Wireless sensor networks

Now days, advances in miniaturization, Wireless Sensor Networks have become very famous in different applications in the present life. These are benefited for control and monitoring like, target tracking, civil and military applications, disaster management, habitat monitoring, climate control etc. A wireless sensor node can be built easily using small electronic cheap technology. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) hold a promise to ³dwarf previous revolutions in the information revolution´. WSN are envisioned to consist of hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes communicating over a wireless channel, performing distributed sensing and collaborative data processing tasks for a variety of vital military and civilian applications. Wireless sensor networks are densely deployed in sensing fields. They have very limited communication range and sensing range. Sensor node has very limited battery power and they are prone to failure. Wireless sensor nodes can be deployed in such a location where human being is impossible to reach physically. So, if a sensor node loses its battery power is becomes useless, hence the topology of wireless sensor networks changes frequently. Sensor nodes have very limited processing power and memory. Wireless sensor networks are randomly deployed. The sensor nodes can be thrown in the sensing field from the airplane. Show in figure


Figure 1: Architecture of Sensor Networks

Difference between wireless sensor networks and ad-hoc networks.
Wireless sensor networks are similar to the ad-hoc networks having basic difference. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Wireless Sensor networks are densely deployed. Wireless Sensor networks have limited battery power Wireless Sensor networks have limited processing capacity. Wireless Sensor networks have limited memory (RAM). Wireless sensor networks are prone to failure. Wireless sensor network topology frequently changes. Wireless sensor nodes are less expensive. Wireless sensor networks have the self configuring capability. Wireless sensor networks have scalability properties. Wireless sensor network can accept new deployed nodes.


Application of wireless sensor networks
Wireless sensor networks have wide range of application. Thus a lot of research is being done in this area. Wireless sensor network are used to monitor a wide range of physical quantities such as: Temperature, Humidity, Light Pressure, Object motion, Noise level, Soil


composition, Presence of a certain object. Characteristics of an object like size, moving speed, weight, direction self


organization, flexibility, and ease of deployment. The major application of wireless sensor networks is as follows:

Application in engineering technology
a. Automotive telemetric: used in cars for safety in traffic and to improve the efficiency of traffic. b. Fingertip Accelerometer virtual Keyboards: sensors can be used in devices like keyboard where sensor senses the key input c. Sensing and maintenance in industrial plants: in the larger plants robots are uses for special tasks. These robots are equipped with sensors to sense the environment and do the specific task. d. Aircraft drag reduction: sensors are also used in aircraft for different purposes.


e. Smart office space:

the office areas are equipped with light, temperature, and

movement sensors, microphones for voice activation. f. Tracking of containers and boxes: shipping companies uses wireless sensor network to keep track on their goods. g. Geophysical Monitoring: seismic activity can be detected at a much finer scale using a network of sensors equipped with accelerometer. a. b. c. d. e. Monitoring of fresh water quality. Zebra net. Habitat monitoring. Disaster Detection. Contaminant Transport.

Civil Engineering a. b. c. Monitoring of structures. Urban planning. Disaster Recovery.

Military Application a. b. c. d. Asset monitoring and management. Urban welfare Protection. Self healing minefields.


Health monitoring and surgery.

a. b.

Medical Sensing. Micro surgery.

Other Applications Self-configurable WSNs may be utilized in numerous other areas, such as traffic monitoring, bio-chemical related process control, robot control and factory

instrumentation, automatic warehouse inventory tracking, etc.

Challenges in wireless sensor network
In spite of many applications, sensor network s faces many technical challenges due to some reasons: Ad hoc Deployment: Many of sensor nodes are scattered in the areas where there are no sensor nodes by an airplane. In that condition, the total burden will be on to the nodes to calculate its distribution and connectivity.



Unattended Operation: In many cases, when sensors once deployed, they have no human intervention to control it. So it is up to nodes which are liable for reconfiguration in case of any transformation and location changes.


Untethered: As we know the sensor nodes are not associated with any energy source. Although there is just a finite resource of energy, which must be most favorably used for


processing task and communication. The important information is that communication dominates processing in energy consumption. So in order to make optimal use of energy resources, communication should me minimal as much as possible. y Dynamic Changes: It is necessary that a sensor network system should be adaptable to changing topology (for e.g., due to adaptation of more nodes, and failure of sensors etc.) as well as varying environmental conditions.

