMPLE

Direct Speech
Am Is Has Have There is There are Doesn’t Don’t Was Were Had Spoke Didn’t speak Hadn’t spoken “Go/Don’t go!”

Reported Speech
Was Was Had Had There was There were Didn’t Didn’t Had been Had been Had had Had spoken Hadn’t spoken Hadn’t spoken He told me to go/ not to go.

MODAL VERBS Direct Speech
Can May Might Could Would Should Ought to Must Needn’t

Reported Speech
Could Might Might Could Would Should Ought to Had to Needn’t/ didn’t have to

Direct Sp.
Here This These Now Today Tonight Tomorrow Yesterday Next week Last week Ago

Reported Sp.
There That Those Then That day That night
The next day/ the following day

The day before The following week The week before Before

• There is NO BACKSHIFTING (tenses, adverbs): when the reporting verb is in the Present when the sentence expresses something which is always true. She says, ‘I can’t do it’. She says (that) she can’t do it. ‘The earth is round’, said the teacher. The teacher said (that) the earth is round.

• The Past Continuous does not usually change. D. S.: ‘I was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA’, he said. R. S.: He said he was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA.

Exercises:
• Julia:"I live in my own apartment". • Nick:"I am going to visit my parents next weekend". • Tom:"I have studied Italian for a year". • Linda and John: "We can't come to the party next week". • Terry: "I'll write as soon as I get there". • Andrew:"I'm learning to cook Chinese food".

• She said that she lived in her own apartment • He said he was going to visit his parents next weekend. • Tom said he had studied Italian for a year. • They said they couldn't come to the party next week. • She said that she would write as soon as he got there. • He said he was learning to cook Chinese food.

Reporting verbs
– SAY: He said (to me) (that) he was leaving the next day – TELL + object: He told me (that) he was leaving the
next day.

– COMPLAIN: He complained (that) it was too cold in there. – DENY*
He denied (that) he had killed the cat He denied killing the cat

– REPLY : He replied (that) it was too late for that. – WARN + object: * He warned me that it was a really
dangerous sport.

REPORTING VERBS
• agree, refuse, offer, promise, threaten + infinitive
– Ann: ‘Would you wait half an hour?’ – Tom: ‘All right’ Tom agreed to wait half an hour. – Chris: ‘Would you lend me another €50?’ – David: ‘No, I won´t lend you any more money’ David refused to lend Chris any more money.

REPORTING VERBS
Sj+ verb + (THAT) + sj+ verb / SJ + VERB+ TO INFINTIVE CLAIM (afirmar) He claimed to be the owner of the car He claimed that he was the owner of the car PROMISE (prometer) She promised to give it back soon She promised that she would give it back soon THREATEN (amenazar) He threatened to kill the boy if he didn’t get 200,000$ He threatened that he would kill the boy if he didn’t get 200,000$

• ACCUSE OF, ADMIT, APOLOGIZE FOR, DENY, INSIST ON + GERUND
– You took me the money! – Yes, I stole it He admitted stealing the money – I didn´t steal it! He denied stealing the money. – I am sorry I’m late He apologised for being late – Let me pay, please, let me He insisted on paying.

REPORTED QUESTIONS
• WORD ORDER: affirmative word order • question mark, omitted. • Backshifting
He asked, “What time is it?” He asked what time it was. He asked me, “Do you know her?” He asked me if/whether I knew her.

QUESTIONS: YES / NO
• if / whether + subject + verb

• He asked me, “Do you know her?” He asked me if/whether I knew her.

REPORTING VERBS
• IF / WHETHER + SJ + VERB:
– ASK – WANT TO KNOW – WOULD LIKE TO KNOW – WONDER – KNOW – (NOT) REMEMBER

EXERCISES
• ‘Are you working these days?’ he said. • He wanted to know if/whether I was working those days • ‘Did you speak to John last night?’ she asked • She wanted to know if I had spoken to John the night before.

QUESTIONS: WHSj+ ask + WH- + sj + verb
• She asked ‘What are you doing tomorrow?’ She asked what I was doing the next day • ‘Who told you this story?’ He asked me who had told that story • ‘What happens?’ He wanted to know what happened. • ‘Where did you go last summer?’ He asked me where I had gone the previous summer.

Exercises
• ‘Where is my umbrella?’ she asked. • ‘How are you?’ Martin asked us. • He asked ‘Do I have to do it?’ • ‘Where have you been?’ the mother asked her daughter • ‘Which dress do you like best?’ she asked her boyfriend. • She asked where her umbrella was • Martin asked us how we were. • He asked if he had to do it • The mother asked her daughter where she had been • She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best.

Reported Commands/ Requests/ Suggestions
• • • • • • • Order Ask Tell Advise Offer Warn beg

+ to-infinitive + not to- infinitive.

COMMANDS, REQUESTS…
Affirmative commands Negative commands

Father: ‘Do your homework!’ Father told me to do my homework.

Teacher. "Don't talk to your mate!" The teacher told me not to talk to my mate. He said to me, ‘Don’t touch it!’ He told me not to touch it.

He said to me, ‘Stop talking!’ He told me to stop talking.

TELL + somebody + infinitive The doctor said to me, "Stop smoking!". The doctor told me to stop smoking. ORDER "Get out of the car!" said the policeman. The policeman ordered him to get out of the car. ASK "Could you please be quiet," she said. She asked me to be quiet. WARN The man with the gun said to us, "Don't move!" The man with the gun warned us not to move.

You can also use: INVITE He invited me (to go) to the party BEG She begged them to stay FORBID He forbade us to get out.

sj+ verb+ object + to infinitive

– ASK: He asked me to come – ADVISE: He advised me to sell it – BEG: He begged her to go with him – INVITE: He invited them to go – ORDER: She ordered them to be quiet – WARN: He warned them not to eat raw fish

If you want an OBJECT,

ask + for + object:
a. "Can I have an apple?", she asked. She asked for an apple. b. "Can I have the newspaper, please?" He asked for the newspaper.

EXERCISES
• He said to us: ‘Stay here’ • He said: ‘Be quiet’ • ‘Say that again, please’, he said to me • He told us to stay here • He told me to be quiet • He asked me to say that again

EXERCISES
• ‘John, don’t open the window, please’, I said • I asked /requested/begged John not to open the window. • ‘Can you let me use your phone, please?’ I asked my neighbour • I asked my neighbour to let me use her phone • I asked my neighbour if I could use her phone.

SUGGESTIONS
• We normally use suggest + gerund to report them • Also suggest that + subordinate sentence • Let’s, why don’t we, shall we, why not…are omitted • • • • • “Let’s go to the theatre” she said. “Why don’t we go to the theatre?” “Shall we go to the theatre?” She suggested going to the theatre She suggested that we should go to the theatre

• “Let’s not argue again,” he said. • He suggested not arguing again • He suggested that they should not argue again.

She said: "Why don't you get a mechanic to look at the car?" She suggested that I should get a mechanic to look at the car. She suggested I get a mechanic to look at the car.

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