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 Policing with the community

 Case study analysis

 Policing and young people

Who, when, where?

 Terminology  No universal definition

 Origins  No overarching strategy or delivery
 Context  Determined by social contexts
 Policing perspective  Not tangible
 Community perspective  Difficult to measure
 Difficult to evaluate
 (neighbourhood policing, personal policing,
community policing)

 Community policing doesn’t mean a damn

thing…it is just one of those terms you use which
are a recent invention by some of our, dare I say  Prevalent in the USA from 1970s
it, mock academics (Reiner, 1991)  Moves away from legalistic, narrow law
enforcement (Mani, 2000)
 …it is no more than an undefinable set of
concepts and public relations con intended to  Increased citizen input (Roberg, 2005)
restore public confidence in a seriously tarnished  Change in ‘cop culture’ towards a service
and disgraced organisation (Kelling and Coles delivery orientation (Fielding, 2005)
 Soft style of policing (Innes, 2005)
 The ‘community’ of ‘community policing is  Pro-active, solution based, community driven
elusive and may in many cases be illusionary (PSNI, 2002)
(Tilley, 2006)
 Dedicated officers responsible for specific  What constitutes the problem
areas  Shaping forms of local policing
 Specific skills – communication  Examining identified local issues with police
 Developing policing priorities in partnership  Determining responses
 Foot patrols / visible policing  Assisting in implementation of responses
 Youth schemes / neighbourhood meetings  Joined up thinking
 Sustainable / consistent relationships  Informing / evaluating police response

 Origins to the Patten Report (1999)  175 recommendations

What most people want to see – the police rights
participating in the community and  Governance of security and the delivery of
responding to the needs of that community, policing
and the community participating in its own  2008 the oversight commissioner concluded
policing and supporting the police (Patten, all but a few had not been enacted

 Policing with the community should be at the ‘Policing too important for the police alone’
core function of the police service and the  Accountability
core function of every police station  Empowerment
 PSNI response  Problem Solving
-Policing with the community in NI: working  Service Delivery
with your community to make it a safer place
 Accountability – officers accessible to the
community and responsible for the service
they deliver
 Empowerment – local participation
 Partnership – community/police/agencies for
effective policing
 Problem solving – underlying causes
 Service delivery – police exist to serve the
community / community centred

Society in transition
 What do you understand 
 Politics and policing intertwined
by the term ‘community  Community understanding of community
policing’?  Existing community safety programmes

 Mobile phone networks  Confusion on terminology

 Interface monitoring groups  Measuring the impact
 Community safety partnerships  Lack of understanding on delivery
 Safer Neighbourhood Partnerships  Dissident threats
 Community Watch  Consistency of officers
 Community Restorative Justice Ireland  Legacy of policing
 Alternatives  Expectations of policing
 Public Prosecution Service
 Who should be and who should not be
involved in delivering community -Resources
policing? -Community participation
-Fear of crime
 What are the acceptable form of
-Localised attention
community policing activity?
-Community confidence
 What are the boundaries of community
- Any others?
based policing?
 Ten years after Patten (has it delivered)
 Difficult to measure impact
 Target driven policing
 Existing NIPB surveys ‘hide the problem’
 Policing every more diverse and complex
 Community policing still evolving
 Working with communities can be challenging
 Expectations of police are high
 NI Still divided along sectarian lines
 Police resources limited

 Policing with the community – define /  Explored Loyalist and Republican attitudes to
origins / international influence policing
 Patten Report 1999 – impact  Documented policing issues within these
 Mechanisms for delivery communities (operationally/strategically)
 Role of the police (internal support)  Interviews / focus groups with ex-prisoners,
 Role of the community community reps, local residents, police
 Difficulties in a transitional society – legacy of officers, DPPs and NIPB
the troubles / community ownership of  2008
community safety programmes –

 Community support and community  Levels of engagement

expectations  Facilitating engagement
 Existing community based initiatives  Negative perceptions of policing
 Police response  Policing the two communities very differently
 Public Prosecution Service  Political leadership
 Legacy of the past  Criminal gangs
 Political support
 Existing community safety programmes  Roles and responsibilities
 Restorative Justice schemes  Member attendance
 Community policing  Monitoring partnerships – role of Board
 Community expectations  PSNI perceptions
 Youths causing annoyance  Functionality
 District Policing Partnerships

 Disengagement and apathy  Minimal amount of research

 Lack of identity
 Significance of class  Hamilton et al (2003)
 Confusion around community policing  Byrne et al (2005)
- In the PSNI  Rosellen Roche (2005)
- In the community  Trevor Lloyd (2009)
- Honeymoon period  McAlister et al (2009)

 Negative experiences  Place of residence

 Targeted by the police -urban/rural differences
 Labeled as criminals
 Stopped and searched Males more negative experiences
 Discriminated against Class versus religion and experiences
 Verbal abuse
 Physical force
 Language, attitude and behaviour  Young people
 Facilitated dialogue  Police
 Training  Communities
 Independent advisory groups
 Citizenship and safety education programmes
 Youth consultations

Seminar Task
Impact on resources – community policing  Seminar Task to be handed in Week 5
Sample size – specific  Make notes on guest speaker presentation on
Emphasis on young people? the 18 February
 Prepare 300 word summary on how
community policing can benefit the police if
at all

 See also Topping articles on Reading list &