Hence, unlike usual networks, where the our motto is on increasing channel throughput or decreasing node deployment, the main concern in a sensor network is to make longer the system lifetime as well as the system robustness.

In the wireless sensor networks localization is very important. If WSN is not able to provide location information about the event then tracking or event detection functions are not particularly useful. Sensor aware of their location can also improve routing efficiency by selective flooding or selective forwarding data only in the direction of the destination. So localization is necessary in WSN. But problem is how a wireless sensor node can get the knowledge about its location. Manually configuring the location information in each node is not feasible at the time of deployment because the number of wireless sensor node is very large. The deployment of sensors can be done by throwing them in the sensing field by airplane, so sometimes it is not possible to go in the sensing field. Similarly we cannot use


GPS receiver in each node because it increases the cost of the node. Techniques based on GPS receiver are not useful for indoor applications. Many algorithms have been proposed earlier, each has its own benefits and limitations. A major shortcoming of all the algorithms is accuracy. No one algorithm can provide 100% accuracy. Properties of a good algorithm are. 1. 2. 3. Accuracy. Scalability. Minimum complexity.

Sensor nodes are limited to processing capability, communication range, and battery power. So it must be considered when developing an algorithm for localization.

Related works
Problems in wireless sensor localization. GPS receiver is used for localization. But, the sensor network is very dense in nodes and using GPS receiver is not economically good. So GPS receiver cannot be fitted in each and every sensor node because it increased the cost of sensor network and also it increase size of nodes. GPS receiver based techniques cannot be used for indoor localization. GPS receiver techniques require satellite communication, so it needs more battery power. So finally GPS receiver based techniques are not suitable for sensor networks economically


Localization in WSN What is localization?
The process of finding location of the nodes is called localization. In this process we try to find out the approximate location of the sensor node with high accuracy. In localization, the nodes can both be static and or mobile, a few of which are anchor/seed nodes. There is a distinct category of Localization Methods Can be classified into a) Range-Based Localization Methods b) Range-Free Localization Methods

Range based method mainly include following parameters:
Sensors calculate absolute point-to-point distance estimates (range) to anchors or angle estimates by utilizing one of the following: a) Time of Arrival (TOA).signal propagation time b) Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) for ranging. using ultrasound c) Angle of Arrival (AOA) d) Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) Furthermore there is a different class of localization algorithms, named connectivitybased or ³range free´ localization algorithms, which do not need any of the measurement methods in the previous sections. Instead of that they require a connectivity based knowledge, i.e., ³who is within the communications range of whom´ to calculate the positions of the unknown nodes.


Range free localization techniques:
Sensors never estimate the absolute point to-point distance between anchors and the sensors. So that the advantage of the range free localization is cheap sensor hardware and Low computational power.

Range-Free Localization Methods
a) DV-HOP Localization b) Centroid Localization c) APIT (Approximate Point-In-Triangle test).

DV-HOP Localization
(a) Each anchor broadcasts a packet with its location and a hop count, initialized to one. (b) The hop-count is incremented by each node as the packet is forwarded. (c) Maintain a running hop count from beacon nodes. (d) Find the average hop length. (e) Each node maintains a table of minimum hop-count distances to each anchor. Anchors perform this task by obtaining location and hop count information for all other anchors inside the network. The average single hop distance is then estimated by anchor I using the following formula. Where hj= distance in hops from j to anchor i.


DV-Hop localization needs a procedure that is same to classical distance vector routing. This scheme begins with all anchors flooding their coordinates to other nodes in the wireless sensor network. The beacons are propagated hop-by-hop and every destination there is counting of per hop. Each node keeps an anchor data table and counts the minimum number of hops that it is away from an anchor. When an anchor accepts a beacon message from another anchor, it calculates the average distance of one hop by using the locations of both anchor nodes and the hop-count, and transfers it back to the system as a correction factor. When on receiving the correction factor, a sensor node enables to find its distance to anchors and further performs trilateration to calculate its position.

Anchor beacon Propagation Phase

At every intermediary hop beacons are flooded outward with hop-count values incremented. During this mechanism, all nodes in the network counting other anchors obtain the shortest distance for every anchor.

For any anchor i the average single hop distances is calculated by:

Here, (xj,yj) is the position of anchor j, and hj is the separation distance, in hops, from anchor node j to anchor node i. After estimation, anchors transmitted the estimated Hop size information out to the nearby nodes. When a node is able to find three anchors in a plane then it starts to use triangulation or multilateration to calculate its coordinates. Theoretically, if errors present in the distance estimation, then more anchors should deploy to infer the quality of localization.

Now, I will discuss about the DV-HOP algorithm which comes range free algorithm related proximity based method. It is beacon based technique which is applicable outdoor applications and follows GPS less localization.


Step1. START

Step2. Deploy nodes which location is unknown. Step3. Read input no. of anchor nodes and check it greater than or equal to 3. Step4. Step5. Deploy anchor nodes. Calculate average hop distance from each anchor nodes.

Step6. Use distance formula

Dmk = Avg HopSize × Hopmk

Step7. Use this formula to calculate location of unlocalize node.


Step8. Finally will get coordinate (x, y) from below given matrix solution

Step 9. END




Random deployment of sensor notes Anchor=10 Non-anchor=90


Error variation per node within network at 20m range of beacon



Error variation per node within network at 30m range of beacon


.Error variation per node within network at 40m range of beacon



Error variation per node within network at 50m range becone


Error variation per node within network at 60m range of beacon



Error variation per node within network at 70m range of beacon


Centroid Algorithm
The Centroid algorithm [1] uses anchors to periodically transmit known location information to all neighbors within range. If a node receives enough of these messages, it determines it is in the range of the beacon. After determining which beacons it is in the range of, the node calculates the average of all the x and y coordinates of the beacons in its neighborhood. This is considered the centroid and is used as the location for the node. In this case, the range to the beacon is not estimated or used, but the known transmission range of the beacon is. The advantage of this algorithm is it is simple and easy to implement.

Figure 2.1: Centroid point


The Point in Triangulation (PIT) test determines if a point is inside or outside a triangle formed by three points with known locations. It does this by ³moving´ the test point in various directions to see if it moves closer or farther away from one or more of the known points. For example, in Figure 2.2.1a, any direction M moves it will move closer to either A, B or C. In Figure 2.2.2 b, if M moves in the indicated direction, it will be farther away from A, B, and C. It isn¶t feasible to implement PIT on a small wireless sensor network, since it would require an exhaustive search of all possible directions and assumes nodes can move. Approximate Point in Triangulation (APIT) tests whether a node is inside a triangle of reachable anchors using neighbor information and radio signal strength. If no neighbor of a node is farther away from all three anchor nodes, the test node is likely inside the triangle. For example in Figure 2.2.1a, none of M¶s neighbors



are farther away from A, B, and C, while in Figure 2.3.2 b, neighbor 4 is farther away from A, B, and C than M

Fig 2.3.1

Fig 2.3.2


Approximate Point in Triangulation (APIT) tests Errors are introduced when a node is inside

a triangle but near an edge and it has a neighbor on the outside of the triangle. A node can mistakenly be considered inside the triangle if all of its neighbors are closer to the three anchors than it is. Once a node has recorded the signal strength and location of all reachable anchors, it exchanges this information with its neighbors and runs APIT on the neighbor data to determine which triangles of anchors it is in. The node aggregates these results by building a map and weighting locations by how many triangles overlap with the location. The center of the area with the greatest weighting is taken to be location estimate. Since APIT does not assume any relationship between signal strength and absolute distance it is considered range-free.

Figure: Area-based APIT Algorithm Overview


The parameters discussed below affect localization performance System:
‡ Node Range - The node range is how far a node can transmit and receive packets. This determines the nodes that are in range. If this range is large, a node is able to communicate with more nodes, but the chance of collision is higher. ‡ Ranging Accuracy - The ranging accuracy is how close a distance, angle, or time difference estimate is to the true value. The higher the accuracy, the less error there is likely to be in the final position estimate. ‡ Antenna/Link Type - The nodes in this system have Omni directional antennas with bi-directional links. This means the antenna transmits in all directions, and a node that can transmit to another node can also receive from it. Directional antennas and one-way links make localization much more complicated and are typically not considered in localization ‡ Algorithm - The particular algorithm and its type (Range-Aware, Range-Free, Anchorless, Anchor-Based) used in a localization system determines how much time, how much error, and how much energy is expended to localize the network.

‡ Number of Nodes - The number of nodes in a network affects how much energy a localization algorithm needs to estimate node positions. For some algorithms, it may also affect position error. This parameter also indicates how well a localization algorithm scales. ‡ Number of Anchors - For anchor-based algorithms, the number of anchors may affect the accuracy and speed of the algorithm. The more anchors there are, the more likely a

node is of being in range of one. With more anchors in range, a node is more likely to have more accurate results, since the anchors have precise knowledge of their position. This parameter can also be defined as a percentage of the total number of nodes in the network. ‡ Anchors Heard - For anchor-based algorithms, the more anchors heard by a node means that a node is more likely to have enough anchors to localize and estimates a more accurate position. This is directly affected by the number, range and density of the anchors. ‡ Network Area/Node Density - The area the network covers combined with the number of nodes in the network determine the node density (assuming a uniform distribution). The node density also affects how many neighbors a node has which affects how well a localization algorithm works. ‡ Node Degree - Node density and node range define the node degree, the number of neighbors a node can communicate with. The higher the node degree the fewer messages required to reach each node, but collisions become more likely. Node degree also affects how many nodes are localized. The lower the node degree the less likely a node meets the criteria to localize. ‡ Network Shape - The network shape locally affects the node degree in the network. For example, an isotropic network often has a more consistent node degree than one with an irregular shape. An irregularly shaped network likely has more nodes with lower node degree, causing them to have few neighbors and possibly be isolated. ‡ Placement Distribution - The distribution of the node placement also affects local node density and node degree in the network. If the placement distribution is uniform, the


node degree is expected to be consistent. However, if a different distribution is used some portions of the network may suffer from having too few neighbors or anchors in range. In terms of anchors, the placement affects how many nodes are in range of the anchor and if that placement is beneficial for localization. A node that is in range of 3 anchors those are collinear or close to it still cannot localize effectively.


Solution for localization

Why localization?
If we find some measurement data from the wireless sensor network and we don¶t make out the location from where this information is being achieved, this information is worthless. If we identify any information from the sensor network that there is fire, the next issue will be ³which place´. If we identify the place where information generated, we can put some arrangements within the time at that particular location. Many routing protocols exploit flooding techniques for routing of the packets. If we get the coordinate of each and every sensor node, a selective forwarding may be applied to route packets. We know that selective forwarding reduces the network load and increments the network lifetime by cutback power of every node. So, sensor information must be registered to its physical location to allow deployment of energy-efficient routing algorithms, source localization algorithms, and distributed compression techniques.

Problems in wireless sensor localization
Generally GPS receiver is used in localization process. But, the sensor networks are very dense and economically GPS receiver is very cost effective. So GPS receiver cannot be used in every sensor node for the reason that it raises the total cost of wireless sensor network and also it increases size of sensor nodes. The main problem also there that GPS receiver using techniques cannot be suited for indoor localization schemes. Because GPS receiver scheme requires satellite communication, it requires extra battery power. So, as a result GPS based schemes are not able to suit economically good solution.


Some Challenges related to wireless sensor localization
We must be aware of the main challenges of wireless sensor networks before going in depth of its applications and procedures for localization. There are numerous challenges in wireless sensor localization. The various challenges are as follows. 1The challenges at physical layer: Due to surrounding environment, error

fluctuates in wireless sensor localization. 2The challenges in algorithm design: there must be different designing issues

reflected on at the time of algorithm designing. a. Noise with measurement: The actual result can differ at different time due to

noisy measurement. So there should be a technique to optimize the result. b. Computation complexity: Computation complexity also a big factor that depends

on the processing power of tiny nodes, it must be considered. The localization algorithm should be efficient and accurate. c. Communication range: The communication range is also an important issue in

localization. Range must be adjustable so that collision between beacon signals would be minimized. d. Scalability and error behavior: Localization algorithm should be scalable for

further application design. Error behavior is also different in different environment so the algorithm must be designed so that it may be used in various environments . 3-Challenges integrity with the system: The localization algorithm should be compatible with all the available hardware and software.


Improved Algorithms
Based on the above mentioned algorithms, certain improvised versions of existing algorithms were developed which could be more efficiently used in localization. These algorithms have smaller localization errors in general with respect to different no. of anchor nodes in WSN & hence have more localization accuracy than conventional localization algorithms. The implementation of these algorithms hardly requires any additional hardware and hence do not add to the cost of localization.

The various improvised algorithms are explained in the following section.

1. Improved Centroid Algorithm
Centroid algorithm [1] uses the anchor nodes containing location information (Xi, Yi), to estimate the node position. After receiving these anchor nodes, a node estimates its location using the centroid formula. But it may cause large error and the localization precision will drop because of the set of the asymmetrical reference anchor nodes distributed around the unknown node. In order to solve the problem, the Centroid with selective anchor node localization algorithm (SA-Centroid) is developed which can make unknown nodes choose the set of temporary estimation values which are the most accurate selected by using the triangle centroid, and then make use of the set of temporary estimation values and execute polygon centroid formula again to get ultimate estimation value. The improvised algorithm proves to be valid and effective.


Basic principle of Centroid localization

The reference anchors broadcast their message to neighbor nodes periodically in centroid algorithm, and the anchor id and the position information are placed in the anchor grouping. From the reference anchor that it receives, the unknown node infers proximity to a collection of reference points for which the respective connectivity metrics exceed a certain threshold. Therefore, the unknown node localizes itself to the region which coincides to the intersection of the connectivity regions of this set of reference anchor, which is defined by the centroid of these reference anchors as shown below.

Where (xest, yest) is the estimated location coordinates of unknown node i. and (xi1, yi1, xik, yik) are the anchors coordinates that unknown node can receive.

The distinguished advantage of this Centroid localization scheme is its simplicity and ease of implementation.


a. SA-Centroid localization scheme
The error source of Centroid. Before Centroid algorithm executes, precision of Centroid estimation depends on density and the distributing of the anchor greatly. Though the number of anchors increase can improve localization estimation precision, more communications are required and energy expenditure increases sharply. On the other hand, a serial of symmetrical reference anchor nodes around the unknown node can get more accurate estimation. On the contrary, the precision will probably be decreased immediately because of the asymmetrical distributing of reference anchor nodes.

Reference anchor nodes distributing around unknown node

The dotted circle is radio area of unknown node. The central circle is the unknown node. Triangle denotes reference anchor node. The plus is estimation position of unknown node. In picture A, higher estimation localization error is generated because of asymmetrical distributing of reference anchor nodes.


Statement of SA-Centroid algorithm

In order to solve the asymmetrical distributing problem, the SA-Centroid algorithm is presented, [1] and it comprises of three non-overlapping stages. First, each node maintains a table {xi, yi, hi} and exchanges updates only with its neighbours.

In the second stage, since a regular node gets an update from one of landmarks, and it is usually the closest one, depending on the deployment policy and the time the correction phase of APS starts at each landmark, we consider that the nearest reference anchor node around the unknown node can be obtained, which is expressed as a special reference point (XRP) of judging the set of the reference anchor nodes¶ uniformity. Then, a reference anchor node chooses another two anchors among the remaining reference anchor nodes around unknown node and triangle centroid is executed. Hence, if one unknown node can receive the n anchor nodes¶ messages, the C2n-1 new coordinates are made. These new values compare with XRP and the nearest coordinate distance to XRP is selected as a temporary estimation value. In turn, n reference anchor nodes can create the set of temporary estimation values.

Lastly, the set of temporary estimation value executes polygon centroid formula to obtain ultimate estimation value.



Some related terms are:

Node Density (ND): Average number of nodes per node radio area.

Anchor Heard (AH): Average number of Anchors heard by a node and used during estimation.

R: Transmission range of the reference point d: Separation distance between adjacent reference points

Anchor to Node Range Ratio (ANR): The average distance an anchor beacon travels divided by the average distance a regular node signal travels. When this value equals one, the anchor and nodes have the same average radio range. The larger this value, the fewer anchors required to maintain a desired AH value.


Fig shows the relationship between µND, AH, d¶ and R. AH value maintains 20 When R is above 7. d value fluctuates between 20m and 30m when R changes. ND value is similar in direct proportion to R value. In this experiment, we analyze Centroid and SACentroid effect on localization error by varying communication radio of R. Fig shows the estimation error of centroid and SACentroid and distributing of degree of improvement localization error of SACentroid comparing with centroid.


Comparison of SA- centroid with convention Centroid algorithm

Location error vs. Node range ratio

From the results we conclude that we have less estimation error with some increasing cost of competition.


b. Improved Centroid algorithm for 3D WSN
In this algorithm which can be effectively used in three-dimensional (3D) wireless sensor networks. This scheme needs no additional hardware support and can be implemented in a distributed way. The proposed method can improve the location accuracy with relatively low communication traffic and computing complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is superior to that of the conventional centroid algorithm.

Improve over convectional network
This subsection describes our proposed 3D positioning algorithm for WSNs in detail. Wan et al. [2] proposed a localization algorithm for mobile system based on a linear relationship between the rectangular and the volume coordinates. We extend their work and propose an improved centroid algorithm for WSNs. Our proposed localization algorithm will not use2D centroid theorem, but present the centroid theorem of coordinate-tetrahedron in the volume-coordinate system, which acts as a key component of our estimation approach. Using centroid theorem of coordinate-tetrahedron the proposed positioning algorithm can be used in 3D WSNs and also can improve location accuracy than the conventional centroid localization algorithm.

Figure: Tetrahedron A1A2A3A4


Result and improvement over conventional algorithm

The above localization method that improves the basic centroid localization algorithm significantly. It is shown in the simulation results that the proposed algorithm can improve location accuracy than the conventional centroid localization algorithm. The performance of our proposed scheme has identified that it has potential application advantage for 3D WSNs.


Basic principle of DV-Hop localization
As discussed earlier the basic principle of DV-Hop algorithm In the range-free localization algorithms, Niculescu et al [2].propose the DV-Hop localization scheme, which is similar to the traditional routing schemes based on distance vector. In their DV-Hop scheme, the node firstly counts the minimum hop number from the anchor node and then computes the distance between the node and anchor node by multiplying minimum hop number and average distance of each hop. At last, the node estimates its position through triangulation algorithm.

Improvement over conventional DV-HOP localization scheme
Niculescu and Nath [3] have proposed the DV-Hop, which is a distributed, hop by hop positioning algorithm. The algorithm implementation is comprised of three steps. First, it employs a classical distance vector exchange so that all nodes in then network get distances, in hops, to the landmarks. And then, it estimates an average size for one hop, which is then deployed as a correction to the entire network. Finally, unknown nodes compute their location by trilateration. As we know in the first is of conventional algorithm, in the second and thirds step after obtained the hop-size, anchor node broad casts its hop-size to network as a correction. The format of the package is {Id Hop-Sizei}, including the identifier id, an average size for one hop Hop-Sizei. Once a node gets the package, it adds the information to a table and also broadcasts it to neighbor nodes. The package for iterative ID will be dropped. After the step 1 for broadcast, all of the nodes get the Hop-Sizei, which calculated by the anchor nodes in the first step of DV-Hop algorithm. We average whole of the hop-size of different anchor nodes using the following formula:


where n is the number of anchor nodes, i HopSize isobtained using. In the end of this step, unknown nodes compute the distance to the beacon nodes based hop-length and hops to the beacon nodes by the formula:

In step 3, a general model for two dimensional (2-D) positionlocation estimation of a source using M anchor nodes is developed. Let (x y) be the source node location and (xi yi) be the known

location of the i'th anchor node receiver. Denote the distance between the unknown node and anchor node i by di. It is clear that

In DV-Hop algorithm, the estimated physical distances are used together with the anchor positions to perform a triangulation in order to get the final localization results. In our improved DV-Hop localization system, we will not adopt traditional Triangulation algorithm but use 2-D Hyperbolic location algorithm.



Nodes distribution

As can be seen from the simulation results of Figure, the improved DV-Hop algorithm achieve better performance than the DV-Hop algorithm. The location error decreases as ratio of anchor nodes increase. For the same ratio of anchor nodes, position error is smaller when our improved DV-Hop scheme applied in same WSNs environment than the DV-Hop algorithm The placement of anchor nodes will affect the DV-Hop algorithm. From Figure, it can be stated that important improvements in the positioning accuracy and location coverage are obtained when uniform anchor placement instead of random anchor placement. Simulation results show that the more regularly anchor nodes are placed, the lower the error. The performance of our Improved DV-Hop scheme exceeds the original DV-Hop location algorithm from our simulation results



This section provides a detailed quantitative analysis comparing the performance of the range-free localization algorithms. The obvious metric for comparison when evaluating localization schemes is location estimation error. presented variety of experiments to cover a wide range of system configurations including varying anchor density, target node density, radio range ratio (ANR).

Localization Error when Varying AH
In this, we analyze the effect of varying the number of anchors heard (AH) at a node to determine its effect on localization error. figure on the next page.


Figures shows that the overall estimation error decreases as the number of anchors heard increases. However, it is important to note that different algorithms transition at different points in the graph.


Localization Error when Varying ND
Study explores the effect of node density (ND) on the localization estimation accuracy. For all but the Centroid algorithm, localization error decreases as the number of neighbors increases. Since there is no interaction between nodes in the Centroid algorithm, we see nearly constant results while varying ND. However, due to its relative simple design, the Centroid localization scheme does not perform as well as the others.


Localization Error when Varying ANR
Study shows that a large number of anchors are desired for good estimation results. The cost of having such a large percentage of anchors can be ameliorated by increasing the anchor radio range to which beacons travel. This happens because larger beacon propagation distances mean less anchors required achieving the same AH value. For example, if an algorithm requires AH equal to the neighborhood node density (ND), we need 50% of the nodes to be anchors when the ANR equals one. By increasing the ANR by a factor of 10, we can reduce the required anchor percentage to only 1%.


Error under Different ANR

Error under Different ANR

The implication of this solution, as shown in Figure is that estimation error increases as ANR increases. This occurs because larger beacon propagation distances result in larger accumulated error


Localization Error when Varying DOI

We investigate the impact of irregular radio patterns on the precision of localization estimation. It is intuitive that irregular radio patterns can affect the network topologies resulting in irregular hop count distributions in the Amorphous and DV-Hop algorithms. The Hop Size formula, used in the Amorphous algorithm, assumes that radio patterns are perfectly circular. We can see, in Figure 17, how this inaccurate estimate directly contributes to localization error as the DOI increases. In contrast, the DV Hop scheme estimates Hop Size using online information exchanged between anchors. This results in much better performance than the Amorphous algorithm, even though they are both DVBased algorithms. Because the Centroid and APIT algorithms do not depend on hopcount and Hop Size estimations, and because the effect of DOI is abated by the aggregation of beaconed information, these algorithms are more robust than the Amorphous algorithm. Figure on the next page.



Localization Error when Varying GPS Error

In other experiments, we consider the distinct possibility that the GPS or an alternative system, which provides anchor nodes with location information, is error prone. Figure demonstrate how initial location error at anchors directly affects the error of the rangefree localization protocols studied. In general, in all four schemes GPS error is abated considerably by utilizing location information from multiple anchors. In the random error case, we assume GPS error is isotropic; that is, the estimation error can occur in any direction. In this situation, the error impact of GPS is very small. We also see that when GPS error is biased (skewed in a particular direction) due to non-random factors, the estimation error of all schemes increases at a much slower rate than GPS error due to aggregation.


Error under Different GPS Error


We have analyzed variety of experiments to cover a varying range of system configurations. These help us better understand the situations where the different localization schemes considered are more or less appropriate than one another Table provides an overview of our results, and it can be used as a design guide for applying range-free schemes in WSN systems. This table shows that no single algorithm works best under all scenarios, and that each localization algorithm has preferable system configurations. Although DV-Hop requires more communication beacons to perform online estimation. Finally, our APIT algorithm trumps the other algorithms when an irregular radio pattern and random node placement are considered, and low

communication overhead is desired. However, we acknowledge that APIT has more demanding requirements for both ANR values and the number of anchors used in localization.

Performance and requirements summary


Conclusion and Future work
Considering the constrains of the sensor devices envisioned and the estimation accuracy desired by location-dependent applications, range-free localization schemes are regarded as a cost-effective and sufficient solution for localization in sensor networks. From extensive comparison study, we identify preferable system configurations of different recently proposed range-free localization schemes as a design guideline for further research. In particular, an APIT scheme, performs best when irregular radio patterns and random node placement are considered, and low communication overhead is desired. Moreover, we provide insight on how localization error affects a variety of locationdependent applications. These results show that the accuracy provided by the range-free schemes considered is sufficient to support various applications in sensor networks with only slight performance degradation.

From our comparative study of the existing and improved algorithms, we see that the localization error in the improved algorithms is reduced by some extent. And hence there is a need to further develop new and improved algorithms for the same which would further decrease localization error without increasing hardware cost for sensor nodes. Our future work will include implementation of range-free algorithms.



[1] Novel Centroid Localization Algorithm for Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor
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